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1

Silica nanoparticles aid in structural leaf coloration in the Malaysian tropical rainforest understorey herb Mapania caudata  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims Blue-green iridescence in the tropical rainforest understorey sedge Mapania caudata creates structural coloration in its leaves through a novel photonic mechanism. Known structures in plants producing iridescent blues consist of altered cellulose layering within cell walls and in special bodies, and thylakoid membranes in specialized plastids. This study was undertaken in order to determine the origin of leaf iridescence in this plant with particular attention to nano-scale components contributing to this coloration. Methods Adaxial walls of leaf epidermal cells were characterized using high-pressure-frozen freeze-substituted specimens, which retain their native dimensions during observations using transmission and scanning microscopy, accompanied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to identify the role of biogenic silica in wall-based iridescence. Biogenic silica was experimentally removed using aqueous Na2CO3 and optical properties were compared using spectral reflectance. Key Results and Conclusions Blue iridescence is produced in the adaxial epidermal cell wall, which contains helicoid lamellae. The blue iridescence from cell surfaces is left-circularly polarized. The position of the silica granules is entrained by the helicoid microfibrillar layers, and granules accumulate at a uniform position within the helicoids, contributing to the structure that produces the blue iridescence, as part of the unit cell responsible for 2 ° Bragg scatter. Removal of silica from the walls eliminated the blue colour. Addition of silica nanoparticles on existing cellulosic lamellae is a novel mechanism for adding structural colour in organisms. PMID:23960046

Strout, Greg; Russell, Scott D.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Erten, Sema; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Lee, David W.

2013-01-01

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The role of seed bank in the dynamics of understorey in an oak forest in Hungary.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the potential role of seed bank in the dynamics of the understorey in a turkey oak-sessile oak forest (Querceteum petraeae-cerris) in Hungary. We used long-term records of the herb layer (1973-2006) and the seed bank composition of 2006 to assess the role of seed bank in the regeneration of herb layer. The total cover of herb layer decreased from 22% (1973) to 6% (1988), and remained low (sparse seed bank. The Jaccard similarity between vegetation and seed bank was low (<30%). Our results suggest that the continuous establishment of forest herbs are not based on local persistent seed bank; it should be based on vegetative spreading and/or seed rain. PMID:21565769

Koncz, G; Papp, Mária; Török, P; Kotroczó, Zs; Krakomperger, Zs; Matus, G; Tóthmérész, B

2010-01-01

3

Fate of partial order on trillium and distorted windmill lattices  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical Heisenberg model on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices exhibits a degenerate ground state within large- N theory where the degenerate wave vectors form a surface and line, in three-dimensional space, respectively. We name such states partially ordered to represent the existence of long-range order along the direction normal to these degenerate manifolds. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations using Monte Carlo (MC) methods and we find a first-order transition to a magnetically ordered state for both cases. We further show that the ordering on the distorted windmill lattice is due to order by disorder, while the ground state of the trillium lattice is unique. Despite these different routes to the realization of low-temperature ordered phases, the static structure factors obtained by large- N theory and MC simulations for each lattice show quantitative agreement in the cooperative paramagnetic regime at finite temperatures. This suggests that a remnant of the characteristic angle-dependent spin correlations of partial order remains above the transition temperatures for both lattices. The possible relevance of these results to ?-Mn , CeIrSi, and MnSi is discussed.

Isakov, Sergei V.; Hopkinson, John M.; Kee, Hae-Young

2008-07-01

4

Height increment of understorey Norway spruces under different tree canopies  

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Full Text Available Background: Stands having advance regeneration of spruce are logical places to start continuous cover forestry (CCF in fertile and mesic boreal forests. However, the development of advance regeneration is poorly known. Methods: This study used regression analysis to model the height increment of spruce understorey as a function of seedling height, site characteristics and canopy structure. Results: An admixture of pine and birch in the main canopy improves the height increment of understorey. When the stand basal area is 20 m2ha-1 height increment is twice as fast under pine and birch canopies, as compared to spruce. Height increment of understorey spruce increases with increasing seedling height. Between-stand and within-stand residual variation in the height increment of understorey spruces is high. The increment of 1/6 fastestgrowing seedlings is at least 50% greater than the average. Conclusions: The results of this study help forest managers to regulate the density and species composition of the stand, so as to obtain a sufficient height development of the understorey. In pure and almost pure spruce stands, the stand basal area should be low for a good height increment of the understorey.

Olavi Laiho

2014-02-01

5

The Herb Garden Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

6

Medicinal Herb Garden  

Science.gov (United States)

... June 22, 2008) You may access the Medicinal Herb Garden images via the following lists: Index by ... the University of Washington in Seattle, the Medicinal Herb Garden is a resource for herbalists, medics, and ...

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Qualitative and quantitative determination of major saponins in Paris and Trillium by HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and HPLC with electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) were used to identify and quantify steroid saponins in Paris and Trillium plants. The content of the known saponins such as Paris I, II, III, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and protodioscin in Paris and Trillium plants was determined simultaneously using the developed HPLC-ELSD method. Furthermore, other 12 steroid saponins were identified by HPLC-ESI(+/-)-MS(n) detection. In the end, a developed analytical procedure was proved to be a reliable and rapid method for the quality control of Paris and Trillium plants. In addition, the alternative resources for Paris yunnanensis used as a traditional Chinese medicine were discovered according to the hierarchical clustering analysis of the saponin fraction of these plants. PMID:20870470

Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jieyin; Zhao, Wanshun; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

2010-11-01

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Herb gardening in kindergartens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the time when we can buy most food in stores, children hardly know the origin of food ingredients. The purpose of my thesis was to provide children with a concrete experience of plants production, namely herbs, their processing, use in nutrition and a sensory experience of them. I researched the knowledge of 3–6 year olds on herbs. Along herbs and products, containing herbs, I carried out verbal polls. Based on the gained results, from which it is clear, that children poorly kno...

Dobnikar, Mateja

2011-01-01

9

Herbs in dentistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784

Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

2011-12-01

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Radiolysis of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

11

Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.  

Science.gov (United States)

This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

Hatch, Duane

12

Medical herbs radioactive?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity values of several drugs made from herbs harvested in June 1986, and of infusions as used by consumers are given in a table. It is concluded that although the activity of dried herbs is in some cases, considerable, the activity in the drink never exceeds 0,8 nC/C and is therefore harmless. 1 tab. (qui)

13

Improved understorey bamboo cover mapping using a novel hybrid neural network and expert system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The giant panda is an obligate bamboo grazer. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo determines the quantity and quality of panda habitat. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional remote sensing classification techniques. In this paper, a new method combines an artificial neural network and a GIS expert system in order to map understorey bamboo i...

Wang, T.; Skidmore, A. K.; Toxopeus, A. G.

2009-01-01

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Comparative study of understorey birds diversity inhabiting lowland rainforest virgin jungle reserve and regenerated forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study of understorey birds inhabiting different habitats, that is, virgin jungle reserve (VJR) and regenerated forest (RF), was conducted in Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve and Selangor and Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to assess the diversity of understorey birds in both habitats and the effects of forest regeneration on the understorey bird community. The mist-netting method was used to capture understorey birds inhabiting both habitats in both locations. Species composition and feeding guild indicated that understorey bird populations were similar in the two habitats. However, the number of secondary forest species such as Little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra) in VJR is increasing due to its proximity to RF. This study discovered that RFs in both study areas are not yet fully recovered. However, based on the range of species discovered, the RFs have conservation value and should be maintained because they harbour important forest species such as babblers and flycatchers. The assessment of the community structure of understorey birds in VJR and RF is important for forest management and conservation, especially where both habitats are intact. PMID:24453888

Nor Hashim, Ezyan; Ramli, Rosli

2013-01-01

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DYNAMICS STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY VEGETATION INFLUENCED BY LOGGING IN A SOLID GROUND FOREST, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOJU, PARÁ STATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989283The structure dynamics of an understorey vegetation influenced by gaps caused by reduced impact logging was analyzed during 12 years in a solid ground rain forest in the municipality of Moju, Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon forest. Angiosperm individuals from 10 cm height up to 5 cm DBH were surveyed in a 468 m² sample area in six occasions (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 and 2010, they were analyzed considering their life-forms (trees, shrub, lianas, herbs and palms, abundance, frequency, size classes (CT1 = 10 cm ? HT < 50 cm; CT2 = 50 cm ? HT < 130 cm; CT3 = 130 cm < HT and DAP < 2 cm; and CT4 = 2 cm ? DAP < 5 cm and relative natural regeneration Burseraceae, Marantaceae, Violaceae and Lecythidaceae were the most important families in the study area in every occasions, while the most representative species were Monotagma sp1., Monotagma sp2., Rinorea guianensis, Lecythis idatimon e Protium pilosum. The most frequent life forms were trees, herbs and lianas in all occasions. The dynamics of life forms depended on light intensity. The establishment of commercial and potentially commercial species was favored by gaps, suggesting that natural regeneration of those species do not need to be assisted for guaranteeing timber stocks for future harvests.

Fernanda da Silva Mendes

2013-06-01

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Herbs: Bridging the Generations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…

Latimer, Deborah J.

1995-01-01

17

Herb Schiller, in memoriam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El gran investigador crític nord-americà Herb Schiller va morir a La Jolla, California, el passat trenta de gener. Havia nascut l'any 1919 i la seva salut havia empitjorat en els últims temps. Durant molts anys fou professor de la Universitat de Santa Barbara, a California, de la qual era professor emèrit. El seu fill Dan és, igualment, un distingit investigador, seguidor d'una línia semblant a la del seu pare. Estava considerat com un dels més prestigiosos investigadors marxistes nord...

Pare?s I Maicas, Manuel

2000-01-01

18

Chinese herb trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital in New York has opened a phase I/II clinical trial of AZT and TJ-9, a blend of seven medicinal herbs from a traditional oriental medicine known as Xiao Chai Hu Tang. The preparation, also known as Sho-Saiko-To (SSKT), appears to be fairly safe. The study will not measure how well the body absorbs and distributes the herbal blend. Without this data, the results will be harder to interpret because there will be no way of knowing whether the documented laboratory concentrations can be achieved in people. PMID:11363002

1995-12-01

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Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea L. in Tunisia as influenced by canopy cover, litter biomass and understorey vegetation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pinus pinea is one of the most valuable species used in Tunisia in the reforestation program. This species is shade-intolerant and hence needs light to correctly regenerate. It is also influenced by the understorey vegetation and the litter biomass, both also correlated to light availability. To quantify the importance of these different factors, the natural regeneration and evolution of the biomass of understorey vegetation and litter were studied in artificial forests of Pinus pinea located...

Adili, B.; El Aouni, M. H.; Garchi, S.; Balandier, P.

2009-01-01

20

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, t...

Alan Loures-Ribeiro; Manha?es, Marco A.; Dias, Manoel M.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions  

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Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerat...

Bongjoh, Ca; Ngono, G.

2005-01-01

22

Herbs in exercise and sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

Chen Chee

2012-03-01

23

HERBS AGAINST CANCER: AN UPDATE  

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Medicinal herbs have been on the forefront whenever we talk about anticancer remedies, Herbal medicines have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. With advanced knowledge of molecular science and refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, various anticancer herbs has been identified, which execute their therapeutic effect by inhibiting cancer-activating enzymes and hormones, stimulating DNA repair mechanism, promoting production of protective enzymes, indu...

Sanjita Das; Parvez, A.; Basu, S. P.; Saumya Das

2012-01-01

24

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest  

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Full Text Available Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests – understorey vegetation – at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

D. B. Metcalfe

2013-08-01

25

Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied subtropical forests.

Liu H-Y

2012-08-01

26

HERBS AGAINST CANCER: AN UPDATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal herbs have been on the forefront whenever we talk about anticancer remedies, Herbal medicines have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. With advanced knowledge of molecular science and refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, various anticancer herbs has been identified, which execute their therapeutic effect by inhibiting cancer-activating enzymes and hormones, stimulating DNA repair mechanism, promoting production of protective enzymes, inducing antioxidant action and enhancing immunity of the body. Here we covered the plants used previously and recently identified for treatment of cancer and to reduce the pains during the treatment of cancer.

Parvez A

2012-03-01

27

Comparison of clonal diversity in mountain and Piedmont populations of Trillium cuneatum (Melanthiaceae-Trilliaceae), a forest understory species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The balance between clonal and sexual reproduction can vary widely among plant populations, and the extent of clonality may be influenced by the combined effects of historical land use and variation in environmental conditions. We investigated patterns of clonal spread in five Trillium cuneatum populations, two in the Appalachian Mountains characterized by mesic, cooler conditions, and three at lower elevations experiencing warmer, drier conditions and greater disturbance. Using a new measure of the genet effective number and innovative orthogonal contrast methods, we quantified genet structure, contrasting clonal growth in the mountains with that in the Piedmont. Asexual propagation was more common in the Piedmont, where 25% of the sampled ramets were clonally derived, but was much less frequent in the mountains (7% clonal replicates). Hierarchical partitioning of variation in genet diversity showed that the majority (75.8%) of the variation resulted from more vegetative replication in the Piedmont. Most of the remaining variation (21.6%) was attributable to differences between urban and rural Piedmont populations, and a small, statistically nonsignificant fraction of the variation (2.6%) was due to interpopulation differences within the mountains. Higher frequency of cloning may enhance both genetic and demographic population viability in fragmented Piedmont habitats. PMID:21632330

Gonzales, Eva; Hamrick, J L; Smouse, Peter E

2008-10-01

28

Radioecological study of several herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Comparative radiological study of herbs being on the sale of city's drug stores which were collected from the areas contaminated with radioisotopes belonged to the great semi-split period at the result of Chernobyl catastrophe with the similar herbs typical to our Republic have been carried out. The study has found that the level of beta radioactivity contained in Radix unulae was tree times higher than local norms while Cormus Ledi represented about 10 times and Cortex Quercus 4 times higher proportion of beta radioactivity. Also radioactivity of Radix unulae growing in the local conditions was different from the norm which showed 12 times higher radioactivity comparing with other herbs. It was revealed that both gamma and beta radioactivity of other local herbs are meet the norms, except Radix inulae and Glycyrrhiza glabra. The study determined that the radioactivity on the leaf of clycyrrhiza glabra was in the norm while the trunk represented approximately 2 times and the root 10 times higher radioactivity. The overall study of clycyrrhiza glabra showed that radionuclides are mostly concentrated in the peel of the root, which has slightly differences from the acceptable norms in the peel. Finally, the radiation abnormality observed in Radix inulae and Clycyrriza glabra must be in the focus of their producers and users

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Light-mediated influence of three understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum, Molinia caerulea) on growth and morphology of Pinus sylvestris seedlings  

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Pinus sylvestris is a pioneer species and as such is relatively light-demanding. Therefore, its natural regeneration may be inhibited by some forest understorey species that develop with light and can then reduce light as well as soil resources (i.e. nutrients and water) availability for the pine seedlings. To better quantify these effects, we designed two experiments in a nursery. The first one aimed at studying the influence of density of three common understorey species in temperate forest...

Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Philippe, G.; Dumas, Y.; Jean, F.; Ginisty, C.

2009-01-01

30

POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS  

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Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity d...

Jain Amit; Dubey Subodh; Gupta Alka; Kannojia Pushpendra; Tomar Vivek

2010-01-01

31

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation. PMID:21969964

Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Manhães, Marco A; Dias, Manoel M

2011-09-01

32

Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD. Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1- total height; 2- leaf number; 3- leaf dry mass;4- stem dry mass; 5- root dry mass; 6- stem length/mass; 7-shoot/root mass; 8- percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.(Crescimento de plântulas de espécies de sub-bosque de uma floresta tropical do sudeste brasileiro. Respostas de crescimento de plântulas ao sombreamento têm sido objeto de intensa pesquisa em regiões temperadas e florestas tropicais úmidas. Neste trabalho, treze espécies de sub-bosque foram estudadas sob duas diferentes densidades de fluxo de fotons fotossintéticos (PPFD. Plântulas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação sob 51% e 2,6% da irradiação solar. O crescimento das plântulas foi avaliado através de: 1- altura total; 2- número de folhas; 3- massa seca das folhas; 4- massa seca do caule;5-massa seca da raiz; 6-razão comprimento do caule /massa seca do caule; 7- razão da massa seca da parte aérea/raiz; 8- porcentagem de alocação de fotossintatos para folhas, caule e raiz. Para a maioria dos parâmetros considerados, baixa PPFD reduziu drasticamente o crescimento. É possível que a estratégia dessas espécies de sub-bosque esteja na redução de crescimento sob baixa PPFD, resguardando energia para a sobrevivência.

Ivany Ferraz Marques Válio

2003-12-01

33

SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER HERBS: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available A great deal of pharmaceutical research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs used against various types of cancer. With the advanced knowledge of molecular science and the refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, we are in a much better position now to identify various anticancer herbs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on the use of herbs to boost immune system of the body against cancer. Scientists have contributed for a number of years to identify hundreds of anticancer herbs, and developed various herbal formulations from their active principles that inhibit growth and spread of cancer without any side effect. Such herbs possess anticancer, immunoenhancing, antiangiogenesis, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. They inhibit growth and spread of cancer by modulating the activity of hormones, enzymes and other biological factors. The therapeutic effect of these herbs is executed by the complex synergistic interaction among their various active principles. Some important anticancer herbs have been discussed here.

Pandey Govind

2011-07-01

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Chervil: A Multifunctional Miraculous Nutritional Herb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of herbs to remedy many ailments is known since ages. Indeed, the use of herbs is not only natural way to remedy diseases but also without harmful side effects. Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium is a delicate annual herb, full of nutritional value. It is a common plant genus of the family Apiaceae. It comprises 12 species, some of which are considered as noxious weeds. The genus grows in meadows and verges on slightly wet porous soils. This plant finds wide use in treatment of various diseases. Also, it is considered safe to use this herb by the people throughout the world. It is also called ‘gourmet's parsley’. The active constituents of chervil are volatile oil, flavonoids and coumarins, other constituents present are methyl chavicol (estragole and hendecane (undecane. This herb is used in kitchen for due to its nutritional aspect. The entire herb is advantageous, miraculous and nutritious in nature.

V. Joshi

2012-01-01

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A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may...

Badri Nagarani; Subal debnath; Santhosh Kumar C; Chiranjib Bhattacharjee; Ganesh Kumar, G.

2011-01-01

36

Science Nation: HERB the Robot Butler  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers at Intel Labs located on the campus of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh are figuring out a way to take the drudgery out of house work. They are creating a robot butler named HERB that doesn't mind doing the mundane. HERB stands for Home Exploring Robotic Butler. The idea is to create a robot that can walk into a home, assess the layout and move about on its own. To do that, HERB is being designed to be smart and resourceful. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers are programming HERB to think on its own.

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Chemical and Physical Environmental Conditions Underneath Mat- and Canopy-Forming Macroalgae, and Their Effects on Understorey Corals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m?...

Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

2010-01-01

38

Light interactions within a forest ecosystem between the adult trees, the young trees and the understorey vegetation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irregular forest stands regeneration is considered using gap creation that provokes a light increase in the understorey. The light increase leads to the recruitment of new trees as well as the potential colonization by competitive herbaceous and shrubby species. This study focused on light interactions between Scots pine (Pinussylvestris) seedlings and saplings and competitive vegetation made up of Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea andPteridium aquilinum growing in mixed sessile oak (Quercus...

Gaudio, Noe?mie

2010-01-01

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Vitamin contents in forage herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grasslands provide an important part of the feed used by domestic and wild ruminants. Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins in ruminant diets. Most studies in forages have been carried out with perennial ryegrass and legume species such as white clover. As yield and quality data of broad-leaf grassland species are scarce, the aim of this study was to obtain novel information on vitamins in a number of herb species compared to a grass-clover mixture and to get insight into ...

Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, K.; Jensen, S. K.

