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Sample records for understorey herb trillium

  1. Pollen-mediated gene dispersal within continuous and fragmented populations of a forest understorey species, Trillium cuneatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Eva; Hamrick, J L; Smouse, P E; Dyer, R J

    2006-07-01

    Pollen movement plays a critical role in the distribution of genetic variation within and among plant populations. Direct measures of pollen movement in the large, continuous populations that characterize many herbaceous plant species are often technically difficult and biologically unreliable. Here, we studied contemporary pollen movement in four large populations of Trillium cuneatum. Three populations, located in the Georgia Piedmont, are exposed to strong anthropogenic disturbances, while the fourth population, located in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, is relatively undisturbed. Using the recently developed TwoGener analysis, we extracted estimates of the effective number of pollen donors (N(ep)), effective mating neighbourhood size (A(ep)) and the average distance of pollen movement (delta) for each population. We extended the TwoGener method by developing inference on the paternal gametic contribution to the embryo in situations where offspring genotypes are inferred from seeds and elaiosomes of species with bisporic megagametogenesis. Our estimates indicate that maternal plants do not sample pollen randomly from a global pool; rather, pollen movement in all four populations is highly restricted. Although the effective number of pollen donors per maternal plant is low (1.22-1.66) and pollen movement is highly localized in all populations, N(ep) in the disturbed Piedmont populations is higher and there is more pollen movement than in the mountains. The distance pollen moves is greater in disturbed sites and fragmented populations, possibly due to edge effects in Trillium habitats. PMID:16780423

  2. Mobile Trillium Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Mobile trillium engine development, integration and deployment in clustered environment“The air transport industry has a constantly growing mobile workforce and a complex, dynamic workflow that requires workers to access and act on the real time information. Rapid mobilization and automation of the key workflow process will allow air transport industry to reduce business cost, better management and improved customer services.” [1]The aim of this thesis is to develop a backend system that ...

  3. Spatial patterning and floral synchrony among trillium populations with contrasting histories of herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R; Jenkins, Michael A; Poznanovic, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the spatial patterning and floral synchrony within and among populations of a non-clonal, forest understory herb, Trillium catesbaei. Two populations of T. catesbaei within Great Smoky Mountains National Park were monitored for five years: Cades Cove (high deer abundance) and Whiteoak Sink (low deer abundance). All individuals within each population were mapped during year one and five. Only flowering and single-leaf juveniles were mapped during intervening years. Greater distances between flowering plants (plants currently in flower) and substantially lower population densities and smaller patch sizes were observed at Cades Cove versus Whiteoak Sink. However, with the exception of flowering plants, contrasting histories of herbivory did not appear to fundamentally alter the spatial patterning of the T. catesbaei population at Cades Cove, an area with a long and well-documented history of deer overabundance. Regardless of browse history, non-flowering life stages were significantly clustered at all spatial scales examined. Flowering plants were clustered in all years at Whiteoak Sink, but more often randomly distributed at Cades Cove, possibly as a result of their lower abundance. Between years, however, there was a positive spatial association between the locations of flowering plants at both sites. Flowering rate was synchronous between sites, but lagged a year behind favorable spring growing conditions, which likely allowed plants to allocate photosynthate from a favorable year towards flowering the subsequent year. Collectively, our results suggest that chronically high levels of herbivory may be associated with spatial patterning of flowering within populations of a non-clonal plant. They also highlight the persistence of underlying spatial patterns, as evidenced by high levels of spatial clustering among non-flowering individuals, and the pervasive, although muted in a population subjected to chronic herbivory, influence of precipitation and temperature on flowering in long-lived forest herbs. PMID:25737821

  4. The role of seed bank in the dynamics of understorey in an oak forest in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncz, G; Papp, Mária; Török, P; Kotroczó, Zs; Krakomperger, Zs; Matus, G; Tóthmérész, B

    2010-01-01

    We studied the potential role of seed bank in the dynamics of the understorey in a turkey oak-sessile oak forest (Querceteum petraeae-cerris) in Hungary. We used long-term records of the herb layer (1973-2006) and the seed bank composition of 2006 to assess the role of seed bank in the regeneration of herb layer. The total cover of herb layer decreased from 22% (1973) to 6% (1988), and remained low (seed bank (ca. 1300 seeds/m2). Altogether 33 species were germinated from the soil samples. A few generalist weed species composed the majority of seed bank. It was possible to assign a seed bank type for 19 species; 14 species out of 19 was long-term persistent. We found that the characteristic perennial forest herbs and grasses had only sparse seed bank. The Jaccard similarity between vegetation and seed bank was low (seed bank; it should be based on vegetative spreading and/or seed rain. PMID:21565769

  5. Height increment of understorey Norway spruces under different tree canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Laiho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stands having advance regeneration of spruce are logical places to start continuous cover forestry (CCF in fertile and mesic boreal forests. However, the development of advance regeneration is poorly known. Methods: This study used regression analysis to model the height increment of spruce understorey as a function of seedling height, site characteristics and canopy structure. Results: An admixture of pine and birch in the main canopy improves the height increment of understorey. When the stand basal area is 20 m2ha-1 height increment is twice as fast under pine and birch canopies, as compared to spruce. Height increment of understorey spruce increases with increasing seedling height. Between-stand and within-stand residual variation in the height increment of understorey spruces is high. The increment of 1/6 fastestgrowing seedlings is at least 50% greater than the average. Conclusions: The results of this study help forest managers to regulate the density and species composition of the stand, so as to obtain a sufficient height development of the understorey. In pure and almost pure spruce stands, the stand basal area should be low for a good height increment of the understorey.

  6. Comparative Study of Understorey Birds Diversity Inhabiting Lowland Rainforest Virgin Jungle Reserve and Regenerated Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Hashim, Ezyan; Ramli, Rosli

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of understorey birds inhabiting different habitats, that is, virgin jungle reserve (VJR) and regenerated forest (RF), was conducted in Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve and Selangor and Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to assess the diversity of understorey birds in both habitats and the effects of forest regeneration on the understorey bird community. The mist-netting method was used to capture understorey birds inhabiti...

  7. Evaluation of the INTERCOM model for predicting growth of forest herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Popovi? Zorica S.; Lindquist J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The ecophysiological model INTERCOM was evaluated for its suitability in predicting the growth of perennial forest herbs. A field experiment was conducted to obtain data on photosynthesis and growth parameters of two spring flowering understorey geophytes. Results were used to parameterize the model and its performance was evaluated using the average normalized difference (AE) between predicted and observed biomass and the leaf area index. The model was assumed to provide accurate simulations...

  8. The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter la pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

  9. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Herbs at a Glance Herbs at a Glance is ... mail instructions above. Acai Aloe Vera Asian Ginseng Astragalus Bilberry Bitter Orange Black Cohosh Bromelain Butterbur Cat's ...

  10. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and composition between different shade-casting canopy species, the eventual outcome in the prolonged absence of light is independent of dominant canopy species.

  11. Herbs in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

    2011-12-01

    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784

  12. Radiolysis of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

  13. Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals Aloe The aloe plant, a member of the lily family, is a common household plant ... Acid Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin found in many vegetables, beans, fruits, whole grains, ...

  14. Medicinal Herb Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by common names Map of the Garden by UW Campus Landscape Architect William Talley. Project Credits and ... moved" in the meantime. © 1994-2012 Michael Boer. UW Medicinal Herb Garden: An unofficial hypertext tour and ...

  15. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jody R., Stallings.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry pla [...] ntations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  16. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  17. Methods for describing light capture by understorey weeds in temperate forests: consequences for tree regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Balandier, P.; Marquier, A.; Gaudio, N.; Wehrlen, L.; Casella, E.; Coll, L.; Kiewitt, A.; Harmer, R.

