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Mobile Trillium Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile trillium engine development, integration and deployment in clustered environment“The air transport industry has a constantly growing mobile workforce and a complex, dynamic workflow that requires workers to access and act on the real time information. Rapid mobilization and automation of the key workflow process will allow air transport industry to reduce business cost, better management and improved customer services.” [1]The aim of this thesis is to develop a backend system that ...

Ali, Muhammad Ahmed

2013-01-01

2

Spin ice on the trillium lattice  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a local ferromagnetic Ising model for classical spins on the trillium lattice. The ground state of this model features two spins out(/in) and one spin in(/out) on each triangle, and leads to a macroscopic ground state degeneracy. Our Monte Carlo simulations find a ground state entropy intermediate to that of spin ice on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices, suggesting that trillium spin ice is highly frustrated. To motivate the search for trillium spin ice, we calculate the magnetic susceptibility and structure factor. We note the qualitative resemblance of the susceptibility to previously published work on EuPtSi, which features local moments on the trillium lattice.

Redpath, Travis; Hopkinson, John

2010-03-01

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Spin ice on the trillium lattice studied by Monte Carlo calculations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study a local ferromagnetic Ising model for classical spins on the trillium lattice. The ground state of this model features two spins out(/in) and one spin in(/out) on each triangle, and leads to a macroscopic ground state degeneracy. Our Monte Carlo simulations find a ground state entropy intermediate to that of spin ice on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices, suggesting that trillium spin ice is highly frustrated. To motivate the search for trillium spin ice, we calcula...

Redpath, Travis E.; Hopkinson, John M.

2009-01-01

4

Fate of partial order on trillium and distorted windmill lattices  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical Heisenberg model on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices exhibits a degenerate ground state within large- N theory where the degenerate wave vectors form a surface and line, in three-dimensional space, respectively. We name such states partially ordered to represent the existence of long-range order along the direction normal to these degenerate manifolds. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations using Monte Carlo (MC) methods and we find a first-order transition to a magnetically ordered state for both cases. We further show that the ordering on the distorted windmill lattice is due to order by disorder, while the ground state of the trillium lattice is unique. Despite these different routes to the realization of low-temperature ordered phases, the static structure factors obtained by large- N theory and MC simulations for each lattice show quantitative agreement in the cooperative paramagnetic regime at finite temperatures. This suggests that a remnant of the characteristic angle-dependent spin correlations of partial order remains above the transition temperatures for both lattices. The possible relevance of these results to ?-Mn , CeIrSi, and MnSi is discussed.

Isakov, Sergei V.; Hopkinson, John M.; Kee, Hae-Young

2008-07-01

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Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

Science.gov (United States)

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

2014-01-01

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Spin ice on the trillium lattice studied by Monte Carlo calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a local ferromagnetic Ising model for classical spins on the trillium lattice. The ground state of this model features two spins out(/in) and one spin in(/out) on each triangle, and leads to a macroscopic ground-state degeneracy. Our Monte Carlo simulations find a ground-state entropy intermediate to that of spin ice on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices, suggesting that trillium spin ice is highly frustrated. To motivate the search for trillium spin ice, we calculate the magnetic susceptibility and structure factor. We note the qualitative resemblance of the susceptibility to previously published work on EuPtSi, which features local moments on the trillium lattice.

Redpath, Travis E.; Hopkinson, John M.

2010-07-01

7

The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter la pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

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Culinary herbFAQ  

Science.gov (United States)

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

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Fate of partial order on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classical Heisenberg model on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices exhibits a degenerate ground state within large-$N$ theory, where the degenerate wavevectors form a surface and line, in 3-dimensional space, respectively. We name such states partially ordered to represent the existence of long-range order along the direction normal to these degenerate manifolds. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations using Monte Carlo (MC) methods, and find a first o...

Isakov, Sergei V.; Hopkinson, John M.; Kee, Hae-young

2008-01-01

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Long-term population demography of Trillium recurvatum on loess bluffs in western Tennessee, USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper uses modified population viability models and spatial structure via block analysis to assess population demography of Trillium recurvatum a clonal understory plant. The population is expanding, a likely outcome of the relatively high proportion of juvenile and non-flowering adult ramets and fast-replicating non-flowering adults. Further work is needed to elucidate the relative contributions of clonal vs seed recruitment to genetic structure and demography.

Moore, James E.; Franklin, Scott B.; Wein, Gary; Collins, Beverly S.

2012-01-01

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Steroid saponins and other constituents from the rhizome of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim and their cytotoxic activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourteen compounds were isolated from the rhizome of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. By spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were established as Gracillin (1), Paris saponins V (2), Paris saponins VI (3), Paris saponins H (4), Paris saponins VII (5), (25R)-17?-hydroxy-5-en-3-O-a-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1?2)-?-Dglucopyranoside (6), (25R)-26-[?-D-glucopyanosyl]-17?,22?-dihydroxy-5-en-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), Kaempferol-3-O-^...

Zhao, Wanshun; Gao, Wenyuan; Wei, Jinchao; Wang, Ying; Huang, Luqi; Xiao, Peigen

2011-01-01

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Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and composition between different shade-casting canopy species, the eventual outcome in the prolonged absence of light is independent of dominant canopy species.

Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

2013-11-01

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HerbMed  

Science.gov (United States)

HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.

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Qualitative and quantitative determination of major saponins in Paris and Trillium by HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and HPLC with electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) were used to identify and quantify steroid saponins in Paris and Trillium plants. The content of the known saponins such as Paris I, II, III, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and protodioscin in Paris and Trillium plants was determined simultaneously using the developed HPLC-ELSD method. Furthermore, other 12 steroid saponins were identified by HPLC-ESI(+/-)-MS(n) detection. In the end, a developed analytical procedure was proved to be a reliable and rapid method for the quality control of Paris and Trillium plants. In addition, the alternative resources for Paris yunnanensis used as a traditional Chinese medicine were discovered according to the hierarchical clustering analysis of the saponin fraction of these plants. PMID:20870470

Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jieyin; Zhao, Wanshun; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

2010-11-01

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Uniting board to bedside: the use of driver diagrams in quality monitoring and improvement at Trillium Health Centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boards of directors of healthcare organizations are increasingly being urged to extend their governance activities beyond financial matters to include the quality of patient care. Recently, Trillium Health Centre identified four big dot indicators and generated corollary driver diagrams aimed at helping its board understand and measure the organization's quality improvement plans, efforts and results. In addition to keeping board members up to date on these developments, the driver diagrams have supported quality improvements in their own right--for example, with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers--and have helped staff to focus and become more deeply engaged in Trillium's patient-centred quality improvement initiatives. PMID:22116567

Cochrane, Patti; Ginzburg, Amir; Spencer, Gary; Marani, Farah

2011-01-01

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Comparative dynamics of small mammal populations in treefall gaps and surrounding understorey within Amazonian rainforest  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in food resource availability can have profound effects on habitat selection and dynamics of populations. Previous studies reported higher food resource availability and fruit removal in treefall gaps than in the understorey. Therefore, gaps have been considered 'keystone habitat' for Neotropical frugivore birds. Here we test if this prediction would also hold for terrestrial small mammals. In the Amazon, we quantified food resource availability in eleven treefall gaps and paired understorey habitats and used feeding experiments to test if two common terrestrial rodents (Oryzomys megacephalus and Proechimys spp.) would perceive differences between habitats. We live-trapped small mammals in eleven gaps and understorey sites for two years, and compared abundance, fitness components (survival and per capita recruitment) and dispersal of these two rodent species across gaps and understorey and seasons (rainy and dry). Our data indicated no differences in resource availability and consumption rate between habitats. Treefall gaps may represent a sink habitat for Oryzomys where individuals had lower fitness, apparently because of habitat-specific ant predation on early life stages, than in the understorey, the source habitat. Conversely, gaps may be source habitat for Proechimys where individuals had higher fitness, than in the understorey, the sink habitat. Our results suggest the presence of source-sink dynamics in a tropical gap-understorey landscape, where two rodent species perceive habitats differently. This may be a mechanism for their coexistence in a heterogeneous and species-diverse system.

Beck, H.; Gaines, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

2004-01-01

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Radiolysis of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

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Post-fire understorey regeneration in boreal Pinus sylvestris forest sites with different fire histories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the characteristics of understorey regeneration on two sites with different fire history in a mature Pinus sylvestris forest in eastern Finland. The study area was a 4-ha plot, which was divided into two parts based on fire history analysis. In one part the last fire event was a stand-replacing fire in the early 19th century, after which the whole stand regenerated, while the other part of the study plot was subsequently burnt by a surface fire in 1906. Understorey P. sylvestris individuals were much more abundant in the area of the 1906 burn compared to the old burn. In both areas the size frequency distribution of living trees was bimodal, with frequency peaks at the < 5 cm and 30 - 150 cm height classes. In the old burn small understorey trees were mainly associated with microsites created by treefall disturbances while in the 1906 burn most small understorey trees occurred on vegetation-covered microsites. This indicates that with increasing time since last fire establishment of new understorey trees becomes more restricted by the availability of microsites created by treefall disturbances. In both areas the proportion of vigorous small understorey trees was highest on decayed wood. In the older burn uprooted pits and mounds also had a significant proportion of healthy small understorey trees, while the majority of trees classified as seriously weakened or dying were growing on microhabitats characterized by undisturbed vegetation. Ripley's K-function analyses showed that spatial distribution of understorey trees was clustered in both areas in all microsite types and clustering at small scales was most pronounced in understorey trees growing in uprooted spots or in association with decayed wood. The bivariate analysis showed a significant repulsion effect between large trees and understorey trees at intermediate spatial scales, indicating that competition had an effect on understorey tree distribution and this effect was more pronounced in the younger burn. The analysis suggests that in Pinus sylvestris forests the abundance, quality and spatial pattern of understorey tree population may vary considerably as a function of disturbance history.

Kuuluvainen, Timo [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Rouvinen, Seppo [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

2000-12-01

19

Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

2013-01-01

20

The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

Jody R. Stallings

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry pla [...] ntations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

Jody R., Stallings.

22

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

Science.gov (United States)

... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

23

Herbs in exercise and sports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers h...

2012-01-01

24

Counteracting gradients of light and soil nutrients in the understorey of Mediterranean oak forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The forest canopy modifies the availability of resources (light, water, and soil nutrients in the understorey. In this paper we analyze the relationships between woody canopy density, litter accumulation, and topsoil N and P availability in the understorey of two oak forests: one in southern Portugal and the other in southern Spain. Both forests persist on low-nutrient soils, particularly poor in P. We hypothesize that direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey cause opposite gradients in the availability of essential resources (light and key soil nutrients in the understorey. In both studied forests we found significant relationships between the overall canopy density, light availability, topsoil litter accumulation, and the availability of N and P, which frequently limit plant growth. Path analysis (by Shipley’s d-sep method showed that the available data were consistent with the proposed causal model. The average values of soil variables at the end quartiles of the light-availability gradient were compared. Results showed large differences in litter accumulation (~30× and available-N and -P topsoil concentrations (~3× in the Spanish forest (with the wider environmental gradient. Furthermore, P increased from the “very low” range to the “low” or even the “optimum” range of availability (according to standard plant growth criteria, which suggests potential effects on the growth of the understorey plant species. We conclude that the counteracting gradients of the essential resources – light and nutrients – in the forest understorey resulted from direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey, respectively. We suggest that these counteracting effects of the woody canopy on essential resources of different nature must be considered when interpreting the patterns of understorey plant populations and communities.

L. V. García

2006-12-01

25

Herbs in exercise and sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

2012-01-01

26

The rhizome of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. extract induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. has been used to treat several diseases including cancers in folk medicine. However, the mechanisms responsible for T. tschonoskii extract-induced apoptosis are not clear. This study was mainly undertaken to identify the major biochemical changes in a lung cancer cell line upon treatment with an T. tschonoskii extract (TTME), and to investigate the functional relationship between these changes. The n-butanol extract was used to evaluate the mechanism of induction of apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and its effects on mitochondrial function and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The n-butanol extract of T. tschonoskii has cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and morphological effects on the lung cancer cell line. T. tschonoskii mainly leads to apoptosis of cancer cells with a concomitant increase in the release of cytochrome c and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. A rapid increase in the level of intracellular ROS and an accumulation of cells in the G2/M and S phase of the cell cycle were also observed in treated cells. These observations suggest that the n-butanol extract of T. tschonoskii has promising anticancer activities, which could be useful in cancer treatment. PMID:22191213

Huang, Wenfeng; Zou, Kun; Xiong, Bin

2011-01-01

27

Steroidal saponin of Trillium tschonoskii. Reverses multidrug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combating with multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major part of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemotherapy. Steroidal saponin from Trillium tschonoskii (TTS) could be a potential weapon. We found TTS could reverse the MDR in HCC cells and significantly enhance chemosensitization. TTS inhibited HepG2 and R-HepG2 cells survival in a dose-dependent manner by 75% and 76%, respectively (p<0.01), as well as colony formation 77% and 81% (p<0.01). Moreover, TTS induced sensitization of R-HepG2 to anti-cancer drugs, indicated by significantly reduced IC50. On the other hand, TTS suppressed expression of P-glucoprotein in MDR HCC cells, and thereby increased accumulation of doxorubicin from 126 ng/10(5)cells to 752 ng/10(5)cells (p<0.01). TTS also repressed expression of many other MDR genes, such as MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP5, MVP and GST-?. In vivo, TTS dose-dependently reduced R-HepG2 cells xenografts tumour formation by inhibiting tumour cells proliferation in mice. Consistence with in vitro finding, TTS induced R-HepG2 sensitization to doxorubicin and therefore reduced tumour formation in vivo. PMID:23786867

Wang, Hui; Zhai, Zhenbo; Li, Nanlin; Jin, Haifeng; Chen, Jianghao; Yuan, Shifang; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Juliang; Li, Yongping; Yun, Jun; Fan, Jing; Yi, Jun; Ling, Rui

2013-08-15

28

Antioxidants from tropical herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. Studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. Not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. With this in mind, 19 commonly consumed Malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. A majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. The shoots of Anacardium occidentale, the shoots and fruits of Barringtonia racemosa, Pithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa had high polyphenolic contents (> 150 microg gallic acid equivalents/mg dried plant) and antioxidant activities when measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (>1.2 mM) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays (>2.4 mM). A strong correlation was observed between the two antioxidant assays (FRAP vs TEAC) implying that the plants could both scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidants. There was also a strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic content suggesting the observed antioxidant activities were contributed mainly by the polyphenolics in the plants. PMID:20420325

Razab, Rasyidah; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

2010-03-01

29

Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

Mili?, Natasa; Milosevi?, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozi?, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

2014-08-01

30

Herbs in exercise and sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

Chen Chee

2012-03-01

31

Climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species and giant pandas in China's Qinling Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is threatening global ecosystems through its impact on the survival of individual species and their ecological functions. Despite the important role of understorey plants in forest ecosystems, climate impact assessments on understorey plants and their role in supporting wildlife habitat are scarce in the literature. Here we assess climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species with an emphasis on their ecological function as a food resource for endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). An ensemble of bamboo distribution projections associated with multiple climate-change projections and bamboo dispersal scenarios indicates a substantial reduction in the distributional ranges of three dominant bamboo species in the Qinling Mountains, China during the twenty-first century. As these three species comprise almost the entire diet of the panda population in the region, the projected changes in bamboo distribution suggest a potential shortage of food for this population, unless alternative food sources become available. Although the projections were developed under unavoidable simplifying assumptions and uncertainties, they indicate potential challenges for panda conservation and underscore the importance of incorporating interspecific interactions into climate-change impact assessments and associated conservation planning.

Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Winkler, Julie A.; Li, Yu; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2013-03-01

32

Radioprotective effect of edible herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

33

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests - understorey vegetation - at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

Metcalfe, D. B.; Eisele, B.; Hasselquist, N. J.

2013-08-01

34

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests – understorey vegetation – at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

D. B. Metcalfe

2013-08-01

35

Parallel evolutionary paths to mycoheterotrophy in understorey Ericaceae and Orchidaceae: ecological evidence for mixotrophy in Pyroleae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several forest understorey achlorophyllous plants, termed mycoheterotrophs (MHs), obtain C from their mycorrhizal fungi. The latter in turn form ectomycorrhizas with trees, the ultimate C source of the entire system. A similar nutritional strategy occurs in some green forest orchids, phylogenetically close to MH species, that gain their C via a combination of MH and photosynthesis (mixotrophy). In orchid evolution, mixotrophy evolved in shaded habitats and preceded MH nutrition. By generalizing and applying this to Ericaceae, we hypothesized that green forest species phylogenetically close to MHs are mixotrophic. Using stable C isotope analysis with fungi, autotrophic, mixotrophic and MH plants as comparisons, we found the first quantitative evidence for substantial fungi-mediated mixotrophy in the Pyroleae, common ericaceous shrubs from boreal forests close to the MH Monotropoideae. Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha, Pyrola rotundifolia and Chimaphila umbellata acquired between 10.3 and 67.5% of their C from fungi. High N and 15N contents also suggest that Pyroleae nutrition partly rely on fungi. Examination of root fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences at one site revealed that 39 species of mostly endophytic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, including abundant Tricholoma spp., were associated with O. secunda, P. chlorantha and C. umbellata. These fungi, particularly ectomycorrhizal associates, could thus link mixotrophic Pyroleae spp. to surrounding trees, allowing the C flows deduced from isotopic evidence. These data suggest that we need to reconsider ecological roles of understorey plants, which could influence the dynamics and composition of forest communities. PMID:17089139

Tedersoo, Leho; Pellet, Prune; Kõljalg, Urmas; Selosse, Marc-André

2007-03-01

36

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

2013-01-01

37

POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity d...

Jain Amit; Dubey Subodh; Gupta Alka; Kannojia Pushpendra; Tomar Vivek

2010-01-01

38

Transfer equations for cesium-137 for coniferous forest understorey plant species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transfer of cesium-137 from organic soil horizons to understorey vegetation has been studied on two coniferous tree sites. In total, 14 different plants preferably taking up their nutrients from organic soil layers were taken into account. A relatively good correlation was found to exist between the transfer factor (Bq/kg plant dry wt./Bq/kg O-horizons dry wt.) for dicotyledons (r=0.51) and berry plants (r=0.63), but there was no correlation for monocotyledons (r=0.15). The correlations could not be improved by additionally taking potassium in plant and soil into account. These results are discussed in respect to different parameters influencing the amount of cesium-137 uptake, including plants supported by mycorrhizal fungi

39

Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese (Crescimento de plântulas de espécies de sub-bosque de uma floresta tropical do sudeste brasileiro). Respostas de crescimento de plântulas ao sombreamento têm sido objeto de intensa pesquisa em regiões temperadas e florestas tropicais úmidas. Neste trabalho, treze espécies de sub-bosque foram estuda [...] das sob duas diferentes densidades de fluxo de fotons fotossintéticos (PPFD). Plântulas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação sob 51% e 2,6% da irradiação solar. O crescimento das plântulas foi avaliado através de: 1-) altura total; 2-) número de folhas; 3-) massa seca das folhas; 4-) massa seca do caule;5-)massa seca da raiz; 6-)razão comprimento do caule /massa seca do caule; 7-) razão da massa seca da parte aérea/raiz; 8-) porcentagem de alocação de fotossintatos para folhas, caule e raiz. Para a maioria dos parâmetros considerados, baixa PPFD reduziu drasticamente o crescimento. É possível que a estratégia dessas espécies de sub-bosque esteja na redução de crescimento sob baixa PPFD, resguardando energia para a sobrevivência. Abstract in english Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1-) total height; 2-) leaf number; 3-) leaf dry [...] mass;4-) stem dry mass; 5-) root dry mass; 6-) stem length/mass; 7-)shoot/root mass; 8-) percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.

Ivany Ferraz Marques, Válio.