2012-01-01

40

Ecological filtering by a dominant herb selects for shade tolerance in the tree seedling community of coastal dune forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

The regeneration niche is commonly partitioned along a gradient from shade-tolerant to shade-intolerant species to explain plant community assembly in forests. We examined the shade tolerance of tree seedlings in a subtropical coastal forest to determine whether the ecological filtering effect of a dominant, synchronously monocarpic herb (Isoglossa woodii) selects for species at either end of the light response continuum during the herb's vegetative and reproductive phases. Photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of 20 common tree species and the herb were measured. Seedlings were grown in the greenhouse at 12-14% irradiance, and their light compensation points measured using an open-flow gas exchange system. The light compensation points for the tree species were low, falling within a narrow range from 2.1 ± 0.8 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) in Celtis africana to 6.4 ± 0.7 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) in Allophylus natalensis, indicating general shade tolerance, consistent with a high and narrow range of apparent quantum yield among species (0.078 ± 0.002 mol CO(2) mol(-1) photon). Rates of dark respiration were significantly lower in a generalist pioneer species (Acacia karroo) than in a forest pioneer (C. africana), or in late successional phase forest species. We argue that the general shade tolerance, and phenotypic clustering of shade tolerance, in many tree species from several families in this system, is a result of ecological filtering by the prevailing low light levels beneath the I. woodii understorey, which excludes most light-demanding species from the seedling community. PMID:20628885

Tsvuura, Zivanai; Griffiths, Megan E; Gunton, Richard M; Franks, Peter J; Lawes, Michael J

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Photoluminescence Decay of Irradiated Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence of inorganic dust extract from herbs and spices has been demonstrated to be a useful method to discriminate irradiated food products as well as to estimate the total dose exposure. The time evolution of infrared stimulated luminescence has been systematically investigated in potassium feldspar and albite minerals subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (ranging from 0 to 8 kGy). Experimental results reveal a 300-600 nm signal which is greatly intensified for irradiated samples, following the same irradiation dose dependence observed in thermoluminescence. The luminescence intensity disappears after few seconds of illumination, following a time evolution which is proportional to (1 + Bt)-P. The influence of both B and P factors upon the irradiation dose has been systematically analysed. (author)

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Fatty acid composition of forage herb species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive value and FA concentrations. FA concentrations were generally lower in June after a heavy cut than in May and August.

Warner, D.; Jensen, SØren Krogh

2010-01-01

43

HERBE- Analysis of test operation results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding

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Interaction of Herbs and Glibenclamide: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypogly...

Amita Rai; Cicy Eapen; Prasanth, V. G.

2012-01-01

45

SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER HERBS: A REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A great deal of pharmaceutical research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs used against various types of cancer. With the advanced knowledge of molecular science and the refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, we are in a much better position now to identify various anticancer herbs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on the use of herbs to boost immune system of the body against cancer. Scientists have contributed for a number of years to...

Pandey Govind

2011-01-01

46

POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

Jain Amit

2010-09-01

47

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections. Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma alta taxa de destruição e pouca informação disponível de alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna neotropical. Alterações do ambiente são fatores importantes que influenciam nos recursos disponíveis para as aves. Nós comparamos o nível de sensibilidade das espécies de aves do sub-bosque de dois trechos em diferentes estágios sucessionais (trechos de floresta primária e secundária. Dois trechos de 100 ha cada de Floresta Atlântica de baixada foram analisados entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Entre as 25 espécies de aves analisadas, treze tiveram menor abundância no trecho de floresta secundária, duas na floresta primária, e dez não mostraram qualquer tendência. De acordo com os critérios adotados, as porcentagens de espécies que apresentaram sensibilidades baixa, e média e alta às alterações de habitat foram de 44% e 56%, respectivamente. O número de espécies afetadas não esteve associado ao grau de endemismo ou estrato de forrageamento. Os resultados indicam a importância do conhecimento do grau de sensibilidade das espécies de aves quanto à modificação dos habitats e não apenas aos efeitos da fragmentação florestal.

Alan Loures-Ribeiro

2011-09-01

48

SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

2008-03-01

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[Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs. PMID:23944088

Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

2013-05-01

50

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma alta taxa de destruição e pouca informação disponível de alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna neotropical. Alterações do ambiente são fatores importantes que influenciam nos recursos disponíveis para as aves. Nós comparamos o nível de sensibilidade das espécies [...] de aves do sub-bosque de dois trechos em diferentes estágios sucessionais (trechos de floresta primária e secundária). Dois trechos de 100 ha cada de Floresta Atlântica de baixada foram analisados entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Entre as 25 espécies de aves analisadas, treze tiveram menor abundância no trecho de floresta secundária, duas na floresta primária, e dez não mostraram qualquer tendência. De acordo com os critérios adotados, as porcentagens de espécies que apresentaram sensibilidades baixa, e média e alta às alterações de habitat foram de 44% e 56%, respectivamente. O número de espécies afetadas não esteve associado ao grau de endemismo ou estrato de forrageamento. Os resultados indicam a importância do conhecimento do grau de sensibilidade das espécies de aves quanto à modificação dos habitats e não apenas aos efeitos da fragmentação florestal. Abstract in english The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two [...] areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.

Alan, Loures-Ribeiro; Marco A., Manhães; Manoel M., Dias.

2011-09-01

51

Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

52

Detection of irradiated food: Thermoluminescence analysis of spices, herbs, and spice-and-herb products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 3 and 9 months after irradiation 14 laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations which were isolated from different coded spice-and-herb products. In both study periods 99% of the 317 samples (total number) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated on the basis of normalized TL intensities. Only three irradiated samples were not identified as irradiated. The results show that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored, and that the method is suitable for routine analysis in food control laboratories. (orig.)

53

MedlinePlus: Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ... their effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions. All herbs and supplements Prescription and over-the-counter medication ...

54

Herbs in Orthodox Practice: A View by Medical Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use and opinion of herbs among medical students of Imo State University Nigeria was assessed. Information on herb use, indication and opinion from returned self-administered questionnaire was analyzed. A total of 114 students (91.2%) of 125 responded. 32 (28.1%) students had used herbs before, a significant proportion being males (OR 3.7). Herbal tea was the most popular herb used; maintaining good health and treating malaria were the only indications (50% each). Most students (>90%) believe ...

Enwere, O. Okezie

2009-01-01

55

Concentrations of radionuclides in mushrooms and herbs from Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A concentration of 134-Cs and 137-Cs in mushrooms and herbs from Latvia was determined using the method of gamma spectrometry. 585 samples of mushrooms and 107 of herbs were analysed. The total cocentration of cesium radionuclides in different samples of mushrooms was in the range from 5 to 1560 Bk/kg, in herbs from 5 to 230 Bk/kg. (orig.)

56

Vibriocidal activities of some local herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four of the seven tested medicinal plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against Vibrio cholerae. These 7 plants are: Ficus capensis, Mitragyna stipulosa, Entada africana, Piliostigma reticulatum, Terminalia avicennoides, Mimosa pudica, and Lannea acida. Of them Terminalia avicennoides showed higher antimocrobial activity than others. Potentials of these herbs in the control of cholera need to be determined. PMID:7594314

Akinsinde, K A; Olukoya, D K

1995-06-01

57

Radiation decontamination of herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review regarding application of radiation for decontamination of herbs and spices is presented. General principles of the process and the results of the research on biologically active components are discussed. The report regarding the development in this field in selected countries and regions is included. (author)

58

A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may spread through the blood stream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The search for anticancer agents from the plant sources alkaloids in earnest in the 1950s such as Vincristine, Vinblastine and the isolation of cytotoxic Podophyllotoxins will reduce white blood cell count and caused bone marrow depression in rats. Roots, leaves, stem, root, bark and fruity of the plant herbs are used in the treatment of cancer. The dietary antioxidants having anti carcinogenic property are in demand. Identification and characterization of these anti-carcinogens in the diet can be used for reducing the risk of human cancer. Tea (Camellia thea an evergreen plant contains antioxidants which prevent and repair cellular damage caused by reactive free radicals. Supervitamin drinks containing a combination of Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa and Spirulina enhances the activity of immune cells against cancer. Mentha species containing antioxidants prevent reocurrence of cancer.

Badri Nagarani

2011-01-01

59

Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

Maria Kowalik

2013-04-01

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Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

2012-02-15

 
 
 
 
61

SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY  

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Full Text Available India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling haemorrhage from cuts and bruises. In vitro clotting time of blood in presence and  absence  of various plant extracts was used as a guide to study haemostatic activityof the herbs under study. Of the ten plants evaluated, aqueous extracts of Quercus pubescens, Thevetia peruviana proved to have  significant  haemostatic activity at PZingiber officinale, Zanthoxylum rhetsa and petroleum ether extracts of Psidum guajava, Terminalia chebula, Zanthoxylum rhetsa confirmed the same results.

Shital Tanaji Jadhav

2013-09-01

62

Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation, Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to. The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.

Tang George

2009-06-01

63

Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223

Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W

2009-01-01

64

SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling ha...

Shital Tanaji Jadhav

2013-01-01

65

Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available...

Tang George; Hui Hongxiang; Go Vay

2009-01-01

66

MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

A. Santoro

2009-12-01

67

Thermoluminescence of irradiated herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9oCs-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate. (Author)

68

Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. PMID:12112294

Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

2002-06-01

69

Mutagenicity testing of some medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of four brands of a Pakistani local medicine called naswar and six indigenous herbs commonly used as medicine in children were tested for their ability to induce mutations to prototrophy in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537. Petroleum ether extracts of one brand of naswar, namely green naswar of Peshawar, exhibited mutagenicity in all of the four tester strains. Organic extracts of three herbs, Saussurea lappa, Swertia chiraita, and Skimmia laureola, exhibited mutagenic activity in tester strain TA98. Green naswar of Bannu, grey naswar, red naswar, and the remaining three herbs, namely, Acorous calamus, Azadarachta indica, and Zanthozylum alatum, exhibited no mutagenic activity under the present experimental conditions. The abilities of green naswar of Peshawar and Saussurea lappa to induce mutations was shown to be related to the presence of cyclic aromatic compounds with molecular formulas C34 H44 O9 and C15 H18 O2, respectively. The experimental data are discussed as they relate to the potential hazards of such naturally occurring compounds and to synthetic compounds in excessive and uncontrolled use by the general public in villages in Pakistan. PMID:3319606

Riazuddin, S; Malik, M M; Nasim, A

1987-01-01

70

Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to differentiate irradiated Chinese medicinal herbs from non-irradiated was investigated. Thirty different dried Chinese herbs were tested, including root, flower, ramulus, rhizome, cortex, and whole plant samples. Irradiation of Chinese herbs was associated with strong TL peaks at ?150-250 deg C, while TL curves of non-irradiated herbs had very low intensities above 250 deg C, which was also confirmed by the TL ratio (non-irradiated, TL1/TL2 1/TL2 > 0.1) except for sterculia lychnophora, semen cassia, flos inulae, and anemone root. TL ratios of some herbs indicated irradiation (TL1/TL2 > 0.1) even if the irradiated components were as low as 0.1 %. Thus we demonstrated that TL analysis had excellent sensitivity and reliability for the identification of irradiated Chinese herbs. (author)

71

Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

72

[Ancient clinical application of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to further improve the curative effect of the herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus, we collected a wide range of literature on herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus and then systematically arranged them to analyze and summarize the technology and operating methods of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. We also briefly discussed issues on application of medicine, locust tree skin and ginger, the method of kneading dough for medical uses, and the appropriate size of moxa cone and its using frequency in order to form clear concepts and standardized operations to provide theories and operational basis for the clinical application of modern herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. PMID:25509757

Yu, Bao-luo; Han, Yuan-yuan; Ma, Yu-xia; Gao, Shu-zhong

2014-09-01

73

Herb-drug interactions: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. An extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). Allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration of saquinavir, but not ritonavir and paracetamol (acetaminophen), in volunteers. A. sativum increased the clotting time and international normalised ratio of warfarin and caused hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) caused bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and even caused coma when combined with trazodone in patients. Panax ginseng (ginseng) reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol (ethanol) and warfarin, and induced mania when used concomitantly with phenelzine, but ginseng increased the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Scutellaria baicalensis (huangqin) ameliorated irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in cancer patients.Piper methysticum (kava) increased the 'off' periods in patients with parkinsonism taking levodopa and induced a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazolam. Kava enhanced the hypnotic effect of alcohol in mice, but this was not observed in humans. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) decreased the trough concentrations of indinavir in humans. Piperine from black (Piper nigrum Linn) and long (P. longum Linn) peppers increased the AUC of phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers and plasma concentrations of rifamipicin (rifampin) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eleutheroccus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) increased the serum concentration of digoxin, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and alprazolam in humans. Hypericum perforatum (hypericum; St John's wort) decreased the blood concentrations of ciclosporin (cyclosporin), midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, pravastatin, mycophenolate mofetil and dextromethorphan. Cases have been reported where decreased ciclosporin concentrations led to organ rejection. Hypericum also caused breakthrough bleeding and unplanned pregnancies when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives. It also caused serotonin syndrome when used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. sertraline and paroxetine). In conclusion, interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequences. There are other theoretical interactions indicated by preclinical data. Both pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms have been considered to play a role in these interactions, although the underlying mechanisms for the altered drug effects and/or concentrations by concomitant herbal medicines are yet to be determined. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical carers. PMID:15916450

Hu, Zeping; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ho, Paul Chi Lui; Chan, Sui Yung; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Eli; Duan, Wei; Koh, Hwee Ling; Zhou, Shufeng

2005-01-01

74

The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of ?-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

75

Experimental testing of a volume index as a fast method for estimating carbon stock in the understorey vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biomass of understory vegetation has an important role in several forest ecosystem processes, though it is not frequently included in forest inventory programs, which are commonly focused on the tree component. The objective of the study is to test a fast procedure for obtaining an accurate estimation of three components of the aboveground understory vegetation: herbaceous, bush, regeneration. For such a purpose a Volume Index has been calculated on the basis of the product between the percent coverage of vegetation and the average height of the three different components of understory vegetation. The index has been quantified in twenty clusters of four squared plots 1 m2 wide; clusters were located in two study areas in the northern part of Molise Region (southeastern Italy. For each plot, the dry biomass has been collected and weighted, and then transformed in carbon stock. This study presents the field protocol and the achieved results in terms of measured aboveground understorey carbon stock in six different forest and pre-forest types (the average carbon stock was 1.19 t C ha-1 and correlation between Volume Index and carbon stock (the Pearson’s correlation index was 0.8 on 309 field observations.

Chirici G

2009-05-01

76

Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9 spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) high forest, reclaimed bogs, ?100 m from Bronze Age burial mounds, or former conifer plantation, and stand age. The PCA results showed that the main gradients in species composition were strongly related to the explanatory variables. Forward variable selection and variation partitioning using RDA showed that although modern environment was the dominant driver of species composition, anthropogenic historical factors were also important. The pure historical variation fraction constituted 13% of the variation explained. TheRDA results showed that ancient-forest status and, secondarily, reclaimed bog status were the only significant historical variables. Many typical forest interior species, with poor dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still present in the reclaimed bog areas. Our results emphasize the importance of historical factors for understanding modern vegetation patterns in forested landscapes.

Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.

2009-01-01

77

Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional groups (grasses, legumes and herbs). Herb species included chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor L.). We also investigated the effect of slurry application on the macro- and micromineral concentration of grasses, legumes and herbs. In general, herbs had greater concentrations of the macrominerals P, Mg, K and S and the microminerals Zn and B than grasses and legumes. Slurry application indirectly decreased Ca, S, Cu and B concentrations of total herbage because of an increase in the proportion of mineral-poor grasses. Our study indicates that including herbs in forage mixtures is an effective way of increasing mineral concentrations in herbage.

Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; SØegaard, Karen

2011-01-01

78

RECENT UPDATE ON PROFICIENT BONE FRACTURE REVIVIFYING HERBS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fracture healing phenomenon is a complex process which involves cell and tissue differentiation and proliferation . Herbs influence rate of fracture healing by influencing the regeneration of connective tissue of mesenchymal origin viz. chondroblast, fibroblast and osteoblast that are involved in healing and quicker mineralization of callus. The present review highlights some of the potential herbs along with their application in healing bone fracture.

Singla Chhavi; Drabu Sushma; Verma Ravinder; Dhiman Anju; Sharma Asha

2011-01-01

79

The thermoluminescence method for identification of irradiated spices and herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermoluminescence method for identification of irradiated dried food products on example of spices and herbs has been described. The equipment needed as well as sample preparing procedure have been presented. The examples of positive identification of different spices and herbs being previously irradiated has been included. 4 refs, 3 tabs

80

Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First a map of grass contamination (of May 1986) in Styria, Austria and the sites of plantation of medical herbs are given. Then tables of radioactivity of several dried herbs and of infusions, tinctures and essential oils are presented. There is no danger to the users of drugs. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

 
 
 
 
81

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. (CHIRCHIRA: A MAGIC HERB IN FOLK MEDICINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prickly chaff (achyranthes aspera linn herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian system of medicine.Achyranthes aspera linn known as chirchira in hindi is an indigenous herb found in India, It has been used in almost all the traditional system of medicine, ayurveda, unani, and sidha from the ancient time . The tribal, rural, and aboriginal people our country commonly  in this herb in various disorders. Achyranthes aspera leaves reported to have antimicrobial property so mostly  used in the treatment of skin and teeth disorder.The present paper enumerates the ethnopharmacognostic, ethopharmacologic, traditional value and folk remedies of this herb, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of herb.

R Charde

2011-07-01

82

Herb-drug interactions in nephrology: documented and theoretical.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal patients consuming herbal drugs are at risk for herb-drug interactions by various mechanisms. In transplant recipients, toxicity and underdosage of calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression have been linked to phytochemically triggered activity changes of cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 metabolism and drug transport proteins. This type of interaction might be triggered by many other plant products besides grapefruit juice and St. Johnâs wort, less well-known for this risk. Other potential herb-drug interactions in renal patients, for example with antidiabetics, anticoagulants or antihypertensives are discussed, although they have not yet been reported. Herb-drug interactions might possibly often go unnoticed, because physicians are not informed about herbal drug consumption by their patients. For better future detection and handling of herb-drug interactions, physicians should expand their knowledge about phytochemicals in herbs and foods. PMID:18538093

Nowack, R

2008-05-01

83

Afforestation of agricultural land with Pinus radiata D. don and Betula alba L. in NW Spain: effects on soil PH, understorey production and floristic diversity eleven years after establishment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Afforestation of abandoned agricultural lands has been the main change in land use over the past decade in Europe. However, the impact of tree species and understorey management on production and plant diversity over the medium- and long-term has not been thoroughly studied. This paper aims to evaluate the effects of an afforestation of Pinus radiata D. Don and Betula alba L. on soil pH, understorey production and plant diversity and life cycle type (annuals vs. perennials) managed with diffe...

Rigueiro-rodri?guez, A.; Mosquera-losada, M. R.; Ferna?ndez-nu?n?ez, E.

2012-01-01

84

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves. PMID:11714298

Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

2001-11-01

85

Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2) dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation. PMID:20856882

Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

2010-01-01

86

Chemical and Physical Environmental Conditions Underneath Mat- and Canopy-Forming Macroalgae, and Their Effects on Understorey Corals  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m?2 dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation. PMID:20856882

Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

2010-01-01

87

PA02.08. Role of herbs in psychosomatic disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Stress is taking toll of the health of the people in this present competitive and challenging world. Ayurvedic acharayas have realized the role of mind on the body thousands of years ago. While mentioning the etiology of almost every disease our acharyas have mentioned the psychological factors like bhaya, shoka, kroda etc along with the physiological causes. It shows the effect of mind in causation of a disease. These psychological factors like bhaya, shoka etc when become excessive and uncontrollable they lead to manasika rogas. These manasika rogas are called as psychosomatic disorders. In Ayurveda a number of herbs have been mentioned as medhya rasayanas. The herbs like brahmi, mandookaparni, shankapuspi, aswagandha, yestimadhu, guduchi etc, have been mentioned at various contexts which work in different ways to help restore the health in psychosomatic disorders. Hence the present topic the “ROLE OF HERBS IN PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS” was taken up to study the mode of action of herbs mentioned in manasika rogas. Method: The drugs mentioned by the brihatrayees under the treatment of manasika rogas like unmada and apasmara are enumerated and later the properties of most frequently mentioned herbs are studied. Result: The herbs like Brahmi, Shankapuspi act by their nootropic activity and the herbs like Lashuna, Vaca etc act by their high antioxidant property. Conclusion: The drugs by our acharyas act by their rasa, guna virya and vipaka help in the elimination of aggravated dosas their by helps the body to regain the homeostasis of tridoshas.