    2009-01-01

    Light quantity and light quality are two of the main environmental factors controlling the success of seed germination, seedling establishment and growth of trees in the understorey of our temperate forests. Increasing light availability by the practice of thinning also promotes the development of the ground vegetation, graminoids, forbs and shrubs, which may affect tree regeneration. These plants can intercept a significant fraction of the available light in the understorey and thus the resu...

  18. Photosynthetic Induction and Leaf Carbon Gain in the Tropical Understorey Epiphyte, Aspasia principissa

    OpenAIRE

    Zotz, Gerhard; Mikona, Cord

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange of the understorey epiphyte Aspasia principissa was studied in fluctuating light conditions both in the laboratory and in the field, testing the hypothesis that vascular epiphytes differ from most terrestrial understorey plants in showing a higher priority for water conservation. Consequently, a slow response of stomatal conductance to sudden increases in incident photon flux density (PFD) was expected, as was a fast loss of induction after such a light fleck. Results were only p...

  19. Growth and morphology of three forest understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea and Pteridium aquilinum) according to light availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Dumas, Y.; Ginisty, C.

    2011-01-01

    Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea and Pteridium aquilinum are three forest understorey species that compete with tree seedlings for environmental resources. Forest managers therefore seek to control their growth, which is driven in part by the light available in the forest understorey. An experiment was set up in a nursery in which the three understorey species C. vulgaris, M. caerulea and P. aquilinum were planted at six light levels (6, 11, 22, 36, 48 and 100% of full sunlight) replicated ...

  20. DYNAMICS STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY VEGETATION INFLUENCED BY LOGGING IN A SOLID GROUND FOREST, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOJU, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Silva Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989283The structure dynamics of an understorey vegetation influenced by gaps caused by reduced impact logging was analyzed during 12 years in a solid ground rain forest in the municipality of Moju, Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon forest. Angiosperm individuals from 10 cm height up to 5 cm DBH were surveyed in a 468 m² sample area in six occasions (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 and 2010, they were analyzed considering their life-forms (trees, shrub, lianas, herbs and palms, abundance, frequency, size classes (CT1 = 10 cm ? HT < 50 cm; CT2 = 50 cm ? HT < 130 cm; CT3 = 130 cm < HT and DAP < 2 cm; and CT4 = 2 cm ? DAP < 5 cm and relative natural regeneration Burseraceae, Marantaceae, Violaceae and Lecythidaceae were the most important families in the study area in every occasions, while the most representative species were Monotagma sp1., Monotagma sp2., Rinorea guianensis, Lecythis idatimon e Protium pilosum. The most frequent life forms were trees, herbs and lianas in all occasions. The dynamics of life forms depended on light intensity. The establishment of commercial and potentially commercial species was favored by gaps, suggesting that natural regeneration of those species do not need to be assisted for guaranteeing timber stocks for future harvests.

  1. Herbs in exercise and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

  2. Counteracting gradients of light and soil nutrients in the understorey of Mediterranean oak forests

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    L. V. García

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest canopy modifies the availability of resources (light, water, and soil nutrients in the understorey. In this paper we analyze the relationships between woody canopy density, litter accumulation, and topsoil N and P availability in the understorey of two oak forests: one in southern Portugal and the other in southern Spain. Both forests persist on low-nutrient soils, particularly poor in P. We hypothesize that direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey cause opposite gradients in the availability of essential resources (light and key soil nutrients in the understorey. In both studied forests we found significant relationships between the overall canopy density, light availability, topsoil litter accumulation, and the availability of N and P, which frequently limit plant growth. Path analysis (by Shipley’s d-sep method showed that the available data were consistent with the proposed causal model. The average values of soil variables at the end quartiles of the light-availability gradient were compared. Results showed large differences in litter accumulation (~30× and available-N and -P topsoil concentrations (~3× in the Spanish forest (with the wider environmental gradient. Furthermore, P increased from the “very low” range to the “low” or even the “optimum” range of availability (according to standard plant growth criteria, which suggests potential effects on the growth of the understorey plant species. We conclude that the counteracting gradients of the essential resources – light and nutrients – in the forest understorey resulted from direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey, respectively. We suggest that these counteracting effects of the woody canopy on essential resources of different nature must be considered when interpreting the patterns of understorey plant populations and communities.

  3. Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Válio Ivany Ferraz Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD. Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1- total height; 2- leaf number; 3- leaf dry mass;4- stem dry mass; 5- root dry mass; 6- stem length/mass; 7-shoot/root mass; 8- percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.

  4. HERBE final safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

  5. Evaluation of the INTERCOM model for predicting growth of forest herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovi? Zorica S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological model INTERCOM was evaluated for its suitability in predicting the growth of perennial forest herbs. A field experiment was conducted to obtain data on photosynthesis and growth parameters of two spring flowering understorey geophytes. Results were used to parameterize the model and its performance was evaluated using the average normalized difference (AE between predicted and observed biomass and the leaf area index. The model was assumed to provide accurate simulations if the AE was smaller than 0.4. Adjusting the photosynthetic intensity parameters in the model to reflect observed changes in photosynthesis throughout the growing period resulted in the accurate prediction of Scilla bifolia and Arum maculatum biomass (AE=0.13 and AE=0.021, respectively and LAI (AE=-0.16 and AE=-0.08, respectively. Ecophysiological models may be useful tools for predicting the biomass accumulation of forest understorey species in response to varying environmental conditions, which could be useful for monitoring forest ecosystem health.

  6. Travelling to a former sea floor: colonization of forests by understorey plant species on land recently reclaimed from the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pierik, M.; Ruijven, J.; Bezemer, T. M.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What are important forest characteristics determining colonization of forest patches by forest understorey species? Location: Planted forests on land recently reclaimed from the sea, the Netherlands. Methods: We related the distribution of forest specialist species in the understorey of 55 forests in Dutch IJsselmeer polders to the following forest characteristics: age, area, connectivity, distance to mainland (as a proxy for distance to seed source) and path density. We used speci...

  7. Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea L. in Tunisia as influenced by canopy cover, litter biomass and understorey vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Adili, B.; El Aouni, M. H.; Garchi, S.; Balandier, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinea is one of the most valuable species used in Tunisia in the reforestation program. This species is shade-intolerant and hence needs light to correctly regenerate. It is also influenced by the understorey vegetation and the litter biomass, both also correlated to light availability. To quantify the importance of these different factors, the natural regeneration and evolution of the biomass of understorey vegetation and litter were studied in artificial forests of Pinus pinea located...

  8. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mili?, Natasa; Milosevi?, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozi?, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

  9. Effects of tree species composition on within-forest distribution of understorey species

    OpenAIRE

    Oijen, D.; Feijen, M.; Hommel, P. W. F. M.; Ouden, J.; Waal, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Question: Do tree species, with different litter qualities, affect the within-forest distribution of forest understorey species on intermediate to base-rich soils? Since habitat loss and fragmentation have caused ancient forest species to decline, those species are the main focus of this study. Location: Three ancient forests, along a soil gradient from acidification-sensitive to base-rich, were studied: Limbrichterbosch and Savelsbos in The Netherlands and Holtkrat in Denmark. Methods: Canop...