2003-12-01

40

Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD. Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1- total height; 2- leaf number; 3- leaf dry mass;4- stem dry mass; 5- root dry mass; 6- stem length/mass; 7-shoot/root mass; 8- percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.(Crescimento de plântulas de espécies de sub-bosque de uma floresta tropical do sudeste brasileiro. Respostas de crescimento de plântulas ao sombreamento têm sido objeto de intensa pesquisa em regiões temperadas e florestas tropicais úmidas. Neste trabalho, treze espécies de sub-bosque foram estudadas sob duas diferentes densidades de fluxo de fotons fotossintéticos (PPFD. Plântulas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação sob 51% e 2,6% da irradiação solar. O crescimento das plântulas foi avaliado através de: 1- altura total; 2- número de folhas; 3- massa seca das folhas; 4- massa seca do caule;5-massa seca da raiz; 6-razão comprimento do caule /massa seca do caule; 7- razão da massa seca da parte aérea/raiz; 8- porcentagem de alocação de fotossintatos para folhas, caule e raiz. Para a maioria dos parâmetros considerados, baixa PPFD reduziu drasticamente o crescimento. É possível que a estratégia dessas espécies de sub-bosque esteja na redução de crescimento sob baixa PPFD, resguardando energia para a sobrevivência.

Ivany Ferraz Marques Válio

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Vitamin contents in forage herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grasslands provide an important part of the feed used by domestic and wild ruminants. Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins in ruminant diets. Most studies in forages have been carried out with perennial ryegrass and legume species such as white clover. As yield and quality data of broad-leaf grassland species are scarce, the aim of this study was to obtain novel information on vitamins in a number of herb species compared to a grass-clover mixture and to get insight into ...

Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, K.; Jensen, S. K.

2012-01-01

42

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacion [...] al no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus) e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus) foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003), particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação. Abstract in english Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap s [...] tations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

GERUZA L., MELO; BARBARA, MIOTTO; BRISA, PERES; NILTON C., CACERES.

2013-06-01

43

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003, particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação.

GERUZA L. MELO

2013-06-01

44

Evaporation from the understorey in the Jarrah ( Eucalyptus marginata Don ex Sm.) forest, southwestern Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual evaporation from groundflora, litter and soil of the jarrah forest was estimated from measurements of daily evaporation by ventilated chambers on several days over two separate 12-month periods. In the first year, when sampling ranged over 0.1 ha of forest, annual evaporation during daylight hours was estimated as 410 mm (0.32 rainfall). In the second year, sampling was more frequent, on a larger scale, and included the night hours. Annual evaporation was estimated at 360 mm (0.36 rainfall). Similarly, in the second year, annual evaporation from two trees of the dominant middle storey species, Banksia grandis, was estimated at 7500 and 18,9001 respectively. The leaf area of these two trees was 9.6 and 22.4 m 2, respectively, so that annual evaporation, when expressed as mm 3 per mm 2 leaf area, was similar for both trees (mean = 820 ± 30 mm). Applying that value to all Banksia trees in a hectare of forest, and using a measured estimate of leaf area index of 0.19, the estimated annual evaporation from the Banksia component was 155 mm (0.16 rainfall). For the upland part of the forest sampled, the combined annual evaporation from the lower and middle storeys accounted for about half (0.51) of the annual rainfall. We conclude that reduced evaporation from the upper storey following clearing or thinning may be strongly counteracted by increased evaporation from the understorey due to increased availability of energy and water.

Greenwood, E. A. N.; Klein, L.; Beresford, J. D.; Watson, G. D.; Wright, K. D.

1985-10-01

45

Fatty acid composition of forage herb species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive value and FA concentrations. FA concentrations were generally lower in June after a heavy cut than in May and August.

Warner, D.; Jensen, SØren Krogh

2010-01-01

46

The impact of changes in the amount and timing of precipitation on the herbaceous understorey of Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Iberian Peninsula, the evergreen oak woodlands, called montados in Portugal and dehesas in Spain, are of great ecological and socio-economic importance. Dominated by evergreen Quercus species, these savanna-type woodlands are characterized by a widely separated tree stratum associated with an herbaceous understorey, dominated by C3 annual species. The productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the herbaceous layer are highly dependent on timing and magnitude of precipitation. Climate change scenarios for the region suggest not only increasing air temperatures, but also the possibility of decreasing spring precipitation, accompanied by an increase in the interval between precipitation events, which might cause drought conditions to occur. To understand the impact of hydrological changes on productivity and ecosystem processes of the herbaceous understorey in these ecosystems, water manipulation experiments are being carried out in Portugal. In autumn 2009, large (30 m2) rain-out shelters were constructed near Coruche (Portugal), with the aim of studying the effect of precipitation variability on the understorey vegetation in a managed cork oak woodland. Initially, the two treatments in the rain-out shelters will be: (1) ambient precipitation quantity, with a dry period of 7 days, and (2) ambient precipitation quantity with a dry period of 21 days. The 'ambient precipitation quantity' is based on historical precipitation data for the experimental site, with average annual precipitation of 680 mm. In addition to the above two treatments, there will be non-sheltered reference plots, receiving natural rainfall patterns. In the future we aim to reduce the precipitation quantity (-30%) with similar length of the dry periods as above. From February 2010 onwards, we will gather a full data set for environmental variables, as well as productivity, species composition, soil CO2 flux, soil nitrogen and photosynthesis. Preliminary results will be presented.

Jongen, Marjan; Lecomte, Xavier; Pereira, João. S.

2010-05-01

47

POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

Jain Amit

2010-09-01

48

Effects of precipitation variability on carbon and water fluxes in the understorey of a nitrogen-limited montado ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date the implications of greater intra-annual variability and extremes in precipitation on ecosystem functioning have received little attention. This study presents results on soil and vegetation carbon and water fluxes in the understorey of a Mediterranean oak woodland in response to increasing precipitation variability, with an extension of the dry period between precipitation events from 3 to 6 weeks, without altering total annual precipitation inputs. With prolonged dry periods soil moisture did breach the stress thresholds for ecosystem processes, which led to short-term treatment differences in photosynthesis, but not in system carbon losses, with subsequent short-term decreases in net ecosystem exchange. Independent of treatment, irrigation events rapidly increased carbon and water fluxes. However, contradicting the predictions drawn from the 'bucket model', over the course of the growing season no all-over treatment differences were found in system assimilation and respiration, nor in evapotranspiration and ecosystem water use efficiency. This lack of responsiveness is attributed to the ecosystem's resilience to low soil moisture during the growing season of the herbaceous understorey, with temperature rather than soil moisture controlling key ecosystem processes. Moreover, severe nitrogen limitation of the studied ecosystem may explain the lack of moisture effects on net system carbon dynamics. Thus, although the bucket model predicts changes in soil water dynamics with increasing precipitation variability, ecosystem responses to more extreme precipitation regimes may be influenced by additional factors, such as inter-annual variability in nutrient availability. PMID:25241297

Jongen, Marjan; Unger, Stephan; Santos Pereira, João

2014-12-01

49

Health-promoting properties of common herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, or immune-stimulating properties that may be useful adjuncts in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified. Several of these phytochemicals either inhibit nitrosation or the formation of DNA adducts or stimulate the activity of protective enzymes such as the Phase II enzyme glutathione transferase (EC 2.5.1.18). Research has centered around the biochemical activity of the Allium sp. and the Labiatae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae families, as well as flaxseed, licorice root, and green tea. Many of these herbs contain potent antioxidant compounds that provide significant protection against chronic diseases. These compounds may protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, inhibit lipid peroxidation, or have antiviral or antitumor activity. The volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices, and herbal teas inhibit mevalonate synthesis and thereby suppress cholesterol synthesis and tumor growth. PMID:10479221

Craig, W J

1999-09-01

50

Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

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Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomi?, Sinisa

2009-12-01

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Report on analysis of HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is the choice of HERBE system configuration and detailed analysis of neutronic characteristics of the chosen configuration. The system is planned to be built at the RB reactor. Neutronic parameters were calculated by computer code VESNA based on transmission probability method using 44 group nuclear data for 28 nuclides. In the first phase, it has been proposed to achieve HERBE system by using fuel elements existing at the RB reactor. It is suggested to build new hybrid system in the RB reactor using new fuel elements that would be produced

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Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

2012-02-15

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Updates on the clinical evidenced herb-warfarin interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of "interacting herbs." In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

2014-01-01

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Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation, Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to. The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.

Tang George

2009-06-01

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MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

A. Santoro

2013-02-01

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COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS) – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq.) is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol) used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer ...

SharmaYashaswini; Vasundhara M

2011-01-01

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Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. PMID:12112294

Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

2002-06-01

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HERBE - Coupled fast-thermal core as possible criticality benchmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies in fast neutron fields in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences in 1990's resulted in the design of the 'HERBE System', a coupled fast-thermal core at RB critical assembly. One of the basic purposes of the HERBE System was application in validations of computer codes for the calculation of reactor cells with large heterogeneous regions filled with air and high-absorption material. Calculations of criticality and neutron spatial and energy distribution of the HERBE System were carried out again recently, by using the MCNP code. A three-dimensional (3D) geometry model of the RB reactor with the HERBE System, based on 3D geometry models of fuel elements, was developed. Validation of the MCNP code for experimental criticality data at the HERBE System is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of flooded zone of the neutron converter by heavy water. The flooding criticality experiments were carried out at the HERBE core labelled RB no.77/1990. Satisfactory agreements of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite of the complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, were obtained and it was confirmed that the HERBE System could be used as a criticality benchmark for a coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

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Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to differentiate irradiated Chinese medicinal herbs from non-irradiated was investigated. Thirty different dried Chinese herbs were tested, including root, flower, ramulus, rhizome, cortex, and whole plant samples. Irradiation of Chinese herbs was associated with strong TL peaks at ?150-250 deg C, while TL curves of non-irradiated herbs had very low intensities above 250 deg C, which was also confirmed by the TL ratio (non-irradiated, TL1/TL2 1/TL2 > 0.1) except for sterculia lychnophora, semen cassia, flos inulae, and anemone root. TL ratios of some herbs indicated irradiation (TL1/TL2 > 0.1) even if the irradiated components were as low as 0.1 %. Thus we demonstrated that TL analysis had excellent sensitivity and reliability for the identification of irradiated Chinese herbs. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. (CHIRCHIRA): A MAGIC HERB IN FOLK MEDICINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prickly chaff (achyranthes aspera linn) herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian system of medicine.Achyranthes aspera linn known as chirchira in hindi is an indigenous herb found in India, It has been used in almost all the traditional system of medicine, ayurveda, unani, and sidha from the ancient time . The tribal, rural, and aboriginal people our country commonly  in this herb in various disorders. Achyranthes aspera leaves reported to...

Charde, R.; Shukla, A.; Bajaj, J.; Bukhariya, V.

2011-01-01

62

Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

63

Sesquiterpenoids from the Herb of Leonurus japonicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenoids, (?-(1S*,2S*,3R*-3-ethoxycupar-5-ene-1,2-diol (1 and (?-(1S*,4S*,9S*-1,9-epoxybisabola-2,10-diene-4-ol (2, along with six known compounds 3?8, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the herb of Leonurus japonicus. Their structures were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic analysis. In the in vitro assays, compounds 7 and 8 showed obvious antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, while compound 3 significantly inhibited abnormal increase of platelet aggregation induced by ADP.

Liang Xiong

2013-04-01

64

The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of ?-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

65

Optical effects of abaxial anthocyanin on absorption of red wavelengths by understorey species: revisiting the back-scatter hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A red/purple coloration of lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces is commonly observed in deeply-shaded understorey plants, especially in the tropics. However, the functional significance of red abaxial coloration, including its role in photosynthetic adaptation, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test the back-scatter hypothesis for abaxial leaf coloration, which posits that red pigments internally reflect/scatter red light transmitted by the upper leaf surface back into the mesophyll, thereby enhancing photon capture in light-limited environments. Abaxially red/non-red variegated leaves of Begonia heracleifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) were used to compare reflectance spectra and chlorophyll fluorescence profiles of abaxially anthocyanic (red) and acyanic (non-red) tissues under red light. Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to red light was also compared for abaxially red/non-red leaf sections. The results did not support a back-scattering function, as anthocyanic leaf surfaces were not more reflective of red light than acyanic surfaces. Anthocyanic tissues also did not exhibit any increases in the mesophyll absorbance of red light, or increased photosynthetic gas exchange under red light at any intensity, relative to acyanic tissues. These results suggest that abaxial anthocyanins do not significantly enhance the absorption of red light in the species tested, and alternative functions are discussed. PMID:18653695

Hughes, Nicole M; Vogelmann, Thomas C; Smith, William K

2008-01-01

66

Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9 spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) high forest, reclaimed bogs, ?100 m from Bronze Age burial mounds, or former conifer plantation, and stand age. The PCA results showed that the main gradients in species composition were strongly related to the explanatory variables. Forward variable selection and variation partitioning using RDA showed that although modern environment was the dominant driver of species composition, anthropogenic historical factors were also important. The pure historical variation fraction constituted 13% of the variation explained. TheRDA results showed that ancient-forest status and, secondarily, reclaimed bog status were the only significant historical variables. Many typical forest interior species, with poor dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still present in the reclaimed bog areas. Our results emphasize the importance of historical factors for understanding modern vegetation patterns in forested landscapes.

Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.

2009-01-01

67

Experimental testing of a volume index as a fast method for estimating carbon stock in the understorey vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biomass of understory vegetation has an important role in several forest ecosystem processes, though it is not frequently included in forest inventory programs, which are commonly focused on the tree component. The objective of the study is to test a fast procedure for obtaining an accurate estimation of three components of the aboveground understory vegetation: herbaceous, bush, regeneration. For such a purpose a Volume Index has been calculated on the basis of the product between the percent coverage of vegetation and the average height of the three different components of understory vegetation. The index has been quantified in twenty clusters of four squared plots 1 m2 wide; clusters were located in two study areas in the northern part of Molise Region (southeastern Italy. For each plot, the dry biomass has been collected and weighted, and then transformed in carbon stock. This study presents the field protocol and the achieved results in terms of measured aboveground understorey carbon stock in six different forest and pre-forest types (the average carbon stock was 1.19 t C ha-1 and correlation between Volume Index and carbon stock (the Pearson’s correlation index was 0.8 on 309 field observations.

Chirici G

2009-05-01

68

Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional groups (grasses, legumes and herbs). Herb species included chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor L.). We also investigated the effect of slurry application on the macro- and micromineral concentration of grasses, legumes and herbs. In general, herbs had greater concentrations of the macrominerals P, Mg, K and S and the microminerals Zn and B than grasses and legumes. Slurry application indirectly decreased Ca, S, Cu and B concentrations of total herbage because of an increase in the proportion of mineral-poor grasses. Our study indicates that including herbs in forage mixtures is an effective way of increasing mineral concentrations in herbage.

Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; SØegaard, Karen

2011-01-01

69

Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prio...

Woods Charles; Gobble Jessica; Gardiner Paula; Kemper Kathi J

2006-01-01

70

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. (CHIRCHIRA: A MAGIC HERB IN FOLK MEDICINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prickly chaff (achyranthes aspera linn herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian system of medicine.Achyranthes aspera linn known as chirchira in hindi is an indigenous herb found in India, It has been used in almost all the traditional system of medicine, ayurveda, unani, and sidha from the ancient time . The tribal, rural, and aboriginal people our country commonly  in this herb in various disorders. Achyranthes aspera leaves reported to have antimicrobial property so mostly  used in the treatment of skin and teeth disorder.The present paper enumerates the ethnopharmacognostic, ethopharmacologic, traditional value and folk remedies of this herb, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of herb.

R Charde

2011-07-01

71

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of microsatellite markers of the Mexican understorey palm Chamaedorea elegans, cross-species genotyping, and amplification in congeners.  

Science.gov (United States)

With striking morphological diversity and adaptability, Chamaedorea palms constitute an ecologically and economically important understorey component of Neotropical forests. Nine loci developed for Chamaedorea elegans evaluated in three Veracruz populations resulted in a large number of alleles (8-18), and high expected heterozygosity (0.49-0.92), but low observed (0.27-0.65) heterozygosity. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg and high inbreeding suggest a lack of panmixia. Eight loci optimized for Chamaedorea ernesti-augustii showed similar patterns of variation. All nine multiplexing loci amplified in other five congeneric species, which will facilitate comparisons within the genus and contribute to the conservation of its genetic resources. PMID:21585780

Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Hahn, William J; Desalle, Rob

2008-03-01

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Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2) dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation. PMID:20856882

Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

2010-01-01

73

PPAR? activation by culinary herbs and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyper- and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the primary cause of death in industrialized countries. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation is involved in various mechanisms that improve the lipid profile. We tested various plant extracts and their compounds to determine whether they stimulated PPAR? activity in vitro. Out of 34 tested plant extracts, nine exhibited low to moderate PPAR? transactivation, including caraway, chili pepper, nutmeg, licorice, black and white pepper, paprika, coriander, saffron, and stevia tea. The active components of black pepper and chili pepper, piperine, and capsaicin exerted the highest transactivational activities with EC?? values of 84 µM and 49 µM, respectively. The chalcones, including 2-hydroxychalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, and 4-methoxychalcone, moderately transactivated PPAR?. Resveratrol and apigenin only slightly transactivated PPAR?. These results suggest that a diet rich in fruit, herbs, and spices provides a number of PPAR? agonists that might contribute to an improved lipid profile. PMID:20957597

Mueller, Monika; Beck, Verena; Jungbauer, Alois

2011-03-01

74

Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P < 0.01 in their contents of heavy metals. Among tested heavy metals, Mn was the most abundant one in tea leaves (390-900 ?g g?1 whereas Fe was the predominance one in herb leaves (326-1755 ?g g?1. Fortunately, toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, had the lowest contents in both tea and herb leaves. Among tested tea brands, Chinese green tea possesses the highest contents of heavy metals. Concentrations of tested heavy metals in tea and herb beverage were markedly lower than their total contents. The concentrations of toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd were too low to be detected in beverage using the available analytical techniques. The solubility of studied heavy metals in both brew and infusion extracts varied widely and ranged from 0.0-48%. The lowest rates of solubility were listed for toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd. The amounts of heavy metals that one may take up through consumption of tea and herb beverages were found to match the acceptable daily intake that takes into account exposure from air, food and drinking water.

Saud S. AL-Oud

2003-01-01

75

Radiation decontamination of herbal row materials and medical herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique can effectively replaced them. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the National programme on the application of irradiation on the decontamination medical herbs is in progress now. The first aim of the programme is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on microbial purity herbal raw materials and medical herbs. (author)

76

Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant. PMID:22228959

Jana, S; Shekhawat, G S

2010-07-01

77

Radioactive survey of herb teas marketed in Saitama prefecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides, such as 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K in 49 dried herbs marketed in Saitama were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. No 134Cs was detected. On the other hand, 137Cs concentrations were ranged from 2.1 to 240 Bq/kg-dry in 10 dried herbs imported from Europe. 40K level was 99.9 - 1400 Bq/kg-dry in all dried herbs. Obvious regional differences of 137Cs concentrations of 'eyebright' between Polish product and Bulgarian were observed. The committed effective dose of 137Cs by annually drinking a cup of herb tea in adults was estimated to be about 1.0 x 10-3 mSv and the contribution of 137Cs is proved to be very small in this study. (author)

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Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxid...

Korac?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

79

RECENT UPDATE ON PROFICIENT BONE FRACTURE REVIVIFYING HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fracture healing phenomenon is a complex process which involves cell and tissue differentiation and proliferation . Herbs influence rate of fracture healing by influencing the regeneration of connective tissue of mesenchymal origin viz. chondroblast, fibroblast and osteoblast that are involved in healing and quicker mineralization of callus. The present review highlights some of the potential herbs along with their application in healing bone fracture.

Singla Chhavi

2011-11-01

80

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by o...

Shizuo Toda

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Antitussive Medicinal Herbs - An Update Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles of the airways; it is inappropriately stimulated in various situations like inflammation of the respiratory tract or neoplasia. In these cases, cough has a pathological character and it is necessary sometimes to use cough-suppressant drugs. The most frequently used antitussive drugs in clinical conditions produce adverse effects like depression of the respiratory centre, decreased secretion in the bronchioles and inhibition of ciliary activity, increased sputum viscosity, decreased expectoration, hypotension and constipation acts as limitation to the therapy. Use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments including antitussive activity as they are safe and devoid of adverse effects. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive activity.