Ramgopal, KVRSS

2013-01-01

88

Sobrevivência diferencial de pupas de Euselasia apisaon Dahman (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) em plantas de sub-bosque nos plantios de Eucalyptus de Belo Oriente, MG / Differential survival of Euselasia apisaon Dahman (lepidoptera: riodinidae) pupae at understorey plants in the Eucalyptus plantations of Belo Oriente, MG, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Herbivorous insects may attack eucalyptus causing economic losses. One of these pests is the moth Euselasia apisaon Dahman, a key pest in the basin of middle Rio Doce. Here we studied the survival of pupae of this moth in Eucalypts and in understorey plants and tested the hypotheses: i) live pupae a [...] re more abundant in plants of the understorey than in eucalyptus, ii) there is no difference between the abundance of pupae in different plants of the understorey. We sampled three areas cultivated with eucalyptus in Belo Oriente, MG, and samples were taken in five plots each area, getting five branches of each plant and of five eucalyptus trees that bordered the plot. The proportion of live and dead pupae and the mortality rate were estimated. The abundance of live pupae was higher in the understorey and the mortality rate of pupae was the same among different families of plants of the understorey. It is possible the larger available leaf area of understorey plants justify the greater abundance of live pupae in this habitat, however, avoidance of feeding habitat to finish the life cycle is also a possible explanation. Mortality rate in plants of the understorey points to an equal pressure of natural enemies on the pupae. These appointments help us to understand the dynamics of pests in eucalyptus plantations, providing important information to support actions against pests in natural environments.

Suelen M, Sousa; Maurício L de, Faria; Anderson O, Latini.

2010-10-01

89

Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P < 0.01) in their contents of heavy metals. Among tested heavy metals, Mn was the most abundant one in tea leaves (390-...

Al-oud, Saud S.

2003-01-01

90

Radiation decontamination of herbal row materials and medical herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique can effectively replaced them. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the National programme on the application of irradiation on the decontamination medical herbs is in progress now. The first aim of the programme is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on microbial purity herbal raw materials and medical herbs. (author)

91

Herbs and hazards: risk of aristolochic Acid nephropathy in iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs are usually considered as inherently harmless products. Nonetheless, various renal injuries have been reported in association with several herbs. The best-known herb-induced chronic kidney disease is aristolochic acid nephropathy. Aristolochic acid is found in Chinese slim herbs. Balkan endemic nephropathy is nowadays considered as an aristolochic acid nephropathy. Plants of Aristolochiaceae (also known as birthwort, dutchman's pipe, and somersworth) is named zaravand or chopoghak in Persian and it grows in different mountainous and rural areas of Iran. The fruit and the steam of the Aristolochiacae are named zaravand gerd (nokhod alvand) and zaravand dearaz, respectively, and have different usage in Iranian teadirional such as treatment of headache, back pain, and anxiety. Some patients with end-stage renal disease and bilateral small kidneys have a history of exposure to some herbal remedies. We need to consider the possibility of environmental toxins and even Aristolochia nephrotoxicity as a potential danger in Iran. PMID:25599730

Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Khodaie, Laleh; Nasri, Hamid; Jouyban, Abolghasem

2015-01-01

92

Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

Wannipa Phianphak

2007-03-01

93

Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have bee...

Matthews, H. B.; Lucier, G. W.; Fisher, K. D.

1999-01-01

94

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)-based arrays, D...

Xue Charlie; Li Chun; Mantri Nitin; Niu Linhai; Pang Edwin

2011-01-01

95

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxid...

Korac?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

96

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by o...

Shizuo Toda

2011-01-01

97

Irradiation on spices, dried herbs and condiments preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among food irradiation applications, radiation decontamination of spices, condiments and dried herbs has the most immediate application potential in many countries. The article is intended to provide justification for the radiation decontamination of spices, herbs and others vegetables seasonings, compared to conventional methods used today by industry, namely the technique of fumigation with ethylene oxide (ETO). The article provides also information both to industrial users and governmental officers for the necessary authorization of the process

98

EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds), Datura metel (leaves with fruits ), Aloe Vera (flower ),Abutilon indicum (leaves), Solanum surattense (Leaves), Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves),Aloe vera (leaves), Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave), have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have ...

Sumithra, M.; Vasugi Raaja, N.

2013-01-01

99

PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS: AN AMPLE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL HERB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal drugs have been one of the primarily used drugs since olden times for the treatment of a range of diseases. In addition, the medicinal plants have played a vital role in world health as the herbal plants still make an important contribution to health care. Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, has been used since ages because of its rich medicinal values and ethnomedical importance. Phyllanthus amarus is a small, erect, annual herb which is a rich source of phytochemicals that are attributed to biologically active lignans, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins and phenylpropanoids that are present in the leaf, stem and root of the plant. It is a little wonder that the plant is used for so many purposes in herbal medicine systems and in clinical research over the years. Numerous studies have reported that Phyllanthus amarus have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Moreover, studies have demonstrated hepatoprotective, antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antiallodynic, antioedematogenic, antispasmodial, chemoprotective, antihypercalciuric, antiviral, antispasmodic, antinociceptive and diuretic properties associated with Phyllanthus amarus. The present review article summarizes the potent pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant.

Kiran Divya

2011-04-01

100

Antitussive Medicinal Herbs - An Update Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles of the airways; it is inappropriately stimulated in various situations like inflammation of the respiratory tract or neoplasia. In these cases, cough has a pathological character and it is necessary sometimes to use cough-suppressant drugs. The most frequently used antitussive drugs in clinical conditions produce adverse effects like depression of the respiratory centre, decreased secretion in the bronchioles and inhibition of ciliary activity, increased sputum viscosity, decreased expectoration, hypotension and constipation acts as limitation to the therapy. Use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments including antitussive activity as they are safe and devoid of adverse effects. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive activity.

G. R. Saraswathy

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots, small and medium canopy gaps (11 and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae. There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas, em clareiras pequenas e médias (11, e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae. Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia.

RAF. Lima

2009-05-01

102

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest / Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas), [...] em clareiras pequenas e médias (11), e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae). Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and [...] large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

RAF., Lima; S., Gandolfi.

2009-05-01

103

Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we report on the content and bioactivity of plant (phyto) estrogens and progestins in various foods, herbs, and spices, before and after human consumption. Over 150 herbs traditionally used by herbalists for treating a variety of health problems were extracted and tested for their relative capacity to compete with estradiol and progesterone binding to intracellular receptors for progesterone (PR) and estradiol (ER) in intact human breast cancer cells. The six highest ER-binding herbs that are commonly consumed were soy, licorice, red clover, thyme, tumeric, hops, and verbena. The six highest PR-binding herbs and spices commonly consumed were oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover and damiana. Some of the herbs and spices found to contain high phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancer cell lines and to induce or inhibit the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase, an end product of progesterone action, in PR (+) cells. In general, we found that ER-binding herbal extracts were agonists, much like estradiol, whereas PR-binding extracts, were neutral or antagonists. The bioavailability of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins in vivo were studied by quantitating the ER-binding and PR-binding capacity of saliva following consumption of soy milk, exogenous progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or wild mexican yam products containing diosgenin. Soy milk caused a dramatic increase in saliva ER-binding components without a concomitant rise in estradiol. Consumption of PR-binding herbs increased the progestin activity of saliva, but there were marked differences in bioactivity. In summary, we have demonstrated that many of the commonly consumed foods, herbs, and spices contain phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins that act as agonists and antagonists in vivo. PMID:9492350

Zava, D T; Dollbaum, C M; Blen, M

1998-03-01

104

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

2013-01-01

105

Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pdisease. PMID:11748878

Dutkiewicz, J; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

2001-01-01

106

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

107

Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30oC, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the testers acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the testers accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

108

Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints. Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF on OpenCV library. This keypoints distance calculation using Brute-Force Hamming. Matching is done by calculating the shortest distance between test image and reference image. If the result is less than or equal to threshold then image is match. Experiment result show this application can achieve 79% of success rate by using keypoints. This result is influenced by glossy leaf surface, so there is many reflected light that become noise.

I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa

2015-01-01

109

Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People’s Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines.

Bin Xiao

2011-07-01

110

EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds, Datura metel (leaves with fruits , Aloe Vera (flower ,Abutilon indicum (leaves, Solanum surattense (Leaves, Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves,Aloe vera (leaves, Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave, have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have beentested for its antimicrobial activity using standard test method ENISO 20645 and it is concluded that datura metel ( leaves with fruits have good antibacterial activity on theselected denim fabrics when compared to other herbs enhanced the wearing capacity of the denim fabric for an extended period without any skin/dermal irritations/infectionsand bad odor.

M.Sumithra

2013-01-01

111

Traditional Chinese medicine herbs — are they safe for psoriatic patients?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM relies on remedies of natural origin, its use is not always safe as it can have not only beneficial but also deleterious effects. Psoriatic patients, disappointed by conventional treatment and unaware of the potential side effects of TCM preparations, are increasingly reaching for non-traditional therapeutic methods. This review presents brief characteristics of selected Chinese herbs self-prescribed by psoriatic patients. It is important that dermatologists should be able to recognize any potential hazards connected with current or previous taking of these herbs by their patients. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 201–205

Gra?yna Chodorowska

2011-07-01

112

A REVIEW ON BENEFITS AND TOXICITIES OF SOME POPULAR HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal medicines are being used by about 80 per cent of the world population, mainly in the developing countries for primary healthcare. It is assumed that all the herbs and the products made thereof are safe and free from undesirable side effects. But this assumption is wrong and there are many scientific evidences which prove that herbs may possess toxicity or can produce undesirable side effects. The present communication reports benefits and toxicities of some well-known medicinal plants which are used more frequently in traditional system of medicine.

Pawar Harshal Ashok

2011-04-01

113

The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs. PMID:17182483

Otoom, S A; Al-Safi, S A; Kerem, Z K; Alkofahi, A

2006-01-01

114

Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

6-8 kGy ?-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by ?-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

115

Herbs used for the management of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article deals with herbs mentioned in the siddha literatures used in the management of diabetes. Each of the following herbs dealt with the following subdivisions as English Name, Family, Action, and how it is used in siddha.

Selvam, Santhosh

2009-01-01

116

‘Yang-Invigorating’ Chinese Tonic Herbs Enhance Mitochondrial ATP Generation in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs have been shown to enhance the myocardial mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in mice ex vivo. In the present study, we examined the effect of treatment with the methanol extract of ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardio-myocytes. The effect of ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs was also investigated for comparison. The results indicated that all ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs dose-dependently en...

Hoi Yan Leung; Hoi Shan Wong; Kam Ming Ko

2011-01-01

117

Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia Fangchi)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Chinese-herb nephropathy is a progressive form of renal fibrosis that develops in some patients who take weight-reducing pills containing Chinese herbs. Because of a manufacturing error, one of the herbs in these pills (Stephania tetrandra) was inadvertently replaced by Aristolochia fangchi, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. METHODS: The diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion in the native urinary tract of a renal-transplant recipient who had Chinese-herb nephropathy prompted us to...

Nortier, Joe?lle; Muniz Martinez, Marie Carmen; Schmeiser, H. -h; Arlt, V. -m; Bieler, C. -a; Petein, Michel; Depierreux, Michel; Pauw, Luc; Abramowicz, Daniel; Vereerstraeten, Pierre; Vanherweghem, Jean-louis

2000-01-01

118

A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal tox...

Asif, Mohammad

2012-01-01

119

Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

2006-01-01

120

Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia  

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Full Text Available Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM

2004-01-01

122

Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

123

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

2002-03-01

124

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

125

Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA arPine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented. (author)

126

E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs Nearly one- ... Preidt Friday, December 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages E. Coli Infections Food Safety FRIDAY, Dec. 19, 2014 (HealthDay ...

127

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

128

Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

129

HPLC analysis of methanolic extract of herbs for quercetin content  

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Full Text Available Herbs are rich source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized according to their chemical structure, into flavones, isoflavonoes and flavon-3-ol, anthocyanidins. They have aroused considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effect on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti allergic, anti platelet, anti inflammatory, antitumor, anti carcinogenic and anti ageing properties. HPLC analysis can be used for classification of herbs based upon secondary metabolites. Extract yield at optimum condition was then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantifying bioactive flavonoid compounds. It was observed that mint contains the highest concentration of quercetin i.e. about 10.8mg/g.

Nitu Trehan

2013-05-01

130

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

Xue Charlie

2011-05-01

131

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

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Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

Wu Guosheng

2011-07-01

132

Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - the case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa. PMID:24792083

Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

2014-08-01

133

Inactivation of Enteric Viruses in Minimally Processed Berries and Herbs?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral ...

Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Amoroso, R.; Sa?nchez, G.

2009-01-01

134

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

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Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural...

Wu Guosheng; Chen Meiwan; Li Yingbo; Huang Mingqing; Lu Jinjian; Tan Wen; Gong Jian; Zhong Zhangfeng; Xu Zengtao; Dang Yuanye; Guo Jiajie; Chen Xiuping; Wang Yitao

2011-01-01

135

The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention  

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Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence p...

Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

2008-01-01

136

Stability of andrographolide in powdered Andrographis herb under accelerated conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of andrographolide in powdered Andrographis Herb--the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae)--was determined using a heat-accelerated experiment to reveal a second-order kinetics of degradation. The fast decomposition was observed regardless of the method of analysis. The rate constant of the decomposition of andrographolide at 25 degrees C ( K(25)( degrees C)), predicted from the Arrhenius plot, was 6.58 x 10 (-6) d (-1). PMID:16902869

Plubrukarn, Anuchit; Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Ingkatawornwong, Suthimaln; Supavita, Tanomjit

2006-08-01

137

Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents  

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Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, pi...

Jin-Jian Lu; Jiao-Lin Bao; Xiu-Ping Chen; Min Huang; Yi-Tao Wang

2012-01-01

138

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.0...

Anjana Devkota; Pramod Kumar Jha

2010-01-01

139

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

Kora?, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

2011-07-01

140

NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ) SEEDLINGS  

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Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient le...

Melo Marques, Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza Sa? E.; Janice Guedes Carvalho; Mariluza Pinto Coelho Lacerda; Paulo Emílio Ferreira da Mota

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb  

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Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L.), which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-?-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antiox...

Morio Yoshimura; Takashi Yoshida; Yoshiaki Amakura; Ayako Yoshimura

2012-01-01

142

Traditional Indian Herbs Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Its Medicinal Importance  

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Convolvulus pluricaulisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, as a rasayanawhich is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Convolvulus pluricaulisis a prostrate, spreading, perennial, wild herb commonly found on sandy or rocky ground under xerophytic conditions in northern India. The drug is used as antiepileptic. It is used alone or is administered along with modern antiepileptic drugs. Little human research has been published in the Western ...

Debjit Bhowmik; Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Shravan Paswan; Shweta Srivatava; Akhilesh pd. Yadav; Amitsankar Dutta

2012-01-01

143

NYMPHAEA STELLATA: A POTENTIAL HERB AND ITS MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE  

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Nymphaea stellata is a perennial aquatic herb belongs to family Nymphaeaceae, with a short ovoid and acute root stock. It is found in ponds, lakes and ditches throughout Bangladesh, Africa and warmer part of India. Commonly referred to as “Water Lilies”, these plants have adapted to living in total water environment. Flower of N. stellata contain a lead compound Nymphayol (25, 26- dinorcholest-5-en-3?–ol) The structure was determined on the basis of X-ray crystallogra...

Doli Rani Das; Anupam Kumar Sachan; Shuaib Mohd; Gangwar, Sudhir S.

2012-01-01

144

Occurrence of enniatins and beauvericin in 60 Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24720681

Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael

2014-01-01

145

Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils  

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Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

Nemet Nevena T.

2009-01-01

146

Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n?=?100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n?=?15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10 %) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum. PMID:25346283

Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

2014-10-28

147

Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

Jain, Dheeraj P; Pancholi, Shyam S; Patel, Rakesh

2011-07-01

148

Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

149

Use of Herbs by the Patients with Diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal medicines, products and therapies are a subject of great public interest both nationally and worldwide. Use of herbal therapy is common among patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the consumption rate, duration and methods of herbs and alternative therapies used by the patients with diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed with 400 volunteer patients with diabetes. A face to face interview was conducted between January-May, 2003. The ratio of the herb used, herb species used, pattern of use, demographic characteristics of users and nonusers were determined. 25 % of the 400 respondent with diabetes reported herb use. There was a significant difference for Body Mass Index (BMI of users and nonusers (X2=13.01, p<0.05. A positive correlation was found between herb use and educational levels (r=0.106, p<0.05. The herbs mostly used by the patients were nettle (28%, thyme (27%, parsley (12% and jujuba (12%, respectively. The most common pattern of herb consumption was boiling the herbs and drinking the hot water extract (74%, this was followed by adding to foods (12%. Of 39% of the users self-reported that the herb decreased their blood glucose levels. Patients with diabetes tended to use herbs. They need to be educated by the health professionals.

Neriman Inanc

2007-01-01

150

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum, Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum, Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol. An antibacterial activity was observed in all herbs used. Most effective an antibacterial activity were observed in Tulsi, Neem and Wheat. In all herbs maximum removal of E.coli was found at 30 minutes contact time onwards. The percentage removal of E.coli were found 82.05% , 71.79% , 64.1% , 41.03% & 28.20% by using Tulsi, Neem , Wheatgrass , Amla and Katakphala herbs extract respectively, at 30 minute optimum contact time. The optimum removal of E.coli was observed at 1% concentration of extract of different herbs used.

SUNIL B. SOMANI

2011-09-01

151

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum), Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica) and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum) were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method) after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol). An antibacterial activity was observed in all herb...

Somani, Sunil B.; Ingole, Nitin W.; Patil, Shrikant S.

2011-01-01

152

Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruiment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant species richness is mainly determined by the presence of many species of subordinate herbs. These herbs experience high colonization and extinction rates. We conclude that the creation of colonization...

Bakker, E. S.; Olff, H.

2003-01-01

153

Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system

154

The methods of microbiological contaminants elimination in herbs. Part 2. Physical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poland is one of 27 members of International Consulting Group for Food Irradiation (ICFGI), who allows microbiological decontamination of spices and herbs with ionizing radiation dose not greater than 10 kGy. Ionizing radiation doses 1-10 kGy significantly decrease contamination of herbs and spices with aerobic bacteria, yeast-like fungi and mold spores. Important issue concerning microbiological decontamination of herbs is the influence of radiation on biologically active substances. Investigations show that most of herbs subjected to this process do not change its chemical composition (essential oils, alkaloids, antocyanes, phenol glycosides, triterpen saponins, flavenoids)

155

‘Yang-Invigorating’ Chinese Tonic Herbs Enhance Mitochondrial ATP Generation in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes  

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Full Text Available ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs have been shown to enhance the myocardial mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in mice ex vivo. In the present study, we examined the effect of treatment with the methanol extract of ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardio-myocytes. The effect of ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs was also investigated for comparison. The results indicated that all ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs dose-dependently enhanced the mitochondrial ATP genera-tion capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Three out of nine ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs produced a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on ATP generation, but to lesser extents than those of Yang herbs. Results obtained from activity-directed fractionation of the three most potent ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs suggested that the ATP-stimulating ingredients were rather water insoluble and largely resided in the butanol fraction. In con-clusion, ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs invariably stimulated mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cell-based assay of ATP generation capacity may be used as pharmacological test for ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs.

Hoi Yan Leung

2011-03-01

156

Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity of herbs of harvests 1986 and 1987 - both from the regions of Styria (Austria) with the most important fallout from Chernobyl - are compared. As expected, the radioactive contamination from harvest 1987 is much lower than that from 1986, restricted to Cs 134 and Cs 137 and very low absolutely. Values of soil contamination in the plantation regions are also listed. Hypotheses on the mechanism of radioactivity uptake from the contaminated soils, in particular the importance of potassium-containing fertilizers, are put forward. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (qui)

157

Thermoluminescence spectra of inorganic dust from irradiated herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) is used to determine whether certain foodstuffs have been irradiated. A high sensitivity TL spectrometer was used to analyze irradiated and unirradiated inorganic dusts from herbs and spices. Unlike earlier TL work using emissions in the UV-green spectral range, the spectrometer monitored transient TL emissions across the spectral range from UV to infra-red as samples were heated to 400 degrees C. A strong high temperature red emission peak was detected in all irradiated samples. This signal was much higher than the background level, insensitive to post-irradiation light exposure, and has potential for irradiation exposure determination

158

Traditional Chinese medicine herbs — are they safe for psoriatic patients?  