  10. Direct and indirect effects of understorey bamboo shape tree regeneration niches in a mixed temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Fernando D; Chaneton, Enrique J; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Plant cover plays a major role in shaping the nature of recruitment microsites through direct (resource mediated) and indirect (consumer mediated) interactions. Understorey plants may differentially affect seedling establishment, thus contributing to regeneration-niche separation among canopy tree species. We examined patterns of early tree seedling survival resulting from interactive effects of understorey bamboo (Chusquea culeou) and resident consumers in a mixed temperate Patagonian forest, Argentina. Newly germinated seedlings of Nothofagus dombeyi and Austrocedrus chilensis were planted in bamboo thickets and non-bamboo patches, with or without small-vertebrate exclosures. We found species-specific patterns of seedling survival in relation to bamboo cover. Nothofagus survival was generally low but increased under bamboo, irrespective of cage treatment. Desiccation stress accounted for most Nothofagus mortality in open, non-bamboo areas. In contrast, Austrocedrus survival was highest in non-bamboo microsites, as most seedlings beneath bamboo were killed by small vertebrates through direct consumption or non-trophic physical damage. There was little evidence for a negative impact of bamboo on tree seedling survival attributable to resource competition. The balance of simultaneous positive and negative interactions implied that bamboo presence facilitated Nothofagus early establishment but inhibited Austrocedrus recruitment via apparent competition. These results illustrate the potential for dominant understorey plants to promote microsite segregation during early stages of recruitment between tree seedlings having different susceptibilities to water stress and herbivory. We recognise, however, that patterns of bamboo-seedling interactions may be conditional on moisture levels and consumer activity during establishment. Hence, both biotic and abiotic heterogeneity in understorey environments should be incorporated into conceptual models of regeneration dynamics and tree coexistence in forest communities. PMID:19590896

  11. Phyllanthus Niruri: A magic Herb

    OpenAIRE

    Paithankar V. V.; Raut K. S; Charde R. M; Vyas J. V

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal herbs are significant source of pharmaceutical drugs. Latest trends haveshown increasing demand of phytodrugs and some medicinal herbs have provenhepatotprotective potential. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular,cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseasesInflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherentlydetrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-inju...

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Metcalfe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests – understorey vegetation – at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

  13. Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H-Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied subtropical forests.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF BERRY CROPS AND HERBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits and herbs are good sources of natural antioxidants. In addition to usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, extracts of berries and herbs are also rich in anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Berry fruits and herbs have shown a remarkably high scavenging activity toward ch...

  15. Radioecological study of several herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Comparative radiological study of herbs being on the sale of city's drug stores which were collected from the areas contaminated with radioisotopes belonged to the great semi-split period at the result of Chernobyl catastrophe with the similar herbs typical to our Republic have been carried out. The study has found that the level of beta radioactivity contained in Radix unulae was tree times higher than local norms while Cormus Ledi represented about 10 times and Cortex Quercus 4 times higher proportion of beta radioactivity. Also radioactivity of Radix unulae growing in the local conditions was different from the norm which showed 12 times higher radioactivity comparing with other herbs. It was revealed that both gamma and beta radioactivity of other local herbs are meet the norms, except Radix inulae and Glycyrrhiza glabra. The study determined that the radioactivity on the leaf of clycyrrhiza glabra was in the norm while the trunk represented approximately 2 times and the root 10 times higher radioactivity. The overall study of clycyrrhiza glabra showed that radionuclides are mostly concentrated in the peel of the root, which has slightly differences from the acceptable norms in the peel. Finally, the radiation abnormality observed in Radix inulae and Clycyrriza glabra must be in the focus of their producers and users

  16. Sensitivity of understorey vegetation to nitrogen and sulphur deposition in a spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The response of understorey vegetation to addition of nitrogen and sulphur was examined in a 60-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand in southern Finland. The understorey vegetation was studied on experimental plots receiving nitrogen (25 kg N ha{sup -1}) and sulphur (30 kg S ha{sup -1}) as ammonium sulphate once a year for 4 years. The dominant moss species on the site were Pleurozium schreberi (Mitt.) and Dicranum polysetum (Sw.). The biomass of the dominant moss species was decreased significantly by sulphur and nitrogen deposition during the study period. Due to the addition of nitrogen and sulphur, the biomass of P. schreberi was decreased by 60% and the biomass of D. polysetum by 78%. Over a 4-year study period the responses of vascular plants to addition of nitrogen and sulphur were not significant. Forest-floor mosses seemed to be more sensitive to nitrogen and sulphur deposition than vascular plants. Since bryophytes lack a cuticle and absorb water very rapidly after rain, they are exposed more to the direct effects of acid deposition than other plants. Thus, mosses may indicate changes in forest vegetation due to acid deposition

  17. Phyllanthus Niruri: A magic Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paithankar V. V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal herbs are significant source of pharmaceutical drugs. Latest trends haveshown increasing demand of phytodrugs and some medicinal herbs have provenhepatotprotective potential. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular,cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseasesInflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherentlydetrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair,and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and ispartially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated MolecularPatterns; DAMP’s. DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of proinflammatorycytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  18. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Amit; Dubey Subodh; Gupta Alka; Kannojia Pushpendra; Tomar Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity d...

  19. Herb-Herb Combination for Therapeutic Enhancement and Advancement: Theory, Practice and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Wai Kei Lam; Moses Sing Sum Chow; Zhi Jun Wang; Chun-Tao Che

    2013-01-01

    Herb-herb combinations have been used in Chinese medicine practice for thousands of years, yet scientific evidence of their therapeutic benefits is lacking. With increasing interest in shifting from the one-drug-one-target paradigm to combination therapy or polypharmacy to achieve therapeutic benefits for a number of diseases, there is momentum to explore new knowledge by tapping the past empirical experiences of herb-herb combinations. This review presents an overview of the traditional conc...

  20. Science Nation: HERB the Robot Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at Intel Labs located on the campus of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh are figuring out a way to take the drudgery out of house work. They are creating a robot butler named HERB that doesn't mind doing the mundane. HERB stands for Home Exploring Robotic Butler. The idea is to create a robot that can walk into a home, assess the layout and move about on its own. To do that, HERB is being designed to be smart and resourceful. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers are programming HERB to think on its own.

  1. Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivany Ferraz Marques, Válio.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese (Crescimento de plântulas de espécies de sub-bosque de uma floresta tropical do sudeste brasileiro). Respostas de crescimento de plântulas ao sombreamento têm sido objeto de intensa pesquisa em regiões temperadas e florestas tropicais úmidas. Neste trabalho, treze espécies de sub-bosque foram estuda [...] das sob duas diferentes densidades de fluxo de fotons fotossintéticos (PPFD). Plântulas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação sob 51% e 2,6% da irradiação solar. O crescimento das plântulas foi avaliado através de: 1-) altura total; 2-) número de folhas; 3-) massa seca das folhas; 4-) massa seca do caule;5-)massa seca da raiz; 6-)razão comprimento do caule /massa seca do caule; 7-) razão da massa seca da parte aérea/raiz; 8-) porcentagem de alocação de fotossintatos para folhas, caule e raiz. Para a maioria dos parâmetros considerados, baixa PPFD reduziu drasticamente o crescimento. É possível que a estratégia dessas espécies de sub-bosque esteja na redução de crescimento sob baixa PPFD, resguardando energia para a sobrevivência. Abstract in english Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1-) total height; 2-) leaf number; 3-) leaf dry [...] mass;4-) stem dry mass; 5-) root dry mass; 6-) stem length/mass; 7-)shoot/root mass; 8-) percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.

  2. Light-mediated influence of three understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum, Molinia caerulea) on growth and morphology of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Philippe, G.; Dumas, Y.; Jean, F.; Ginisty, C.

    2009-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris is a pioneer species and as such is relatively light-demanding. Therefore, its natural regeneration may be inhibited by some forest understorey species that develop with light and can then reduce light as well as soil resources (i.e. nutrients and water) availability for the pine seedlings. To better quantify these effects, we designed two experiments in a nursery. The first one aimed at studying the influence of density of three common understorey species in temperate forest...