G. R. Saraswathy

2014-01-01

82

Mycobiota of spices and aromatic herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 67 samples of spices and herbs were tested for mould contamination. From 50.7% of samples, moulds were not isolated. The most dominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Potential producers of mycotoxins Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were tested for the ability to produce some mycotoxins. Isolates of potentially toxinogenic species were found to produce various mycotoxins, namely alfatoxin B1 (Aspergillus flavus, cyclopiazonic acid (Aspergillus flavus, sterigmatocystin (Emericella nidulans, roquefortine C (Penicillium allii, P. chrysogenum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, penitrem A (P. crustosum and patulin (P. expansum. Some of the tested isolates produce two mycotoxins: A. flavus (aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid, P. crustosum (roquefortine C and patulin and P. expansum (roquefortine C and patulin. None of the tested isolates of Aspergillus section Nigri screened, appeared to produce ochratoxin A. Totally 11 samples were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 5 (45.5% out of 11 samples analysed with levels ranging from 0.14 to 2.9 µg.kg-1. In one sample we detected aflatoxin G1.  Ochratoxin A was found in 3 samples (27.3%, with levels ranging from 2.2 to 5.19 µg.kg-1. No sample was contaminated by aflatoxins or ochratoxin A above the maximum admitted threshold established by the European legislation.

Dana Tan?inová

2014-02-01

83

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value. The acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care and the development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics has led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants. Wild plants have been reported to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for centuries, and indigenous plants have been used in herbal medicine for curing various diseases. The development of bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents. In lieu of the above justification, present study aimed at evaluating the In vitro antibacterial studies on the extracts of three herbs namely Punica Granatum, Ricinus communis and Zingiber officinalis carried out on five medically important bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Based on the present investigation results, extracts has great potential against different microorganisms tested and has inhibitory effect. It can be concluded that these plants can be used as therapeutic natural agents that may serve as lead for the development of new pharmaceuticals addressing the major therapeutic needs.

Pesaramelli Karteek

2012-08-01

84

COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB  

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Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

SharmaYashaswini

2011-03-01

85

An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

86

Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives, coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify the presence of flavonoids in the hydrolysed extracts of herbs. Some traditional Danish dishes contain herbs, particularly parsley. dill, cross and chives, and the contribution to the flavonoid intake by consumption of these dishes was calculated. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Knuthsen, Pia

2001-01-01

87

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

2013-01-01

88

Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products. PMID:19735192

Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M

2009-08-01

89

[The research of revision on herb properties in Shaoxing Ben cao.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shaoxing Bencao, wrote by WANG Jixian in South Song dynasty (1159), is a classic Chinese medicine book which aims to revise herb properties described in former literature. There are 371 items in the book evaluating herb properties recorded in books about herbs. Keeping those the thought right, correcting those he thought wrong, complementing those missed and selecting better ones from those with disputes. He revised herb properties in 50.9% of all the items. Herb properties were evaluated mainly according to record and clinical practice with emphasis on property-effect (effect and adverse effect) relationship. Logical deduction was also used to deduce herb toxicity and quality according to herb flavor, nature, tastes and their growing environment. The book described in detail the influence of processing on the herb properties and toxicity. The evaluation methods in this book are of reference value for learning about the formation of knowledge of herb properties. PMID:21569699

Liu, Yue; Zheng, Jin-Sheng

2011-01-01

90

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest / Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas), [...] em clareiras pequenas e médias (11), e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae). Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and [...] large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

RAF., Lima; S., Gandolfi.

91

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots, small and medium canopy gaps (11 and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae. There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas, em clareiras pequenas e médias (11, e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae. Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia.

RAF. Lima

2009-05-01

92

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

93

Using digital time-lapse cameras to monitor species-specific understorey and overstorey phenology in support of wildlife habitat assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical to habitat management is the understanding of not only the location of animal food resources, but also the timing of their availability. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) diets, for example, shift seasonally as different vegetation species enter key phenological phases. In this paper, we describe the use of a network of seven ground-based digital camera systems to monitor understorey and overstorey vegetation within species-specific regions of interest. Established across an elevation gradient in western Alberta, Canada, the cameras collected true-colour (RGB) images daily from 13 April 2009 to 27 October 2009. Fourth-order polynomials were fit to an RGB-derived index, which was then compared to field-based observations of phenological phases. Using linear regression to statistically relate the camera and field data, results indicated that 61% (r (2)?= 0.61, df = 1, F?= 14.3, p?= 0.0043) of the variance observed in the field phenological phase data is captured by the cameras for the start of the growing season and 72% (r (2)?= 0.72, df = 1, F?= 23.09, p?= 0.0009) of the variance in length of growing season. Based on the linear regression models, the mean absolute differences in residuals between predicted and observed start of growing season and length of growing season were 4 and 6 days, respectively. This work extends upon previous research by demonstrating that specific understorey and overstorey species can be targeted for phenological monitoring in a forested environment, using readily available digital camera technology and RGB-based vegetation indices. PMID:21082343

Bater, Christopher W; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Hilker, Thomas; Nielsen, Scott E; McDermid, Greg; Stenhouse, Gordon B

2011-09-01

94

EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds, Datura metel (leaves with fruits , Aloe Vera (flower ,Abutilon indicum (leaves, Solanum surattense (Leaves, Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves,Aloe vera (leaves, Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave, have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have beentested for its antimicrobial activity using standard test method ENISO 20645 and it is concluded that datura metel ( leaves with fruits have good antibacterial activity on theselected denim fabrics when compared to other herbs enhanced the wearing capacity of the denim fabric for an extended period without any skin/dermal irritations/infectionsand bad odor.

M.Sumithra

2013-01-01

95

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by oxidation. These results showed that some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. It has been demonstrated that high total polyphenol content in the herb teas provides high antioxidant activities.

Shizuo Toda

2011-03-01

96

Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People’s Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines.

Bin Xiao

2011-07-01

97

[Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:21749831

Xiao, Bin; Tao, Ou; Luo, Ji; Wang, Yun

2011-07-01

98

Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pspecies Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 0.2-2681.0 microg/m3 (median 16.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.1 microg/m3. In conclusion, the workers of herb processing plants could be exposed to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. PMID:11748878

Dutkiewicz, J; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

2001-01-01

99

Anthelminthic efficacy of traditional herbs on Ascaris lumbricoides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ascaricidal efficacy of six commonly used traditional herbs. Artemesia santonica, Inula helenium, Cassia abutnsifolla, Albizzia lebbek, Acacia auriculoformis and oil of Apium graveolens, was tested in vitro against the eggs and larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides. Aqueous extracts of 1% Artemesia and 5% of Albizzia and Inula were effective in killing both the infective larvae ill less than 40 days and eggs in 20 days. The results showed that Artemesia, Albizzia and to less extent Inula were promising antihelmintics against Ascaris lumbricoides. Extracts of the other tested herbs were less or no value. PMID:12512821

El Garhy, Manal F; Mahmoud, Lily H

2002-12-01

100

Kinetic experiments at coupled fast-thermal core HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1991 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the 'Vinca' Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and used for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews the kinetic experiments carried out at HERBE system, including their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in calculation is presented too. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reprod...

Luiz Fernando Verissimo; Bacchi, Andre D.; Tiago Zaminelli; Paula, Gustavo Henrique O.; Moreira, Estefania G.

2011-01-01

102

Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic mic...

Kiki Nurtjahja; Tata Bintara Kelana; Dwi Suryanto; Nunuk Priyani; Ginta Rio; Dedi Prima Putra; Dayar Arbain

2013-01-01

103

Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA arPine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented. (author)

104

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

105

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

106

Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

107

An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy  

Science.gov (United States)

Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis.

Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

2014-01-01

108

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

Xue Charlie

2011-05-01

109

HPLC analysis of methanolic extract of herbs for quercetin content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are rich source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized according to their chemical structure, into flavones, isoflavonoes and flavon-3-ol, anthocyanidins. They have aroused considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effect on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti allergic, anti platelet, anti inflammatory, antitumor, anti carcinogenic and anti ageing properties. HPLC analysis can be used for classification of herbs based upon secondary metabolites. Extract yield at optimum condition was then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantifying bioactive flavonoid compounds. It was observed that mint contains the highest concentration of quercetin i.e. about 10.8mg/g.

Nitu Trehan

2013-05-01

110

Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocimum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 microg/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:9743251

Yamasaki, K; Nakano, M; Kawahata, T; Mori, H; Otake, T; Ueba, N; Oishi, I; Inami, R; Yamane, M; Nakamura, M; Murata, H; Nakanishi, T

1998-08-01

111

Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - the case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa. PMID:24792083

Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

2014-08-01

112

Phyllosphere nitrogen relations: reciprocal transfer of nitrogen between epiphyllous liverworts and host plants in the understorey of a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epiphyllous bryophytes on tropical rainforest plants acquire nutrients from throughfall and free-living N2-fixing organisms, but may also depend directly on host leaf leachates. By contrast, after drying events bryophytes lose significant quantities of nutrients through leaching that can be taken up by host leaves. To assess a potential nutritional interdependency, nitrogen fluxes between epiphyllous liverworts and their host leaves (Carludovica drudei, Costus laevis, Dieffenbachia concinna, Pentagonia wendlandii) were quantified by in situ15N-labelling techniques in a lowland rainforest, Piedras Blancas National Park, Costa Rica. Depending on host species, epiphyllous bryophytes met between 1 and 57% of their N demand from host leaf leachates. Externally supplied 15N was taken up both by epiphylls and host leaves, but N from epiphyll leachates accounted for < 2.5% of host leaf N after 14 d. Long-term observations (180 d) demonstrated the highly dynamic nature of phyllosphere N of the investigated tropical rainforest understorey and an intermittent sink capacity of epiphyllous bryophytes. PMID:15819919

Wanek, Wolfgang; Pörtl, Katja

2005-05-01

113

Occurrence of enniatins and beauvericin in 60 Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24720681

Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael

2014-01-01

114

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.0...

Anjana Devkota; Pramod Kumar Jha

2010-01-01

115

Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

2013-08-01

116

Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs from 18 plant species were examined on a foodborne pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, with the use of combinations of temperatures and nutrient levels. Basil, clove, garlic, horseradish, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, and thyme exhibited antibacterial activities at incubation of 30 degrees C, while with the exception of horseradish, the same spices and additional 7 species exhibited the activities at 5 degrees C. The lowest MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 0.125% observed in clove and marjoram at 30 degrees C in a nutrient rich medium. Lowering of incubation temperature produced little effect on the MICs except for turmeric. The decreasing of the MIC in turmeric appeared to be basically attributed to the sensitivity of the bacterium to coldness. In nutrient poor medium, the lowest was 0.001 and 0.00025% in marjoram at 30 degrees C and at 5 degrees C, respectively. The sensitivity to several spices and herbs was similar among different clinical serotypes including the emerging strain O3:K6. These results suggest that the spices and herbs can be practical for protecting seafood from the risk of contamination by V. parahaemolyticus and used in hurdle technology with low temperature. PMID:16797760

Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi

2006-08-15

117

Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

Nemet Nevena T.

2009-01-01

118

Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

2013-01-01

119

[Advances on study of treatment of lumbar disk herniation by Chinese medicinal herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lumbar disk herniation (LDH) is a common orthopaedic disorder. Many clinical and basic science researches have been conducted recently on using Chinese medicinal herbs to treat LDH. Literature review reveals that the common basic formulas include Duhuo Jisheng decoction (DHJST), Buyang Huanwu decoction (HYBWT), Shentong Zhuyu decoction (STZYT), Taohong Siwu decoction (THSWT), Yanghe decoction (YHT) and Tongdu Huoxue decoction (TDHXT). A basic formula can be modified by adding more herbs or removing some herbs from the formula according to clinical symptoms and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation. Literatures show that herbal treatment have better clinical effects, the medicinal herbs make low-back pain, sciatica and low limb numbness disappeared or alleviated; and restore normal low limb sensation, muscle strength and daily activity. These formulas have also been used to treat LDH postoperative remaining pain, postoperative discitis, postoperative recurrent LDH, and to prevent epidural scar formation and dura mata adhesion. Herbs in these formulas include 5 categories of drugs classified by TCM. They are blood circulation promoting herbs for relieving pain; liver and kidney nourishing and tendons and bones strengthening herbs; blood circulation promoting herbs for unblocking collaterals; pathogenic wind and dampness expelling herbs; and qi invigorating herbs. These herbs have actions of analgesia, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, phagocytosis of macrophages enhancement, blood circulation improvement, nerve protection, collagen synthesis enhancement. Future research needs to focus on the effects of herbs on four aspects: to enhance collagen synthesis in the disks and inhibit disk degeneration; to promote the resorption of herniated nucleus pulposus and epidural hemorrhage; to prevent nerve cell apoptosis and promote nerve cell regeneration, and to inhibit nociception in the nerve system. PMID:17432134

Lin, Xue-juan; Chen, Chao-yang

2007-02-01

120

Herb of grace: an unusual cause of phytophotodermatitis mimicking burn injury.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered an acute phytophotodermatitis with systemic upset after contact with the herb Ruta Graveolens (common rue, Herb of Grace). We review the literature detailing the mechanism of the phytophotodermatitis and the mainstream and alternative medicinal uses of the herb. Clinicians treating burns should consider phytophotodermatitis in their differential diagnosis of any partial-thickness burn injury. Furthermore, the hazards of growing this widesp...

Furniss, D.; Adams, T.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system

122

Herb of grace: an unusual cause of phytophotodermatitis mimicking burn injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered an acute phytophotodermatitis with systemic upset after contact with the herb Ruta Graveolens (common rue, Herb of Grace). We review the literature detailing the mechanism of the phytophotodermatitis and the mainstream and alternative medicinal uses of the herb. Clinicians treating burns should consider phytophotodermatitis in their differential diagnosis of any partial-thickness burn injury. Furthermore, the hazards of growing this widespread herb in gardens where children play should be well publicized. PMID:17667834

Furniss, Dominic; Adams, Titus

2007-01-01

123

‘Yang-Invigorating’ Chinese Tonic Herbs Enhance Mitochondrial ATP Generation in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs have been shown to enhance the myocardial mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in mice ex vivo. In the present study, we examined the effect of treatment with the methanol extract of ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardio-myocytes. The effect of ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs was also investigated for comparison. The results indicated that all ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs dose-dependently enhanced the mitochondrial ATP genera-tion capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Three out of nine ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs produced a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on ATP generation, but to lesser extents than those of Yang herbs. Results obtained from activity-directed fractionation of the three most potent ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs suggested that the ATP-stimulating ingredients were rather water insoluble and largely resided in the butanol fraction. In con-clusion, ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs invariably stimulated mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cell-based assay of ATP generation capacity may be used as pharmacological test for ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs.

Hoi Yan Leung

2011-03-01

124

The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia  

Science.gov (United States)

In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world's population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body's symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia.

Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Md Noor, Sabariah; Ismail, Patimah; Othman, Fauziah

2014-01-01

125

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-09-01

126

Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent. PMID:17303046

Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

2007-03-01

127

Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diabetes mellitus é um problema de saúde pública que leva a complicações graves ao longo do tempo. Experimentalmente, muitas ervas têm sido recomendadas para o tratamento da diabetes. Contudo, na maior parte dos casos as recomendações são baseadas em estudos em animais e existem evidências limitadas [...] sobre a sua utilidade clínica. Esta revisão tem como foco as ervas nas quais as ações hipooglicêmicas são apoiadas por três ou mais estudos clínicos. Realizou-se pesquisa no Google Scholar, Medline e Science Direct utilizando palavras-chave diabete, plantas, ervas, glicose e pacientes. Segundo os estudos clínicos, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum mostraram atividade hipoglicêmica e, em alguns casos, hipolipidêmica em pacientes diabéticos. Entre elas, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum apresentam grande reputação no manejamento da diabetes. Portanto, parece que os médicos podem confiar nessas ervas e aconselhar aos pacientes para que melhorem o tratamento da diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefu [...] lness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

Ahmad, Ghorbani.

2013-09-01

128

Biochemical Changes in Goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes in goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs. The analysis of data was done in 18 goats, irrespective of age, sex and breed. The experimental goats were randomly divided in six groups. The effect of crude powder and cold aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, Swertia chirata and Piper longum was studied on various biochemical parameters, i.e., Blood glucose, Total protein, Albumin and Globumin. Significant increase was noticed in the level of blood glucose, serum total protein and albumin. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 315-317

Sachin Jain and Y.P. Sahni

129

Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs  

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Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

Qin, Yi [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jia-bo, E-mail: pharm_sci@126.com [China Military Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bao-cai [Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Xiao, Xiao-he, E-mail: pharmacy302@126.com [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China)

2012-01-15

130

Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ? Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ? The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is thaief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

131

Characterisation of new oligoglycosidic compounds in two Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of caffeic acid derivatives (3,5-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid), and the new compound beta,3,4-trihydroxyphenethyl-O-[beta-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-(4-O-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranoside (wedelosin), as well as three known flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-apiosyl-(1-2)-beta-glucoside, and astragalin or kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucoside) were isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Wedelia chinensis. Wedelosin showed an inhibitory activity on both the classical and the alternative activation pathway of the complement system. Another Chinese medicinal herb, Kyllinga brevifolia, yielded two known flavonoid glycosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-apiosyl-(1-2)-beta-glucoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-apiosyl-(1-2)-beta-glucoside], and a new quercetin triglycoside [quercetin 3-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside 7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside]. The latter compound showed a moderate anti-viral activity. PMID:12184172

Apers, Sandra; Huang, Ying; Van Miert, Sabine; Dommisse, Roger; Berghe, Dirk Vanden; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

2002-01-01

132

GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS  

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Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

2013-11-01

133

HERBS IN PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: A REVIEW APPRAISAL  

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Full Text Available Pregnancy can be the most paranormal and exciting time for expectant mother. Nature provides us with many tools for supporting both the mother and baby through this time of growth and renewal, to strengthen the spirits and body to promote a healthy pregnancy and birthing process. Pregnant and lacting mother need to be educated on the need for caution when using herbs during pregnancy and lactation particularly in view of lack of complete information. The women self administer herbal medicines both before and after pregnancy often without any recognition of their potential hazards. The use of herbal supplements in pregnancy and lactation is likely to be relatively high and its importance ascertains what supplements women are taking. Pregnancy and lactation care providers should be aware of common herbal supplements used by women and of evidence regarding potential benefits or harm. Midwives and obstetricians have an obligation to facilitate women’s wishes without condemnation, but this must be tempered with accurate information to ensure that use of herbal remedies in pregnancy and breastfeeding is not only appropriate but also safe if use with proper caution. The herbs listed in this review are recommended by experienced herbalist and have been used safely by women for centuries.

Poonam Shinde*, Pankaj Patil and Vinod Bairagi

2012-09-01

134

Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS. We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals.

Woods Charles

2006-04-01

135

Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs  

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Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

2000-12-01

136

Lymphocyte Transformation Test for Medicinal Herbs Yields False-Positive Results for First-Visit Patients  

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We performed lymphocyte transformation tests (LTTs) for toki (angelicae radix) and ogon (scutellariae radix) on first-visit patients who had never taken Kampo medicines. LTTs for both herbs were positive in 12 of 14 patients, suggesting that LTTs for these herbs are unreliable for the diagnosis of Kampo medicine-induced liver injury.

Mantani, Naoki; Kogure, Toshiaki; Tamura, Jun Ichi; Shimada, Yutaka; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

2003-01-01

137

In vitro screening of tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs: part II.  

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With growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide, there is a need to assess and screen commercially available natural products for relative tumoricidal properties under standard experimental conditions. In the current study, we screened and ranked 264 traditional Chinese and Egyptian herbal medicines for tumoricidal potency against malignant neuroblastoma in vitro. The data obtained show that tumoricidal potencies of plants were randomly dispersed throughout similar orders, families and genera under the Division: Magnoliophyta, class: Magnoliopsida, subclasses: Asteridae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Hamamelididae, Magnoliidae and Rosidae. The most potent plant extracts (LC?? beth root (Trillium Pendulum), Family (Liliaceae) and galbanum (Ferula Galbaniflua), Family (Apiaceae). Gromwell root is traditionally used in the preparation of Chinese medicinal tea. In addition, galbanum was highly regarded for its sacred and medicinal value according to ancient texts and the bible. Future research will be required to isolate and identify chemical constituents within these plants which are responsible for tumoricidal effects. PMID:20564497

Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

2010-12-01

138

Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.  

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The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

2014-10-01

139

Sizing and Design of the PV-WIND Energy Dryer for Medical Herbs  

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Full Text Available Medical herbs are located in Egypt in different areas and they are very important to increase the national income of Egypt. It is necessary to dry the herbs in their growing locations. As the growing locations are located far from the natural supply grid of Egypt, renewable energy sources such as PV&WIND are preferably utilized to achieve the drying process. Moreover, since the drying process is actually used to remove water from the herbs, thus it can preserve the herbs in storage drastically by preventing the attack of microorganisms during the moist conditions of herbs and also reduce their weight and bulk (for cheaper transport. Where, this paper selects, at first, the suitable drying site, and then it suggests. The suggested drying system is completely designed, and includes the following three systems: the solar thermal system, the dryer, and the renewable energy system.