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Full Text Available Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM relies on remedies of natural origin, its use is notalways safe as it can have not only beneficial but also deleterious effects. Psoriatic patients, disappointed byconventional treatment and unaware of the potential side effects of TCM preparations, are increasingly reachingfor non-traditional therapeutic methods. This review presents brief characteristics of selected Chinese herbsself-prescribed by psoriatic patients. It is important that dermatologists should be able to recognize any potentialhazards connected with current or previous taking of these herbs by their patients. (Folia Histochemica etCytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 201–205

Joanna Patrycja Bartosi?ska

2011-07-01

159

Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb  

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Full Text Available Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L., which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl 3-O-?-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of tea catechins.

Morio Yoshimura

2012-05-01

160

Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diabetes mellitus é um problema de saúde pública que leva a complicações graves ao longo do tempo. Experimentalmente, muitas ervas têm sido recomendadas para o tratamento da diabetes. Contudo, na maior parte dos casos as recomendações são baseadas em estudos em animais e existem evidências limitadas [...] sobre a sua utilidade clínica. Esta revisão tem como foco as ervas nas quais as ações hipooglicêmicas são apoiadas por três ou mais estudos clínicos. Realizou-se pesquisa no Google Scholar, Medline e Science Direct utilizando palavras-chave diabete, plantas, ervas, glicose e pacientes. Segundo os estudos clínicos, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum mostraram atividade hipoglicêmica e, em alguns casos, hipolipidêmica em pacientes diabéticos. Entre elas, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum apresentam grande reputação no manejamento da diabetes. Portanto, parece que os médicos podem confiar nessas ervas e aconselhar aos pacientes para que melhorem o tratamento da diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefu [...] lness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

Ahmad, Ghorbani.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemt for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

162

Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ? Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ? The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is thaief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

163

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

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Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50?...

Baeza, Carlos M.; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; Negritto, M.

2008-01-01

164

GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS  

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Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

2013-11-01

165

Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs  

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Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

2000-12-01

166

Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb  

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Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

Zvonko Pacanoski

2014-03-01

167

Herb–drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to evaluate critically the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. METHODS Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant SRs. RESULTS Forty?six SRs of 46 different HMPs met our inclusion criteria. The vast majority of SRs were of poor methodological quality. The majority of these HMPs were not associated with severe herb–drug interactions. Serious herb–drug interactions were noted for Hypericum perforatum and Viscum album. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolaemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Piper methysticum, Serenoa repens and Camellia sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. CONCLUSION The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions. PMID:22670731

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala; Ernst, Edzard

2013-01-01

168

Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

1999-07-01

169

Climate change - Bad news for montane forest herb layer species?  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming presents a threat to plant species distributed at montane or alpine altitudes if the topography does not allow upward shifts in distribution ranges. Nevertheless, the species might also benefit from increasing temperatures and secondary effects on dominant species (e.g. bark beetle outbreaks or summer drought affecting the canopy species). As a consequence, disturbance frequency in montane forests might increase and light availability for herb layer species will increase. We addressed these interactions in a common garden experiment in Central Germany at different altitudes, representing cold and moist vs. warm and dry conditions. We investigated three montane species with different life forms, including a herb (Trientalis europaea), a grass (Calamagrostis villosa) and a dwarf shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) under three shading treatments (3%, 28% and 86% of full sunlight). We hypothesized that montane species are at a disadvantage in the lowland, with the dwarf shrub suffering more than the grass. Furthermore, we hypothesized an antagonistic interaction of increased temperature and increased light conditions. While T. europaea and V. myrtillus showed only slightly responses to low altitude conditions, C. villosa displayed a nearly fifteen fold increase in biomass production, despite higher observed herbivory levels in the lowland. We failed to show an antagonistic effect of increased temperature and increased light availability, as all study species suffered from deep shade conditions and grew best under full light conditions at both sites. In conclusion, both improved temperature and light conditions might be principally beneficial for the investigated boreal species, in particular for the grass species C. villosa.

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2013-07-01

170

Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

171

Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs.

Weerapreeyakul Natthida; Nonpunya Apiyada; Barusrux Sahapat; Thitimetharoch Thaweesak; Sripanidkulchai Bungorn

2012-01-01

172

Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

173

Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

2014-10-01

174

Coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE', as the benchmark experiment at the RB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNPTM against measured criticality data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE. System at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of controlled flooding of the neutron converter zone by heavy water. Earlier calculations of these criticality parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using 2D geometry model are also compared to new calculations carried out by the MCNP code in 3D geometry, applying new detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug, developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are obtained and confirmed that HERBE core could be used as a criticality benchmark for coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

175

Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 104 to 10-3 ?g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

176

Trace element analysis of some medicinal herbs by proton induced x-ray emission (pixe)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trace element analysis of some medicinal herbs by proton induced x-ray emission (pixe) Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used to investigate the concentration of nineteen trace elements in eleven medicinal herbs commonly used for the treatment of different diseases in Pakistan. Mg, Si, K, Ca and Fe were detected in all the medicinal herbs studied. Germanium has been detected only in violet flower. Indian Lilac, field marigold and violet flower have the highest number of trace elements with maximum concentration. No toxic elements such as Pb, Hg etc. were detected in these medicinal herbs. The accuracy of our results was validated by analyzing standard reference material Citrus Leaf (NIST- SRM -1572). Results indicate that medicinal herbs are a rich source of trace elements which may be useful for the cure of certain ailments. (author)

177

Use of herbs or vitamin/mineral supplements by patients with cancer in Kayseri, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the consumption rate, duration, and methods of herb or vitamin/mineral use by patients with cancer and to evaluate the effects of alternative therapies in Kayseri, Turkey. A face-to-face interviews was conducted with 203 patients. Results showed that 32% and 18.2% of the patients used herbs or vitamin/mineral supplements, respectively. Nettle was the most commonly used herb, and iron and vitamin C were the most commonly used supplements. There was a significant difference between herb or vitamin/mineral users and nonusers with regard to educational levels. In conclusion, patients with cancer highly tended to use herb or vitamin/mineral supplements. PMID:16557116

Inanç, Neriman; Sahin, Habibe; Ciçek, Betül; Ta?c, Sultan

2006-01-01

178

Sizing and Design of the PV-WIND Energy Dryer for Medical Herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical herbs are located in Egypt in different areas and they are very important to increase the national income of Egypt. It is necessary to dry the herbs in their growing locations. As the growing locations are located far from the natural supply grid of Egypt, renewable energy sources such as PV&WIND are preferably utilized to achieve the drying process. Moreover, since the drying process is actually used to remove water from the herbs, thus it can preserve the herbs in storage drastically by preventing the attack of microorganisms during the moist conditions of herbs and also reduce their weight and bulk (for cheaper transport. Where, this paper selects, at first, the suitable drying site, and then it suggests. The suggested drying system is completely designed, and includes the following three systems: the solar thermal system, the dryer, and the renewable energy system.

Emad Ahmed Sweelem

2013-05-01

179

Replacements of Rare Herbs and Simplifications of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae Based on Attribute Similarities and Pathway Enrichment Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called “formula...

Zhao Fang; Meixia Zhang; Zhenghui Yi; Chengping Wen; Min Qian; Tieliu Shi

2013-01-01

180

Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary as...

Blomhoff Rune; Carlsen Monica H; Andersen Lene F

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

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Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhanceme...

Leung Hoi; Ko Kam

2007-01-01

182

Neuroprotective Herbs and Foods from Different Traditional Medicines and Diets  

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Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.

Marcello Iriti

2010-05-01

183

Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields

184

SOME EXPERIMENTALLY PROVED HERBS IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE  

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Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is a worldwide health problem because of its high morbidity, mortality and enormous financial implication. An estimated 15,000 deaths per year occur as a consequence of complicated PUD. A large number of drugs for peptic ulcer disease are available in mainstream medicine but they are associated with numerous side effects like arrhythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia and haematopoietic changes and the recurrence is also very common. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Here, an attempt is made to summarise experimentally proved herbs used in PUD during last decade.

Javed Ahmad Khan et al

2012-08-01

185

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-09-01

186

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old [...] seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001) higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p

Anjana, Devkota; Pramod Kumar, Jha.

187

Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.  

Science.gov (United States)

People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies. PMID:18384986

Austin, Daniel F

2008-05-01

188

Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions  

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Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

2007-08-01

189

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS  

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Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

Madiha Bichra

2013-02-01

190

Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

191

NYMPHAEA STELLATA: A POTENTIAL HERB AND ITS MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE  

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Full Text Available Nymphaea stellata is a perennial aquatic herb belongs to family Nymphaeaceae, with a short ovoid and acute root stock. It is found in ponds, lakes and ditches throughout Bangladesh, Africa and warmer part of India. Commonly referred to as “Water Lilies”, these plants have adapted to living in total water environment. Flower of N. stellata contain a lead compound Nymphayol (25, 26- dinorcholest-5-en-3?–ol The structure was determined on the basis of X-ray crystallography and spectral data.The flowers of plant contain flavonoids, gallic acid, astrgalin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The activity has been reported the antihyperlipidaemic and antihepatotoxic. Recently, Nymphaea stellata flowers have been reported to have hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage

Doli Rani Das

2012-05-01

192

NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ SEEDLINGS  

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Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1 of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

2004-07-01

193

SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS  

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Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmbovi?a County, and Secuieni, Neam? County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

Mihaela Lungu

2012-12-01

194

Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons  

Science.gov (United States)

The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

Cohen, Marc Maurice

2014-01-01

195

Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

196

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity informat [...] ion of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens) or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa). For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Luiz Fernando, Verissimo; Andre D., Bacchi; Tiago, Zaminelli; Gustavo Henrique O. de, Paula; Estefania G., Moreira.

1163-11-01

197

Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

2015-01-01

198

The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed. PMID:25395193

Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

2014-11-14

199

Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

200

Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all herbs, except lucerne, was higher at a 6-cut than at a 4-cut strategy, and application of cattle slurry also affected the competitiveness of the herbs. In general, lucerne, chicory, caraway and plantain were the strongest competitors; salad burnet and birdsfoot trefoil were intermediate; and melilot, fenugreek, and chervil were very weak competitors.

Mortensen, Tine Bloch; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of five Ayurvedic herbs on locomotor behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson's disease model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B.?monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

Jansen, R L M; Brogan, B; Whitworth, A J; Okello, E J

2014-12-01

202

Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n?=?148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3?days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

2014-10-01

203

Study of genotoxic effects of antidiarrheal medicinal herbs on human cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal herbs has been a common practice in Asia but their genotoxic properties are little known. In the present study, genotoxic effects of three antidiarrheal herbs, guava leaf, mangosteen peel and pomegranate peel, were examined using established human cell lines, Raji and P3HR-1. Cells were treated with boiled-water extract of the herbs at various concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in vitro. Cell growth and viability were dose dependently reduced. No apparent chromosomal aberrations were induced by the treatment. Administration of pomegranate extract induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation. This genotoxicity test system is simple and convenient for the primary screening. PMID:8629131

Settheetham, W; Ishida, T

1995-01-01

204

Application of calibration standardization method to the analysis of diuretic pharmaceutical herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calibration standardization of X-ray fluorescence method was carried out for the determination of the anorganic contents in diuretic herbs as called Folia Betulae, Stylus Maydis, Flores Verbasci, Equisetum Arvense and Flos Helichrysi, growing in Turkey. These herbs are widely used in pharmacy and public health for kidney disease therapy. Herb samples were steeped in the water and mixed through the pure cellulose, then pelletized in the intermediate thickness. An annular source of 109Cd (3.7 MBq) was used for excitation of fluorescent K lines of elements lying between potassium and zirconium. Toxic elements in considerable amounts were not found. (author)

205

Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)

206

Rapid identification of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography  

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Full Text Available Objective: To establish the method for rapid identification of the quality of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC. Methods: The constituents of headspace gas from Chinese herbs, such as Cortex moutan radicis, Radix cynanchi paniculati and root-bark of Paeonia lactiflora. were analyzed by HSGC. Results: The characteristic finger-print headspace chromatograms of these three drugs were different from one another. Cortex moutan radicis stored for 4 years under common conditions contained only traces of paeonol. Conclusion: HSGC was simple, quick and accurate in identifying and controlling the quality of aromatic Chinese herbs.

CHEN Jian-Wei

2003-09-01

207

In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9-mediated herb–herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix  

Science.gov (United States)

According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix should not be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb–herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix. PMID:25202272

Wang, Xinmin; Peng, Yunru; Jing, Xinyue; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-01-01

208

In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9–mediated herb–herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix  

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Full Text Available According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix shouldn’t be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb-herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix.

YupingTang

2014-08-01

209

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

210

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

1999-08-01

211

Radioactive contaminated herbs after the Chernobyl accident - a retrospective view of their destruction control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rains in May 1986 'watered' the ground and the plants with a mixture of radionuclides. As a result many agricultural products and other plants in Bulgaria were radioactively polluted. Herbs widely used as medicine or as fragrant tea were also badly affected. The author reports some data about radioactive contamination of the herbs with Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Radioactivity distribution in terms of dose range and herb species is given. Measures taken for destruction of the herb crop of 1986-1987 through incineration or burial are described, as well as the administrative and technical procedures assuring control of these measures. Proposals for continuing annual monitoring of the burial sites are presented. 6 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

212

MERITS OF USING HERBS IN WHOLE STATE (AYURVEDA’s CONCEPT OVER ISOLATED FRACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are precursors of animals and human beings. The plants growing around his vicinity fulfill all the basic needs of human life like food, water and shelter. Similarly plants act like natural tools to treat the ailments. Ayurveda i.e. the total science of human living has identified this natural truth and perfected it. At the outset, two schools of thought prevail regarding the use of herbs as drugs. The ancient school advocated and practiced by Ayurveda prefers using the herbs in the whole state, without disturbing naturally designed integrity of them. The second school insists on isolation of pharmacologically active chemicals present in the herbs preparing synthetic equivalents if possible and using them for therapeutic applications. This paper discusses the logic, eco-friendly design and merits of whole drug application against the isolated fractions with apt examples.

Madupu Paramkusha Rao

2011-02-01

213

Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum majorana L. herb and extracts obtained with different solvents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hydrogen-donating abilities with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl by spectrophotometric and the total scavenger capacities by chemiluminometric methods from the aqueous extracts of the herbs. The antioxidant activities of the solvent extracts were performed using the Rancimat method. The Egyptian herb and its extracts possessed better antioxidant activities than Hungarian ones. Applying supercritical CO2 extraction, the highest value of carnosol was obtained at 400 bar and 60 degrees C. PMID:15631502

Vági, E; Rapavi, E; Hadolin, M; Vásárhelyiné Perédi, K; Balázs, A; Blázovics, A; Simándi, B

2005-01-12

214

The use of herbs and dietary supplements in gynecology: an evidence-based review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumers frequently use herbs and dietary supplements to treat chronic conditions that are poorly responsive to prescription drugs or when prescription drugs carry a high side effect burden. Women may use herbs and supplements for chronic gynecologic conditions, such as menopause, premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, cyclic mastalgia, and infertility. This review is an evidence-based evaluation of herbs and supplements for these conditions. Therapies that carry a higher level of support from randomized controlled trial evidence include black cohosh for menopause; vitamins B(1) and E for dysmenorrhea; calcium, vitamin B(6), and chasteberry for premenstrual syndrome; and chasteberry for cyclic mastalgia. There were too few trials involving herbs and supplements in infertility to warrant a solid recommendation, but chasteberry, antioxidants, and Fertility Blend have some preliminary support. Midwives may want to consider these alternatives in addition to more traditional treatment options when meeting with patients. PMID:17081929

Dennehy, Cathi E

2006-01-01

215

Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic microorganisms are studied. The leaves extract of kembu-kembu (Callicarpa candicans, rintih bulung (Piper muricatum, cep-cepan (Castanopsis costata, and sereh kayu (Eugenia grandis, has antimicrobial to bacteria (Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast (Candida albicans. Toxicity assay of these plants by brine shrimp method using Artemia salina indicates that cep-cepan dan sereh kayu have lethal concentration higher than kembu-kembu and rintih bulung.

Kiki Nurtjahja

2013-12-01

216

Characterization of trace elements in medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medicinal herbs are often used as alternative medicines for healing and controlling some diseases in the world. This study focuses on the content of heavy and trace elements of some widely consumed herbs in Libya. Nine most popular herbs were analyzed by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. All the samples, SRM and flux monitors were irradiated for 7 and 10 hours under thermal neutron flux of 1.3 x 1013 cm-2 x s-1 at Tajoura nuclear reactor. In total, 33 elements were analyzed in different herbs. The variations in the concentration of the elements are attributed to soil composition and the climate in which the plant grows. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing the reference materials Pine Needles SRM 1575 and Citrus Leaves SRM1572. (author)

217

Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópodes coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera. Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat.

MA. Manhães

2011-02-01

218

Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot / Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópode [...] s coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera. Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat. Abstract in english Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna col [...] lected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

MA., Manhães; MM., Dias.

2011-02-01

219

The Main Anticancer Bullets of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Thunder God Vine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thunder god vine or Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. is a representative Chinese medicinal herb which has been used widely and successfully for centuries in treating inflammatory diseases. More than 100 components have been isolated from this plant, and most of them have potent therapeutic efficacy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the past four decades, the anticancer activities of the extracts from this medicinal herb have attracted intensive attention by research...

Zi Liu; Guang-Biao Zhou; Liang Ma

2011-01-01

220

Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-D)and Over the Counter(OTC) for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D) with Over the Counter(OTC) of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspeps...

Lee Jae-Jin; Son mi-won; Hong Kwon-eui

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include...

Hsieh Ching-Liang; Su Shan-Yu

2011-01-01

222

Protection against Cancer with Medicinal Herbs via Activation of Tumor Suppressor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cancer remains a major cause of death, although research is ongoing for the development of more effective drugs. Some herbs have shown potential in preventing the occurrence and/or progression of cancer and other chronic diseases. They are being screened comprehensively to explore the possibility of development of feasible anticancer drugs. However, more information is required about the response to and the molecular target for specific herbs. It seems that there is a relationship between som...

Yasuko Kitagishi; Mayumi Kobayashi; Satoru Matsuda

2012-01-01

223

Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum Majorana L. Herb and extracts obtained with different solvents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hy...

Va?gi, Erika; Rapavi, Erika; Hadolin Kolar, Majda; Va?sa?rhelyine? Pere?di, Katalin; Bala?zs, Andrea; Bla?zovics, Anna; Sima?ndi, Be?la

2012-01-01

224

Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-04-01

225

The rs1142345 in TPMT Affects the Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Hypoglycemic Herbs in Prediabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Therapeutic interventions in prediabetes are important in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its chronic complications. However, little is known about the pharmacogenetic effect of traditional herbs on prediabetes treatment. A total of 194 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were treated with traditional hypoglycemic herbs (Tianqi Jiangtang) for 12 months in this study. DNA samples were genotyped for 184 mutations in 34 genes involved in drug metabolism or transportatio...

Xi Li; Feng-Mei Lian; Dong Guo; Lan Fan; Jie Tang; Jing-Bo Peng; Hong-Wen Deng; Zhao-Qian Liu; Xin-Hua Xiao; Yan-Rong Wang; Ke-Yi Qu; Sheng Deng; Qi Zhong; Yi-Ling Sha; Yan Zhu

2013-01-01

226

THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

Nurdin, E.; Amelia, T.; Makin, M.

2011-01-01

227

Rapid identification of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To establish the method for rapid identification of the quality of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC). Methods: The constituents of headspace gas from Chinese herbs, such as Cortex moutan radicis, Radix cynanchi paniculati and root-bark of Paeonia lactiflora. were analyzed by HSGC. Results: The characteristic finger-print headspace chromatograms of these three drugs were different from one another. Cortex moutan radicis s...