  3. Comparison of community composition and species diversity of understorey and overstorey tree species in a dry tropical forest of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, R; Raghubanshi, A S; Singh, J S

    2008-09-01

    The study focuses on understorey-overstorey plant community dynamics in a dry tropical forest to facilitate appropriate management decisions. We compare community composition and species diversity of the understorey vegetation among five dry tropical forest sites in northern India. A total of 1500 quadrats distributed over 15 one-ha permanent plots in five sites differing in the degree of disturbance, were used to enumerate the understorey tree species and the results were compared with overstorey tree layer. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination revealed that human disturbance intensity, as well as the overall disturbance regimes, and soil water holding capacity controlled the organisation of dry tropical forest understorey composition through effects on soil organic matter. The alpha-diversity and its components decreased with increasing human disturbance intensity, reflecting utilisation pressure and decreased soil fertility, as also revealed by the analysis of overstorey tree layer. There was a significant positive relationship between overstorey and understorey diversity. Results suggest that in the future, the existing understorey tree communities may replace the current dry tropical forest communities under prevailing environmental conditions. The study also asserts that the rate of species accumulation will be greater in more disturbed sites as well as at small spatial scale within each disturbance level. PMID:17618732

  4. Report on start of HERBE experimental operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the start of experimental operation of the HERBE N system, needed aluminium vessels were constructed, HERBE lattice was formed and the criticality is expected after decisions and permission of the Institute safety committee. Five figures are presented in this report

  5. Understorey species compositional dynamics in a boreal coniferous forest in SE Norway:does past logging matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Heimstad, Ragnhild

    2007-01-01

    Understorey vegetation changes between 1997 and 2005 were studied using 100 permanent plots (1 m2) in four boreal spruce forest stands situated within a National Nature Reserve in SE Norway. The stands differed with respect to former forest management performed 70?80 years prior to the study: natural old-growth forest, minor selectively cut forest, major selectively cut forest and clear cut forest. Based on repeated recording of species composition (vegetation gradients acquired by ordinatio...

  6. Photoluminescence Decay of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence of inorganic dust extract from herbs and spices has been demonstrated to be a useful method to discriminate irradiated food products as well as to estimate the total dose exposure. The time evolution of infrared stimulated luminescence has been systematically investigated in potassium feldspar and albite minerals subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (ranging from 0 to 8 kGy). Experimental results reveal a 300-600 nm signal which is greatly intensified for irradiated samples, following the same irradiation dose dependence observed in thermoluminescence. The luminescence intensity disappears after few seconds of illumination, following a time evolution which is proportional to (1 + Bt)-P. The influence of both B and P factors upon the irradiation dose has been systematically analysed. (author)

  7. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003, particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação.

  8. Experimental defaunation of terrestrial mammalian herbivores alters tropical rainforest understorey diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A; Mendoza, Eduardo; Guevara, Roger; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that tropical defaunation may unleash community-wide cascading effects, leading to reductions in plant diversity. However, experimental evidence establishing cause-effect relationships thereof is poor. Through a 5 year exclosure experiment, we tested the hypothesis that mammalian defaunation affects tree seedling/sapling community dynamics leading to reductions in understorey plant diversity. We established plot triplets (n = 25) representing three defaunation contexts: terrestrial-mammal exclosure (TE), medium/large mammal exclosure (PE) and open access controls (C). Seedlings/saplings 30-100 cm tall were marked and identified within each of these plots and re-censused three times to record survival and recruitment. In the periods 2010-2011 and 2011-2013, survival was greater in PE than in C plots and recruitment was higher in TE plots than in C plots. Overall, seedling density increased by 61% in TE plots and 23% in PE plots, whereas it decreased by 5% in C plots. Common species highly consumed by mammals (e.g. Brosimum alicastrum and Ampelocera hottlei) increased in their abundance in TE plots. Rarefaction curves showed that species diversity decreased in TE plots from 2008 to 2013, whereas it remained similar for C plots. Given the prevalence of tropical defaunation, we posit this is an anthropogenic effect threatening the maintenance of tropical forest diversity. PMID:25540281

  9. In situ observation of stomatal movements and gas exchange of Aegopodium podagraria L. in the understorey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, H; Kappen, L

    2000-10-01

    Observations of stomata in situ while simultaneously measuring CO(2) gas exchange and transpiration were made in field experiments with Aegopodium podagraria in a highly variable light climate in the understorey of trees. The low background photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) caused a slight opening of the stomata and no visible response to sporadic lightflecks. However, if lightflecks were frequent and brighter, slow opening movements were observed. Small apertures were sufficient to allow maximal photosynthetic rates. Therefore, the small apertures observed in low light usually only caused minor stomatal limitations of lightfleck photosynthesis. The response of stomata to step-wise changes in PPFD under different levels of leaf to air vapour pressure difference (Delta(W)) was observed under controlled conditions. High Delta(W) influenced the stomatal response only slightly by reducing stomatal aperture in low light and causing a slight reduction in the initial capacity to utilize high PPFD levels. Under continuous high PPFD, however, stomata opened to the same degree irrespective of Delta(W). Under high Delta(W), opening and closing responses to PPFD-changes were faster, which enabled a rapid removal of the small stomatal limitations of photosynthesis initially present in high Delta(W) after longer periods in low light. It is concluded that A. podagraria maintains a superoptimal aperture in low light which leads to a low instantaneous water use efficiency, but allows an efficient utilization of randomly occurring lightflecks. PMID:11053464

  10. Understorey vegetation along a heavy-metal pollution gradient in SW Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemaa, M; Vanha-Majamaa, I; Derome, J

    2001-01-01

    Understorey vegetation of Scots pine forests was studied along a 8-km transect running SE from a Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta, SW Finland. Long-term accumulation of heavy metals and sulphur in the forest ecosystem has drastically changed plant communities. Vegetation was almost absent up to a distance of 0.5 km from the smelter. The total coverage and the number of plant species increased with increasing distance from the smelter. Ordination by global non-metric multidimensional scaling (GNMDS) indicated that the floristic composition was differentiated in response to the pollution level. The main compositional gradient of GNMDS was correlated with the heavy metal concentrations in the organic soil layer and with the size of the overstorey trees. Vascular plants were more pollution-resistant than ground lichens, whereas mosses were the most sensitive plant group. In addition to heavy metals, nutrient imbalances and the considerably reduced water-holding capacity of the surface soil also restrict plant recolonisation on the degraded sites. PMID:11291440

  11. Herb-Herb Combination for Therapeutic Enhancement and Advancement: Theory, Practice and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wai Kei Lam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Herb-herb combinations have been used in Chinese medicine practice for thousands of years, yet scientific evidence of their therapeutic benefits is lacking. With increasing interest in shifting from the one-drug-one-target paradigm to combination therapy or polypharmacy to achieve therapeutic benefits for a number of diseases, there is momentum to explore new knowledge by tapping the past empirical experiences of herb-herb combinations. This review presents an overview of the traditional concept and practice of herb-herb combination in Chinese medicine, and highlights the available scientific and clinical evidence to support the combined use of herbs. It is hoped that such information would provide a lead for developing new approaches for future therapeutic advancement and pharmaceutical product development. Very likely modern technologies combined with innovative research for the quality control of herbal products, identification of active components and understanding of the molecular mechanism, followed by well-designed animal and clinical studies would pave the way in advancing the wealth of empirical knowledge from herb-herb combination to new therapeutic modalities.

  12. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Beikang Ge; Zhen Zhang; Zhong Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, C...