Emad Ahmed Sweelem

2013-05-01

140

Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries  

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This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE', as the benchmark experiment at the RB reactor  

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Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNPTM against measured criticality data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE. System at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of controlled flooding of the neutron converter zone by heavy water. Earlier calculations of these criticality parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using 2D geometry model are also compared to new calculations carried out by the MCNP code in 3D geometry, applying new detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug, developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are obtained and confirmed that HERBE core could be used as a criticality benchmark for coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

142

Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.  

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Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

2013-08-01

143

Neuroprotective herbs and foods from different traditional medicines and diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines. PMID:20657497

Iriti, Marcello; Vitalini, Sara; Fico, Gelsomina; Faoro, Franco

2010-05-01

144

Reproductive Biology of Evolvulus alsinoides L. (Medicinal Herb  

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Full Text Available Reproductive biology provides information on life forms, rate of flowering, type of breeding system, plant-pollinators interaction, fruit and seed output, overall fitness and survival of the species. The present study was carried out to reproductive biology of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is a medicinal herb of semi arid zone of Agra in North India. The study was carried out for a period of twenty four months to observe the reproductive parameters of the E. alsinoides in the different places of Agra. The flowers appear from February to June and attracted the vide variety of insects for the pollination. The fruiting nature indicates that maximum number of flowers set into fruit by xenogamy as compared to geitonogamy.

G. Dhakre

2010-01-01

145

Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits  

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Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

Vincenzo De Feo

2012-11-01

146

[Cat's Claw: an herb from the Peruvian Amazon].  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncaria tomentosa, also known as cat's claw, an herb from the highlands of the Peruvian Amazon, has been used by natives for hundreds of years to treat immunologic and digestive disorders. Research began in the 1970s to discover the benefits of this plant in relieving symptoms of cancers, arthritis, and other ailments. It has the ability to cleanse the digestive tract, aiding victims of Crohn's, colitis, gastritis and more. In a 1989 study by Klaus Keplinger, several alkaloid oxidants found in the plant's roots showed an ability to stimulate the immune system. The principal alkaloids are isopteropodine and rynchophyiline. Extracts of cat's claw mixed with AZT in an experimental drug, called Krallendom, were effective in reducing symptoms in AIDS patients in Austria. The plant has been useful in reducing secondary effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer victims as well. PMID:11363206

Steinberg, P N

1995-01-01

147

Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

148

Economic evaluation of herb extraction using supercritical fluid  

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Full Text Available Due to the climate diversity in different parts of Iran, a variety of plants grow across the country, many of them having pharmaceutical applications. At present, only a few companies are producing herbal essence, all of them are technically based on conventional methods of extraction such as steam distillation and others. Because of the current serious concern with respect to the environmental conservation law the use of green technology seems imperative. The supercritical fluid extraction is considered as a practical and procedural method which has become under serious consideration in recent years. For this, an economical analysis is made of herb extractions using a supercritical fluid. The results of such a survey can clarify the new methods to be of great concern. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units used for producing a different plant extract and especially that of rosemary.

M. Shariaty-Niassar

2009-09-01

149

Development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using herb loaded nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were screened for their anti-microbial activity by using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also measured. The methanol extracts O. sanctum proved to have the maximum antimicrobial effect were loaded inside the sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles by cation induced controlled gelification method and finished on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated using dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of the fabrics was assessed by using the standard AATCC technique (AATCC 100). The quantitative tests proved that cotton fabrics finished with the methanol extract of O. sanctum loaded nanoparticles possessed remarkable antibacterial activities with excellent wash durability. The study revealed that the herb encapsulated nanoparticle could act as a biocontrol agent against bacteria in fabrics. PMID:23121954

Rajendran, R; Radhai, R; Kotresh, T M; Csiszar, Emilia

2013-01-16

150

SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS  

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Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmbovi?a County, and Secuieni, Neam? County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

Mihaela Lungu

2012-12-01

151

Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin  

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Full Text Available In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the phylum Ascomycota (13 species, and least from the phylum Oomycota (3 species. The phylum Ascomycota was represented only by species of the order Erysiphales. Other relatively frequently found fungi also were members of the phylum Basidiomycota (11 species. Of the fungi recognized, 31 species were earlier frequently recorded in Poland, and three rarely. Erysiphe flexuosa parasitizing Aesculus hippocastanum was not recorded in Poland to date; in Europe this fungus was recognized only in Germany and Switzerland.

Iwona Adamska

2002-06-01

152

SOME EXPERIMENTALLY PROVED HERBS IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE  

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Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is a worldwide health problem because of its high morbidity, mortality and enormous financial implication. An estimated 15,000 deaths per year occur as a consequence of complicated PUD. A large number of drugs for peptic ulcer disease are available in mainstream medicine but they are associated with numerous side effects like arrhythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia and haematopoietic changes and the recurrence is also very common. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Here, an attempt is made to summarise experimentally proved herbs used in PUD during last decade.

Javed Ahmad Khan et al

2012-08-01

153

Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines. PMID:16906642

Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

2006-11-01

154

Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

2006-01-01

155

Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

156

Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

Schreiber, G.A.; Wagner, U.; Leffke, A.; Helle, N.; Ammon, J.; Buchholtz, H.V.; Delincee, H.; Estendorfer, S.; Fuchs, K.; Grabowski, H.U. von; Kruspe, W.; Mainczyk, K.; Muenz, H.; Nootenboom, H.; Schleich, C.; Vreden, N.; Wiezorek, C.; Boegl, K.W.

1993-12-31

157

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity informat [...] ion of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens) or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa). For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Luiz Fernando, Verissimo; Andre D., Bacchi; Tiago, Zaminelli; Gustavo Henrique O. de, Paula; Estefania G., Moreira.

158

Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies. PMID:24701910

Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

2014-01-01

159

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity informat [...] ion of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens) or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa). For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Luiz Fernando, Verissimo; Andre D., Bacchi; Tiago, Zaminelli; Gustavo Henrique O. de, Paula; Estefania G., Moreira.

1163-11-01

160

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Luiz Fernando Verissimo

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

Renata Nurzy?ska-Wierdak

2013-04-01

162

Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all herbs, except lucerne, was higher at a 6-cut than at a 4-cut strategy, and application of cattle slurry also affected the competitiveness of the herbs. In general, lucerne, chicory, caraway and plantain were the strongest competitors; salad burnet and birdsfoot trefoil were intermediate; and melilot, fenugreek, and chervil were very weak competitors.

Mortensen, Tine Bloch; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

163

Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n?=?148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3?days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

2014-10-01

164

Rapid identification of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To establish the method for rapid identification of the quality of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC. Methods: The constituents of headspace gas from Chinese herbs, such as Cortex moutan radicis, Radix cynanchi paniculati and root-bark of Paeonia lactiflora. were analyzed by HSGC. Results: The characteristic finger-print headspace chromatograms of these three drugs were different from one another. Cortex moutan radicis stored for 4 years under common conditions contained only traces of paeonol. Conclusion: HSGC was simple, quick and accurate in identifying and controlling the quality of aromatic Chinese herbs.

CHEN Jian-Wei

2003-09-01

165

Study of genotoxic effects of antidiarrheal medicinal herbs on human cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal herbs has been a common practice in Asia but their genotoxic properties are little known. In the present study, genotoxic effects of three antidiarrheal herbs, guava leaf, mangosteen peel and pomegranate peel, were examined using established human cell lines, Raji and P3HR-1. Cells were treated with boiled-water extract of the herbs at various concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in vitro. Cell growth and viability were dose dependently reduced. No apparent chromosomal aberrations were induced by the treatment. Administration of pomegranate extract induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation. This genotoxicity test system is simple and convenient for the primary screening. PMID:8629131

Settheetham, W; Ishida, T

1995-01-01

166

In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9-mediated herb-herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix  

Science.gov (United States)

According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix should not be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb–herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix.

Wang, Xinmin; Peng, Yunru; Jing, Xinyue; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-01-01

167

Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

Ba?gel, S; Erdemo?lu, S B

2006-04-15

168

Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic microorganisms are studied. The leaves extract of kembu-kembu (Callicarpa candicans, rintih bulung (Piper muricatum, cep-cepan (Castanopsis costata, and sereh kayu (Eugenia grandis, has antimicrobial to bacteria (Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast (Candida albicans. Toxicity assay of these plants by brine shrimp method using Artemia salina indicates that cep-cepan dan sereh kayu have lethal concentration higher than kembu-kembu and rintih bulung.

Kiki Nurtjahja

2013-12-01

169

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

170

Measurement of ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of ?eff measurement are described. The measured and calculated quantities and estimated uncertainties are presented. Agreement between the computation and measurement suggests the validity of the calculation method

171

Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum Majorana L. Herb and extracts obtained with different solvents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hy...

Va?gi, Erika; Rapavi, Erika; Hadolin Kolar, Majda; Va?sa?rhelyine? Pere?di, Katalin; Bala?zs, Andrea; Bla?zovics, Anna; Sima?ndi, Be?la

2012-01-01

172

Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-04-01

173

Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present a...

Fatima, N.; Ishrat-Ullah Siddiqui; Fahmida Perveen; Maqsood, Z. T.

2004-01-01

174

Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópodes coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera. Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat.

MA. Manhães

2011-02-01

175

Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot / Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópode [...] s coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera. Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat. Abstract in english Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna col [...] lected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

MA., Manhães; MM., Dias.

176

[Impact of storage conditions and time on herb of Lonicera macranthoides].  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effect of different storage conditions and storage time on herb quality of Lonicera macranthoides, different packaging materials including vacuum plastic bags, plastic bags, woven bags, sealed with endometrial bags, paper bags, sack bags were selected for the study under different storage conditions including room temperature, 5 degrees C refrigerator, low temperature of - 20 degrees C refrigerator and desiccator. Twenty-four batches of samples were used for the study, and active ingredients were determined. The experimental results showed that the ingredients in each storage group changed with the storage time, storage conditions (storage environment, packaging). Under the same storage time, the storage environment (temperature, humidity) had effect on the stability of herb quality. Low temperature had less effect on herb quality. The effect of packaging on herb quality was as following: plastic vacuum packaging > woven with endometrial sealed packaging > plastic bag > woven bag > sack bags > paper bags. Under the same storage conditions, with the increase of storage time, caffeic acid content increased slowly, and other five ingredients content decreased gradually. Storage time affected significantly on the intrinsic quality (chemical composition) and appearance of herb. It is suggested that low temperature (5 degrees C), dark and sealed storage are suitable for storage of L. macranthoides herb, the storage time should be not more than 24 months. PMID:24956836

Ma, Peng; Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying

2014-03-01

177

Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.  

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Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V

2012-11-15

178

Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.  

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Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120?days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ?-carotene?-?linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-08-01

179

Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs  

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Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

180

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

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As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial  

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Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

Lee Jae-Jin

2009-06-01

182

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

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Full Text Available Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities.

Yu-Fen Yin

2009-09-01

183

Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation.  

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Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 12 of thyme (Thymus serpyllum) were analyzed. The studied toxic elements were present in the medicinal plants (12-225 microg/kg As, 15-268 microg/kg Cd, 0.2-8.6 mg/kg Pb). Arsenic was found in all herbal infusions at levels up to 0.4 microg/l. Cadmium was present in infusions of chamomile, hibiscus, peppermint and thyme at levels up to 0.7 microg/l. Lead was detected only in hibiscus infusions (2-3 microg/l). It was established that the major part of arsenic and lead in herbal infusions existed in biomacromolecular fraction. Cadmium appears to be present mainly in cationic form at pH 1 (stomach acidity), but at pH 7.6 (intestine acidity) there is a non-cationic fraction as well. PMID:18614270

Arpadjan, S; Celik, G; Ta?kesen, S; Güçer, S

2008-08-01

184

Linking vital rates to invasiveness of a perennial herb.  

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Invaders generally show better individual performance than non-invaders and, therefore, vital rates (survival, growth, fecundity) could potentially be used to predict species invasiveness outside their native range. Comparative studies have usually correlated vital rates with the invasiveness status of species, while few studies have investigated them in relation to population growth rate. Here, I examined the influence of five vital rates (plant establishment, survival, growth, flowering probability, seed production) and their variability (across geographic regions, habitat types, population sizes and population densities) on population growth rate (?) using data from 37 populations of an invasive, iteroparous herb (Lupinus polyphyllus) in a part of its invaded range in Finland. Variation in vital rates was often related to habitat type and population density. The performance of the populations varied from declining to rapidly increasing independently of habitat type, population size or population density, but differed between regions. The population growth rate increased linearly with plant establishment, and with the survival and growth of vegetative individuals, while the survival of flowering individuals and annual seed production were not related to ?. The vital rates responsible for rapid population growth varied among populations. These findings highlight the importance of both regional and local conditions to plant population dynamics, demonstrating that individual vital rates do not necessarily correlate with ?. Therefore, to understand the role of individual vital rates in a species ability to invade, it is necessary to quantify their effect on population growth rate. PMID:24390414

Ramula, Satu

2014-04-01

185

Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri  

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Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

Borowski, Thomas

2013-01-01

186

A REVIEW ON LEUCODERMA AND REPORTED HERBS FOR ITS TREATMENT  

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Full Text Available Leucoderma is an idiopathic, acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The pathogenesis of leucoderma is multifunctional and includes three main factors genetic, immunological and environmental. Recently , various treatments modalities have been introduced , and treatment options and outcomes have been improving. Excimer laser, phototherapy, epidermal grafts and lifestyle modification have improved the results of treatment and quality of lives of patients with leucoderma. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in localized leucoderma. Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralen containing plants have been used for centuries in popular medicine to treat leucoderma. Further advancement in treatments using different derivatives of psoralen molecules may result in decrease possibility of long-term side effects such as cutaneous malignancies. In this review we wish to present recent pharmacological approaches of furanocoumarins and a detailed investigation on various herbs that can be used for the treatment of leucoderma

Navneet Kaur

2012-05-01

187

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.  

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The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

2014-01-01

188

Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.

Zhang Xiao-Jing

2013-01-01

189

Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).  

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This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

2013-01-01

190

Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a ? ray source, 90Sr/90Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10-4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

191

Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.  

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Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens. PMID:22700791

Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ali, Lizna; Jabeen, Ayesha; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rizvi, Tahir A; Ashraf, S Salman

2013-01-01

192

Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil.  

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Samples of herbal medicine used in Brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella asiatic (Hydrocotyle asiatica), 13 of guarana (Paullinia cupana), 12 of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and five samples of chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were analyzed. Cadmium, mercury and lead were not detected (limit of quantifications of 0.20, 0.01 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) in any sample of artichoke, eggplant and guarana. Cadmium was found in samples of the other medicinal herbs at levels up to 0.74 microg/g and mercury up to 0.087 microg/g. Three samples of horse chestnut contained 153, 156 and 1480 microg Pb/g, while the highest concentration found in the other samples analyzed was 22 microg Pb/g. The estimated lead intake through the consumption of horse chestnut reached 440% of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), and might be of concern to consumers if the medicine was taken on a long-term basis. Cadmium and mercury exposure through the herbal medicines does not appear to be of health concern. PMID:15019183

Caldas, E D; Machado, L L

2004-04-01

193

Modern European monographs for quality control of Chinese herbs.  

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The actual concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on observations that these medicinal plants may have a high risk potential due to insufficient definitions, problems with identity, purity and falsifications. No uniform legal status for these groups of herbal drugs currently exists in the European Union. For quality control, monographs for TCM herbs can mainly be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on these facts the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia decided in 2005 to establish TCM-herbal drug monographs for the most important medicinal plants imported from Far East. These new monographs had to be established and evaluated on the basis of existing monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), English edition 2005. Due to important differences in the overall features of EP and ChP, a simple adapt/adopt procedure was not feasible. Therefore, specialist groups were mandated with a corresponding working programme. Some results and actual problems related to this working programme will be presented and discussed. PMID:21077026

Bauer, Rudolf; Franz, Gerhard

2010-12-01

194

Heavy metals in chinese therapeutic foods and herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study 15 samples of Chin ese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed, for the content of cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic, cuprum and zinc, by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd(0.49 mg kg/sup -1/), Hg(0.34 mg kg/sup -1/), Pb(9.01 mg kg/sup -1/), As(3.26 mg kg/sup -1/), Cu(33.56 mg kg/sup -1) and Zn(38.32 mg kg/sup -1/) were found in Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Puerariae, Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Fructus Crataegi, Herba andrographis, respectively.The Cd levels of two samples and Cu levels of one sample were found to be higher than the recommended values of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. Mercury, lead, and arsenic levels of one sample were higher than the recommended limit of China Pharmacopoeia, but it were below the WHO and FDA. All other heavy metals in other medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

195

Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.  

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Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species. PMID:25230471

Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

2014-08-01

196

Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.

Bensoussan Alan

2010-02-01

197

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

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Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género.

Carlos M Baeza

2008-12-01

198

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective / Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O) hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O). La zona central del país presenta el mayor número [...] de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O) a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O) en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O), Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género. Abstract in english Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zo [...] ne of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.

Carlos M, Baeza; Otto, Schrader; Eduardo, Ruiz; M, Negritto.

2008-12-01

199

Analysis of swertiamarin in Swertia herb and preparations containing this crude drug by capillary electrophoresis.  

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Swertia herb (florescent whole plantof Swertia japonica, Gentianaceae) has long been utilized as a folk medicine in Japan. It is often blended in general gastroenteric drugs as a bitter stomachic. Swertiamarin, a bitter secoiridoid glycoside, is the representative constituent of this crude drug and Swertia herb is normally evaluated by the swertiamarin content. To date, papers have described the discrimination of Swertia herbs from other bitter crude drugs, estimation of swertiamarin and seasonal variation in swertiamarin content using thin-layer chromatography, while other papers have reported quantitative determination of swertiamarin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In our previous papers, we reported analyses of the constituents of some crude drugs using capillary electrophoresis (CE). To aid in the evaluation of crude drugs, we succeeded in our attempt to separate and determine the quantity of swertiamarin in Swertia herb. Subsequently, we applied the same analytical condition to estimate the swertiamarin contents in Japanese pharmacopoeia stomachic preparations, in OTC gastroenteric drugs and in OTC hair tonics containing Swertia herb. PMID:11708124

Takei, H; Nakauchi, K; Yoshizaki, F

2001-07-01

200

Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmosph even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

 
 
 
 
201

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method

202

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

203

Macro- and Trace metals in three Medicinal Herbs Collected from Baghdad, Iraq Market.  

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Full Text Available Several metals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Co were determined in three medicinal herbs (Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium, Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Chamomile or camomile (Matricaria chamomilla by applying Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The obtained results showed that Calcium content in tested herb was ranged (1-3.675 ppm. Magnesium maximum content (4247.5 ppm presented in rosemary was higher and with this content kidney stone may be formed easily with other affected factors. Zinc concentration varied from (4.8-35.5 ppm reflecting type of plant effect on element transfer and accumulation in plant. Iron was with higher content (32-490 ppm compared with WHO recommendations. Lead content (3 ppm in all tested herbs was less than the WHO highest limits but higher than Germany limits. Cadmium content found (0.575 ppm only in Rosemary among three tested herbs which is more than WHO and Germany limitations. Chromium ranged (6-12 ppm that may be a result of its low solubility water and plant uptake. Manganese - Chamomile was below WHO maximum limit (200 ppm in medicinal plants with the lowest concentration (10.25 ppm while rosemary and feverfew had (27.75 and 12.375 ppm respectively. Nickel content ranged (8.8125-10.25 ppm was higher than WHO limitations. Cobalt was found in rosemary herb (1.85 ppm while feverfew and chamomile were with the same content (0.5 ppm.