Chen, Jian-wei

2003-01-01

228

Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Lee Jae-Jin

2009-06-01

229

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

Science.gov (United States)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

2004-09-01

230

Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V

2012-11-15

231

[Impact of storage conditions and time on herb of Lonicera macranthoides].  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effect of different storage conditions and storage time on herb quality of Lonicera macranthoides, different packaging materials including vacuum plastic bags, plastic bags, woven bags, sealed with endometrial bags, paper bags, sack bags were selected for the study under different storage conditions including room temperature, 5 degrees C refrigerator, low temperature of - 20 degrees C refrigerator and desiccator. Twenty-four batches of samples were used for the study, and active ingredients were determined. The experimental results showed that the ingredients in each storage group changed with the storage time, storage conditions (storage environment, packaging). Under the same storage time, the storage environment (temperature, humidity) had effect on the stability of herb quality. Low temperature had less effect on herb quality. The effect of packaging on herb quality was as following: plastic vacuum packaging > woven with endometrial sealed packaging > plastic bag > woven bag > sack bags > paper bags. Under the same storage conditions, with the increase of storage time, caffeic acid content increased slowly, and other five ingredients content decreased gradually. Storage time affected significantly on the intrinsic quality (chemical composition) and appearance of herb. It is suggested that low temperature (5 degrees C), dark and sealed storage are suitable for storage of L. macranthoides herb, the storage time should be not more than 24 months. PMID:24956836

Ma, Peng; Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying

2014-03-01

232

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

233

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

2004-10-01

234

Potential herb-drug interaction in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases during integrated traditional and western medicine treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of herbs and drugs is one of the most important approaches in the prevention and treatment of diseases in the integrated traditional and Western medicine (ITWM). While most medical practices have proved that the combination of herbs and drugs led to a clinical efficacy that was often superior to merely using only one of them; results from some studies have triggered adverse reactions to such an approach. Since few herb-drug interaction studies were carried out during treatments combining herbs and drugs, it really restricts the development of treatment and treatment theory of the combination of herbs and drugs. Given that herb-drug interactions may occur through the main pathway of cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters; then to exhaustively study the role and impact of herbs in drug metabolism, as well as to establish a corresponding database, is of great significance for guiding the rational combination of herbs and drugs. When the herb-drug interaction information platform is implemented, we would get at ease a reasonable herb-drug prescription to achieve a better outcome, reduce dosage of some expensive drugs preserving the same efficacy, or even reduce some side effects of particular drugs; which might also promote the dynamic combination of Chinese and Western medicine, and accelerate the theory development of ITWM. PMID:25533650

Wang, Xiao-Long

2015-01-01

235

Traditional Indian Herbs Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Its Medicinal Importance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, as a rasayanawhich is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Convolvulus pluricaulisis a prostrate, spreading, perennial, wild herb commonly found on sandy or rocky ground under xerophytic conditions in northern India. The drug is used as antiepileptic. It is used alone or is administered along with modern antiepileptic drugs. Little human research has been published in the Western medical literature regarding this plant. One study shows convolvulus pluricaulis to have anti-ulcer effects due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion and glycoproteins. Another study showed that convolvulus pluricaulis may be helpful in improving symptoms of hyperthyroidism by reducing the activity of a liver enzyme. Convolvulus pluricaulis is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported toreduce mental tension.

Debjit Bhowmik

2012-05-01

236

Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out

237

Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6 as the dominating FA.

Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

238

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

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Full Text Available Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities.

Yu-Fen Yin

2009-09-01

239

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

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Full Text Available The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82% without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC. GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001 higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p<0.001 on seed germination. These data contribute for the establishing of an efficient protocol for C. asiatica cultivation.

Anjana Devkota

2010-01-01

240

A REVIEW ON LEUCODERMA AND REPORTED HERBS FOR ITS TREATMENT  

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Full Text Available Leucoderma is an idiopathic, acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The pathogenesis of leucoderma is multifunctional and includes three main factors genetic, immunological and environmental. Recently , various treatments modalities have been introduced , and treatment options and outcomes have been improving. Excimer laser, phototherapy, epidermal grafts and lifestyle modification have improved the results of treatment and quality of lives of patients with leucoderma. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in localized leucoderma. Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralen containing plants have been used for centuries in popular medicine to treat leucoderma. Further advancement in treatments using different derivatives of psoralen molecules may result in decrease possibility of long-term side effects such as cutaneous malignancies. In this review we wish to present recent pharmacological approaches of furanocoumarins and a detailed investigation on various herbs that can be used for the treatment of leucoderma

Navneet Kaur

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

2014-01-01

242

Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

Blomhoff Rune

2011-05-01

243

Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbs on squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: histopathologic analysis of 240 cases.  

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Full Text Available Three types of traditional Chinese herb medicine were used to treat 98 patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prior to surgical treatment. Forty-two patients with the same diagnosis were treated with these herbs plus cyclophosphamide (endoxan. One hundred similar patients received surgical treatment without herbs or endoxan treatment as controls. Histologic examinations of surgical specimens were made on all of these patients. Stromal lymphoid-cell infiltration and cancer tissue degeneration were more prominent in Menispernum dehuricum DC- or Chelidonium majus L-treated patients, and were less clear in patients treated with herbs plus endoxan and the controls. The antitumor action of herbs is thought to be brought about by the activation of an immunological rejection mechanism. Herbs plus endoxan may result in the masking of the immunological response of hosts without obviously damaging cancer tissues.

Xian,Mei-Sheng

1989-12-01

244

Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4% reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6% obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1% obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%, and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

Mohammed Rochelle

2005-02-01

245

Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 ?l CD3OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

246

An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.  

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A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

2013-04-01

247

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

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Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género.

Carlos M Baeza

2008-12-01

248

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

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This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

249

Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested for the treatment of children diseased with diabetes mellitus. Received preliminary results show that the phytotherapy during the traditional treatment results into decrease of blood sugar level at children with diabetes mellitus, what in its turn will allow to reduce the dose of insulin injected from outside

250

Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the application of natural products against planned and unplanned radiation exposure. (author)

251

The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

252

Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269

Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

2014-06-01

253

Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

254

[Use of FTIR and pattern recognition to determine geographical origins of Chinese medical herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographical origin of medical herbs is an important factor of the quality of many traditional Chinese herbal medicines. The objective of this study is to investigate whether FTIR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques could effectively discriminate geographical origins of medical herbs. Nearest neighbor method (NNM) and a SVM-based multiclass classifier were employed to discriminate 269 angelicae dahuricae radix (ADR) samples from 4 provinces in China and 380 salviae miltiorrhizae radix (SMR) samples from 6 provinces. A leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of 99% was achieved by the multiclass classifier. The study shows this classification scheme can be a highly accurate approach for the discrimination of medical herbs of different origins. PMID:16201362

Liu, Shu-hua; Zhang, Xue-gong; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

2005-06-01

255

Protection of mouse immune system by a preparation of herb mixture against whole body irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preparation(P.P-I) of herb mixture was designed to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. The herb preparation was water extract of herb mixture(Agelica gagantis Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix) added with its polysaccharide fraction. In the present experiments, the ability of the preparation to protect hematopoietic and immune system was assessed in mice irradiated with 60Co ?-rays. The administration of P.P-I increased regeneration of blood cells and splenic lymphocytes in irradiated mice. In the administration mice, both B and T cells of lymphocytes were repopulated to normal level following irradiation, the response of repopulated lymphocytes to mitogen was recovered and the production of antibody against injected antigen was increased. These results indicated that the preparation protect hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage, and that enhanced immunity. Since the preparation is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful radioprotector

256

Genotoxicological safety of the ?-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with ?-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity

257

Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: from bench to bedside.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

2014-10-21

258

Identification and characterisation of the chinese herb Langdu by LC-MS/MS analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the identification of three species of herb used as the traditional Chinese medicine Langdu, namely Stellera chamaejasme L., Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata and E. fischeriana Steud. As these herbs contain different mixtures of marker compounds, they could be unambiguously differentiated from each other by comparing their respective characteristic segmental multiple reaction monitoring profiles. The profiles indicated that S. chamaejasme contained daphnetin, skimmetine, stellerin, chamaechromone and neochamaejasmin, E. fischeriana contained ebracteolata compound B, ingenol, jolkinolide B and fischeriana A, whilst E. ebracteolata contained ebracteolata compounds B and C along with ingenol. These results were confirmed from the respective MS/MS spectra. The method has been successfully applied to differentiate these herbs from the related species Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott and E. kansui Liou. PMID:12597254

Su, Xiao-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao; Wong, Siu-Kay; Tsui, Shu-Ki; Kwan, Sik-Yiu

2003-01-01

259

MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of new results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are achieved confirming that MCNP5 code could apply successfully to study on HERBE kinetics parameters after uncertainties in impurities in material compositions and positions of fuel elements in fast zone were removed. (author)

260

Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein  

Science.gov (United States)

The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

Cho, Hyun-Jong

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A Hypothetical Anti-Aging Mechanism of “Yang-Invigorating” Chinese Tonic Herbs  

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Full Text Available Chinese tonic herbs are generally classified into Yin and Yang categories based on their health-promoting action. Emerging evidence has suggested that in addition to up-regulating mitochondrial functional status, Yang tonic herbs also enhance cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant capacity, and may thus prevent age-related diseases and prolong the healthy part of lifespan (i.e. healthspan. The proposed biochemical mechanism underlying the antioxidant action of Yang tonic herbs involves a sustained and low level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, which is secondary to the increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. “Yang invigoration” improves antioxidant defense in the body in the long term and thereby offers a promising prospect for preventing or possibly delaying age-related diseases and the detrimental effects of aging.

Kam Ming Ko

2012-03-01

262

Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.  

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Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

2013-01-01

263

Nephroprotective and Diuretic Effects of Three Medicinal Herbs Against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats  

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Full Text Available The nephroprotective and diuretic effects of three medicinal herbs namely Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa, alone and in combination, against gentamicin (GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were investigated. Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into 6 equal groups, each of 7 animals. The 1st group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with saline solution (0.2 mL/rat. The 2nd group was i.p., injected with GM (80 mg/kg b.wt. for 8 consecutive days. The other four groups were given orally aqueous infusion of the three herbs, alone and combined, (1 mL/rat, 150 mg/kg b.wt. along with GM. Twenty four hours after the last administration, blood and urine samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Kidney specimens were taken for estimating oxidant/antioxidant parameters and for histopathology. The results showed that GM induced nephrotoxicity characterized by renal dysfunction as evident by biochemical and histopathological alterations, elevated lipid peroxidation and reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues. Oral administration of aqueous infusion of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs caused a nephroprotective effect evident by significant decreases in the elevated serum urea, creatinine and ALP activity and normalized the decreased serum levels of Na+ and K+ electrolytes in GM-treated rats. It significantly increased urine output and urinary concentration of Na+and K+; denoting a diuretic activity. It also ameliorated renal tubular necrosis in GM-treated rats. The nephroprotective of herbs could be due to the antioxidant effect of these herbs as evident by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusively, the study suggests that mixture of these three herbs may be useful for patients who suffer from renal diseases and those on GM therapy.

Aml F. Elgazar

2013-01-01

264

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

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In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Kedzia, B

2000-03-01

265

Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ? 5 servings/day to ? 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ? 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet. Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife women’s bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943

Gunn Caroline A

2013-01-01

266

Determination of element contents in certain wild herbs of Uzbekistan by radioactivation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complex of activation methods for analysing the element composition in wild herbs is developed to exercise control from the viewpoint of pharmacology and the environment influence on the composition variation. The complex includes the neutron activation analysis method with a nuclear reactor application and charged particle activation analysis (proton and deuteron) with a cyclotron application. Concentrations of more than 20 elements in 5 herbs of Uzbekistan are determined. Methods for sample preparation for analysis are described. Analysis results are tabbulated. The detection limit is lower than 10-4%. It is shown, that toxic element concentration in the indicated plants is lower than maximum permissible one

267

Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

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Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

268

The effect of ionizing radiation on microbiological decontamination of medical herbs and biologically active compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the national program on the application of irradiation to the decontamination of medical herbs is in progress now. The purpose of the program is to elaborate, on the basis of research work, the facility standards and technological instructions indispensable for the practice of radiation technology

269

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

270

9-Hydroxypiperitone beta-D-glucopyranoside and other polar constituents from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb.  

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A methanolic extract from dill (Anethum graveolens) herb was subjected to XAD-2 adsorption chromatography. The methanolic eluate was fractionated with the all liquid chromatographic technique of multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC). After acetylation of MLCCC subfractions and flash chromatography, final purification of dill herb constituents was achieved by preparative and/or analytical HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained in pure form, including the beta-D-glucopyranosides of 9-hydroxypiperitone, p-menth-2-ene-1,6-diol, and 8-hydroxygeraniol. Structure elucidation is based on electrospray ionization ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:11052739

Bonnländer, B; Winterhalter, P

2000-10-01

271

Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

272

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging.

Leung Hoi

2007-03-01

273

Effects of tree sapling diversity and nutrient addition on herb-layer invasibility in communities of subtropical species  

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Full Text Available Exotic species are assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However, little is known of the relationships within vertically structured plant communities such as forests, where tree saplings interact with herbaceous species, especially in the early phases of succession. This relationship was tested in a common garden experiment which assessed the impacts on tree saplings and herbaceous species following nutrient addition and the introduction of exotic herb species. The experiment was established in South- East China using four broad-leaved tree species (Elaeocarpus decipiens, Schima superba, Castanea henryi and Quercus serrata to study the relationships between tree sapling diversity, herb-layer productivity and invasibility. Tree saplings were planted in monoculture and in mixtures of two and four species. A full factorial design was applied, within which species composition was crossed with nutrient and exotic seed-addition treatments. The seed-addition treatment included mixtures of seeds from eight exotic herb species, and herb community attributes were assessed after a four month growing season. Results indicate that certain tree species negatively affect native as well as exotic herbs; however, the high productivity of native herbs had a stronger negative impact on exotic species than tree saplings. Nutrient addition increased the productivity of exotic herbs but had no effect on native herbs. Remarkably, exotic species introduction had a negative feedback effect on the growth of tree saplings, which highlights the potential of exotic herbs to diminish tree recruitment. Although tree saplings reduced invasive effects on the herb-layer during the earliest phase of forest succession, nutrient addition had a more profound and opposite effect on these invaders.

Alexandra Erfmeier

2012-02-01

274

Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks  

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[Object]: Detect whether different concentrations of Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides (CPS), astragaluspolysaccharides (APS) and angeulica polysaccharides (ASP), epimedium herb polysaccharides (EPS) have effects onthe immunity function of healthy Roman chicken. [Method]: 260 one-day-old chickens were divided into thirteengroups randomly, 20 birds each group. The physiological saline, Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides, APS, ASPor EPS had been hypodermically i...

Xingyan Li; Xinli Gu

2009-01-01

275

Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.  

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In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

1998-07-01

276

[Allergenic mites found in raw material of herbs based on literature about the Pyroglyphidae (Acari: Acaridida)].  

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The occurrence of two pyroglyphid mites. Euroglyphus maynei (COOREMAN, 1950) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (TROUESSART, 1897) in the raw material of herbs is discussed and compared with the literature data. These mites are considered to be the cause of human atopic diseases. PMID:8755152

Solarz, K; Karnkowski, W

1996-01-01

277

Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats  

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Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

2014-02-01

278

Germination ecology of the clonal grassland herb Knautia arvensis:Regeneration strategy and geographic variation.  

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We investigated germination responses and seed recruitment in the clonal grassland herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) throughout the species’ distributional range in Norway. Four predicted relationships between germination responses and field regeneration behaviour were tested using phytotron experiments and experimental and observational field studies. Seedlings appeared in all experimental microsites in the field, corroborating phytotron predictions that gap- or depth-sensing strategies ...

Vandvik, Vigdis; Vange, Vibekke

2003-01-01

279

Germination ecology of the clonal grassland herb Knautia arvensis: Regeneration strategy and geographic variation.  

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We investigated germination responses and seed recruitment in the clonal grassland herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) throughout the species’ distributional range in Norway. Four predicted relationships between germination responses and field regeneration behaviour were tested using phytotron experiments and experimental and observational field studies. Seedlings appeared in all experimental microsites in the field, corroborating phytotron predictions that gap- or depth-sensing strategies ...

Vandvik, Vigdis; Vange, Vibekke

2003-01-01

280

Investigation of Elemental Concentrations of Some Medicinal Herbs Collected from Kachin State  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five medicinal herbs, which are traditionally used in the Kachin State for the treatment of tuberculosis, different types of cancers, malaria and indigestion problem, were analyzed by the EDXRF techinque to determine the relative concentrations of elements contained in them. The major elements and the trace elements were thoroughly investigated for a comparison purpose

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo  

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Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis, and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2: 69-73 (2010Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

P Mahyuddin

2010-05-01

282

Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species  

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Abstract Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivari...

Zhang Xiao-Jing; Huang Li-Li; Cai Xiu-Jiang; Li Peng; Wang Yi-Tao; Wan Jian-Bo

2013-01-01

283

Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species  

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The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

2014-01-01

284

Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5 years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

Abahussain NA

2007-09-01

285

Aspects regarding the processing of the medicinal herbs in a microwave field  

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Full Text Available The paper contains the main results obtainedin the field of the processing of medicinal herbs in amicrowave field. It has an applicative research character,the obtained results being of practical use, with the mainpurpose of optimizing the functioning of some heatingdevices in a microwave field.

Livia Bandici

2009-05-01

286

Study on tumor cells' multidrug resistance and its reversion by Chinese herbs  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR is an important biological behavior of tumor cells in chemotherapy. And it is also one of the major causes of clinical chemotherapy failure. According to the literature at home and abroad, and combining with the results of anthors' investigations, this paper mainly discusses the mechanism of tumor cells' MDR and its reversion by Chinese herbs.

CHEN Xin-Yi

2003-09-01

287

[Study on HPLC-eLSD fingerprint of total steroid saponins in herbs of Dioscorea zingiberensis].  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish a HPLC-ELSD fingerprint for total steroid saponins in herbs of Dioscorea zingiberensis. Welchrom C,8 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm,5 microm) chromatographic column was adopted and eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The column temperature was room temperature. The ELSD conditions were as follows: the temperature of drift tube was 90.0 degreeC, the flow rate of carrier gas (N2) was 2. 8 L min-1, and the injection volume was 10 microL. After the detection of 10 batches of samples,the common mode of HPLC-ELSD fingerprint for total steroid saponins in herbs of D. zingiberensis was established for the first time,and 25 common peaks were determined. Among them, 10 peaks were identified by comparing with reference substances. The similarities of 10 batches of herbs were evaluated in the common mode. All of them were higher than 0. 80. This method is so accurate, reliable and highly repeatable that it can provide scientific basis for evaluating and controlling the quality of total steroid saponins in herbs of D. zingiberensis. PMID:24422399

Zhang, Xin-Xin; Liang, Jin-Ru; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Wen-Ji

2013-10-01

288

Study on tumor cells' multidrug resistance and its reversion by Chinese herbs  

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ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important biological behavior of tumor cells in chemotherapy. And it is also one of the major causes of clinical chemotherapy failure. According to the literature at home and abroad, and combining with the results of anthors' investigations, this paper mainly discusses the mechanism of tumor cells' MDR and its reversion by Chinese herbs.

Chen, Xin-yi

2003-01-01

289

Plant-animal interactions and seed output of two insectpollinated herbs  

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I combined comparative and experimental studies in the field and in the greenhouse to examine factors influencing reproductive success in two insect-pollinated herbs, the tristylous, selfincompatible perennial Lythrum salicaria and the self-compatible, biennial Pedicularis palustris. More specifically, I explored (i) the effects of plant population characteristics on the intensity and outcome of interactions with pollinators and seed predators, (ii) w...

Waites, Anna R.

2005-01-01

290

[Study of content of some food supplements with antioxidant activity in wild herbs and berries].  

Science.gov (United States)

The content of biologically active substances with antioxidant and P-vitamin activity in the extracts and infusions of the wild herbs and berries were defined. The background on the possibility of the multicomponent phytoextracts application as biologically active additives forfoods was given. PMID:17385445

Bazarnova, Iu G

2007-01-01

291

Antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effects of wild herbs mainly cultivated in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244

Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

2013-01-01

292

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea  

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Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

Boo-Yong Lee

2013-10-01

293

Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat  

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Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1? and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

MiJung Yeom

2002-02-01

294

The effect of Chelidonium majus herb extract on choleresis in the isolated perfused rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total ethanolic extract, the phenolic and the alkaloidal fraction of the herb of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) were tested for their choleretic activity using the isolated perfused rat liver. The total extract significantly caused chloresis by increasing the bile acid independent flow (BAIF); the observed weak activity of both fractions, tested each and as combination, however, was not significant. PMID:7617771

Vahlensieck, U; Hahn, R; Winterhoff, H; Gumbinger, H G; Nahrstedt, A; Kemper, F H

1995-06-01

295

Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Pakistani Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for Treatement of Diabetes  

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Full Text Available After twenty years Pakistan will be the fourth largest country with respect to the diabetic individuals. For a developing country like Pakistan availability of modren medical facilities to every person is not possible. In addition to economic constrains, reported side effects of these modern drugs encouroged us to search for an economical and safe alternative that can cure this disease. Herbal plants (cheaper availability and with less or no side effects have emerged as a potential candidate. This review focuses the effectiveness of herbs and herbal drugs which are commonly used in Pakistan against diabetes. Different search engines were explored including Pubmed, Google and Asci database (up to 2nd June 2011 by using different keywords. Priority was given to research article and information given by authentic organizations and federations. Ninteen plants, which were used by local people as vegetable or herbal remedy, were analyzed for their antidiabetic potentials on the basis of previously published literature. Varying levels of antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, Insulin stimulating, nephroprotective and hepatoprotective activities of these plants have been reported in various studies. Out of the ninteen herbs O. sanctum, Z. officinale, T. foenum-graecum and P. amarus were found to be the most effective against diabetes. In future adaptive use of these herbs in daily life as food may help to slow down the pace of disease development in Pakistan. There are plenty of herbs for which the medicinal value is still to be inquired so that they can replace and used as an alternate of synthetic drugs.