  13. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Amit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

  14. SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

  15. Effects of precipitation variability on carbon and water fluxes in the understorey of a nitrogen-limited montado ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Marjan; Unger, Stephan; Santos Pereira, João

    2014-12-01

    To date the implications of greater intra-annual variability and extremes in precipitation on ecosystem functioning have received little attention. This study presents results on soil and vegetation carbon and water fluxes in the understorey of a Mediterranean oak woodland in response to increasing precipitation variability, with an extension of the dry period between precipitation events from 3 to 6 weeks, without altering total annual precipitation inputs. With prolonged dry periods soil moisture did breach the stress thresholds for ecosystem processes, which led to short-term treatment differences in photosynthesis, but not in system carbon losses, with subsequent short-term decreases in net ecosystem exchange. Independent of treatment, irrigation events rapidly increased carbon and water fluxes. However, contradicting the predictions drawn from the 'bucket model', over the course of the growing season no all-over treatment differences were found in system assimilation and respiration, nor in evapotranspiration and ecosystem water use efficiency. This lack of responsiveness is attributed to the ecosystem's resilience to low soil moisture during the growing season of the herbaceous understorey, with temperature rather than soil moisture controlling key ecosystem processes. Moreover, severe nitrogen limitation of the studied ecosystem may explain the lack of moisture effects on net system carbon dynamics. Thus, although the bucket model predicts changes in soil water dynamics with increasing precipitation variability, ecosystem responses to more extreme precipitation regimes may be influenced by additional factors, such as inter-annual variability in nutrient availability. PMID:25241297

  16. Detection of irradiated food: Thermoluminescence analysis of spices, herbs, and spice-and-herb products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 3 and 9 months after irradiation 14 laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations which were isolated from different coded spice-and-herb products. In both study periods 99% of the 317 samples (total number) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated on the basis of normalized TL intensities. Only three irradiated samples were not identified as irradiated. The results show that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored, and that the method is suitable for routine analysis in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  17. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  18. A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Nagarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may spread through the blood stream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The search for anticancer agents from the plant sources alkaloids in earnest in the 1950s such as Vincristine, Vinblastine and the isolation of cytotoxic Podophyllotoxins will reduce white blood cell count and caused bone marrow depression in rats. Roots, leaves, stem, root, bark and fruity of the plant herbs are used in the treatment of cancer. The dietary antioxidants having anti carcinogenic property are in demand. Identification and characterization of these anti-carcinogens in the diet can be used for reducing the risk of human cancer. Tea (Camellia thea an evergreen plant contains antioxidants which prevent and repair cellular damage caused by reactive free radicals. Supervitamin drinks containing a combination of Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa and Spirulina enhances the activity of immune cells against cancer. Mentha species containing antioxidants prevent reocurrence of cancer.

  19. Radiation decontamination of herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review regarding application of radiation for decontamination of herbs and spices is presented. General principles of the process and the results of the research on biologically active components are discussed. The report regarding the development in this field in selected countries and regions is included. (author)

  20. Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

  1. SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital Tanaji Jadhav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling haemorrhage from cuts and bruises. In vitro clotting time of blood in presence and  absence  of various plant extracts was used as a guide to study haemostatic activityof the herbs under study. Of the ten plants evaluated, aqueous extracts of Quercus pubescens, Thevetia peruviana proved to have  significant  haemostatic activity at PZingiber officinale, Zanthoxylum rhetsa and petroleum ether extracts of Psidum guajava, Terminalia chebula, Zanthoxylum rhetsa confirmed the same results.

  2. Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, N

    2000-01-01

    Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed. PMID:11237173

  3. PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS: AN AMPLE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL HERB

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Divya; Rohilla Ankur; Rohilla Seema; Khan M.U

    2011-01-01

    Herbal drugs have been one of the primarily used drugs since olden times for the treatment of a range of diseases. In addition, the medicinal plants have played a vital role in world health as the herbal plants still make an important contribution to health care. Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, has been used since ages because of its rich medicinal values and ethnomedical importance. Phyllanthus amarus is a small, erect, annual herb which is a rich source of phytochemicals tha...

  4. Thermoluminescence of irradiated herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9oCs-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate. (Author)

  5. Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to differentiate irradiated Chinese medicinal herbs from non-irradiated was investigated. Thirty different dried Chinese herbs were tested, including root, flower, ramulus, rhizome, cortex, and whole plant samples. Irradiation of Chinese herbs was associated with strong TL peaks at ?150-250 deg C, while TL curves of non-irradiated herbs had very low intensities above 250 deg C, which was also confirmed by the TL ratio (non-irradiated, TL1/TL2 1/TL2 > 0.1) except for sterculia lychnophora, semen cassia, flos inulae, and anemone root. TL ratios of some herbs indicated irradiation (TL1/TL2 > 0.1) even if the irradiated components were as low as 0.1 %. Thus we demonstrated that TL analysis had excellent sensitivity and reliability for the identification of irradiated Chinese herbs. (author)

  6. Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of di...

  7. [Ancient clinical application of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao-luo; Han, Yuan-yuan; Ma, Yu-xia; Gao, Shu-zhong

    2014-09-01

    In order to further improve the curative effect of the herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus, we collected a wide range of literature on herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus and then systematically arranged them to analyze and summarize the technology and operating methods of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. We also briefly discussed issues on application of medicine, locust tree skin and ginger, the method of kneading dough for medical uses, and the appropriate size of moxa cone and its using frequency in order to form clear concepts and standardized operations to provide theories and operational basis for the clinical application of modern herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. PMID:25509757

  8. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zeping; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ho, Paul Chi Lui; Chan, Sui Yung; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Eli; Duan, Wei; Koh, Hwee Ling; Zhou, Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    Herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. An extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). Allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration of saquinavir, but not ritonavir and paracetamol (acetaminophen), in volunteers. A. sativum increased the clotting time and international normalised ratio of warfarin and caused hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) caused bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and even caused coma when combined with trazodone in patients. Panax ginseng (ginseng) reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol (ethanol) and warfarin, and induced mania when used concomitantly with phenelzine, but ginseng increased the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Scutellaria baicalensis (huangqin) ameliorated irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in cancer patients.Piper methysticum (kava) increased the 'off' periods in patients with parkinsonism taking levodopa and induced a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazolam. Kava enhanced the hypnotic effect of alcohol in mice, but this was not observed in humans. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) decreased the trough concentrations of indinavir in humans. Piperine from black (Piper nigrum Linn) and long (P. longum Linn) peppers increased the AUC of phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers and plasma concentrations of rifamipicin (rifampin) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eleutheroccus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) increased the serum concentration of digoxin, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and alprazolam in humans. Hypericum perforatum (hypericum; St John's wort) decreased the blood concentrations of ciclosporin (cyclosporin), midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, pravastatin, mycophenolate mofetil and dextromethorphan. Cases have been reported where decreased ciclosporin concentrations led to organ rejection. Hypericum also caused breakthrough bleeding and unplanned pregnancies when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives. It also caused serotonin syndrome when used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. sertraline and paroxetine). In conclusion, interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequences. There are other theoretical interactions indicated by preclinical data. Both pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms have been considered to play a role in these interactions, although the underlying mechanisms for the altered drug effects and/or concentrations by concomitant herbal medicines are yet to be determined. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical carers. PMID:15916450

  9. [The content of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in selected species of herbs and herb infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Biardzka, Elzbieta; Daruk, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was the recognition of the contents and distributions of calcium, magnesium, iron and copper in 6 herb species (matricaria chamomila, tilia cordata, equisetum arvense, melissa officinalis, mentha piperita, hypericum perforatum) and in the herb infusions. The samples were digested using a microwave oven, and the elements concentration was determined by AAS method. The following levels of Ca, Mg, Mg and Cu in the herbs were determined: 6872-19802 mg/kg Ca, 4630-8530 mg/kg Mg, 149.9-415.6 mg/kg Fe and 15.15-24.64 mg/kg Cu. The values of extractions in the infusions of herb were as follows: 16.1-73.8% Ca, 14.4-37.3% Mg, 5.1-9.7% Fe, 13.1-21.8% Cu. This indicates, that a very small part of the iron can be potentially treated as a bioavailable fraction for persons, using plant drugs as infusions. One glass of infusion (250 cm3) contain elements in quantities corresponding to: 0.78-2.61% average daily dietary intake (ADDIs) of Ca, 0.76-1.36% ADDIs of Mg, 0.26-0.38% ADDIs of Cu and only 0.15-0.33% ADDIs of Fe. PMID:18666620

  10. The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho [Chonam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Deog [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of {gamma}-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