Abdul Latif Mohammed Raouf

2014-11-01

204

[Aromatic trees and herbs that connect Heaven and earth].  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities. Aromatics smokes that connected people on the earth with deities in Heaven healed people's mind, sometimes curing illness through what is now called aromatherapy. In fact, such use of aromatics is still practiced in China, where aromatics are highly regarded as treatment agents. There have also been reports of aromatics being used for psychological and mental disorders. PMID:18548886

Sugiyama, Shigeru

2007-01-01

205

Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested for the treatment of children diseased with diabetes mellitus. Received preliminary results show that the phytotherapy during the traditional treatment results into decrease of blood sugar level at children with diabetes mellitus, what in its turn will allow to reduce the dose of insulin injected from outside

206

A Hypothetical Anti-Aging Mechanism of “Yang-Invigorating” Chinese Tonic Herbs  

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Full Text Available Chinese tonic herbs are generally classified into Yin and Yang categories based on their health-promoting action. Emerging evidence has suggested that in addition to up-regulating mitochondrial functional status, Yang tonic herbs also enhance cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant capacity, and may thus prevent age-related diseases and prolong the healthy part of lifespan (i.e. healthspan. The proposed biochemical mechanism underlying the antioxidant action of Yang tonic herbs involves a sustained and low level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, which is secondary to the increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. “Yang invigoration” improves antioxidant defense in the body in the long term and thereby offers a promising prospect for preventing or possibly delaying age-related diseases and the detrimental effects of aging.

Kam Ming Ko

2012-03-01

207

[Edaphic FTIR finger print and the area choice of Chinese herb culture].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to search for the difference of the soil of Chinese herb growth, and provide useful information for the area choice of Chinese herb culture, 53 soil samples were detected by FTIR. The results showed that all the samples have 8 peaks at 3,621, 3,425, 1,642, 1,435, 1,029, 878, 760 and 690 cm(-1), respectively, but the relative intensity is different. In addition, the peaks at 1,796, 2,982 and 2,874 cm(-1) show difference too. This can be used to distinguish soil in different area. The study also showed that soil in Tianshui and Dingxi of Gansu province are similar to that in Shanxi province. Conclusions: FTIR finger print of soil can provide useful information for the area choice of Chinese herb culture and transplantation and can be used in the study of soil. PMID:20827967

Zhao, Hui-hui; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jian-xin; Hou, Na; Zhao, Ping; Kuang, Zhao-jin; Liu, Yang-qing

2010-07-01

208

THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW  

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Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

E. Nurdin

2011-06-01

209

Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

210

MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

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Full Text Available New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of new results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are achieved confirming that MCNP5 code could apply successfully to study on HERBE kinetics parameters after uncertainties in impurities in material compositions and positions of fuel elements in fast zone were removed.

Peši? Milan P.

2011-01-01

211

Bromine and iodine in Chinese medical herbs determined via epithermal neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nineteen natural herbs and two prescriptions prepared from mixed herbs were analyzed via epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) to evaluate their bromine and iodine concentration. Traditional medical doctors prescribed the samples presented in this work to most Taiwanese children for strengthening their immune systems. Empirical results indicated a wide diversity of bromine in the samples. Yet, the iodine concentration was only around one to tenth or twentieth of the bromine. The maximum daily intake (MDI) for various medical herbs was also widely diversified from one to tenfold on the basis of various criteria. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of bromine and iodine found was 0.42±0.14 ppm and 0.067±0.016 ppm, respectively. Compared to that from conventional thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) for a similar evaluation, the extremely low MDC obtained here was attributed to the large amount of thermal neutron absorption during sample irradiation. (author)

212

The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

213

Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: From bench to bedside  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

2014-01-01

214

Nephroprotective and Diuretic Effects of Three Medicinal Herbs Against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats  

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Full Text Available The nephroprotective and diuretic effects of three medicinal herbs namely Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa, alone and in combination, against gentamicin (GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were investigated. Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into 6 equal groups, each of 7 animals. The 1st group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with saline solution (0.2 mL/rat. The 2nd group was i.p., injected with GM (80 mg/kg b.wt. for 8 consecutive days. The other four groups were given orally aqueous infusion of the three herbs, alone and combined, (1 mL/rat, 150 mg/kg b.wt. along with GM. Twenty four hours after the last administration, blood and urine samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Kidney specimens were taken for estimating oxidant/antioxidant parameters and for histopathology. The results showed that GM induced nephrotoxicity characterized by renal dysfunction as evident by biochemical and histopathological alterations, elevated lipid peroxidation and reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues. Oral administration of aqueous infusion of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs caused a nephroprotective effect evident by significant decreases in the elevated serum urea, creatinine and ALP activity and normalized the decreased serum levels of Na+ and K+ electrolytes in GM-treated rats. It significantly increased urine output and urinary concentration of Na+and K+; denoting a diuretic activity. It also ameliorated renal tubular necrosis in GM-treated rats. The nephroprotective of herbs could be due to the antioxidant effect of these herbs as evident by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusively, the study suggests that mixture of these three herbs may be useful for patients who suffer from renal diseases and those on GM therapy.

Aml F. Elgazar

2013-01-01

215

Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

2013-01-01

216

9-Hydroxypiperitone beta-D-glucopyranoside and other polar constituents from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methanolic extract from dill (Anethum graveolens) herb was subjected to XAD-2 adsorption chromatography. The methanolic eluate was fractionated with the all liquid chromatographic technique of multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC). After acetylation of MLCCC subfractions and flash chromatography, final purification of dill herb constituents was achieved by preparative and/or analytical HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained in pure form, including the beta-D-glucopyranosides of 9-hydroxypiperitone, p-menth-2-ene-1,6-diol, and 8-hydroxygeraniol. Structure elucidation is based on electrospray ionization ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:11052739

Bonnländer, B; Winterhalter, P

2000-10-01

217

Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best  

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Full Text Available Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present at ppb level, it is examined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with zeeman background correction. None of these species contain metals above the toxic limit. Fenugreek was found to be rich source of metal specially chromium.

N. Fatima

2004-01-01

218

Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

2009-07-15

219

Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL  

Science.gov (United States)

The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

2009-07-01

220

Evaluating the traditional Chinese literature for herbal formulae and individual herbs used for age-related dementia and memory impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547

May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging.

Leung Hoi

2007-03-01

222

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, ...

Satish Patel

2012-01-01

223

Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat  

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Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1? and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

MiJung Yeom

2002-02-01

224

Determination of gamma spectrum in the centre of the HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to know influence of neutron and gamma radiation on sample during irradiation in centre of the reactor system HERBE(at the RB reactor). It was the reason that gamma energy spectrum, was measured. In this paper results of the experiments are shown. (author)

225

Effect of packaging materials and storage on major volatile compounds in three Australian native herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lemon myrtle, anise myrtle, and Tasmanian pepper leaf are commercial Australian native herbs with a high volatile or essential oil content. Packaging of the herbs in high- or low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) has proven to be ineffective in preventing a significant loss of volatile components on storage. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of alternate high-barrier property packaging materials, namely, polyvinylidene chloride coated polyethylene terephthalate/casted polypropylene (PVDC coated PET/CPP) and polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/linear low-density polyethylene (PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE), in prevention of volatile compound loss from the three native herbs stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Concentrations of major volatiles were monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. After 6 months of storage, the greatest loss of volatiles from lemon myrtle was observed in traditional LDPE packaging (87% loss) followed by storage in PVDC coated PET/CPP (58% loss) and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE (loss of 23%). The volatile loss from anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf stored in PVDC coated PET/CPP and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE packaging was <30%. This study clearly indicates the importance of selecting the correct packaging material to retain the quality of herbs with high volatile content. PMID:23682630

Chaliha, Mridusmita; Cusack, Andrew; Currie, Margaret; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Smyth, Heather

2013-06-19

226

Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species  

Science.gov (United States)

The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

2014-01-01

227

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea  

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Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

Boo-Yong Lee

2013-10-01

228

Phytochemical studies of the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. (Asteraceae. 2. Components of a methanol extract  

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Full Text Available Vitexin, orientin, isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were isolated from the herb, Tragopogon orientnlis L. The occurrence of quercetin and the phenolic acids: chlorogenic, homoprotoca-techuic, protocatechuic, caffeic, gentysic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic o-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-cumaric, syringic, vanillic, ferulic and salicylic, and of the sugars: glucose, fructose and sucrose was demonstrated chromatographically.

Helena D. Smolarz

1988-03-01

229

Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

2014-01-01

230

Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

1998-07-01

231

The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Longo Vital® herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika, but conversely a pronounced increase in susceptibility of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia now susceptible to 0.01-0.70 mg/ml of each herb, corresponding to 0.02-0.2 per cent of the recommended daily dose. The active ingredients of the herbs, however, and the concentrations of these obtained in blood and periodontal tissues after ingestion of Longo Vital® are not known.

Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.

1996-01-01

232

Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats  

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Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

2014-02-01

233

Verification of temperature coefficients of reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Space and fuel geometry dependent temperature coefficients of the reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core HERBE were calculated by suitable computer codes. For verification of the results, the isothermal temperature coefficient of the reactivity of the thermal core was determined by experiment. The deviation between measured and calculated value was less than 5%. (author)

234

Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486

Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2005-01-01

235

Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest  

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Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Bia?owie?a Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

Maciej Wódkiewicz

2010-06-01

236

Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined in vivo by stable isotope erythrocyte incorporation technique. In parallel, the effect of the spice/herb on gastric emptying will be studied by stable isotope techniques using 13C-octanoicacid.Later,the effect of selected spices/herbs on iron absorption from popular northeast composite meal (mixture of spices and herbs) will be examined. Test meals will be served either with or without added spices/herbs.Data from this study can be used to effectively plan a food-based program to address iron deficiency problem in northeast Thailand. (author)

237

Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to the successful use of the {sup 15}N natural abundance technique. Acacia leiocalyx demonstrated greater N{sub 2} fixation as well as photosynthesis and instantaneous water use efficiency than Acacia disparimma. However, no strong relationship between plant photosynthesis and N{sub 2} fixation was observed in this study. A high within-treatment variation may have masked the relationships between plant BNF activities and photosynthesis. Conclusions: The {sup 15}N natural abundance technique is preferred to be used for future studies as it is simple and inexpensive compared with {sup 15}N enrichment method. The dependence of both species on BNF at site 2, where fuel reduction burning had not taken place for 8 years, suggests that the frequent burning impoverished the soil, and this has wider implications as higher fire frequencies are to be expected in other Australian ecosystems as a result of global climate change. (orig.)

Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

2012-05-15

238

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

239

Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb  

Science.gov (United States)

Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

Yu, Hong; Yu, Shenjing; Ren, Chunsheng; Xiu, Zhilong

2012-02-01

240

Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

Izzo, Angelo A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical profile of medicinally important herb Mentha arvensis (L against various microorganism  

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Full Text Available The present study has been carried out to evaluate the Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of medicinally important herb Mentha arvensis belonging to family Lamioceac commonly called as mint and Pudina. The antimicrobial potential of plant is measured against some of the important microorganism such as E.coli , Streptococcus aureus and salmonella typhi.The plant material has been extracted by using the solvent Methenol and chloroform .The present study reveals that the selected herb extracted of methanol found to be more bioactive against salmonella typhi and E-colo rather than streptococcus aureus , Similarlly the chloroform extract is found to be more bioactive against the microorganism E-coli and salmonella typhi rather than streptococcus aureus.

Suryawanshi S.P.

2013-06-01

242

ISO - Technical committees - ISO/TC 34/SC 7 - Spices, culinary herbs and condiments  

...ISO - Technical committees - ISO/TC 34/SC 7 - Spices, culinary herbs and condiments International Organization for Standardization International Standards for Business, Government and Society Skip to Content Home Français | ??????? Member area MENU Standards About us Standards Development News Store Go Technical committees Deliverables Who develops standards Why get involved? Resource area Standards Development Technical committees ISO/TC 34 ISO/TC 34/SC ...ISO/TC 34/SC 7 Spices, culinary herbs and condiments About Contact details Structure Liaisons Meetings Tools Secretariat: BIS Secretary: Mr Kumar Anil Chairperson: Dr A. Jayathilak until end 2017 ISO Central Secretariat contact: Mme Marie-Noëlle Bourquin Number of published ISO standards under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 34/SC 7 (number includes updates): 72 Participating countries: 19 Observing countries: 26 ISO/TC ...

243

Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:25210998

Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

2014-10-01

244

Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants Sold on Herb Markets in Lagos Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Ethnobotanical survey conducted presents findings on medicinal plants commercialized and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the major herb markets in Lagos metropolis. Data were collected through direct interview with traditional herb sellers using unstructured questionnaires. Study revealed a total of 41 plants species belonging to 23 families. Botanical and local names, plant part used, methods of preparation and administration are described. The part of the plants most frequently used was the leaves 55%, stem bark (14%, root (11%, whole plant (9%, sap (5%, aerial parts, flowers and fruits (2% each. There was a high degree of informant consensus for the family Sapindaceae while oral and topical routes of administration are commonly employed.

M.O. Sofidiya

2007-01-01

245

The Main Anticancer Bullets of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Thunder God Vine  

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Full Text Available The thunder god vine or Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. is a representative Chinese medicinal herb which has been used widely and successfully for centuries in treating inflammatory diseases. More than 100 components have been isolated from this plant, and most of them have potent therapeutic efficacy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the past four decades, the anticancer activities of the extracts from this medicinal herb have attracted intensive attention by researchers worldwide. The diterpenoid epoxide triptolide and the quinone triterpene celastrol are two important bioactive ingredients that show a divergent therapeutic profile and can perturb multiple signal pathways. Both compounds promise to turn traditional medicines into modern drugs. In this review, we will mainly address the anticancer activities and mechanisms of action of these two agents and briefly describe some other antitumor components of the thunder god vine.

Zi Liu

2011-06-01

246

Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

247

Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria) occupied intermediate position. The Republican permissible level on Sr 90 for medicinal -technical raw material is absent in Belarus. Therefore we cannot give recommendations on using the specified kinds of the herbs mentioned above and collected during the spring period of their development. We only verify the results of the studies. In order to provide the answer to the question it's necessary to conduct further studies of the herbs growing in territories with lower level of soil contamination by Sr 90. It is required to develop the Republican allowable level of Sr 90 content in medicinal-technical raw material

248

Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations  

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The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a range of stora...

Scollard, Johann

2011-01-01

249

Diterpenoids from the Chinese herb Caryopteris terniflora and their antibacterial and antitumor activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two ent-kaurene type diterpenoids, diterpenoids A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the Chinese herb Caryopteris terniflora and defined as ent-7beta, 11alpha,14-trihydroxy-18-aldehyde-11beta-20-epoxy-kaur-16-en15-one and ent-7beta,14-dihydroxy-11alpha-methoxy-18-aldehyde-11beta-20-epoxy-kaur-16-en-15-one respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant antibacterial and antitumour activity. PMID:16076086

Zhang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Yan-Lin; Wei, Qing-Yi; Cai, Yu-Jun; Wang, Qin; Liu, Zhong-Li

2005-07-01

250

The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family  

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Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita) was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis) stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and...

Beata Zimowska; Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Ewa Dorota Król; Ewa Dorota Zalewska

2013-01-01

251

Antimicrobial and biofilm effects of herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the twenty-two components of tea decoctions commonly used to treat infections, only Scutellaria, Taraxacum, Tussilago and Glycyrrhiza exhibited antimicrobial activity. The activity, when present, was organism specific, i.e., anti-Staphylococcus aureus, including anti-MRSA activity under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. However, with the exception of Scutellaria, sub-inhibitory concentrations of the herbs exhibited a pattern of inducing enhanced production of biofilm. PMID:24427955

Lau, Denny; Plotkin, Balbina J

2013-11-01

252

Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome caused by the Chinese herb "Goreisan".  

Science.gov (United States)

A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of fever and arthralgia. His clinical course and marked ciliary hyperemia led us to suspect tubulointestinal nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome, which was confirmed ophthalmologically and by renal biopsy. Results of a drug-induced lymphocyte-stimulating test were positive for the Chinese herb "Goreisan." This is the first case in which the use of "Goreisan" was causally related to TINU syndrome. PMID:18661195

Suzuki, Hisa; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Miyano, Masato; Maeda, Isseki; Yamagami, Keiko; Morikawa, Takashi; Okada, Noriyuki; Konishi, Yoshio; Imanishi, Masahito

2009-02-01

253

In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb  

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Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combinat...

RAVINDRA ADE; SHIVAJI DESHMUKH

2012-01-01

254

In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis  

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Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb throug...

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2010-01-01

255

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

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Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry diets. Therefore, there is an intensive search for alternatives such...

Guo, F.

2003-01-01

256

Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots  

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Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and St...

Veres, Katalin; Csupor-lo?ffler, Bogla?rka; La?za?r, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

2012-01-01

257

Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P?=?0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7?±?12.3 ?g/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79?±?7.62 ?g/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

Weerapreeyakul Natthida

2012-06-01

258

Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols  

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Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium) and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser k...

Milovanovi? Mirjana; Banjac Nebojša; Vuceli?-Radovi? Biljana

2009-01-01

259

Changes in use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) among clinicians enrolled in an online curriculum  

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Abstract Background Little is known about clinicians' use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS), how their personal HDS use changes with time and training, and how changes in their personal use affect their confidence or communication with patients about HDS. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of clinicians before and after an on-line curriculum about HDS in winter-spring, 2005. Results Of the 569 clinicians who completed surveys both...

Gardiner Paula; Kemper Kathi J; Woods Charles

2007-01-01

260

Novel phenolic glycoside dimer and trimer from the whole herb of Pyrola rotundifolia.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the water-soluble constituents of the whole herb of Pyrola rotundifolia (Pyrolaceae), one novel phenolic glycoside dimer, pyrolaside A (1), and one novel phenolic glycoside trimer, pyrolaside B (2), together with two known phenolic glycosides homoarbutin (3) and isohomoarbutin (4), were isolated. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and confirmed with chemical degradation. In vitro tests for antimicrobial activity showed pyrolaside B (2) to possess significant activity against two Gram-positive organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:16079548

Chang, Jun; Inui, Taichi

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

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Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from th...

Norman, Eric B.; Thomas, Keenan; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R.

2014-01-01

262

Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer  

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The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecul...

Petiwala, Sakina M.; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Johnson, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

263

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

2014-04-01

264

Plasticity in response to phosphorus and light availability in four forest herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The differential ability of forest herbs to colonize secondary forests on former agricultural land is generally attributed to different rates of dispersal. After propagule arrival, however, establishing individuals still have to cope with abiotic soil legacies from former agricultural land use. We focused on the plastic responses of forest herbs to increased phosphorus availability, as phosphorus is commonly found to be persistently bioavailable in post-agricultural forest soils. In a pot experiment performed under field conditions, we applied three P levels to four forest herbs with contrasting colonization capacities: Anemone nemorosa, Primula elatior, Circaea lutetiana and Geum urbanum. To test interactions with light availability, half of the replicas were covered with shade cloths. After two growing seasons, we measured aboveground P uptake as well as vegetative and regenerative performance. We hypothesized that fast-colonizing species respond the most opportunistically to increased P availability, and that a low light availability can mask the effects of P on performance. All species showed a significant increase in P uptake in the aboveground biomass. The addition of P had a positive effect on the vegetative performances of two of the species, although this was unrelated to their colonization capacities. The regenerative performance was affected by light availability (not by P addition) and was related to the species' phenology. Forest herbs can obviously benefit from the increased availability of P in post-agricultural forests, but not all species respond in the same way. Such differential patterns of plasticity may be important in community dynamics, as they affect the interactions among species. PMID:20300776

Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; De Frenne, Pieter; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin; Verheyen, Kris

2010-08-01

265

Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model  

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The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

Dejan Brki?; Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Marina Sokovi?; Marin, Petar D.; Jasmina Glamo?lija

2010-01-01

266

Comparative study of total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of conventionally and organically grown herbs  

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The aim of the present study was to measure the relative phenolic content in commonly available conventionally and organically grown herbs and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity. Sage (Salvia officinalis), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) leaves, corriander (Corriandrum sativum) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds were used in the present investigation. Total phenolic content (TPhC), measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method, and radical scavenging activi...

Trendafilova, A.; Todorova, M.; Vassileva, Elka; Ivanova, Daniela

2010-01-01

267

Competitive Interactions Between the Perennial Shrub Ziziphus ummularia and an Annual Herb Rhynchosia minima  

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Full Text Available The investigation focuses on competitive interactions between individuals of the perennial shrub Ziziphus nummularia and the annual herb Rhychosia minima with the aid of nearest-neighbour analysis in a sub-tropical desert region. Both intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions were detected between nearest-neighbouring pairs. The cover as well as reproductive potential of R. minima were significantly reduced when it established in the close vicinity of Z. nummularia.

S. Shahid Shaukat

2003-01-01

268

Divergence between phenotypic and genetic variation within populations of a common herb across Europe  

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Analyzing the pattern and causes of phenotypic and genetic variation within and among populations might help to understand life history variability in plants, and to predict their responses to changing environmental conditions. Here we compare phenotypic variation and genetic diversity of the widespread herb Plantago coronopus across Europe, and evaluate their relationship with environmental and geographical factors. Genetic diversity was estimated in 18 populations from molecular markers wit...