Saba Munir

2011-01-01

296

Identification of irradiation treatment of aromatic herbs, spices and fruits by electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence signals induced by gamma irradiation in some herbs, spices and fruits were systematically studied in order to detect the treatment. Using European protocols the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques are compared in regard to time of storage after irradiation. PMID:10727159

Raffi, J; Yordanov, N D; Chabane, S; Douifi, L; Gancheva, V; Ivanova, S

2000-02-01

297

Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commercial herb and spice extracts against selected food-borne bacteria  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of extracts of thirty commercial herbs and spices commonly used in the production of ready meals. Various extracts of spices were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas fluorescens using a microdilution broth method. Ethanol and hexane extracts o...

Witkowska, Anna M.; Hickey, Dara K.; Mercedes Alonso-Gomez; Martin Wilkinson

2013-01-01

298

Content of potentially toxic elements in herb species of spruce ecosystems affected by air pollutants  

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Full Text Available The contamination of Spodic Cambisols and selected herb species (Dryopteris dilatata, Luzula luzuloides, Prenanthes purpurea, Rubus idaeus, Senecio ovatus and Solidago virgaurea by potentially toxic elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr issuing from polluted atmosphere was studied in spruce stand and parallel clear-cut area on the locality Stolíky situated in the buffer zone of the NP Slovenský raj close city Spišská Nová Ves. The element contents determined in extracts of soil samples by 2 mol. dm-3 HNO3 were the following (mg kg -1 d.w.: Fe 3600--4300, Mn 1100--1300, Cu 81.1--100.6, Cr 1.16--2.00. The contents of elements in aboveground phytomass of dominant herb species ranged as follows (mg kg -1 d.w.: Cr 0.052--0.419, Cu 8.6--22.4, Fe 70.2--191.0 and Mn 1043--3457. Increased amounts of Cu and Mn (compared with the background values were ascertained in all herb species, whereas the contents of Fe were higher only in Luzula luzuloides (clear-cut area and Prenanthes purpurea (spruce stand species and Cr contents were lower than background value. The values of Fe:Mn ratio (0.03--0.12 were markedly lower, while the values of Fe:Cr (403--1867 and Cu:Fe (0.086--0.203 ratios were substantially higher compared with the normal values in herb species and they indicate disturbance in herb nutrition and nutrient cycling in the spruce ecosystems.

Ján Kukla

2011-06-01

299

Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

300

Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption ofther with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined in vivo by stable isotope erythrocyte incorporation technique. In parallel, the effect of the spice/herb on gastric emptying will be studied by stable isotope techniques using 13C-octanoicacid.Later,the effect of selected spices/herbs on iron absorption from popular northeast composite meal (mixture of spices and herbs) will be examined. Test meals will be served either with or without added spices/herbs.Data from this study can be used to effectively plan a food-based program to address iron deficiency problem in northeast Thailand. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat  

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The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4oC. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring...

Florou-paneri, P.; Palatos, G.; Govaris, A.; Botsoglou, D.; Giannenas, I.; Ambrosiadis, I.

2005-01-01

302

Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia  

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Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to the successful use of the {sup 15}N natural abundance technique. Acacia leiocalyx demonstrated greater N{sub 2} fixation as well as photosynthesis and instantaneous water use efficiency than Acacia disparimma. However, no strong relationship between plant photosynthesis and N{sub 2} fixation was observed in this study. A high within-treatment variation may have masked the relationships between plant BNF activities and photosynthesis. Conclusions: The {sup 15}N natural abundance technique is preferred to be used for future studies as it is simple and inexpensive compared with {sup 15}N enrichment method. The dependence of both species on BNF at site 2, where fuel reduction burning had not taken place for 8 years, suggests that the frequent burning impoverished the soil, and this has wider implications as higher fire frequencies are to be expected in other Australian ecosystems as a result of global climate change. (orig.)

Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

2012-05-15

303

Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18)?spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed. PMID:23487576

Paw?owska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa

2013-03-01

304

Changes in the species composition and structure of the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest subject to clear cutting  

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Full Text Available Changes in the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest (Potentillo albae-Quercetum, subject to clear cutting and artificial reforestation with Scotch pine monoculture, were analysed by a comparative method. It was found that cutting of a tree stand and underbrush did not destroy phytocoenose totally. Floristically-rich clearance communities resembled in their composition and structure the ground layer of an natural form of an oak forest. The regress of the herb layer took place several years later in a young pine stand. Then, a compact tree canopy highly restricted light inflow to the bottom of a forest. Later, thinning of a forest stand enabled the herb layer to regenerate. Nevertheless, even 60 years after clear cutting it significantly differed from the herb layer of a natural oak forest.

Hieronim Andrzejewski

1987-09-01

305

Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be pde in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria) occupied intermediate position. The Republican permissible level on Sr 90 for medicinal -technical raw material is absent in Belarus. Therefore we cannot give recommendations on using the specified kinds of the herbs mentioned above and collected during the spring period of their development. We only verify the results of the studies. In order to provide the answer to the question it's necessary to conduct further studies of the herbs growing in territories with lower level of soil contamination by Sr 90. It is required to develop the Republican allowable level of Sr 90 content in medicinal-technical raw material

306

Acute hepatitis induced by Chinese hepatoprotective herb, xiao-chai-hu-tang.  

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Xiao-chai-hu-tang (syo-saiko-to in Japanese) is a herbal remedy that has been widely used in China for treatment of respiratory, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal diseases, particularly among patients with chronic liver disease. However, its safety has recently been challenged. We, herein, report a Chinese patient with acute hepatitis induced by this herb. A 52-year-old woman presented with weakness, fatigue, and tea-colored urine after continual consumption of the decoction of xiao-chai-hu-tang for 1.5 months. Laboratory studies disclosed acute hepatitis even though all of the viral hepatitis markers were negative. Liver biopsy also revealed a picture of acute hepatocellular hepatitis. The symptoms improved after discontinuing the drug, and liver biochemical tests normalized 2 months later. The case report reminds us of the probable adverse drug reaction of herbs, even in some that are claimed to have hepatoprotective effects. PMID:16570576

Hsu, Li-Ming; Huang, Yi-Shin; Tsay, Shyh-Haw; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

2006-02-01

307

Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia  

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Full Text Available Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include inhibiting the activation of microglia, decreasing levels of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, attenuating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species, and regulating transcription factors such as nuclear factor-?B.

Hsieh Ching-Liang

2011-07-01

308

Presence of Bacillus cereus in Packaged Some Spices and Herbs Sold in Istanbul  

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Full Text Available Ninety-three samples of packaged spices and herbs were collected from different retail shops in Istanbul, Turkey. They were examined for the presence and number of Bacillus cereus. It was determined that fifty-nine samples (63.44% contained more 100 cfu/g of B.cereus, with counts ranging from 102 to 3.2x103 cfu/g. In the 34 samples (36.56%, B.cereus were less 102 cfu/g. Only 5 samples (5.38% had counts between 103-104 cfu/g. The results suggest that incidence of B.cereus was very high in spices and herbs, and therefore should not be ignored in food industry, especially in the meat industry and mass catering establishments.

Harun Aksu

2000-01-01

309

Validation of the fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of the measurements of the fast neutron spectrum in the HERBE coupled fast-thermal system are validated in this paper. When advantages and disadvantages of a He-filled semi-conductor-sandwich detector are compared to other neutron detectors, the former is found more appropriate. The neutron detection is based on the reaction 3He(n,p)T + 0.764 MeV and simultaneous detection of the reaction products in the silicon diodes. The pulses from the diodes are amplified and shaped in separate open-quotes energy close quotes channels and summed to produce a single pulse with height proportional to the energy of the incident neutron plus the Q value of the reaction. A well-known measuring system of the He neutron spectrometer is used for the HERBE fast neutron spectrum measurement and calibration in a thermal neutron field

310

The Main Anticancer Bullets of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Thunder God Vine  

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Full Text Available The thunder god vine or Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. is a representative Chinese medicinal herb which has been used widely and successfully for centuries in treating inflammatory diseases. More than 100 components have been isolated from this plant, and most of them have potent therapeutic efficacy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the past four decades, the anticancer activities of the extracts from this medicinal herb have attracted intensive attention by researchers worldwide. The diterpenoid epoxide triptolide and the quinone triterpene celastrol are two important bioactive ingredients that show a divergent therapeutic profile and can perturb multiple signal pathways. Both compounds promise to turn traditional medicines into modern drugs. In this review, we will mainly address the anticancer activities and mechanisms of action of these two agents and briefly describe some other antitumor components of the thunder god vine.

Zi Liu

2011-06-01

311

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

312

Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Invasive alien plants often occur in monospecific stands with high density in the invaded range. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites in such stands could have allelopathic effects on germination of native species. We tested this component of the novel weapon hypothesis for Heracleum mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence for allelopathic effects of the invasive H. mantegazzianum on germination of co-occurring native herbs.

Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan

2013-01-01

313

Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

314

Temperature Control in a PV-WIND Medical Herb Dryer System  

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Full Text Available This paper introduces a temperature control technique for a medical herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medical herbs at 40? even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using on/off controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using solar water collector and electric heater. While, the electrical system which contains a photovoltaic (PV-WIND hybrid system is used to feed the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in case of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.

Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh

2013-05-01

315

A Study on Effects of the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture on the Osteoporosis Induced by Ovariectomy in Rats  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu(BL23 and Taejo(BL11 loci on the estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy in rats, serum osteocalcin estradiol progesterone follicular stimulating hormone(FSH calcium(Ca and phosphorous(P levels were monitored. The results were as follows : 1. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05 increased in the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu and Taejo group compared with control group. 2. Serum estradiol levels were increased In the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu and Taejo group compared with control group, but Taejo group did not show significant value. 3. Serum progesterone levels were significantly(p<0.01 increased in the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu and Taejo group compared with control group. 4. Serum FSH levels were significantly(p<0.01, p<0.05 decreased in the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu and Taejo group compared with control group. 5. Serum Ca levels were significantly(p<0.01 increased in the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu group compared with control group, but Taejo group did not show significant value. 6. Serum P levels were significantly(p<0.01, p<0.05 decreased in the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu and Taejo group compared with control group. According to these results, the Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu Herb-acupuncture treated on Shinsu and Taejo loci have favorable effect on treatment and prevention of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy in rats.

Han, Sang-Won

2000-07-01

316

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine  

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Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxid...

Ko, Seong-hee; Choi, Seong-won; Ye, Sang-kyu; Yoo, Sangho; Kim, Hyun-sook; Chung, Myung-hee

2008-01-01

317

Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) -Does It Ensure a Perfect Supply of Medicinal Herbs for Research and Drug Development?  

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Summary: While users of herbal formulae have been disappointed with the lack of uniformity with the quality of herbs provided by the herb suppliers of different standings, they do not have better means of supply.  The tradition of identifying special geographic regions, as being specific for the best supply of certain herbal items is no longer reliable since the large demand for large quantities of quality supply could not be satisfied by limited plantations in those regi...

Cheng, K. F.; Leung, P. C.

2008-01-01

318

Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken  

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Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs...

Stef Ducu; Gergen Iosif

2012-01-01

319

Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations  

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The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a range of stora...

Scollard, Johann

2011-01-01

320

Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P?=?0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7?±?12.3 ?g/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79?±?7.62 ?g/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

Weerapreeyakul Natthida

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of Drying Method on the Antioxidant Capacity of Six Larniaceae Herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated the changes in total phenols (TP), rosmarinic acid content and antioxidant capacity of six Lamiaceae herbs (rosemary, oregano, marjoram, sage, basil and thyme) after three drying treatments (air-, freeze- and vacuum oven-drying) stored for 60 days at ?20 °C and compared to fresh samples. Ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were used as markers for antioxidant capacity. Air-dried samples had significa...

Hossain, M.; Barry-ryan, Catherine; Martin-diana, Ana Belen; Brunton, N.

2010-01-01

322

PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF THE HERB, EXACUM BICOLOR ROXB.  

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Exacum bicolor Roxb. (Gentianaceae) is a phytochemically unexplored traditional medicinal herb, generally distributed in the grasslands of northern Kerala during July-October. The present study through GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of six phytochemical compounds of medicinal importance (two compounds of polyphenolic group viz. 7'-Chloro-3'-(2, 4 dichlorophenyl)-3',4'-dihydrospiro(1, 3- dioxolane- and a’-D- Galactopyranoside, methyl 2,6- bis-0-(trimethylsilyl ) -, cyclic butylboronate...

Jeeshna M. V.; Paulsamy, S.

2011-01-01

323

Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post...

Gunn Caroline A; Weber Janet L; Kruger Marlena C

2013-01-01

324

Nephroprotective and Diuretic Effects of Three Medicinal Herbs Against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nephroprotective and diuretic effects of three medicinal herbs namely Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa, alone and in combination, against gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were investigated. Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into 6 equal groups, each of 7 animals. The 1st group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with saline solution (0.2 mL/rat). The 2nd group was i.p., ...

Elgazar, Aml F.; Aboraya, Alaa O.

2013-01-01

325

Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

Dejan Brki?; Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Marina Sokovi?; Marin, Petar D.; Jasmina Glamo?lija

2010-01-01

326

Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

2013-01-01

327

Sulphur fumigation processing of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: beneficial or detrimental?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Majority of TCM herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopoeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulphur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulphur fumigation on herbal safety and eff...

GeLin

2011-01-01

328

In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb throug...

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2010-01-01

329

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TRIKATU HERBS THE HEALING TOUCH OF AYURVEDA  

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Ayurveda, arguably the oldest system of rnedicine in the world, frequently uses fixed combinations of herbs. An important ingredient of many recipes, some of which date back to 6000 BC, is 'Tlikatu' (Sanskrit, meaning 'three acrid'). Which is a mixture of black pepper Piper nigrum; long pepper, Piper longum; and ginger, Zingiber ofticinale; the reason for the inclusion of these has recently been examined and a theory for their use proposed which involves enhancement of bioavailability. The bi...

Das Arpita; Mukerjee Tirtha; Sadhu Saugata

2011-01-01

330

Comparative study of total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of conventionally and organically grown herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to measure the relative phenolic content in commonly available conventionally and organically grown herbs and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity. Sage (Salvia officinalis), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) leaves, corriander (Corriandrum sativum) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds were used in the present investigation. Total phenolic content (TPhC), measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method, and radical scavenging activi...

Trendafilova, A.; Todorova, M.; Vassileva, Elka; Ivanova, Daniela

2010-01-01

331

Agronomic and economic evaluation of weed management methods in organic herb and vegetable production systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weed management is reported to be a major constraint in organic agriculture. Organic growers also report a lack of information about non-chemical weed control. A series of field trials was conducted in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and echinacea (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench) crops to evaluate a range of weed control methods commonly used in organic herb and vegetable production systems. The criteria for evaluating the methods were weed growth, crop yield and cost effectiveness. Hand weed...

Kristiansen, P.; Sindel, Dr B.; Jessop, Dr R.

2003-01-01

332

Shikonin extracted from medicinal Chinese herbs exerts anti-inflammatory effect via proteasome inhibition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as efficiently as dexamethasone. Shikonin at 4 ?M reduced the Lipopolysaccharides (LP...

Lu, Li; Qin, Aiping; Huang, Hongbiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Chuanyin; Liu, Ningning; Li, Shujue; Wen, Guanmei; Zhang, Change; Dong, Weihua; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q. Ping; Liu, Jinbao

2011-01-01

333

A Systematic Review of Single Chinese Herbs for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore her...

Ju-Tzu Li; Li-Min Fu

2011-01-01

334

Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To investigate the nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects of extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs in gentamicin (GM)-nephrotoxic rats. Material and Methods: Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into six equal groups. Group 1 was given sterile saline solution by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (negative control). Group 2 (nephrotoxic) was injected with GM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days during the last week of th...

Mostafa Abbas Shalaby; Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda

2014-01-01

335

Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of the Traditional Chinese Herb, Phyllanthus amarus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobact...

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-fong; Chan, Kok-gan

2013-01-01

336

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenes...

Boo-Yong Lee; Ok-Hwan Lee; Hyeon-Son Choi; Bong Kyun Kim; Jong Seok Lee; Ju-Hyun Cho; Dan-Bi Kim; Young-Jun Lee

2013-01-01

337

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

2014-04-01

338

Breeding System Evolution and Pollination Success in the Wind-Pollinated Herb Plantago maritima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, I examined variation in sex expression and mating patterns in the sexually polymorphic, wind-pollinated herb Plantago maritima. With a combination of field studies, greenhouse experiments, and genetic analyses, I (a) examined factors influencing sex ratio variation in gynodioecious plants (in which hermaphrodites and females coexist), (b) discovered variation in breeding system, (c) investigated density-dependence of seed production, and (d) documented genetic variation within...

Nilsson, Emil

2005-01-01

339

Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium) and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser k...

Milovanovi? Mirjana; Banjac Nebojša; Vuceli?-Radovi? Biljana

2009-01-01

340

The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita) was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis) stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and...

Beata Zimowska; Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Ewa Dorota Król; Ewa Dorota Zalewska

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effect of herb mixture supplementation in ratio on milk yield, milk composition and its technological suitability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigations were carried out on milk cows of Black -and- White breed being in 2-nd lactation 30-120 day after parturition. Experiment was performed during winter feeding season (corn silage, fodder beet silage, super beet pulp, concentrate, meadow hay). Cows of the experimental group received supplement (5% of concentrate) of the herb mixture in feeding ratio. The composition of this mixture was as follows: Urtica dioica, Fructus carvi, Pradix teraxaci, Agrimonio eupatoria, Matrica chamomi...

Grega T.; Sady M.; Kraszewski J.

2002-01-01

342

Evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical profile of medicinally important herb Mentha arvensis (L) against various microorganism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study has been carried out to evaluate the Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of medicinally important herb Mentha arvensis belonging to family Lamioceac commonly called as mint and Pudina. The antimicrobial potential of plant is measured against some of the important microorganism such as E.coli , Streptococcus aureus and salmonella typhi.The plant material has been extracted by using the solvent Methenol and chloroform .The present study reveals that the selected...

Suryawanshi S.P.; Ahirrao S.D.

2013-01-01

343

Fallbericht: Lichttherapie bei Herbst-/Winterdepression: Herb Kern, der erste Patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag stellt den Fall von Herb Kern vor, der erste Patient mit klar erkennbaren saisonalen Stimmungszyklen, bei dem Lichttherapie zur Behandlung seiner Depression angewandt wurde. Seine erfolgreiche Behandlung war eine Inspiration für den Autor, das Syndrom der ?Seasonal Affective Disorder? (SAD, saisonal abhängige Depression zu definieren und dafür Lichttherapie als eine systematische und kontrollierte Behandlung einzusetzen. Dieses Fallbeispiel zeigt, wie ein einzelner Patient zum Erkennen eines häufigen Zustandsbildes und einer neuen Behandlungsmöglichkeit führen kann.

Rosenthal NE

2010-01-01

344

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from th...

Norman, Eric B.; Thomas, Keenan; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R.

2014-01-01

345

Cistercian medicinal herbs for renal therapy in the 15th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rule conceived the monastery as a citadel of divine service so that medicine, together with other arts, was the subject of studies and searches which contributed to the foundation of monastic medicine. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Cistercian monks did not limit themselves to the study of the ancient treatises on medicinal herbs, but enlarged their knowledge through clinical experience to such an extent that they created the principal therapy of diseases for about five centuries. PMID:9189248

Iorio, L; Nacca, R G; Simonelli, R

1997-01-01

346

Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigat...