  11. The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of ?-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

  12. Xylans from the medicinal herb Phyllanthus niruri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Caroline G; Carbonero, Elaine R; Cipriani, Thales R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is a well-known medicinal herb that is widely used in Asia, Africa, and South America. The characterization of two purified polysaccharides from the whole plant has been investigated. Methylation analysis and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed the chemical structure of two xylans. A hot 15% aqueous KOH fraction yielded a linear beta-(1-->4)-linked xylan, and 2% aqueous KOH afforded a complex acidic heteroxylan, with a (1-->4)-linked beta-Xylp main chain, substituted by rhamnose, arabinose, and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid side chains. These contained nonreducing end-units of arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, and nonmethylated glucuronic acid. PMID:15679336

  13. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  14. Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9 spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) high forest, reclaimed bogs, ?100 m from Bronze Age burial mounds, or former conifer plantation, and stand age. The PCA results showed that the main gradients in species composition were strongly related to the explanatory variables. Forward variable selection and variation partitioning using RDA showed that although modern environment was the dominant driver of species composition, anthropogenic historical factors were also important. The pure historical variation fraction constituted 13% of the variation explained. TheRDA results showed that ancient-forest status and, secondarily, reclaimed bog status were the only significant historical variables. Many typical forest interior species, with poor dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still present in the reclaimed bog areas. Our results emphasize the importance of historical factors for understanding modern vegetation patterns in forested landscapes.

  15. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

    2001-11-01

    The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves. PMID:11714298

  16. PPAR? activation by culinary herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Monika; Beck, Verena; Jungbauer, Alois

    2011-03-01

    Hyper- and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the primary cause of death in industrialized countries. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation is involved in various mechanisms that improve the lipid profile. We tested various plant extracts and their compounds to determine whether they stimulated PPAR? activity in vitro. Out of 34 tested plant extracts, nine exhibited low to moderate PPAR? transactivation, including caraway, chili pepper, nutmeg, licorice, black and white pepper, paprika, coriander, saffron, and stevia tea. The active components of black pepper and chili pepper, piperine, and capsaicin exerted the highest transactivational activities with EC?? values of 84 µM and 49 µM, respectively. The chalcones, including 2-hydroxychalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, and 4-methoxychalcone, moderately transactivated PPAR?. Resveratrol and apigenin only slightly transactivated PPAR?. These results suggest that a diet rich in fruit, herbs, and spices provides a number of PPAR? agonists that might contribute to an improved lipid profile. PMID:20957597

  17. Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud S. AL-Oud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P < 0.01 in their contents of heavy metals. Among tested heavy metals, Mn was the most abundant one in tea leaves (390-900 ?g g?1 whereas Fe was the predominance one in herb leaves (326-1755 ?g g?1. Fortunately, toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, had the lowest contents in both tea and herb leaves. Among tested tea brands, Chinese green tea possesses the highest contents of heavy metals. Concentrations of tested heavy metals in tea and herb beverage were markedly lower than their total contents. The concentrations of toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd were too low to be detected in beverage using the available analytical techniques. The solubility of studied heavy metals in both brew and infusion extracts varied widely and ranged from 0.0-48%. The lowest rates of solubility were listed for toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd. The amounts of heavy metals that one may take up through consumption of tea and herb beverages were found to match the acceptable daily intake that takes into account exposure from air, food and drinking water.

  18. Aromatic herbs in Corsican blue tit nests: The 'Potpourri' hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Dos Santos, Anabelle

    2000-05-01

    This study reports that Corsican blue tit ( Parus caeruleus ogliastrae) nests contain between one to five aromatic herb species between the onset of egg laying till the chicks' finished growth 13 d after hatching. An herb removal experiment during the chick stage shows that blue tits bring fresh aromatic material 1-5 d after herb removal. Nests with a series of distinct odour classes easily perceived by humans have never been reported in birds. A new 'Potpourri' hypothesis is proposed that may explain the functional significance of this behaviour.

  19. Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Al-oud, Saud S.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P < 0.01) in their contents of heavy metals. Among tested heavy metals, Mn was the most abundant one in tea leaves (390-...

  20. Afforestation of agricultural land with Pinus radiata D. don and Betula alba L. in NW Spain: effects on soil PH, understorey production and floristic diversity eleven years after establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Rigueiro-rodri?guez, A.; Mosquera-losada, M. R.; Ferna?ndez-nu?n?ez, E.

    2012-01-01

    Afforestation of abandoned agricultural lands has been the main change in land use over the past decade in Europe. However, the impact of tree species and understorey management on production and plant diversity over the medium- and long-term has not been thoroughly studied. This paper aims to evaluate the effects of an afforestation of Pinus radiata D. Don and Betula alba L. on soil pH, understorey production and plant diversity and life cycle type (annuals vs. perennials) managed with diffe...

  1. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markets, according to a new study. Researchers checked cilantro, basil and parsley from almost 50 vendors from ... release. "Certain herbs such as parsley, basil and cilantro have been implicated in many food outbreaks over ...

  2. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  3. Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant. PMID:22228959

  4. Radioactive survey of herb teas marketed in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides, such as 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K in 49 dried herbs marketed in Saitama were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. No 134Cs was detected. On the other hand, 137Cs concentrations were ranged from 2.1 to 240 Bq/kg-dry in 10 dried herbs imported from Europe. 40K level was 99.9 - 1400 Bq/kg-dry in all dried herbs. Obvious regional differences of 137Cs concentrations of 'eyebright' between Polish product and Bulgarian were observed. The committed effective dose of 137Cs by annually drinking a cup of herb tea in adults was estimated to be about 1.0 x 10-3 mSv and the contribution of 137Cs is proved to be very small in this study. (author)

  5. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Korac?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxid...

  6. Irradiation on spices, dried herbs and condiments preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among food irradiation applications, radiation decontamination of spices, condiments and dried herbs has the most immediate application potential in many countries. The article is intended to provide justification for the radiation decontamination of spices, herbs and others vegetables seasonings, compared to conventional methods used today by industry, namely the technique of fumigation with ethylene oxide (ETO). The article provides also information both to industrial users and governmental officers for the necessary authorization of the process

  7. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Nemet Nevena T.; Škrinjar Marija M.

    2009-01-01

    Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most ...

  8. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas

    OpenAIRE

    Shizuo Toda

    2011-01-01

    Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by o...

  9. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, H. B.; Lucier, G. W.; Fisher, K. D.

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have bee...

  10. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

  11. Mycobiota of spices and aromatic herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tan?inová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 67 samples of spices and herbs were tested for mould contamination. From 50.7% of samples, moulds were not isolated. The most dominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Potential producers of mycotoxins Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were tested for the ability to produce some mycotoxins. Isolates of potentially toxinogenic species were found to produce various mycotoxins, namely alfatoxin B1 (Aspergillus flavus, cyclopiazonic acid (Aspergillus flavus, sterigmatocystin (Emericella nidulans, roquefortine C (Penicillium allii, P. chrysogenum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, penitrem A (P. crustosum and patulin (P. expansum. Some of the tested isolates produce two mycotoxins: A. flavus (aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid, P. crustosum (roquefortine C and patulin and P. expansum (roquefortine C and patulin. None of the tested isolates of Aspergillus section Nigri screened, appeared to produce ochratoxin A. Totally 11 samples were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 5 (45.5% out of 11 samples analysed with levels ranging from 0.14 to 2.9 µg.kg-1. In one sample we detected aflatoxin G1.  Ochratoxin A was found in 3 samples (27.3%, with levels ranging from 2.2 to 5.19 µg.kg-1. No sample was contaminated by aflatoxins or ochratoxin A above the maximum admitted threshold established by the European legislation.