Villellas, Jesu?s; Berjano, Enrique Regina; Terrab, Anass; Garci?a Gonza?lez, Mari?a Begon?a

2014-01-01

269

Superoxide dismutase polymorphisms in wild populations of herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae)  

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Polymorphism of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was investigated in leaves of herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae). The plants were collected during the summer and autumn of 2001 from different natural locations in Lithuania and Norway. Crude extracts from leaves were analyzed using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel for SOD polymorphism detection. By means of analysis of plants from different locations, some differences in the electrophoretic mobility and the phenotypes of SOD bands ...

Jogaite?, Vaida; Kleizaite?, Violeta; Stapulionyte?, Asta; Bjerketvedt, Dag Kjartan

2003-01-01

270

Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

271

Caffeoyl Derivatives: Major Antioxidant Compounds of Some Wild Herbs of the Asteraceae Family  

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Full Text Available The polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of 18 medicinal or food plants of the As- teraceae family were studied. Five main caffeoyl derivatives were determined individually by HPLC and compared with levels determined by colorimetry for total dihydroxycinnamic derivatives and total phenolics. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of these constituents to the antioxidant activity of the herbs determined by DPPH radical scavenging tests. Significant correlations were found between total phenolic (R2 = 0.8904, total dihydroxycinnamic derivative (R2 = 0.8529 and total caffeoyl derivative (R2 = 0.7172 concentrations and the DPPH-scavenging ability of all herbs. The antioxidant activity of the main constituents, including chicoric acid (EC50 = 8.24 µmol/l or 3,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid (EC50 = 7.62 µmol/l, was very high compared to vitamin C (EC50 = 15.66 µmol/l. Thus, for each species, antioxidant activity mainly involves the major caffeoyl derivatives. The contribution to antioxidant activity were assessed as 48.92% for 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Tanacetum parthenium (30.08 g/kg, and 68.96% for chicoric acid in Taraxacum officinale (34.08 g/kg. The main caffeoyl derivatives among polyphenols can be considered as the major antioxidant compounds of the studied Asteraceae herbs.

Didier Fraisse

2011-05-01

272

A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

273

Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate c [...] omposta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine conce [...] ntration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.

Griselda Patricia, Scipioni; Darío Jorge, Ferreyra; Miguel Eduardo, Schmalko.

2007-07-01

274

[Screening of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Chinese dietary herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to develop new inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase from Chinese dietary herbs. Sixty-three dietary herbs from 39 taxonomic families were selected and extracted with aqueous ethanol or water. The extracts were then tested with in vitro enzyme assays for their ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. Orlistat and acarbose were used as two positive controls. The extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Curcuma longa, Piper longum and Morus alba showed strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects with IC50 at (28.00 +/- 5.51), (5.24 +/- 0.51), (14.76 +/- 2.58), (4.78 +/- 0.58), (3.41 +/- 0.67) mg x L(-1), respectively. These extracts also showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 at (1.98 +/- 0.13), (0. 18 + 0.007), (0.71 +/- 0.08), (0.077 +/- 0.005), (0.089 +/- 0.006) g x L(-1), respectively. The results provide useful information for developing new drugs or natural health products for hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia from Chinese dietary herbs. PMID:22803384

Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Kaibin; Ji, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanwen; Jeffrey, Zidichouski; Tong, Yan; Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Zhimin

2012-05-01

275

Traditional Use of Herbs, Shrubs and Trees of Shogran Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Shogran valley (Hazara. Information on local names, traditional medicinal uses and occurrence of the herbs, shrubs and trees has been presented. A total of 77 species of herbs, 12 species of shrubs and 18 species of trees were recorded that are used medicinally and for other purposes. Among herbs Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Bth., Convolvulus arvensis L. , Geranium nepalense Sweet, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet, Mentha longifolia (Hk. Huds., Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, Potentilla nepalensis Hk., Torilis nodosa (L. Gaertn., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb. are the most common. Podophyllum hexandrum is vulnerable due to over exploitation. Five species of shrubs and 12 species of trees are collected for sale in the local market as well as in other parts of the country. Juglans regia L. is found vulnerable in this area due to utilization of its different parts for different purposes. Melia azedarach L. is found under pressure of being used as fuel wood. Wild fruits such as Ficus carica L., Diospyrus lotus L., Morus alba L., Pyrus communis L., Pyrus pashia Ham. ex D. Don. and Prunus persica (L. Batsch. require in situ conservation in the area for future germplasm source

Abdul Matin

2001-01-01

276

Antioxidative properties of water extracts obtained from herbs of the species Lamiaceae.  

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Essential oils and extracts of aromatic herbs obtained by organic solvents have been extensively studied for their antioxidant activity in lipid substrates. Very little is known about the possible presence of antioxidants in polar extracts from herbs used in preparation of infusions and decoctions. In this work water extracts of six different herbs of the Lamiaceae family (dittany, lemon balm, mint, sage, sideritis and sweet marjoram) were prepared. The extracts were examined for their effect against lipid oxidation in comparison to a tea water extract. Sweet marjoram, sage and dittany extracts were found to have a remarkable capacity in retarding lipid oxidation. Examination by thin-layer chromatography of the freeze-dried extracts, before and after hydrolysis, showed that the extracts were rich in bound forms of phenolic compounds such as hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were detected in all extracts with the exception of those from mint and sideritis. These results indicate that certain plants used for the preparation of infusions could be further studied like tea as sources of antioxidants. PMID:11474895

Triantaphyllou, K; Blekas, G; Boskou, D

2001-07-01

277

Some commonly fed herbs and other functional foods in equine nutrition: a review.  

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Most herbs and functional foods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Equine studies have tested the anti-inflammatory effects of a single dose of ginger, post-exercise. Echinacea has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Yucca contains steroid-like saponins, which produce anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-spasmodic effects. However, some herbs have drug-like actions that interact with dietary components and may contain prohibited substances like salicylates, digitalis, heroin, cocaine and marijuana. Horses fed garlic at >0.2g/kg per day developed Heinz body anaemia. Drug-herb interactions are common and caution needs to be taken when implementing 'natural product' usage. PMID:17689992

Williams, Carey A; Lamprecht, Emily D

2008-10-01

278

Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate c [...] omposta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine conce [...] ntration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.

Griselda Patricia, Scipioni; Darío Jorge, Ferreyra; Miguel Eduardo, Schmalko.

279

Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate composta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina

Griselda Patricia Scipioni

2007-07-01

280

Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices  

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Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Sulphur fumigation processing of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: beneficial or detrimental?  

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Full Text Available Majority of TCM herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopoeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulphur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulphur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulphur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulphur fumigation induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulphur fumigated-herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulphur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method.

GeLin

2011-12-01

282

Repellent Effects of Volatile Extracts from Herb Plants against Larvae of Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval  

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Full Text Available Environmental pollution and intensive use of toxic chemicals, as well as resistance to pesticides, has forced scientists to find new ways of controlling pests. Numerous substances that repel insects and inhibit eating and egg-laying have been discovered in a variety of plants. The cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval, is a serious pest to Brassicaca species such as cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli, and its larvae damage the host plant leaves when feeding. In this study, to develop a botanical insecticide against P. rapae larvae, we assessed the effect of 7 kinds of herb (rosemary, spearmint, eucalyptus, sage, chili pepper, chives and tansy extracts as feeding repellents against P. rapae larvae. Feeding repellent tests were conducted by placing two cabbage leaf disks on filter paper treated with herb extract or diethyl ether in a box; then a larva was placed between the disks and its preference was observed. The repellent rate of rosemary, spearmint, eucalyptus, sage, chili pepper, chives and tansy was 75%, 72%, 64%, 59%, 40%, 40% and 36%, respectively. These results clarified that of the tested herbs, rosemary and spearmint volatile extracts have a notable feeding repellent effect against P. rapae larvae.

Hiromi Ikeura

2012-03-01

283

Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4oC. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation in breast and thigh meat at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Results showed that the feed supplements increased the oxidative stability of meat without exerting any effect on feed intake and daily weight gain of turkeys. Oregano essential oil supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared to the control diet at all time points, but inferior to the oregano herb at 5 g/kg. Also, oregano essential oil at 200 mg/kg was more effective than the oregano herb at 5 g/kg and equivalent to oregano herb at 10 g/kg, in delaying lipid oxidation. Thigh meat was more susceptible to lipid oxidation compared to breast meat.

P. Florou-Paneri

2005-01-01

284

Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.  

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Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

2010-06-01

285

Simultaneous determination of 76As, 122Sb and 153Sm in Chinese medicinal herbs by epithermal neutron activation analysis.  

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Optimal conditions for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb and Sm in Chinese medicinal herbs using epithermal neutron activation analysis were investigated. The minimum detectable concentrations of 76As, 122Sb and 153Sm in lichen and medicinal herbs depended on the weight of the irradiated sample, and irradiation and decay durations. Optimal conditions were obtained by wrapping the irradiated target with 3.2 mm borated polyethylene neutron filters, which were adopted to screen the original reactor fission neutrons and to reduce the background activities of 38Cl, 24Na and 42K. Twelve medicinal herbs, commonly consumed by Taiwanese children as a diuretic treatment, were analysed since trace elements, such as As and Sb, in these herbs may be toxic when consumed in sufficiently large quantities over a long period. Various amounts of medicinal herbs, standardised powder, lichen and tomato leaves were weighed, packed into polyethylene bags, irradiated and counted under different conditions. The results indicated that about 350 mg of lichen irradiated for 24 h and counted for 20 min following a 30-60 h decay period was optimal for irradiation in a 10(11)n/cm s epithermal neutron flux. The implications of the content of the studied elements in Chinese medicinal herbs are discussed. PMID:18752261

Chen, Chien-Yi

2009-01-01

286

Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

1999-09-01

287

Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.  

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Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

2014-05-01

288

Toxicogenomics for the prediction of toxicity related to herbs from traditional Chinese medicine.  

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Toxicogenomics represents the integration of genomics and toxicology to investigate the interaction between genes and environmental stress in human health. It is a scientific field that studies how the genome is involved in responses to environmental stressors and toxicants. The patterns of altered gene expression that are caused by specific exposures or disease outcomes reveal how toxicants may act and cause disease. Nowadays, toxicogenomics faces great challenges in discriminating the molecular basis of toxicity. We do believe that advances in this field will eventually allow us to describe all the toxicological interactions that occur within a living system. Toxicogenomic responses of a toxic agent in one species (e.g., laboratory animals) may predict the mode of action in another species (e.g., humans) (predictive toxicology). Development and application of toxicogenomic databases and new bioinformatics tools are among the most important aspects of toxicogenomic research which will facilitate sharing and interpretation of the huge amount of biological information generated in this field. Medicinal herbs have played an important role in pharmacy from ancient to modern times. Nowadays, there is a revival of interest in medicinal plants and an increasing scientific interest in bioactive natural products. Medicinal herbs are usually considered to be nontoxic. However, the consumption of herbs could produce prominent toxic effects either due to inherent toxicity or to contaminants (heavy metals, microorganisms, pesticides, toxic organic solvents, radioactivity, etc.). Therefore, a critical assessment of their toxicity is an urgent issue. This review explores the field of toxicogenomics, pinpoints some of its research approaches and describes the challenges it faces. In particular, Chinese herbal preparations have been implicated. PMID:20957595

Youns, Mahmoud; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Efferth, Thomas

2010-12-01

289

The phenomenon of microscale flow and mass transfer in medicinal herb materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a combination of a microwave technique and conventional solvent extraction used in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. The effective component of medicinal herbs is mostly cellular material which can be released via solvent extraction. The material is diffused to solvents via the porous membrane wall. The structure of herb morphology and characteristics of the solute's molecular weight play an important role in the extraction process of target compounds. Astragalus pieces were chosen for this study in which an ultra-filtration membrane method was used to determine the molecular weight distribution characteristics of Astragalus water extraction liquid in the process of MAE. The fine structure of matrix materials was also characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM). The phenomenon of mass flow and mass transfer in the plant porous media was discussed along with the enhancement mechanism of microwave field on medicinal plant solvent extraction. The results showed that the water-soluble components in the parenchyma cells of Astragalus pieces pass through the plasmodesma with a diameter of 10 nm to adjacent cell, then through an aperture with a diameter of 0.1 {mu}m to 1 {mu}m into a trachea with a diameter of about 10 {mu}m. The water-soluble components then come onto the surface of matrix material and the main solution via the trachea. The main mass transfer occurs by the trachea and its aperture. It was concluded that in order to promote the dissolution of effective components in medicinal herb in the extraction process, a suitable extraction technology is needed to maintain the permeability of transportation tissue and parenchyma in materials. 11 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Yang, J.H.; Di, Q.Q.; Sun, M.D. [Tianjin Univ., Tianjin (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhang, T.J.; Gong, S.X. [Tianjin Inst. of Pharmaceutical Research, Tianjin (China)

2008-07-01

290

Effects of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupuncture on the Carrageenan induced arthritis in rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to check of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture on effect of anti-inflammtory function, anti-febrile function and analgestic function in carrageenan-induced arthritic rat. Each of 8 rat were classified into control, sample group. Control group were inject by normal saline and Sample group were injected by Scolopendra subspinipes multilans. Herb-Acupuncture. After elicitating edema and inflammation of Sprgue Dawely(SD rats by injection of 1% Carrageenan 0.1ml, then the rate of increase of paw edema, CRP, ESR, WBC were checked and rectal-temperature, topical temperature was checked about anti-febrile. writhing syndrome was checked about analgesic. The results were as follows 1. In the sample group, the rate of increase of paw edema was significantly decreased as compared with thatof control group(P<0.05 2. In the sample group, the rectal-temperature was non-significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 3. In the sample group, CRP and WBC was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group, but ESR was not.(P<0.05 4. In the sample group, opical-temperature was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 5. In the sample group, analgestic function was not sigiflcntly effected as compared with that of control group(P<0.05 According to the above result, it can be concluded Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture showed the treatment effects on the artifical arthritis resulted from carrageenan in rat and it is suggested that more interest and study in the mechanism and clinical use were needed.

Won-Bok Yu

2004-12-01

291

Variation in responses of late-seral herbs to disturbance and environmental stress.  

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Clonal herbs that attain maximum development in late-seral forest are often assumed to have similar responses to disturbance and to be functionally equivalent. However, little is known about the demographic or physiological responses of these plants to disturbance or to the altered conditions of the post-disturbance environment. Following harvest of a mature coniferous forest, we compared abundance, demographic changes, and physiological acclimation of three clonal herbs (Asarum caudatum, Clintonia uniflora, and Pyrola picta) that differ in belowground morphology and leaf longevity. We measured ramet density, leaf area, and demographic variables (survival, clonal growth, flowering, and seedling establishment) before and for two years after harvest, and in adjacent undisturbed forest. Acclimation to increased solar radiation was assessed two years after harvest by measuring leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and chlorophyll a:b ratios of leaves produced in the current year. Although initial declines in abundance were similar, demographic responses indicate that patterns of recovery varied greatly among species. Two years after logging, ramet survival and clonal growth (production of new ramets) of Clintonia were greater in the harvest area than in the forest. Asarum had lower survival in the harvest area, but greater clonal growth, and Pyrola showed no difference in either survival or growth between environments. Only Asarum produced seedlings, although their survival was low in the harvest area. All species had higher LMA in the harvest area, but only Clintonia (with annual leaves) had a higher chlorophyll a:b ratio, suggesting the greatest potential for acclimation to increased light. Our results demonstrate that forest herbs with greater rhizome plasticity and shorter leaf duration have greater potential to acclimate after disturbance than those with rigid architectures and persistent leaves. Thus, species with comparable successional roles can vary substantially in their demographic and physiological responses to disturbance, with potential consequences for long-term recovery. PMID:18051657

Nelson, Cara R; Halpern, Charles B; Antos, Joseph A

2007-11-01

292

Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by ??? cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 ?g/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

Svetla Angelova

2013-01-01

293

Herbal Medicines in Brazil: Pharmacokinetic Profile and Potential Herb-Drug Interactions  

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Full Text Available A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

JoseMariaPrieto

2014-07-01

294

Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankapulshpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice can offset the pharmacological effect of spironolactone. Numerous herbs (eg, karela and ginseng) may affect blood glucose levels and should not be used in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:9818800

Miller, L G

1998-11-01

295

Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

296

Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

2014-09-01

297

Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by aqueous extracts of Hispanic medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-kappaB-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E(2) production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

Orlando, Robert A; Gonzales, Amanda M; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Franco, Carolina R; Royer, Robert E; Vander Jagt, David L; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J

2010-08-01

298

Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activities of Herbs and Pastures in Northern Japan Determined Using Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry  

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Full Text Available Free radicals are not only destructive to the living cells but also reduce the quality of animal products through oxidation. As a result the superoxide anion radical (O2?-, one of the most destructive reactive oxygen species, is a matter of concern for the animal scientists as well as feed manufacturers to ensure the quality of product to reach consumers demand. The superoxide anion radical scavenging activities (SOSA of water and MeOH extracts of 2 herbs and 9 pasture samples collected from lowland and highland swards were determined against a 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline-N-oxide-O2?-spin adduct based on a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Both the water and MeOH extracted SOSA differed among the herbs and pastures. Species and altitudinal variations were observed between extraction methods. The herbs were higher in both water and MeOH extracted SOSA than the pastures except for water extracts of one pasture, white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Among the pastures, quackgrass (Agrophyron repens L. showed higher SOSA in both the MeOH and water extracts, and timothy (Phleum pretense L. showed higher MeOH extracted SOSA. It is apparent that the kind and amount of antioxidants differ among herbs and pastures. Animal health and quality of animal products could be improved by adequate selection and combining of herbs and pastures having higher SOSA.

Mohammad Al-Mamun, Koji Yamaki, Toshiki Masumizu, Yumi Nakai, Katsumi Saito, Hiroaki Sano, Yoshifumi Tamura

2007-01-01

299

Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.

Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

2014-01-01

300

Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

Schroder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

CERN Document Server

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

2014-01-01

302

Differential niche modification by males and females of a dioecious herb: extending the Jack Sprat effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males and females of dioecious plants often differ in morphological, physiological and life-history traits, probably as a result of their different requirements for reproduction. We found that the growth and reproductive effort of individuals of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua depended on whether males or females had been growing in the soil previously. This suggests that males and females of M. annua differentially modify the soil in which they are growing. Our study indicates that sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants can give rise to increased environmental heterogeneity as a consequence of sex-specific niche modification. PMID:20825527

Sánchez-Vilas, J; Pannell, J R

2010-10-01

303

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

Satish Patel

2012-03-01

304

Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers  

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1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. 2. Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0·5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, vir...

Guo, F. C.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Williams, B. A.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. S.; Luo, J. Y.; Li, X. P.; Wei, Y. X.; Yan, Z. T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

2004-01-01

305

Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb.  

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To determine if Butea superba Roxb., a traditional Thai male potency herb, has androgenic activity in 60-day-old male Wistar rats, we measured its effects on the pituitary-testicular axis and sex organs. Intact and orchidectomized adult male rats were subdivided into five groups (10 rats/group): distilled water, Butea superba (BS)-10, BS-50, BS-250, and testosterone propionate (TP). They received 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 BS in distilled water by gavage and 6 mg·kg body ...

Malaivijitnond, S.; Ketsuwan, A.; Watanabe, G.; Taya, K.; Cherdshewasart, W.

2010-01-01

306

Pluchea lanceolata (Rasana): Chemical and biological potential of Rasayana herb used in traditional system of medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, (Family: Asteraceae) is a rapidly spreading perennial herb, considered valuable for the management of anti-inflammatory disease. Scientific reports dealing with phytochemical and pharmacological research and its traditional have been reviewed. Reports have also suggested that its prominent constituents viz. triterpenoids, sterols, flavonoids and lactones originate from this plant arbitrate their effects by modulating several therapeutic targets.Out of about 80 species of Pluchea, some of them are on extinct and only 16 have traditional uses in several countries of Asian, Middle East and North American region. The present review covers the period 1935-2011. PMID:22877846

Srivastava, Pooja; Shanker, Karuna

2012-12-01

307

Induction of somatic embryogenesis and genetic fidelity of endangered medicinal herb Curculigo orchioides Gaertn  

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Full Text Available An efficient regeneration system, through somatic embryogenesis was developed forCurculigo orchioides Gaertn - an endangered medicinal herb. Somatic embryos weredeveloped on MS medium containing 8 - 15?M BA from leaf explants. The highest, 69 % leafexplants responded in terms of embryogenic calli with average 8 embryos on MS mediumcontaining 8?M BA. Regenerated plantlets were transferred to autoclaved mixture of soil:sand: compost (1:1:1; v/v/v for hardening. Genetic fidelity of somatic embryogenesis derivedregenerant was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD.