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

2011-01-01

347

Negative evidence of local adaptation to the establishment conditions in a perennial herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The differential adaptation of populations of the same species to their local environmental conditions through divergent selection, known as local adaptation, is a key step in the process of diversifica- tion of species. Here, we explore the local adaptation of the perennial mountain herb Helleborus foetidus to variable environmental conditions of seedling emer- gence and establishment at two different spatial scales (habitats and regions) with special attention to the role of physical and ch...

Garrido, Jose? L.; Rey, Pedro J.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Rami?rez, Jose? M.

2012-01-01

348

Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variation in nectar chemistry among plants, flowers, or individual nectaries of a given species has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect to our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper describes variation in nectar sugar composition in a population of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae) and dissects it into components due to variation among plants, flowers of the same plant, and nectaries of the same flowe...

Herrera, Carlos M.; Pe?rez, Ricardo; Alonso, Conchita

2006-01-01

349

Reproductive Biology of Evolvulus alsinoides L. (Medicinal Herb)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reproductive biology provides information on life forms, rate of flowering, type of breeding system, plant-pollinators interaction, fruit and seed output, overall fitness and survival of the species. The present study was carried out to reproductive biology of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is a medicinal herb of semi arid zone of Agra in North India. The study was carried out for a period of twenty four months to observe the reproductive parameters of the E. alsinoides...

Dhakre, G.; Bhavana; Singh, K. P.

2010-01-01

350

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry diets. Therefore, there is an intensive search for alternatives such...

Guo, F.

2003-01-01

351

Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

2010-06-01

352

Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

353

A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

354

Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:15681161

Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

2005-02-01

355

Biosorption and preconcentration of lead and cadmium on waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosorption behavior of the solid waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai (seeds of Sterculia lychnophera Hance) was studied as a sorbent for trace lead and cadmium. The solid waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai has good sorption and desorption properties for Pb and Cd. The sorbed waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai was both easily eluted with 0.1 mol l-1 HNO3 and easily digested with concentrated HNO3.The extent of adsorption depends on pH, metal concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of interfering ions. The adsorption capacities were found to be 27.1 and 17.5 mg g-1 for Pb and Cd. The relative standard deviation of the metal uptake experiment was found to be less than 10% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) using 100 ?g l-1 of metal ions and 20 mg substrate. Based on above, an ecofriend and low cost method for Cd and Pb preconcentration and determination with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was developed. The method was validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (GBW 08301). The results agree with those quoted by manufactures. It was used for 90-fold preconcentration of Cd and Pb from tap water and river water samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopic (FAAS) determination with satisfactory results

356

Sulphur fumigation processing of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: beneficial or detrimental?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Majority of TCM herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopoeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulphur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulphur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulphur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulphur fumigation induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulphur fumigated-herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulphur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method.

GeLin

2011-12-01

357

Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities  

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Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

2010-01-01

358

Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices  

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Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

2012-08-01

359

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction  

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Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb–drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions. PMID:24670388

Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

2014-01-01

360

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework for quantitative prediction of an herb-drug interaction.  

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Herb-drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb-drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb-drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e107; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.69; advance online publication 26 March 2014. PMID:24670388

Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The rs1142345 in TPMT Affects the Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Hypoglycemic Herbs in Prediabetes  

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Therapeutic interventions in prediabetes are important in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its chronic complications. However, little is known about the pharmacogenetic effect of traditional herbs on prediabetes treatment. A total of 194 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were treated with traditional hypoglycemic herbs (Tianqi Jiangtang) for 12 months in this study. DNA samples were genotyped for 184 mutations in 34 genes involved in drug metabolism or transportation. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 (A > G) in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene was significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug (P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.043). The “G” allele frequencies of rs1142345 in the healthy (subjects reverted from IGT to normal glucose tolerance), maintenance (subjects still had IGT), and deterioration (subjects progressed from IGT to T2D) groups were 0.094, 0.214, and 0.542, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 was also significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug between the healthy and maintenance groups (P = 0.027, OR = 4.828) and between the healthy and deterioration groups (P = 0.001, OR = 7.811). Therefore, rs1142345 was associated with the clinical effect of traditional hypoglycemic herbs. Results also suggested that TPMT was probably involved in the pharmacological mechanisms of T2D. PMID:23737827

Li, Xi; Lian, Feng-Mei; Guo, Dong; Fan, Lan; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jing-Bo; Deng, Hong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Rong; Qu, Ke-Yi; Deng, Sheng; Zhong, Qi; Sha, Yi-Ling; Zhu, Yan; Bai, Yu-Jing; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

362

Radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of commonly used herbs and spices in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs and spices not only variety and racy flavour to Korean foods, they also are the richest source for antioxidant power. The present study evaluates the radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from commonly used herbs and spices in Korea. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of bay extract were 39.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was in order of dill (50.0%) > bay (31.3%) > garlic (27.9%) > white pepper and black pepper (15.1-15.3%) > onion (10.1%) extracts. Bay extract had the highest total phenolic content (17.86 ?g CE/g). High correlation coefficients were found between the total phenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R = 0.9162). These results indicate that herbs and spices had high antioxidant activity that is partly due to the phenolic compounds and provide basic data for further development of processed food products. PMID:22149899

Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mira; Goo, Tae-Hwa; Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

2012-08-01

363

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those relating to the respiratory, circulatory and genito-urinary systems. Seventy herbal plants used in 115 different methods or preparation were identified. About 83% of the herbal preparations were given orally, while 17% were applied topically. The aerial parts of the plants (84% were most frequently administered in the form of decoctions. Some of the herbs also form part of their diets and include: Talinum trangulare, Boerhavia diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Gongronema latifolium and Aframomum melegueta. It can be concluded that medicinal herbs have played and will continue to play major roles in the management of common diseases in these communities.

R.I. Okoli

2007-01-01

364

Caffeoyl Derivatives: Major Antioxidant Compounds of Some Wild Herbs of the Asteraceae Family  

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Full Text Available The polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of 18 medicinal or food plants of the As- teraceae family were studied. Five main caffeoyl derivatives were determined individually by HPLC and compared with levels determined by colorimetry for total dihydroxycinnamic derivatives and total phenolics. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of these constituents to the antioxidant activity of the herbs determined by DPPH radical scavenging tests. Significant correlations were found between total phenolic (R2 = 0.8904, total dihydroxycinnamic derivative (R2 = 0.8529 and total caffeoyl derivative (R2 = 0.7172 concentrations and the DPPH-scavenging ability of all herbs. The antioxidant activity of the main constituents, including chicoric acid (EC50 = 8.24 µmol/l or 3,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid (EC50 = 7.62 µmol/l, was very high compared to vitamin C (EC50 = 15.66 µmol/l. Thus, for each species, antioxidant activity mainly involves the major caffeoyl derivatives. The contribution to antioxidant activity were assessed as 48.92% for 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Tanacetum parthenium (30.08 g/kg, and 68.96% for chicoric acid in Taraxacum officinale (34.08 g/kg. The main caffeoyl derivatives among polyphenols can be considered as the major antioxidant compounds of the studied Asteraceae herbs.

Didier Fraisse

2011-05-01

365

Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs.  

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Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators. These mediators include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Sphaeranthus indicus caused a smaller, still significant suppression of ROS. Aloe vera had no effect on ROS production. In the case of proinflammatory cytokine-induced monocytes, maximum suppression was shown by Azadirachta indica and Sphaeranthus indicus, followed by Hemidesmus indicus, Rubia cordifolia, and Curcuma longa. Aloe vera showed insignificant inhibitory activity. Thus, these herbs shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis. PMID:12622461

Jain, A; Basal, E

2003-01-01

366

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

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This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

367

Antioxidant potential of herbs extracts and impact on HepG2 cells viability  

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Full Text Available Mercury poisoning is responsible for inducing serious adverse effects in living organisms. One of protection factors could be substances proven to possess high antioxidant and metal chelating activity – plant polyphenols. There are many sources of polyphenols in plant kingdom but the most interesting for food industry could be widely consumed herbs. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative potential of selected plant extracts and its influence on HepG2 cells in different conditions. Ethanolic herbs extracts were characterised by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH• and ABTS+• radicals scavenging methods and FRAP. Research included cells viability estimation by the MTT assay and cells exposition to HgCl2, chemical agent inducing cell death. Analysis of herbs extracts antioxidative activity showed best potential represented thyme and marjoram, highest FRAP was evaluated in samples with mint and marjoram extracts. On the basis of received results it was found that examined plant extracts showed weak protection against Hg presence in examined cells environment.

Anna Gramza-Micha?owska

2008-12-01

368

Anti-thrombic activity of Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Whan and its herbs.  

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The anti-thrombic properties of the Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Hwan (DJW), which is consisted of 11 herbs (indicated as concentrations) of Rehmanniae radix 24%, Hominis placenta 5%, Testudinis carapax 9%, Eucommiae cortex 9%, Asparagi radix 9%, Phellodendri cortex 9%, Achyranthis radix 7%, Liriopis tuber 7%, Angelicae sinensis radix 7%, Ginseng radix 6%, and Schizandrae fructus 3%, were investigated. The extracts of DJW and its 11 herbs, except G. radix, A. sinensis radix and S. Fructus, inhibited the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis in high cholesterol diet-treated rats. Also the extract inhibited the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood platelets and fibrinogen, and endotoxin-induced increase in fibrin degradation products (FDP) on disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal rats. In in vitro experiments, the extract was shown to have inhibitory effect on collagen- and ADP-induced blood platelet aggregation, on thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and on the activity of plasminogen or plasmin. In conclusion, the protection of extracts of Korean herbs on the ischemic infarction induced artificially might be related to their inhibitory effects on DIC, platelet coagulation and thrombic action. PMID:16226922

Chang, Gyu-Tae; Min, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, June-Ki; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

2005-10-01

369

Genetic diversity of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, detected by ISSR markers.  

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Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important Chinese medicinal herb. Because of overharvesting, the wild populations of this herb have greatly declined and become fragmentized. In this paper, ISSR markers were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of this variety represented by a total of 153 individuals from three natural populations and three cultivated populations. Fourteen primers produced a total of 251 bands, of which 227 were polymorphic (PPB=90.44%). For the natural populations, the results showed that genetic differentiation was mainly within populations (GST=0.1952), with low genetic diversity at the population level. At the population level, genetic diversity of the cultivated populations was relatively higher than that of the natural populations (PPB=57.24% vs. 53.38%, HE=0.153 vs. 0.151, HO=0.241 vs. 0.235). This pattern can be explained by the recent introduction and artificial selection of cultivars from comparatively wide areas of origin, and subsequent gene flow among populations in cultivation. Although the neighbour-joining cluster analysis seemed to suggest that there was conspicuous genetic differentiation between the natural and cultivated populations, the AMOVA showed that only 4.84% of the total variance existed between groups of natural and cultivated populations, while 67.51% of the variance occurred within populations. In the end, some suggestions for conservation of this important herb are proposed. PMID:17973204

He, Jun; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Chen, Shao-Feng

2007-10-01

370

Traditional Use of Herbs, Shrubs and Trees of Shogran Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Shogran valley (Hazara. Information on local names, traditional medicinal uses and occurrence of the herbs, shrubs and trees has been presented. A total of 77 species of herbs, 12 species of shrubs and 18 species of trees were recorded that are used medicinally and for other purposes. Among herbs Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Bth., Convolvulus arvensis L. , Geranium nepalense Sweet, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet, Mentha longifolia (Hk. Huds., Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, Potentilla nepalensis Hk., Torilis nodosa (L. Gaertn., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb. are the most common. Podophyllum hexandrum is vulnerable due to over exploitation. Five species of shrubs and 12 species of trees are collected for sale in the local market as well as in other parts of the country. Juglans regia L. is found vulnerable in this area due to utilization of its different parts for different purposes. Melia azedarach L. is found under pressure of being used as fuel wood. Wild fruits such as Ficus carica L., Diospyrus lotus L., Morus alba L., Pyrus communis L., Pyrus pashia Ham. ex D. Don. and Prunus persica (L. Batsch. require in situ conservation in the area for future germplasm source

Abdul Matin

2001-01-01

371

[Textual research on origin and development of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao].  

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Making textual research on Bencao and documents, this article inquires to the origin and development of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae) on the points of change of the growing areas and the development of cultivating and processing techniques and clinical uses. The study indicates that the medicinal use of Dioscorea oposita went through several periods: the period of the use of wild D. oposita before Tang dynasty, the period of the mixed use of wild and cultivating D. oposita from Song to the middle of Qing dynasty, and the period of the main use of cultivating D. oposita after the latter stage of Qing dynasty (18th century). It considers that the growing area of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao appeared in Ming dynasty and finally formed "Huaishanyao" on the early of 20th century. The acknowledgement of Huaishanyao as genuine medicinal herbs is related closely to its cultivating and processing techniques and clinical uses. The development of cultivating techniques provided the resource of Shanyao, the invention of processing techniques improved its appearance and quality, and the clinical uses and practices by modern and contemporary famous medical men played an important role to the social approval and development of Huaishanyao. PMID:18589795

Feng, Xue-Feng; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Lian-Ju; Yang, Jing-Yu

2008-04-01

372

Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation  

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Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

1999-09-01

373

Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 102 to l.4 x 108 per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 102 to 4.3 x 106 per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 101 to 1.9 x 105 per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a deobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

374

Evaluation of the true precocious puberty rats induced by neonatal administration of Danazol: Therapeutic effects of nourishing "Yin"- removing "Fire" Chinese herb mixture  

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Abstract Background Nourishing "Yin"-Removing "Fire" Chinese Herb Mixture, a traditional herb-based formulation, has been successfully used for the management of idiopathic true precocious puberty (IPP) for more than thirty years. Precocious puberty rat model by neonatal administration of Danazol was used to investigate the effects of the herb mixture on the advanced sexual development of the rats, and the expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), whic...

Chen Boying; Cai Depei; Sun Yan; Zhao Hong; Tian Zhanzhuang

2005-01-01

375

Hepatotoxicity or Hepatoprotection? Pattern Recognition for the Paradoxical Effect of the Chinese Herb Rheum palmatum L. in Treating Rat Liver Injury  

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The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract(RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-treated rats for 12...

Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhao, Yan-ling; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Dao-jian; Kong, Wei-jun; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hong-juan; Xiao, Xiao-he

2011-01-01

376

Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

2014-05-01

377

Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activities of Herbs and Pastures in Northern Japan Determined Using Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry  

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Full Text Available Free radicals are not only destructive to the living cells but also reduce the quality of animal products through oxidation. As a result the superoxide anion radical (O2?-, one of the most destructive reactive oxygen species, is a matter of concern for the animal scientists as well as feed manufacturers to ensure the quality of product to reach consumers demand. The superoxide anion radical scavenging activities (SOSA of water and MeOH extracts of 2 herbs and 9 pasture samples collected from lowland and highland swards were determined against a 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline-N-oxide-O2?-spin adduct based on a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Both the water and MeOH extracted SOSA differed among the herbs and pastures. Species and altitudinal variations were observed between extraction methods. The herbs were higher in both water and MeOH extracted SOSA than the pastures except for water extracts of one pasture, white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Among the pastures, quackgrass (Agrophyron repens L. showed higher SOSA in both the MeOH and water extracts, and timothy (Phleum pretense L. showed higher MeOH extracted SOSA. It is apparent that the kind and amount of antioxidants differ among herbs and pastures. Animal health and quality of animal products could be improved by adequate selection and combining of herbs and pastures having higher SOSA.

Mohammad Al-Mamun, Koji Yamaki, Toshiki Masumizu, Yumi Nakai, Katsumi Saito, Hiroaki Sano, Yoshifumi Tamura

2007-01-01

378

Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

379

``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''  

Science.gov (United States)

In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

2009-05-01

380

Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Phenolcarboxylic acids from medicinal herbs exert anticancer effects through disruption of COX-2 activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated research of herbs and formulas characterized by functions of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis is one of the most active fields in traditional Chinese medicine. This paper strives to demonstrate the roles of a homologous series of phenolcarboxylic acids from these medicinal herbs in cancer treatment via targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a well-recognized mediator in tumorigenesis. We selected thirteen typical phenolcarboxylic acids (benzoic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives and their dehydration-condensation products), and found gallic acid, caffeic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B showed 50% inhibitory effects on hCOX-2 activity and A549 cells proliferation. 2D-quantitative method was introduced to describe the potential structural features that contributed to certain bioactivities. We also found these compounds underwent responsible hydrogen bonding to Arg120 and Ser353 in COX-2 active site residues. We further extensively focused on danshensu [d-(+)-?-(3,4-dihydoxy-phenylalanine)] or DSS, which exerted COX-2 dependent anticancer manner. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 could enhance the ability of DSS inhibiting A549 cells growth. Additionally, COX-2/PGE2/ERK signaling axis was essential for the anticancer effect of DSS. Furthermore, combined treatment with DSS and celecoxib could produce stronger anticancer effects in experimental lung metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. All these findings indicated that phenolcarboxylic acids might possess anticancer effects through jointly targeting COX-2 activity in cancer cells and provided strong evidence in cancer prevention and therapy for the herbs characterized by blood-activating and stasis-resolving functions in clinic. PMID:24916702

Tao, Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Sheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

2014-09-25

382

Effects of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupuncture on the Carrageenan induced arthritis in rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to check of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture on effect of anti-inflammtory function, anti-febrile function and analgestic function in carrageenan-induced arthritic rat. Each of 8 rat were classified into control, sample group. Control group were inject by normal saline and Sample group were injected by Scolopendra subspinipes multilans. Herb-Acupuncture. After elicitating edema and inflammation of Sprgue Dawely(SD rats by injection of 1% Carrageenan 0.1ml, then the rate of increase of paw edema, CRP, ESR, WBC were checked and rectal-temperature, topical temperature was checked about anti-febrile. writhing syndrome was checked about analgesic. The results were as follows 1. In the sample group, the rate of increase of paw edema was significantly decreased as compared with thatof control group(P<0.05 2. In the sample group, the rectal-temperature was non-significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 3. In the sample group, CRP and WBC was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group, but ESR was not.(P<0.05 4. In the sample group, opical-temperature was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 5. In the sample group, analgestic function was not sigiflcntly effected as compared with that of control group(P<0.05 According to the above result, it can be concluded Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture showed the treatment effects on the artifical arthritis resulted from carrageenan in rat and it is suggested that more interest and study in the mechanism and clinical use were needed.

Won-Bok Yu

2004-12-01

383

Herbal Medicines in Brazil: Pharmacokinetic Profile and Potential Herb-Drug Interactions  

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Full Text Available A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

JoseMariaPrieto

2014-07-01

384

Determination of selenium in herb plants by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selenium in herb plants was determined by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method with a correlation of 75Se gamma-rays energies between a NaI(Tl) detector and a Ge(Li) detector. Each freeze-dried herb plants sample (c.a. 250 mg) was irradiated for 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor in a thermal flux, 3.2 x 1012 n cm-2sec-1. After about (2 -- 6) weeks from the irradiation, gamma-rays were counted by means of the coincidence counting method with a Ge(Li) detector and a NaI(Tl) detector. In this counting method, the background around the photopeak of 75Se-265 keV could be reduced to one twentieth: accordingly the detection limit of selenium could be improved by a factor of four when compared with that by the conventional counting method. For examing the accuracy and the reproducibility of this method, selenium contained in Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaves (NBS) were determined, and the content of selenium was in good agreement with the certified value. The selenium contents of five kinds of galic and onion samples were found to be in range of (0.02 -- 0.31) ?g/g dry weight and in range of (0.02 -- 0.05) ?g/g dry weight, respectively. These values were also in good agreement with fluorometry results. The selenium contents of other herb plants were less than 0.1 ?g/g. (author)

385

Identification of dehydrated spices and herbs subjected to the irradiation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research shows the possibility of determining through a combination of analytical methods whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated. The methods used were the following: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Viscosimetry was applied in suspensions of dehydrated and irradiated spices and herbs which had been gellified by heat. It was observed that the viscosity of the samples decreases when the radiation dose increases. It was also observed that the temperature of the gelification is linked to the viscosity. The variation of the capability of gelification of the samples in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) does not have any consequence on the viscosity. Thermoluminescence is based on the transference of electrons to an excited state by ionizing radiation with emission of light when the electrons thermally stimulated. The thermoluminescent signals of the spices can be explained by the presence of mineral grains adhering to the surface of the samples. The thermoluminescent signal increased in intensity with the amplification of the radiation dose. The study of the signal in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) showed that it weakened and decreased. Free radicals produced by irradiation of spices were analyzed by the electron spin resonance method (ESR). It was checked that increasing the radiation dose meant an intensification of the ESR signal. Within a 30 day storage time, a fading of the si a 30 day storage time, a fading of the signal was observed. The results of this study lead us to the following conclusion: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance are methods of analysis which are proper to detect whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated, especially when these different methods were used in combination. (author)

386

Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by ??? cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 ?g/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

Svetla Angelova

2013-01-01

387

Lipid A-based affinity biosensor for screening anti-sepsis components from herbs  

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Full Text Available LPS (lipopolysaccharide, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC–HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3 from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ? release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs.