  12. PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS: AN AMPLE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Divya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs have been one of the primarily used drugs since olden times for the treatment of a range of diseases. In addition, the medicinal plants have played a vital role in world health as the herbal plants still make an important contribution to health care. Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, has been used since ages because of its rich medicinal values and ethnomedical importance. Phyllanthus amarus is a small, erect, annual herb which is a rich source of phytochemicals that are attributed to biologically active lignans, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins and phenylpropanoids that are present in the leaf, stem and root of the plant. It is a little wonder that the plant is used for so many purposes in herbal medicine systems and in clinical research over the years. Numerous studies have reported that Phyllanthus amarus have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Moreover, studies have demonstrated hepatoprotective, antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antiallodynic, antioedematogenic, antispasmodial, chemoprotective, antihypercalciuric, antiviral, antispasmodic, antinociceptive and diuretic properties associated with Phyllanthus amarus. The present review article summarizes the potent pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant.

  13. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest / Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RAF., Lima; S., Gandolfi.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas), [...] em clareiras pequenas e médias (11), e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae). Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and [...] large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

  14. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  15. Evaluation of metabolism-mediated herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dong Hee; Ji, Hye Young; Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Myung Sun; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hye Suk

    2011-11-01

    As the use of herbal medicines increases, the public health consequences of drug-herb interactions are becoming more significant. Herbal medicines share the same drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein, with several clinically important drugs. Interactions of several commonly used herbal medicines, such as Ginko biloba, milk thistle, and St. John's wort, with therapeutic drugs including warfarin, midazolam, alprazolam, indinavir, saquinavir, digoxin, nifedipine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, irinotecan, and imatinib in humans have been reported. Many of these drugs have very narrow therapeutic indices. As the herb-drug interactions can significantly alter pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs, the drugs interacting with herbal medicines should be identified by appropriate in vitro and in vivo methods. A good understanding of the mechanisms of herb-drug interactions is also essential for assessing and minimizing clinical risks. In vitro methods are useful for providing mechanistic information and evaluating multiple components in herbal medicines. This review describes major factors affecting the metabolism of herbal medicines, mechanisms of herb-drug interactions mediated by CYPs and UGTs, and several in vitro methods to assess the herb-drug interactions. Finally, drug interactions of Ginkgo biloba and St. John's wort, as representative herbal medicines, are described. PMID:22139684

  16. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuo Toda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by oxidation. These results showed that some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. It has been demonstrated that high total polyphenol content in the herb teas provides high antioxidant activities.

  17. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints. Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF on OpenCV library. This keypoints distance calculation using Brute-Force Hamming. Matching is done by calculating the shortest distance between test image and reference image. If the result is less than or equal to threshold then image is match. Experiment result show this application can achieve 79% of success rate by using keypoints. This result is influenced by glossy leaf surface, so there is many reflected light that become noise.

  18. Molecular mechanism of herbs in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummalue, Tanawan

    2005-11-01

    Herbs have been considered natural and valuable sources for anticancer drug discovery. Herbal medicine has been prescribed in many countries over centuries for treating various diseases including infectious and malignant diseases. Nowadays, many of the drugs that have been used for treatment of malignant diseases are derived from natural products such as Taxol, a natural product isolated initially from Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia). This review article describes research on molecular mechanisms, especially cytotoxic effect of natural products from plant sources, primarily preclinical studies, involving human lung cancer cells in vitro for providing more knowledge and issues for potential drug development from medicinal herbs in the future. PMID:16471127

  19. Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6-8 kGy ?-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by ?-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

  20. Kinetic experiments at coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.; Milosevic, M.; Zavaljevski, N.; Nikolic, D.; Milovanovic, S. [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-09-01

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1991 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the `Vinca` Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and used for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews the kinetic experiments carried out at HERBE system, including their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in calculation is presented too. (author)

  1. Kinetic experiments at coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1991 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the 'Vinca' Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and used for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews the kinetic experiments carried out at HERBE system, including their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in calculation is presented too. (author)

  2. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  3. Using digital time-lapse cameras to monitor species-specific understorey and overstorey phenology in support of wildlife habitat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Christopher W; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Hilker, Thomas; Nielsen, Scott E; McDermid, Greg; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2011-09-01

    Critical to habitat management is the understanding of not only the location of animal food resources, but also the timing of their availability. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) diets, for example, shift seasonally as different vegetation species enter key phenological phases. In this paper, we describe the use of a network of seven ground-based digital camera systems to monitor understorey and overstorey vegetation within species-specific regions of interest. Established across an elevation gradient in western Alberta, Canada, the cameras collected true-colour (RGB) images daily from 13 April 2009 to 27 October 2009. Fourth-order polynomials were fit to an RGB-derived index, which was then compared to field-based observations of phenological phases. Using linear regression to statistically relate the camera and field data, results indicated that 61% (r (2)?= 0.61, df = 1, F?= 14.3, p?= 0.0043) of the variance observed in the field phenological phase data is captured by the cameras for the start of the growing season and 72% (r (2)?= 0.72, df = 1, F?= 23.09, p?= 0.0009) of the variance in length of growing season. Based on the linear regression models, the mean absolute differences in residuals between predicted and observed start of growing season and length of growing season were 4 and 6 days, respectively. This work extends upon previous research by demonstrating that specific understorey and overstorey species can be targeted for phenological monitoring in a forested environment, using readily available digital camera technology and RGB-based vegetation indices. PMID:21082343

  4. Detection of herb-symptom associations from traditional chinese medicine clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

  5. Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

  6. Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA arPine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented. (author)

  7. Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Direkbusarakom, Sataporn

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

  8. Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

  9. Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Scott J; Argikar, Aneesh A; Lin, Yvonne S; Nagar, Swati; Paine, Mary F

    2014-03-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that "natural" ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24335390

  10. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  11. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  12. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

  13. Synergistic antioxidant activities of eight traditional Chinese herb pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Jian; Li, Da-Peng; Li, Jin-Kui; Li, Ming-Hua; Chen, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Pei-Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Many Chinese therapeutic herbs that are traditionally used in combination demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in the combination than when used alone. However, the pharmacological mechanism for this synergism is still not well understood. In the present study, the antioxidant activities of six herbs ((Paeonia lactiflora (PL), Atractylodes macrocephala (AMA), Angelica sinensis (AS), Astragalus membranaceus (AME), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU) and Rheum officinale (RO)), which were historically combined into eight traditional Chinese herb pairs (TCHPs) (AME-AS, AME-AMA, AME-RO, AME-GU, AME-PL, PL-AS, PL-AMA and PL-GU), were investigated in vitro by assessing the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH)-radical scavenging abilities of the herbs. The results of this study showed that all eight TCHPs had a significantly larger scavenging capacity than would be expected from the theoretical sum of those of the respective constituent herbs (p<0.05). Furthermore, the AME-GU, AME-PL and AME-AMA pairs not only showed a significant synergistic effect in the DPPH scavenging assay, but they also demonstrated similar results in hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical anion scavenging assays. Interestingly, the AME-AMA combination had a significantly higher superoxide anion (0.2 g/ml) and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability than the AME or AMA. The changes in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also investigated. Our study showed a significant correlation between the rate of enhancement in antioxidant capacity and the rate of increase in flavonoid content. Thus, the flavonoids are likely responsible for the synergistic effects present in TCHPs. PMID:19483308