Swati Patel

2011-08-01

308

The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family  

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Full Text Available Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and bark breaking. Phoma nepeticolawas obtained from the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca leaves and stems with symptoms of small necrotic spots. Phyllosticta plantaginiswas isolated from leaves of ribwort (Plantago lanceolata showing symptoms of small, regular, necrotic spots.

Beata Zimowska

2013-04-01

309

Protection of Chinese Herbs Against Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats  

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The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Rats in group A (n=10), B (n=10) and C (n=10) were fed a standard laboratory chow and allowed tap water ad libitum. In group B and C, renal failure was induced by the ...

Tong, Yanqing; Han, Bing; Guo, Hongyang; Liu, Yanru

2010-01-01

310

Isolation of chlorogenic acid from Mutellina purpurea L. herb using high-performance counter-current chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to explore proper isolation conditions of chlorogenic acid from the herb of Mutelina purpurea L. - a new source of this bioactive molecule. The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 40% aqueous solution of methanol combined with high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was utilised for the efficient extraction and the separation of chlorogenic acid from the M. purpurea herb in less than 30 min. The structure of the obtained compound was confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. The preparative HPCCC was performed using the mixture of ethyl acetate, butanol and water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the reverse-phase mode. The chlorogenic acid was isolated from this herb for the first time, yielding 96% purity. The ASE with 40% methanol combined with HPCCC separation was proven to be a useful tool for quick and efficient isolation of chlorogenic acid from M. purpurea. PMID:25185707

Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna

2014-11-01

311

Efficient preparation of Hangekobokuto (Banxia-Houpo-Tang) decoction by adding perilla herb before decoction is finished.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hangekobokuto (banxia-houpo-tang) is a Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine used mostly for anxiety disorder and consists of Pinellia Tuber, Poria Sclerotium, Magnolia Bark, Perilla Herb and Ginger. Perilla Herb contains an essential oil rich in perillaldehyde, which has a pleasant flavor, but this is easily lost due to heating. We therefore investigated how the major constituents of hangekobokuto, namely perillaldehyde, rosmarinic acid, magnolol and [6]-gingerol, varied with time during decoction and approached an optimal condition for decoction. Rosmarinic acid at 15 min after boiling, and magnolol and [6]-gingerol at 30 min were mostly extracted, while 0.09 mg of perillaldehyde remained at 15 min, but was not detected at 30 min. From these results, a decoction was prepared by adding Perilla Herb 1, 2, 5 and 10 min prior to the termination time of decoction at 30 min. When Perilla Herb was added 1 min beforehand, perillaldehyde was abundant (1.58 mg) and the amount of rosmarinic acid was already the same as that in the conventional decoction at 30 min, but the amount of total extract was inadequate. When Perilla Herb was added 5 min beforehand, perillaldehyde remained to some extent (0.61 mg) and rosmarinic acid was significantly increased compared with that in the conventional decoction at 30 min. From these results, we can conclude that the decoction should be prepared by boiling for not more than 30 min and, if possible, Perilla Herb should be added 5 min prior to the termination time. Considering the antidepressant-like activity of perillaldehyde and rosmarinic acid, the suggested method will not only achieve better treatment for anxiety, but also provide an effective use of crude drugs in the resource-limited environment. PMID:23413567

Sumino, Megumi; Saito, Yuko; Ikegami, Fumio; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

2012-12-01

312

Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast. Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract

Stef Ducu

2012-03-01

313

A comparison between effects of pyruvate and herb medicines in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.  

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Sodium pyruvate, choreito (a herbal preparation), and urajirogashi (a herb) were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet (a glycolic-acid diet) to determine their effects in preventing lithogenicity. Male Wistar-strain rats which had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within 4 weeks. Rats in the groups fed a pyruvate diet had, however, almost no stones in the urinary system. The choreito and urajirogashi were slightly less effective than the pyruvate. Urinary oxalate excretion was high in all the groups during the experiment, especially in the pyruvate and the glycolic-acid groups, but, it was relatively lowered in the herb groups, especially towards the end of the experiment (p less than 0.05). Urinary citrate excretion was high in the pyruvate group, but it was significantly low in the other groups. In the choreito group, remarkable increases in urinary volume and magnesium excretion were observed; however, they were statistically non-significant and urinary calcium excretion was higher than in the glycolic-acid group during the experiment. Therefore, it can be concluded that choreito and urajirogashi may have some beneficial effect though any such effect is inferior to that of pyruvate, in preventing calculi formation, partly by decreasing the urinary oxalate excretion; increased urine volume and magnesium excretion may also have some other, additional effects in the choreito group. PMID:3788737

Ogawa, Y; Morozumi, M; Tanaka, T; Yamaguchi, K

1986-08-01

314

Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34gg-1) which is more than the amount (95.0gg-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599gg-1 and 702gg-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.

315

Study of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigment from Chinese herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), in which microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was performed in vacuum, was specially designed and applied for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigments from Chinese herbs. The extraction conditions including solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and degree of vacuum were optimized. Subsequently, VMAE, MAE, and conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE) were evaluated with resveratrol and emodin extraction from Rhizma Polygoni Cuspidati, myricetin and quercetin extraction from Myrica rubra leaves, and safflomin A extraction from Flos Carthami. In addition, the different microstructures of those rhizome, leaf, and flower samples were investigated before and after extraction. It was obvious that the extraction yields of resveratrol, myricetin and safflomin A (thermosensitive compounds) with VMAE were higher than that with MAE or HRE by increments of 6.4-9.4% and 7.9-29.5%, respectively. In contrast, there was no obvious difference among the extraction yields for emodin and quercetin (thermo-stable compounds) with VMAE, MAE and HRE, except that the solvent consumption in VMAE was decreased. The results suggest that VMAE is a good alternative for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigments, especially thermosensitive compounds, from Chinese herbs. PMID:18534606

Wang, Jun-Xia; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Li, Gong-Ke

2008-07-11

316

Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

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A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

2009-07-15

317

Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

318

Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commercial herb and spice extracts against selected food-borne bacteria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of extracts of thirty commercial herbs and spices commonly used in the production of ready meals. Various extracts of spices were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas fluorescens using a microdilution broth method. Ethanol and hexane extracts of oregano, clove, sage, rosemary and celery showed relatively strong antimicrobial activities against all bacteria tested. In contrast, water extracts displayed little or no antimicrobial activity. Flow cytometry revealed that cell membrane structures were damaged by spice and herb active extracts, while analysis of intra- and extracellular ATP contents of bacteria indicated that an increase in extracellular ATP was partially due to intracellular leakage. Extract combinations assessed using the checkerboard method did not display synergistic effects, however, some additive effects were observed when oregano was combined with sage or rosemary against L. innocua or S. aureus. This study has demonstrated that some commercial spice extracts have antimicrobial activity against food-borne bacterial species and may be considered as potential antibacterial agents for addition to ready meals.

Anna M Witkowska

2013-06-01

319

Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519

Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-08-10

320

Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2.  

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Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. PMID:20140802

Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Promkhatkaew, Duanthanorm; Bunjob, Malee; Chueyprom, Asawachai; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Availability of essential trace elements in medicinal herbs used for diabetes mellitus and their possible correlations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further, Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material (RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1-2 ?g/g), Rb (10-40 ?g/g), Cs (80-300 ng/g), Se (?100 ng/g) and Zn (25-60 ?g/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2±1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 ?g/g whereas Cd and Pb were in ?5 ?g/g and <10 ?g/g, respectively. (author)

322

Identification and evaluation of agents isolated from traditionally used herbs against Ophiophagus hannah venom.  

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The aim of this study was firstly to identify active molecules in herbs, that are traditionally used for the treatment of snake bite, such as Curcuma antinaia, Curcuma contravenenum, Andrographis paniculata, and Tanacetum parthenium; secondly to test similar structurally related molecules and finally to prepare and evaluate an efficient formulation against Ophiophagus hannah venom intoxification. Three labdane based compounds, including labdane dialdehyde, labdane lactone, and labdane trialdehyde and two lactones including 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and parthenolide were isolated by column chromatography and characterised. Using the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the antagonistic effect of crude extracts, isolated compounds and prepared formulations were measured in vitro on the inhibition of the neuromuscular transmission. Inhibition on muscle contraction, produced by the 5 ?g/mL venom, was reversed by test agents in organ bath preparations. A labdane trialdehyde, isolated from C. contravenenum, was identified as the best antagonising agent in the low micromolar range. Tests on formulations of the most potent C. contravenenum extract showed, that the suppository with witepsol H15 was an effective medicine against O. hannah venom. This study elucidated the active compounds, accounting for the antivenin activity of traditionally used herbs and suggested the most suitable formulation, which may help to develop potent medicines for the treatment of snake bite in the future. PMID:22460424

Salama, R; Sattayasai, J; Gande, A K; Sattayasai, N; Davis, M; Lattmann, E

2012-02-01

323

Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

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A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

2009-07-01

324

The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Herbs as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplements in animal production. Garlic (Allium sativum, turmeric (Curcuma Longa and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum have been widely used as medicinal and growth promoter purposes in animals. However, the information of the effect of these herbs on broiler production, especially under tropical environmental condition is still inadequate. About 240 days old chicks were randomly allocated to 10 treatment groups consisting of 3 replications of 8 chicks in each pen. The experimental groups were formulated consisting of non-supplemented (control and supplemented diets. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diet as follows; garlic, turmeric and cinnamon were incorporated at three concentrations; 0.25, 0.5 and 1% into the basal diet (mash form. The overall body weight gain of broiler chickens fed with 0.25% turmeric, 0.5% garlic and 0.5% cinnamon found to be significant different compared with the control group. From the result of present study, it could be suggested that the use of powdered garlic (Allium sativum as feed additive at level of 0.5% as it proved be significantly different in body weight gain and FCR compared with the control group.

A.R. Alimon

2012-01-01

325

The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.  

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In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401

?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan

2014-01-01

326

Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.  

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Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. PMID:23122119

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-15

327

The chemical composition and membrane stability activity of some herbs used in local therapy for anemia.  

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The chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx (Sobo in a Nigerian language), Theobroma cacao Linn. (N.O. Sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) were determined. These herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. Ash content was from 3.5 to 7.2%, tannin 7-46 mg/kg catechin equivalent, ascorbic acid content 250-625 mg/kg and total anthocyanin 57-150 mg/kg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent. Phytate was not detected in any sample but alkaloids and saponins were present except in Sobo. The decoctions contained 0.2-2.0% of the herbs' total tannin content while the pH was 3.2-6.7. Iron and zinc content was highest in Sobo while Theobroma cacao root contained the highest calcium and magnesium. Solubility and mineral availability were highest in the decoction of Sobo and lowest but available in Theobroma cacao root decoction. The decoction of Theobroma cacao exhibited a high membrane stabilizing activity while those of Sorghum bicolor and Hibiscus sabdariffa were only average. The study indicated that the herbal decoctions could provide some minerals and also help to stabilize the red blood cells from stress injury. PMID:16039811

Falade, O S; Otemuyiwa, I O; Oladipo, A; Oyedapo, O O; Akinpelu, B A; Adewusi, S R A

2005-10-31

328

Sale of medicinal herbs in pharmacies and herbal stores in Hurlingham district, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedic [...] ine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: "malva" (Malva sp.), 18%; "manzanilla" (Matricaria recutita), 13%; "tilo" (Tilia sp.), 12%; "cuasia" (Picrasma crenata), 8%; and "boldo" (Peumus boldus), 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.

Hernán G., Bach; Marcelo L., Wagner; Rafael A., Ricco; Renée H., Fortunato.

329

Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paullinia cupana Kunth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents some comparisons about the influence of high doses of irradiation and biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids and flavonoids. Since raw materials are often contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, they can also result in serious human illness. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of microorganisms. Whether the essential oils, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation will be analyzed. The powdered and dehydrated herbs for and medical uses will be irradiated with electron bean applying doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated will be Paullinia cupana Kunth (popular name Guarana) is largely cultivated in Brazil and to very used as energetic drink, and Rhamus purshiana D.C. despite the nutritional value, this vegetable has important medicinal proprieties as depurate and diuretic. The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation will be analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography. (author)

330

Analysis of nutritional elements in Indian medicinal herbs used to cure general weakness  

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Full Text Available Concept of trace elements being “the Inorganic Switches” has evolved during last several decades. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicinal system also emphasises the importance of minor and trace elements in human health and disease. To evaluate elemental contents of some commonly used to cure general weakness, 3 medicine herbs namely Beezband (seeds, Gok-shur (fruit and Talmakhana (seeds have been analyzed for four minor (Na, K, Mg and Ca and eight trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry and flame photometry. Their accuracy was measured by replicate analyses. In general, elemental contents were found in varying amounts with large range. It is observed that many of medicinal herbs are enriched in one or more elements. Since these elements are bioavailable in natural form, probably in combination with organic constituents, these are likely to be easily assimilated by human Bodies. Besides them, two toxic elements Ni and Cd were also found in insignificant amounts as these are likely to have originated from environmental contamination.

Narendra Pal Singh

2012-04-01

331

Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc. PMID:10849504

Adimoelja, A

2000-01-01

332

Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

2006-11-01

333

Sale of medicinal herbs in pharmacies and herbal stores in Hurlingham district, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedic [...] ine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: "malva" (Malva sp.), 18%; "manzanilla" (Matricaria recutita), 13%; "tilo" (Tilia sp.), 12%; "cuasia" (Picrasma crenata), 8%; and "boldo" (Peumus boldus), 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.

Hernán G., Bach; Marcelo L., Wagner; Rafael A., Ricco; Renée H., Fortunato.

2014-04-01

334

Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation; Zbadanie mozliwosci wykorzystania wiazki elektronow w procesie wyjalawiania wybranych fitoterapeutykow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs.

Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

1996-12-31

335

Water deficit affects photosynthetic induction in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) growing in understorey and gap conditions / Déficit hídrico afeta a indução fotossintética em Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae) e em Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) desenvolvendo-se em condições de sub-bosque e de clareira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em florestas tropicais, a luz é considerada o recurso mais limitante para o crescimento e reprodução das plantas. Além da luz, o déficit hídrico leva invariavelmente à diminuição da fotossíntese. Assim, apesar do indiscutível papel da luz na assimilação de CO2 (A), espera-se que o déficit hídrico af [...] ete e limite a utilização da luz pelas plantas. Neste estudo, investigou-se como o déficit hídrico influenciou a indução fotossintética de uma espécie pioneira arbórea, Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), e de uma secundária, Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae), no sub-bosque e na clareira. As medidas foram feitas em junho e agosto de 2006 em plantas com aproximadamente dois anos. Em agosto, as plantas foram sujeitas a um período de 45 d sem chuva, caracterizando uma situação de déficit hídrico. O potencial hídrico foliar foi significativamente menor em agosto, na clareira e no sub-bosque (-2,5 e -3,8 MPa, respectivamente), do que em junho (-0,6 and -1,6 MPa, respectivamente). Em junho, ambas espécies apresentaram um rápido aumento em A após o pulso de luz saturante na clareira. Contudo, no sub-bosque, o aumento em A foi mais lento em B. forficata do que em E. leiocarpa. Em agosto, o déficit hídrico limitou o aumento em Amax em ambas espécies, indicando que a utilização potencial do aumento da irradiância foi reduzida por condições de déficit hídrico. A restrição em Amax foi menos pronunciada no sub-bosque, onde as plantas ao menos atingiram a irradiância de compensação, enquanto o ganho de carbono pela fotossíntese das plantas desenvolvidas na clareira não compensou a perda de carbono pela respiração. Abstract in english In tropical forests, light is considered the most limiting resource for plant growth and reproduction. Besides light, water deficit leads invariably to a decrease in photosynthesis. Thus, despite of the unquestionable role of light in CO2 assimilation (A), it is expected that water deficit affects a [...] nd limits the light utilization by plants. In this study, we investigated how water deficit influenced the photosynthetic induction of the early successional tree Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae) and the late successional Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae) in the understorey and in the forest gap. Field measurements were carried out in June and August 2006 in plants of approximately two-years-old. In August, the plants were subjected to a period of 45 d without rain characterizing a water deficit situation. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in August, both in forest gap and understorey (-2.5 and -3.8 MPa, respectively), than in June (-0.6 and -1.6 MPa, respectively). In June, both species presented a rapid increase in A after a saturating light pulse under gap conditions. However, in the understorey the increase in A was slower in B. forficata than in E. leiocarpa. In August water deficit limited the increase in Amax in both species, indicating that potential utilization of increasing irradiance was reduced by water deficit conditions. The constrain in Amax was less pronounced in the understorey where plants at least reached the irradiance compensation point, whereas carbon gain by photosynthesis of the plants grown in the gap did not compensate the carbon loss by respiration.

Maria T., Portes; Thiago H., Alves; Gustavo M., Souza.

336

Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl. Dans  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of > 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of > 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of < 30 µg/ml. Fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of each sample by open column chromatograph was obtained four fractions from each extract. Among the fractions, fraction 2 was the most active fraction which had a potent as anticancer agent. Cytotoxic activities assay of fraction 2’s showed that this fractions significantly decreased after irradiation of samples with doses up to 10 kGy. The thin layer chromatogram profiles of fraction 2 from irradiated and unirradiated samples showed that spot 2 and 3 gradually tended to fade. It is suggested that 7.5 and 10 kGy were the minimum and maximum irradiation dose for bacterial and mold/yeast decontamination with the initial contamination of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2 in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities.

E. Katrin

2011-12-01

337

Phytochemical studies of the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. (Asteraceae. 1. The components of a petroleum ether extract  

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Full Text Available Hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, triterpenes and sterols were shown to occur in the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. The following were obtained in crystalline form: n-triacontan, hexacosanol, (?-amyrin and lupeol. The presence of (?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, cholesterol and four unidentified sterols was demonstrated by gas chromatography.

Tadeusz Krzaczek

1988-03-01

338

Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise  

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This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.

Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island;)

1999-11-30

339

In vitro fermentation characteristics of two mushroom species, an herb, and their polysaccharide fractions, using chicken cecal contents as inoculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro fermentabilities of two mushrooms (Lentinus edodes--LenS; Tremella fuciformis--TreS), an herb (Astragalus membranaceus--AstS), and their polysaccharide fractions (LenE, TreE, and AstE) were investigated using microflora from chicken ceca. Polysaccharides were extracted using the hot water method. The mushrooms had lower polysaccharide yields (8 to 10%) than the herb (31%). Fermentation kinetics were determined using the in vitro cumulative gas production technique. End-products, such as gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia, were also determined. The gas profiles of intact materials were similar for AstS and LenS. The TreS had a diphasic digestion pattern. The extracts had similar profiles to the intact materials though gas production rates were faster. Intact materials tended to produce less VFA than the extracts though LenS and AstE had the highest total VFA production overall. Intact materials contained more protein than the extracts, and therefore resulted in more branched-chain fatty acids and ammonia. Fermentation kinetics and end-point products demonstrated differences in availability of substrates between the mushrooms and herb. These medicinal mushroom and herb materials, particularly their polysaccharide extracts, show promise in altering microbial activities and composition in chicken ceca. In vivo experiments are necessary for confirmation of this hypothesis. PMID:14601740

Guo, F C; Williams, B A; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

2003-10-01

340

Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Invasive Herb Solidago altissima (Asteraceae  

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Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the perennial herb Solidago altissima from populations within its introduced range in Japan to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking of invasion expansion. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 16 microsatellite primer sets were developed for S. altissima. The primer sets were tested on 70 individuals sampled from three populations in Japan. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with five to 25 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.46 to 0.92. Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of primers in S. altissima for future research on a wide range of applications, including tracking of invasion dynamics and investigating population genetics of the species.