Jie Yao

2014-05-01

388

Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs. - Highlights: ? The PSL and TL properties of polyminerals from foodstuffs irradiated are analyzed. ? Quartz and feldspars were identified by XRD in the powder samples. ? The first TL peak (96–102 °C) has a clear influence on PSL and TL fading deinfluence on PSL and TL fading decay. ? The glow curves show complex structure and six TL peaks were deconvoluted. ? The PSL and TL results are very appropriate for analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

389

Topical symphytum herb concentrate cream against myalgia: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded. PMID:16510384

Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horàcek, Ondrej; Kàlal, Jan; Kucera, Alexander; Hladìkova, Marie

2005-01-01

390

Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs  

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Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg...

Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

2012-01-01

391

Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb.  

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To determine if Butea superba Roxb., a traditional Thai male potency herb, has androgenic activity in 60-day-old male Wistar rats, we measured its effects on the pituitary-testicular axis and sex organs. Intact and orchidectomized adult male rats were subdivided into five groups (10 rats/group): distilled water, Butea superba (BS)-10, BS-50, BS-250, and testosterone propionate (TP). They received 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 BS in distilled water by gavage and 6 mg·kg body ...

Malaivijitnond, S.; Ketsuwan, A.; Watanabe, G.; Taya, K.; Cherdshewasart, W.

2010-01-01

392

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

CERN Document Server

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

2014-01-01

393

The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs  

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P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of ...

Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Beata Zimowska; Ewa Zalewska

2008-01-01

394

Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance  

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Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

Joshi Devi

2008-01-01

395

Antioxidant activities of herbs, fruit and medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum extracts produced by microfiltration process  

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This paper presents kinds of extraction and cross-flow filtration of composition of 46 healthful and aromatic herbs, 8 fruits and fungi Ganoderma lucidum. Those extracts are part of Bitter 55, which have significant antioxidant capacity. Antioxidative activities of plant extracts have been determined by DPPH test using method of Blois. Bitter 55 which was kept at the green bottle in the dark has EC50 = 141.07 ?l/ml and it was stable during 150 days. Synthetic anti-oxidants BHT (ditertbutilhy...

Vukosavljevi? Predrag; Novakovi? Miroslav; Bukvi? Branka; Niksi? Miomir; Stanisavljevi? Ivana; Klaus Anita

2009-01-01

396

The herb community of a tropical forest in central Panamá: dynamics and impact of mammalian herbivores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammals are hypothesized to either promote plant diversity by preventing competitive exclusion or limit diversity by reducing the abundance of sensitive plant species through their activities as browsers or disturbance agents. Previous studies of herbivore impacts in plant communities have focused on tree species and ignored the herbaceous community. In an experiment in mature-phase, tropical moist forest sites in central Panamá, we studied the impact of excluding ground-dwelling mammals on the richness and abundance of herbs in 16, 30x45-m plots. Within each plot, we censused the herbaceous community in 28, 2x2-m subplots (1,792 m2 total area sampled). We identified over 54 species of herbs averaging 1.21 ramets m-2 and covering approximately 4.25% of the forest floor. Excluding mammals for 5 years had no impact on overall species richness. Within exclosures, however, there was a significant two-fold increase in the density of rare species. Overall herbaceous density and percent cover did not differ between exclosures and adjacent control plots, although cover did increase over time. Mammalian exclusion significantly increased the total cover of three-dominant herb species, Pharus latifolius, Calathea inocephala, and Adiantum lucidum, but did not affect their density. This study represents one of the most extensive herbaceous community censuses conducted in tropical forests and is among a few that quantify herbaceous distribution and abundance in terms of both density and cover. Additionally, this work represents the first community level test of mammalian impacts on the herbaceous community in a tropical forest to date. Our results suggest that ground dwelling mammals do not play a key role in altering the relative abundance patterns of tropical herbs in the short term. Furthermore, our results contrast sharply with prior studies on similar temporal and spatial scales that demonstrate mammals strongly alter tree seedling composition and reduce seedling density. Thus, we question the pervasiveness of top-down control on tropical plant communities and the paradigm that defaunation will inexorably lead to widespread, catastrophic shifts in plant communities. PMID:16010533

Royo, Alejandro A; Carson, Walter P

2005-08-01

397

Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions  

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Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, resp...

Al-jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-jasser, Mohammed Saud

2012-01-01

398

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TRIKATU HERBS THE HEALING TOUCH OF AYURVEDA  

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Full Text Available Ayurveda, arguably the oldest system of rnedicine in the world, frequently uses fixed combinations of herbs. An important ingredient of many recipes, some of which date back to 6000 BC, is 'Tlikatu' (Sanskrit, meaning 'three acrid'. Which is a mixture of black pepper Piper nigrum; long pepper, Piper longum; and ginger, Zingiber ofticinale; the reason for the inclusion of these has recently been examined and a theory for their use proposed which involves enhancement of bioavailability. The bioavailability enhancement probably results from the fact that piperine is a poter inhibitor of drug metabolism.

Das Arpita

2011-04-01

399

ISO - Technical committees - ISO/TC 34/SC 7 - Spices, culinary herbs and condiments  

... Resource area Standards Development Technical committees ISO/TC 34 ISO/TC 34/SC 7 ISO/TC 34/SC 7 Spices, culinary herbs and condiments About Contact details Structure Liaisons Meetings Tools Secretariat: BIS Secretary: Mr Kumar Anil Chairperson: Dr A. Jayathilak until end 2017 ISO Central Secretariat contact: Mme Marie-Noëlle Bourquin Number of published ISO standards under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 34/SC 7 (number includes updates): 72 Participating countries: 19 Observing countries: 26 ISO/TC 34/SC 7 - Secretariat India (BIS) Address Bureau of Indian Standards ...

400

Biotransformation of a herb plant metabolite by a cell disruptant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atractylenolide III is an organic product of the herb plant Atractylodes ovata that is used as an anti-inflammatory. This compound has very limited solubility in water, but we succeeded in transforming it using a Chlamydomonas cell disruptant containing 9.1% dimethyl sulfoxide. Two types of metabolites were confirmed after 3 h of incubation by gas chromatography, besides the non-modified substrate. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated that one of the metabolites had two hydroxyl groups whereas atractylenolide III had one hydroxyl group, but no metabolite was obtained when atractylenolide III was added directly to the Chlamydomonas culture medium for 10 d. PMID:19966454

Park, Hyun-Sun; Ohama, Takeshi

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Availability of essential trace elements in Ayurvedic Indian medicinal herbs using instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific parts of several plants (fruits, leaves, stem, bark and roots) often used as medicines in the Indian Ayurvedic system have been analysed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Most of the medicinal herbs have been found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. (Author)

402

Vaginally inserted herbs causing vesico-vaginal fistula and vaginal stenosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 32-year-old woman developed a vesico-vaginal fistula and vaginal stenosis following insertion of herbs into her vagina by a traditional doctor to "melt" her uterine myomata. She underwent successful trans-abdominal repair of her fistula and passive dilatation of her vagina was recommended for the vaginal stenosis. The emerging importance of traditional treatments as a cause of vesico-vaginal fistula is highlighted. The role of quality improvement through research and strict regulation to maximise the benefits of traditional treatment and minimise complications is also emphasised. PMID:22797463

Adaji, S E; Bature, S B; Shittu, O S

2013-06-01

403

Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers  

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1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. 2. Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0·5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, vir...

Guo, F. C.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Williams, B. A.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. S.; Luo, J. Y.; Li, X. P.; Wei, Y. X.; Yan, Z. T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

2004-01-01

404

Aristolochic acid and 'Chinese herbs nephropathy': a review of the evidence to date.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN) is a rapidly progressive interstitial nephropathy reported after the introduction of Chinese herbs in a slimming regimen followed by young Belgian women. It is characterised by early, severe anaemia, mild tubular proteinuria and initially normal arterial blood pressure in half of the patients. Renal histology shows unusual extensive, virtually hypocellular cortical interstitial fibrosis associated with tubular atrophy and global sclerosis of glomeruli decreasing from the outer to the inner cortex. Urothelial malignancy of the upper urinary tract develops subsequently in almost half of the patients. Suspicion that the disease was due to the recent introduction of Chinese herbs in the slimming regimen was reinforced by identification in the slimming pills of the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acid (AA) extracted from species of Aristolochia. This hypothesis was substantiated by the identification of premutagenic AA-DNA adducts in the kidney and ureteric tissues of CHN patients. Finally, induction of the clinical features (interstitial fibrosis and upper urothelial malignancy) typical of CHN in rodents given AA alone removed any doubt on the causal role of this phytotoxin in CHN, now better called aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). AAN is not restricted to the Belgian cases. Similar cases have been observed throughout the world, but AA is sometimes incriminated on the basis of the known content of AA in the herbs. The possibility remains that in some individuals in whom AA has not been demonstrated, other phytotoxins might be implicated. Biological and morphological features of AAN are strikingly similar to those reported in another fibrosing interstitial nephropathy of still unknown aetiology, Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Interestingly, AA was incriminated as the cause of BEN many years ago, a hypothesis yet to be fully explored. The intake of AA and the presence of tissular AA-DNA adducts in patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of BEN remains to be demonstrated. The tragic phenomenon of CHN, recognised only 10 years ago, has been at the root of significant research and progress both in nephrology and oncology. It has provided a fascinating opportunity to understand the link between a fibrosing interstitial nephropathy and urothelial carcinoma. It allows the categorisation of interstitial nephritis on the basis of histological findings, of initiating toxic substances and of associated clinical features. Finally, it has led to the withdrawal in several countries of a previously unsuspected carcinogenic and nephrotoxic substance. PMID:12495362

Cosyns, Jean-Pierre

2003-01-01

405

Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

406

Antihypertensive effects of tannins isolated from traditional Chinese herbs as non-specific inhibitors of angiontensin converting enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tannins are natural polyphenols, able to precipitate water-soluble alkaloids and possess an inhibitory action on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). We identified 18 polyphenolic compounds (tannins) from Chinese herbs and examined the in vitro effects of these tannins on ACE activity, including determination of the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50), specificity and mode of inhibition. We also assessed the in vivo inhibitory effect of the tannins on angiotensin I-induced blood pressure elevation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Nine tannins with an IC50 herbs inhibit ACE activity non-specifically. The ACE inhibitory effect of these tannins may explain the hypotensive effects of some traditional Chinese herbs. PMID:12865094

Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Chan, Paul; Liu, Jenny Ya-Hsin; Thomas, G Neil; Tomlinson, Brian; Lo, Ming-Yu; Lin, Jung-Yaw

2003-08-01

407

Efficient preparation of Hangekobokuto (Banxia-Houpo-Tang) decoction by adding perilla herb before decoction is finished.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hangekobokuto (banxia-houpo-tang) is a Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine used mostly for anxiety disorder and consists of Pinellia Tuber, Poria Sclerotium, Magnolia Bark, Perilla Herb and Ginger. Perilla Herb contains an essential oil rich in perillaldehyde, which has a pleasant flavor, but this is easily lost due to heating. We therefore investigated how the major constituents of hangekobokuto, namely perillaldehyde, rosmarinic acid, magnolol and [6]-gingerol, varied with time during decoction and approached an optimal condition for decoction. Rosmarinic acid at 15 min after boiling, and magnolol and [6]-gingerol at 30 min were mostly extracted, while 0.09 mg of perillaldehyde remained at 15 min, but was not detected at 30 min. From these results, a decoction was prepared by adding Perilla Herb 1, 2, 5 and 10 min prior to the termination time of decoction at 30 min. When Perilla Herb was added 1 min beforehand, perillaldehyde was abundant (1.58 mg) and the amount of rosmarinic acid was already the same as that in the conventional decoction at 30 min, but the amount of total extract was inadequate. When Perilla Herb was added 5 min beforehand, perillaldehyde remained to some extent (0.61 mg) and rosmarinic acid was significantly increased compared with that in the conventional decoction at 30 min. From these results, we can conclude that the decoction should be prepared by boiling for not more than 30 min and, if possible, Perilla Herb should be added 5 min prior to the termination time. Considering the antidepressant-like activity of perillaldehyde and rosmarinic acid, the suggested method will not only achieve better treatment for anxiety, but also provide an effective use of crude drugs in the resource-limited environment. PMID:23413567

Sumino, Megumi; Saito, Yuko; Ikegami, Fumio; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

2012-12-01

408

Classification of Herbs Plant Diseases via Hierarchical Dynamic Artificial Neural Network after Image Removal using Kernel Regression Framework  

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Full Text Available When herbs plants has disease, they can display a range of symptoms such as colored spots, or streaks that can occur on the leaves, stems, and seeds of the plant. These visual symptoms continuouslychange their color, shape and size as the disease progresses. Once the image of a target is captured digitally, a myriad of image processing algorithms can be used to extract features from it. The usefulness of each of these features will depend on the particular patterns to be highlighted in the image. A key point in the mplementation of optimal classifiers is the selection of features that characterize the image. Basically, in this study, image processing and pattern classification are going to be used to implement a machine vision system that could identify and classify the visual symptoms of herb plants diseases. The image processing is divided into four stages: Image Pre-Processing to remove image noises (Fixed-Valued Impulse Noise, Random-Valued Impulse Noise and Gaussian Noise, Image Segmentation to identify regions in the image that were likely to qualify as diseased region, Image Feature Extraction and Selection to extract and select important image features and Image Classification to classify the image into different herbs diseases classes. This paper is to propose an unsupervised diseases pattern recognition and classification algorithm that is based on a modified Hierarchical Dynamic Artificial Neural Network which provides an adjustable sensitivity-specificity herbs diseases detection and classification from the analysis of noise-free colored herbs images. It is also to proposed diseases treatment algorithm that is capable to provide a suitable treatment and control for each identified herbs diseases.

Lili N.A,

2011-01-01

409

Salmonella Typhimurium internalization is variable in leafy vegetables and fresh herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite washing and decontamination, outbreaks linked to consumption of fresh or minimally-processed leafy greens have been increasingly reported in recent years. In order to assure the safety of produce it is necessary to gain knowledge regarding the exact routes of contamination. Leaf internalization through stomata was previously reported as a potential route of contamination, which renders food-borne pathogens protected from washing and disinfection by sanitizers. In the present study we have examined the incidence (percentage of microscopic fields harboring ? 1 GFP-tagged bacteria) of Salmonella Typhimurium on the surface and underneath the epidermis in detached leaves of seven vegetables and fresh herbs. The incidence of internalized Salmonella varied considerably among the different plants. The highest incidence was observed in iceberg lettuce (81 ± 16%) and arugula leaves (88 ± 16%), while romaine (16 ± 16%) and red-lettuce (20 ± 15%), showed significantly lower incidence (P lettuce largely varied (0-100%) through a 2 year survey, with a higher incidence occurring mainly in the summer. These results imply that Salmonella internalization occurs in several leafy vegetables and fresh herbs, other than iceberg lettuce, yet the level of internalization largely varies among plants and within the same crop. Since internalized bacteria may evade disinfection, it is of great interest to identify plants which are more susceptible to bacterial internalization, as well as plant and environmental factors that affect internalization. PMID:21262550

Golberg, Dana; Kroupitski, Yulia; Belausov, Eduard; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo

2011-01-31

410

Comparative identification of irradiated herbs by the methods of electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence  

Science.gov (United States)

Non irradiated and ?-irradiated dry herbs savoury ( Savoury), wild thyme ( Thymus serpollorium) and marjoram ( Origanum) with absorbed dose of 8 kGy have been investigated by the methods of elecrtron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL). Non-irradiated herbs exhibit only one weak siglet EPR signal whereas in irradiated samples its intensity increase and in addition two satelite lines are recorded. This triplet EPR spectrum is attributed to cellulose free radical generated by irradiation. It has been found that upon keeping the samples under the normal stock conditions the life-time of the cellulose free radical in the examined samples is ˜60-80 days. Thus the conclusion has been made that the presence of the EPR signal of cellulose free radical is unambiguous indication that the sample under study has been irradiated but its absence can not be considered as the opposite evidence. In the case when EPR signal was absent the method of TL has been used to give the final decision about the previous radiation treatment of the sample.

Yordanov, N. D.; Gancheva, V.; Radicheva, M.; Hristova, B.; Guelev, M.; Penchev, O.

1998-12-01

411

Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications

412

Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34gg-1) which is more than the amount (95.0gg-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599gg-1 and 702gg-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.nal formulation.

413

Anti-quorum sensing activity of the traditional Chinese herb, Phyllanthus amarus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA::lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

414

Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

2007-08-01

415

Sale of medicinal herbs in pharmacies and herbal stores in Hurlingham district, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedic [...] ine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: "malva" (Malva sp.), 18%; "manzanilla" (Matricaria recutita), 13%; "tilo" (Tilia sp.), 12%; "cuasia" (Picrasma crenata), 8%; and "boldo" (Peumus boldus), 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.

Hernán G., Bach; Marcelo L., Wagner; Rafael A., Ricco; Renée H., Fortunato.

2014-04-01

416

Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

2009-07-15

417

Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

418

Enhanced chromatographic fingerprinting of herb materials by multi-wavelength selection and chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strategy for multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprinting of herbal materials, using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-Vis diode array detector is presented. Valeriana officinalis was selected to show the proposed methodology since it is a widely used commercially available herbal drug, and because misfit with other valerian species is a current issue. The enhanced fingerprints were constructed by compiling into a single data vector the chromatograms from four wavelengths (226, 254, 280 and 326 nm), at which characteristic chemical constituents of studied herbs presented maximum absorbance. Chromatographic data pretreatment included baseline correction, normalization and correlation optimized warping. A simplex optimization was performed to retrieve the optimal values of the parameters used in the warping. General success rates of a classification above 90% were achieved by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The sensitivity and specificity of constructed models were above 94%. Tests on laboratory-made mixtures showed that it is possible to detect adulterations or counterfeits with 5% foreign herbal material, even if it is from the Valerianaceae family. The results suggest that the proposed enhanced fingerprinting approach can be used to authenticate herb materials with complex chromatographic profiles. PMID:22123110

Lucio-Gutiérrez, J Ricardo; Coello, J; Maspoch, S

2012-01-13

419

Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser known Alliaria officinalis Andrz. are described as a good sources of highly prized essential oils in several wild-growing herbs. They are traditionally used in cooking. Quinoa seeds considered as multipurpose agro-industrial crop and the seeds may be utilized for human food and in flour products and in animal feed stocks because of its high nutritive value. Furthermore, watermelon meal possesses good nutritional quality, which may be commercially used as a new feed in the human or in the cattle nutrition. Seed oils, from Rubus ideaus, Ribes nigrum and walnut are also presented. The chemical composition on the sterols and essential fatty acids content, of these seed oils are shown that some of them can be successfully used in human nutrition, under specific conditions. Finally, developing new cholesterol-reducing products, such as phytosterols and their esters, which are marked as cholesterol-reducing food ingredient as well as the information on its incorporation into foods, are also included.

Milovanovi? Mirjana

2009-01-01

420

Analysis of nutritional elements in Indian medicinal herbs used to cure general weakness  

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Full Text Available Concept of trace elements being “the Inorganic Switches” has evolved during last several decades. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicinal system also emphasises the importance of minor and trace elements in human health and disease. To evaluate elemental contents of some commonly used to cure general weakness, 3 medicine herbs namely Beezband (seeds, Gok-shur (fruit and Talmakhana (seeds have been analyzed for four minor (Na, K, Mg and Ca and eight trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry and flame photometry. Their accuracy was measured by replicate analyses. In general, elemental contents were found in varying amounts with large range. It is observed that many of medicinal herbs are enriched in one or more elements. Since these elements are bioavailable in natural form, probably in combination with organic constituents, these are likely to be easily assimilated by human Bodies. Besides them, two toxic elements Ni and Cd were also found in insignificant amounts as these are likely to have originated from environmental contamination.

Narendra Pal Singh

2012-04-01