Yuzu Sakata

2013-04-01

342

Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate

343

Herbs as new type of green inhibitors for acidic corrosion of steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulphuric acid by six different herb plants has been studied using a.c and d.c electrochemical techniques. The environmentally friendly investigated compounds are namely: thyme, coriander, hibiscus, anis, black cumin and Garden cress. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been successfully used to evaluate the performance of these compounds. The ac measurements showed that the dissolution process is activation controlled. Bode and theta diagrams show only one time constant ({tau}). Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate that the studied compounds are mixed-type inhibitors. The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the change of the constituent active materials of the compounds. Thyme, which contains the powerful antiseptic thymol as the active ingredient, offers excellent protection for steel surface. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Khamis, E. [Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 426 Ibrahimia Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); AlAndis, N. [College of Science, Chemistry Department, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

2002-09-01

344

Variation of phenolic acids from herb and roots of Salsola kali L.  

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Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic acids present as free and liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols after hydrolysis in Salsola kali L was done, together with comparison of their content in roots and herb. Analysis was conducted by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. Eleven phenolic acids were identified such as: protocatechuic, caffeic, gentisic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, syryngic, vanillic, ferulic, ?- and ß-resorcylic. Differences in composition of fraction of free phenolic acids and those liberated after hydrolysis were noticed. The amount of individual compounds were in the range between 0.10±0.04 mg/100 g of dry weight for p-OH-benzoic acid and 6.40±1.75 mg/100 g of dry weight for ferulic acid.

Krystyna Skalicka-Wo?niak

2009-09-01

345

The Measurement Of Uranium Concentration In Deferent (13) Types Of Natural Herb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research the uranium concentrations in (13) different types of natural herb samples had been measured, and to limit the level of contamination with radio nuclides.The determination of uranium concentration in these samples has been done by using CR-39 track detector, the nuclear reaction used a source of nuclear fission fragments is 235U (n,f) obtained by the bombardment of 235U with thermal neutrons from (Am-Be) neutron source which has a flux of (5000 n cm3 s-1).The results obtained show that the concentration of Uranium were calculated by comparison with standard samples, and varies from 0.235 ppm in (alum) type to 0.552 ppm in (Lazmender) type, all the results obtained are within the international levels as given by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) data

346

Antifungal activity and composition of essential oils of Conyza canadensis herbs and roots.  

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Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis. PMID:23049473

Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

2012-01-01

347

The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products

348

The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-15

349

[Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts. PMID:20143626

Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Cha?kina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

2009-01-01

350

Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23531917

Petiwala, Sakina M; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Johnson, Jeremy J

2013-01-01

351

Role of Some Medicinal Herbs Plants (Anise and Chamomile) in Male Rats Intoxicated with Metacide Pesticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function

352

Uterus-Relaxing Study of a Sudanese Herb (El-Hazha  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological effects of the Methanolic-extract (AH2 of El-Hazha and its sub-fractions. Approach: These investigations were carried out on in vitro isolated uterus preparations from Non-Pregnant (NP and Late-Pregnant rats (LP. In parallel displacement radio-ligand binding assay was performed for â-Adrenergic Receptors (â-ADR. Results: Showed that the herb and its different fractions produced dose-dependent relaxant effect (pConclusion: We validate the fractionation effect on its relaxant activity and found partial role for â-ADR on mediating this activity. Future study was recommended to isolate and investigate its active components to enhance this activity or to discover a new novel natural therapeutic agent(s.

Aimun A.E. Ahmed

2010-01-01

353

Microsatellite Markers in Rhodiola (Crassulaceae, a Medicinal Herb Genus Widely Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

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Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci are described for Rhodiola, a medicinal herb genus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods and Results: A total of 17 polymorphic microsatellite primer pairs were developed using the combined biotin-capture method. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12 across 192 individuals from R. bupleuroides, R. crenulata, R. fastigiata, and R. sacra, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.177 to 0.412 and from 0.363 to 0.578, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential use of this new set of microsatellite markers for genotyping individuals and estimating genetic diversity in Rhodiola.

Jianling You

2013-03-01

354

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM L -A FOLK UNANI MEDICINAL HERB  

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Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. widely used in traditional as well as folk medicinal systems is locally known as Gokhru and in unani as Kutta Jhad. In Amravati district (Maharashtra, it was found that the whole plants as well as leaves are used by hakims as blood purifier and in scabies. Here pharmacognostic studies are made regarding whole plant and also only leaves. For standardization of drug material morphological and anatomical characterization is done. Phytochemical investigations were made to know the presence of various bioactive molecules, amino acid composition and minerals. The herb is characterized by unisexual capitula, scabrid surface with scales, trichomes and glands. Root with pith and multiseriate rays; stem with secondary growth restricted to fascicles and xylem with broad vessel elements; mesophyll with multilayered palisade and anomocytic stomata. Plant is rich in potassium and containing flavonoids, catechol, alkaloids, cardenoloids and many free amino acids.

Bhogaonkar P Y

2012-01-01

355

Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aphrodisiac is a type of food or drink that has the effect of making those who eat or drink it more aroused in a sexual way. Aphrodisiacs can be categorized according to their mode of action into three groups: substances that increase libido (i.e., sexual desire, arousal), substances that increase sexual potency (i.e., effectiveness of erection) and substances that increase sexual pleasure. Some well-known aphrodisiacs are Tribulus terrestrins, Withania somnifera, Eurycoma longifolia, Avena sativa, Ginko biloba, and Psoralea coryifolia. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants as aphrodisiacs. The paper reviews the recent scientific validation on traditionally used herbal plants as aphrodisiac herbs for the management of sexual disorder erectile dysfunction. PMID:21485695

Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Gupta, Vipin Bihari; Vyas, Savita

2011-01-01

356

Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis for prostate cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol are known to possess antioxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

JeremyJohnson

2013-03-01

357

In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb  

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Full Text Available Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combination of phytoharmone. The maximum number of shoots (18.3±0.8 was obtained on M.S. medium supplemented with BAP + KIN (1.5 + 0.5 mg/L. The highest rooting percentage (95.25 was observed with (IAA 0.1 mg/L. The rooted plants were successfully established firstly in soil with coco peat (1:1 and then directly in ordinary soil.

RAVINDRA ADE

2012-11-01

358

Development of Antarctic herb tundra vegetation near Arctowski station, King George Island  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the development of the Antarctic herb tundra vegetation formation in relation to the history of deglaciation across a range of habitats near H. Arctowski Research Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Across the three identified environmental zones (coastal, intermediate, periglacial), we quantified the total vegetation cover, cover of the two indigenous flowering plants and bryophytes, age structure and reproductive features of the two flowering plants, and species diversity of mosses and liverworts. Analysis of these data supported the recognition of the three environmental zones; however, there were few indications of systematic differences in biological features of the two higher plants across the three zones, generally supporting the view that these, and the grass Deschampsia antarctica in particular, are effective primary colonists of recently deglaciated ground in this region.

Kozeretska, I. A.; Parnikoza, I. Yu.; Mustafa, O.; Tyschenko, O. V.; Korsun, S. G.; Convey, P.

2010-01-01

359

Antihyperglycemic activity of herb extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of herb extracts, Rhus verniciflua, Agrimonia pilosa, Sophora japonica, and Paeonia suffruticosa, on the lowering of blood glucose levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 4 weeks, oral administration of Rhus verniciflua extract (50 mg/kg) exhibited a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (P<0.05). Blood TBARS concentrations, the products of glucose oxidation in blood, were also lowered by Rhus verniciflua extract supplementation. In addition, Sophora japonica and Paeonia suffruticosa extracts significantly reduced TBARS levels versus diabetic controls. Serum concentrations of liver-function marker enzymes, GOT and GPT, were also restored by Rhus verniciflua (50 mg/kg) supplementation in diabetic rats. PMID:17031059

Jung, Chang Hwa; Zhou, Song; Ding, Guo Xun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hong, Myung Hee; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Gyung Jun; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2006-10-01

360

Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aqueous extracts from 21 medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China were screened for antiviral activities against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Three extracts from Agrimonia pilosa, Pithecellobium clypearia and Punica granatum, respectively, showed anti-HSV-1 activity, which was possibly contributed by the polyphenolic compounds in the herbal extracts. Six of the extracts, from Blumea laciniata, Elephantopus scaber, Laggera pterodonta, Mussaenda pubescens, Schefflera octophylla and Scutellaria indica, respectively, exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 32 microg/mL, and selective indices (SI) ranging from 11.2 to 40. In addition to polyphenolic compounds, other constituents present in these extracts may also contribute to their anti-RSV activity. PMID:15478204

Li, Yaolan; Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; But, Paul P H; Ooi, Vincent E C

2004-09-01

362

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of commonly used South asian herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

2013-10-01

363

New data on thermoluminescence of inorganic dust from herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic dusts from different herbs and spices are investigated in this study using both standard thermoluminescence measurements of integrated intensity versus temperature and measurements of the thermoluminescence emission spectra (intensity as a function of both temperature and wavelength). The importance of particular minerals in the composition of glow peaks detected is discussed. Thermoluminescence emission spectra of the samples studied reveal (i) the presence of a broad high-intensity signal in the red to infra-red spectral region in all irradiated polymineral dusts; (ii) the hitherto unsuspected importance of calcite in the polymineral fractions of the dust; (iii) the existence of high-temperature unbleachable peaks from the silicate fraction in the orange to near infra-red portions of the emission spectrum; and (iv) the potential for quantification of absorbed dose. Discrimination between irradiated and un-irradiated spices appears to be feasible. (author)

364

Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers from the Chinese Medicinal Herb Atractylodes macrocephala (Asteraceae  

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Full Text Available Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (Asteraceae is an economically important Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from A. macrocephala using the compound microsatellite marker technique. Levels of polymorphism within the 15 markers were assessed using 83 individuals from two wild and two cultivated populations in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, with an average of 9.9 alleles. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.083 to 1.000 and from 0.097 to 0.938, respectively. These markers will be valuable for germplasm classi?cation and identi?cation, as well as for assessing the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure among wild and cultivated populations of A. macrocephala.

Cheng-Xin Fu

2012-11-01

365

Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamide toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The herb, Phyllanthus niruri has been known to possess protective activity against various drugs and toxins induced hepatic disorders. Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of the protein isolate of the herb against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cytotoxicity in mice hepatocytes. In vitro cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) leakage were measured as the indicators of cell damage. In addition, measurement of the level of non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH); activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation were carried out to evaluate the prooxidant-antioxidant status of the cell. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed to determine the radical scavenging activity of the protein isolate. Results showed that the administration of the protein isolate prior to TAA exposure significantly reduced the release of LDH and ALT leakage and enhanced the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes. Besides, the protein isolate appeared to prevent the alterations in GSH levels and activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes related to prooxidant-antioxidant status of hepatocytes. It also reduced the TAA-induced lipid peroxidation significantly as demonstrated by the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the protein isolate possessed radical scavenging activity. Combining, the data suggest that the protein isolate could protect hepatocytes from TAA-induced cellular injury probably by its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. PMID:17913477

Sarkar, Mrinal K; Sil, Parames C

2007-10-01

366

Trait variations along a regenerative chronosequence in the herb layer of submediterranean forests  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e.g., geophytes, spring green leaves, rhizomes, and mesomorphic/hygromorphic leaves).

Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hršak, Vladimir

2012-08-01

367

Recent Trends in Potential Traditional Indian Herbs Emblica Officinalis and Its Medicinal Importance  

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Full Text Available Emblica Officinalis is a natural, efficacious, an antioxidant with the richest natural source of Vitamin C. Emblica Officinalis berries have the highest amount of naturally occurring vitamin C of any ripe fruit in the world used as a traditional food. Numerous studies conducted on Emblica Officinalis fruit suggest that it has anti-viral properties and also functions as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent. The gelatinous plum-sized Amla fruit contains naturally occurring vitamin, heat stable vitamin C. A clinical study on patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed that the vitamin C contained in Emblica Officinalis was better assimilated than synthetic vitamin C. Further research of contemporary and traditional medical literature indicates that Emblica Officinalis either in combination with other herbs or alone has been useful in the amelioration of colds, warts, skin afflictions, influenza, anemia, diabetes, lung conditions, elevated cholesterol and as an immune restorative in cancer conditions. It is one of the best natural antiageing remedies Emblica Officinalis is used in treatment of Acne and other skin problems. Emblica Officinalis is amazingly effective natural anti-ageing product. Emblica Officinalis is very effective in treatment of Acidity and Peptic ulcers. Emblica Officinalis is rich in Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, essential amino acids and many other vitamins and minerals and anti-oxidants. Regular Use of Emblica Officinalis improves immunity, fights cancers, rejuvenates the body. It fights chronic diseases like hypertension, high Cholesterol, Diabetes, AIDS, influenza, Chronic cough and cold, Chronic infections, Chronic fatigue and Chronic inflammatory conditions. Ayurveda describes it as one of the best herbs for Diabetes, bleeding disorders, strength and stamina promoter.

Lokesh Deb

2012-05-01

368

Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a 60Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

369

Effects of Chinese herbs on salivary fluid secretion by isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands  

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Full Text Available AIM: To determine whether Chinese herbs (CHs relieve xerostomia (dry mouth by increasing salivary secretion.METHODS: The submandibular glands of Wistar rats were surgically isolated and perfused arterially with buffered salt solution. After control perfusion, recording started 5 min prior to the start of stimulation. After fluid secretion was induced by 0.2 ?mol/L carbamylcholine (CCh in the perfusate for 10 min, Chinese herb (CH was added in the perfusion for 5 min. CCh was then overloaded at 0.2 ?mol/L in the perfusion for 20 min. The volume of salivary fluid secretion was recorded by a computer-controlled balance system.RESULTS: Saliva secretion formed an initial ephemeral peak at 30 s followed by a gradual increase to a sustained level. CH alone induced no or little saliva in all types of CH selected. During perfusion with CH, overloading of CCh promoted fluid secretion in 15 of 20 CHs. This promotion was classified into four patterns, which were eventually related to the categories of CH: Overall sustained phase was continuously raised (Yin-nourishing, fluid production-promoting and heat-clearing agents; The sustained secretion rose to reach a maximum then decreased (Qi-enhancing agent; Sustained secretion rose to reach the highest maximum and was then sustained with a slight decline (swelling-reducing, phlegm-resolving and pus-expelling agents; Stimulation of salivary secretion without any added stimulants. Addition of CCh raised the fluid secretion to reach the highest maximum then sharply decreased to a lower sustained level (blood activating agent.CONCLUSION: The present findings lead to the conclusion that various CHs have different promotional effects directly on the salivary gland.

Masataka Murakami, Mu-Xin Wei, Wei Ding, Qian-De Zhang

2009-08-01

370

The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

Barikmo Ingrid

2010-01-01

371

An overview of the evidence and mechanisms of herb-drug interactions  

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Full Text Available Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complimentary medicine is globally popular. There is also increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor of pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is their concurrent consumption with conventional drugs. Herb-drug interaction (HDI is the single most important clinical consequences of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes; the induction and inhibition of transport proteins and stimulation of changes to hepatic and renal functions leading to alteration in drug elimination profiles. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors in compiling clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism and nature of evidence available. The potential of new chemical entities to be involved in HDIs should be considered in their non-clinical safety assessment during the drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications to increase the level of awareness among health professionals.

BerndRosenkranz

2012-04-01

372

A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of Chinese Herbs for Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

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Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCM’s action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD, one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7% of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., “multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease”. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines.

Yonghua Wang

2012-10-01

373

The "Trillium" Child: A New Type of Gifted Underachiever.  

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A new type of gifted underachiever, the child who excels in regular education but becomes discouraged and withdraws from challenges in special gifted programs, is described. Coping and self-evaluation strategies to help the child are discussed. (MSE)

Krissman, Abbe L.

1989-01-01

374

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a molecular vascular target for the Chinese herb Danshen in hypertension  

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Danshen, a Chinese herb, reduces hypertension in Oriental medicine. We hypothesized that Danshen acts partially through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis using tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Danshen, and the two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension model in hamsters. Oral tanshinone (50 õg/100 g body wt) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 161.2 ñ 6.9 to 130.0 ñ 7.8 mmHg (mean ñ SE; P hypertensive hamsters. MAP in sham-operated hamsters was 114.3 ñ 9.2 mmHg. Topical tanshinone at 1 õg/ml and 5 õg/ml increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.00 to 1.25 ñ 0.08 and 1.57 ñ 0.11, respectively, and increased periarteriolar nitric oxide concentration from 87.1 ñ 11.3 to 146.9 ñ 23.1 nM (P Hypertension reduced eNOS protein relative to sham-operated control. Tanshinone prevented the hypertension-induced reduction of eNOS and increased eNOS expression to levels higher than sham-operated control in hamster cheek pouch. Topical tanshinone increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.0 to 1.47 ñ 0.08 in the cremaster muscle of control mice and to 1.12 ñ 0.13 in cremasters of eNOS knockout mice. In ECV-304 cells transfected with eNOS-green fluorescent protein, tanshinone increased eNOS protein expression 1.35 ñ 0.05- and 1.85 ñ 0.07-fold above control after 5-min and 1-h application, respectively. Tanshinone also increased eNOS phosphorylation 1.19 ñ 0.07- and 1.72 ñ 0.20-fold relative to control after 5-min and 1-h application. Our data provide a basis to understand the action of a Chinese herb used in alternative medicine. We conclude that eNOS stimulation is one mechanism by which tanshinone induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure.

David Kim (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Fabiola Sánchez (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Ricardo G Durán (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Takehito Kanetaka (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Walter Durán (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery)

2006-12-15

375

Quantitation of chlorophylls and 22 of their colored degradation products in culinary aromatic herbs by HPLC-DAD-MS and correlation with color changes during the dehydration process.  

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Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects. PMID:24483726

Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie

2014-02-26

376

A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.  

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Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. PMID:24518346

Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

2014-07-01

377

Protective effects of a preparation(hemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in whole body irradiated mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

overy of the immune system against radiation damage. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages

378

Phenological Episodes and Reproductive Strategies of Inula racemosa (Asteraceae-a Critically Endangered Medicinal Herb of North West Himalaya  

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Full Text Available The phenological episodes of a plant are governed by the eco-edaphic conditions it grows in, which in turn direct and dictate the strategies of the plant in general and alpine herbs in particular. The structure of such communities thus determines the behaviour and functioning of a particular species on a particular habitat. The present study was carried out to unravel the phenological behaviour and strategies of Inula racemosa (Asteraceae, a critically endangered medicinal herb of North West Himalaya. The study was carried out for a period of 36 months to monitor the various developmental features in four different geographical areas of Kashmir Himalaya, which is highly useful in terms of its prescription and panacea for development of conservation strategies, multiplication, domestication and genetic improvement of the species.

Parvaiz A. Wani

2006-01-01

379

Breve glosario bilingüe inglés-español de plantas medicinales / Brief bilingual English-Spanish glossary of herbs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El uso de las plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades ha demandado, en el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de las asignaturas Inglés VII, VIII, IX y X, la búsqueda de los nombres de dichas plantas en ese idioma, así como su pronunciación aproximada, lo cual se ofrece en un breve g [...] losario sobre la materia. Abstract in english The use of herbs in the treatment of some diseases has demanded, in the teaching-learning process of the English subjects VII, VIII, IX and X, the search of the names of these herbs in that language, as well as their approximate pronunciation, which is offered in a brief glossary on the topic. [...

Franklin, Brito Laserra; Matilde, Silega Larduet; Concepción, Pastoriza Gimeno; Raiza, Cardero Ochoa.

2057-20-01

380

Breve glosario bilingüe inglés-español de plantas medicinales Brief bilingual English-Spanish glossary of herbs  

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Full Text Available El uso de las plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades ha demandado, en el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de las asignaturas Inglés VII, VIII, IX y X, la búsqueda de los nombres de dichas plantas en ese idioma, así como su pronunciación aproximada, lo cual se ofrece en un breve glosario sobre la materia.The use of herbs in the treatment of some diseases has demanded, in the teaching-learning process of the English subjects VII, VIII, IX and X, the search of the names of these herbs in that language, as well as their approximate pronunciation, which is offered in a brief glossary on the topic.

Franklin Brito Laserra

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives  

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Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

Marta E. Petenatti

2011-12-01

382

Synergistic inhibition on acetylcholinesterase by the combination of berberine and palmatine originally isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

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Alzheimer's disease is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder devastatingly affecting the aged population worldwide. Previous studies have shown that medicinal herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine might be benefit to Alzheimer's disease patients. Berberine and palmatine, two isoquinoline alkaloids found in several medicinal herbs, were used for memory enhancement in China. In this study, the inhibitory effects of combined berberine and palmatine on acetylcholinesteras were evaluated using recombinant human acetylcholinesterase. Our res