  14. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  15. Fenologia de Rubiaceae do sub-bosque em floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil / Phenology of understorey Rubiaceae in the Atlantic forest, southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivonne, San Martin-Gajardo; L. Patrícia C., Morellato.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A comparação da fenologia de diferentes espécies de uma família, ocorrendo no mesmo hábitat, pode auxiliar na compreensão dos fatores reguladores das fenofases. Os padrões fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de dez espécies de Rubiaceae foram estudados durante 14 meses no sub-bosque de floresta A [...] tlântica, Núcleo Picinguaba, Ubatuba, SP. A produção e queda de folhas ocorreram simultaneamente nas espécies estudadas e ao longo de todo o período de estudo, proporcionando ao sub-bosque uma aparência sempre verde. A floração foi pouco sazonal, com aumento no número de espécies durante o período de maior precipitação e temperatura, porém não apresentando correlações significativas com os fatores climáticos. Este resultado contrasta com o padrão de floração sazonal, correlacionado ao fotoperíodo e temperatura, observado nas espécies de Rubiaceae de dossel na mesma área. A produção de frutos ocorreu ao longo de todo período de estudo, com aumento no número de espécies com frutos maduros no final da estação chuvosa, resultando em disponibilidade constante desses frutos para frugívoros. Os padrões fenológicos reprodutivos diferiram entre as espécies, sugerindo que fatores distintos devem estar regulando a ocorrência das fenofases nestas espécies de Rubiaceae. Abstract in english Phenological studies of different species within a single family occuring in the same habitat, may help to understand the possible factors regulating the phenophases. During 14 months, we observed the vegetative and reproductive phenological patterns of ten understorey species of Rubiaceae of a Braz [...] ilian Atlantic forest, Núcleo Picinguaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Leaf production and leaf fall occurred simultaneously in all studied species, throughout the observation period, resulting an evergreen appearance to the understorey. Flowering was also observed along the year, althougth the number of species flowering was higher during the wettest and hotest season. Our result contrasts with the seasonal flowering pattern observed for canopy species of Rubiaceae at the same area. The correlations between rainfall, temperature and Rubiaceae flowering were not significant. The fruit production was distributed along the study period, increasing at the end of the rainy season, resulting in a continuous availability of resources for frugivores. Reproductive phenological patterns differed among the Rubiaceae species in such a way that different factors seem to be regulating the phenophases of each species.

  16. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  17. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Nakano, M; Kawahata, T; Mori, H; Otake, T; Ueba, N; Oishi, I; Inami, R; Yamane, M; Nakamura, M; Murata, H; Nakanishi, T

    1998-08-01

    The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocimum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 microg/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:9743251

  18. Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fen Yin; Jian Chen; Wei Zhou; Jing-Dong Yang; Liang-Bin Hu; Zhi-Qi Shi

    2009-01-01

    Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which...

  19. Occurrence of enniatins and beauvericin in 60 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24720681

  20. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Jian Lu; Jiao-Lin Bao; Xiu-Ping Chen; Min Huang; Yi-Tao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, pi...

  1. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora?, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  2. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  3. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum. PMID:25346283

  4. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  5. Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

  6. Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - the case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2014-08-01

    Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa. PMID:24792083

  7. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni; Darío Jorge Ferreyra; Miguel Eduardo Schmalko

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks o...

  8. Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (...

  9. Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K; Leach, David N

    2008-12-01

    Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40-1990 micromol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 micromol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 micromol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 micromol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 micromol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 micromol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 micromol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

  10. Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system

  11. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Guimara?es, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are frequently used to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foen...

  12. Herb of grace: an unusual cause of phytophotodermatitis mimicking burn injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Furniss, D.; Adams, T.

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered an acute phytophotodermatitis with systemic upset after contact with the herb Ruta Graveolens (common rue, Herb of Grace). We review the literature detailing the mechanism of the phytophotodermatitis and the mainstream and alternative medicinal uses of the herb. Clinicians treating burns should consider phytophotodermatitis in their differential diagnosis of any partial-thickness burn injury. Furthermore, the hazards of growing this widesp...

  13. The methods of microbiological contaminants elimination in herbs. Part 2. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland is one of 27 members of International Consulting Group for Food Irradiation (ICFGI), who allows microbiological decontamination of spices and herbs with ionizing radiation dose not greater than 10 kGy. Ionizing radiation doses 1-10 kGy significantly decrease contamination of herbs and spices with aerobic bacteria, yeast-like fungi and mold spores. Important issue concerning microbiological decontamination of herbs is the influence of radiation on biologically active substances. Investigations show that most of herbs subjected to this process do not change its chemical composition (essential oils, alkaloids, antocyanes, phenol glycosides, triterpen saponins, flavenoids)

  14. Herb of grace: an unusual cause of phytophotodermatitis mimicking burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Dominic; Adams, Titus

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered an acute phytophotodermatitis with systemic upset after contact with the herb Ruta Graveolens (common rue, Herb of Grace). We review the literature detailing the mechanism of the phytophotodermatitis and the mainstream and alternative medicinal uses of the herb. Clinicians treating burns should consider phytophotodermatitis in their differential diagnosis of any partial-thickness burn injury. Furthermore, the hazards of growing this widespread herb in gardens where children play should be well publicized. PMID:17667834

  15. Detection of irradiated food: Thermoluminescence analysis of spices, herbs, and spice-and-herb products. Thermolumineszenz-Analyse an Gewuerzen, Kraeutern und Gewuerz- und Kraeutermischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A. (Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Helle, N. (Fachgebietsgruppe Lebensmittel- und Arzneimittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Boegl, K.W.

    1993-09-01

    About 3 and 9 months after irradiation 14 laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations which were isolated from different coded spice-and-herb products. In both study periods 99% of the 317 samples (total number) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated on the basis of normalized TL intensities. Only three irradiated samples were not identified as irradiated. The results show that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored, and that the method is suitable for routine analysis in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  16. Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

    2000-06-01

    In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morio Yoshimura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L., which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl 3-O-?-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of tea catechins.

  18. Glabridin from Chinese Herb Licorice Inhibits Fatigue in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Huaping; Cao, Shehua; Wang, Jihui; Zheng, Hua; Putheti, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of glabridin from Chinese herb Licorice on fatigue was investigated in male BALB/c mice. Mice were divided into the following 4 experimental groups: control group (CG), low dose group (LG), middle dose group (MG) and high dose group (HG,). The control group was given 0.5% Tween 80 solution and the treatment groups (LG, MG, HG) were given various doses of glabridin (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Body mass, blood lactic acid (BLA), serum blood urea nitrogen (BU...

  19. Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent. PMID:17303046

  20. Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemt for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

  1. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ? Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ? The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is thaief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  2. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  3. Herb-drug interactions: focus on metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Hee; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Yoon Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    As the uses of herbal medicines from traditional natural products are increased, the need for pharmacokinetic studies and relevant data are also increased for safe pharmacotherapy. The market entry for the traditional herbal medicine is easier compared with that for synthetic drugs because of a lower regulatory barrier. Thus, the exact mechanisms for the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of active components in herbal medicines and the potential herb-drug interactions are not always fully understood. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies and relevant data of commonly used herbal remedies are accumulating in this field. In this review, the effects of nine botanicals (ginkgo, green tea, grapes, licorice, saw palmetto, garlic milk thistle, ginseng and St. John's wort) on metabolic enzymes and transporters affecting absorption and disposition of herbal products are summarized. The source of samples (extracts and individual components), the species (human and animal) and in vivo and in vitro systems were separately reviewed for a better understanding of herb-drug interactions. PMID:22139685

  4. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mohammadirad

    2013-11-01

    These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

  7. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  8. In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9-mediated herb–herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix

    OpenAIRE

    YupingTang; YunruPeng

    2014-01-01

    According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix should not be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb–herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction acti...

  9. Pharmacogenomics and Herb-Drug Interactions: Merge of Future and Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Mei-Zi; He, Fa-Zhong; Luo, Zhi-Ying; Luo, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Gen; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide using of herb products and the increasing potential herb-drug interaction issue has raised enthusiasm on discovering the underlying mechanisms. Previous review indicated that the interactions may be mediated by metabolism enzymes and transporters in pharmacokinetic pathways. On the other hand, an increasing number of studies found that genetic variations showed some influence on herb-drug interaction effects whereas these genetic factors did not draw much attention in history. We highlight that pharmacogenomics may involve the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways to affect herb-drug interaction. We are here to make an updated review focused on some common herb-drug interactions in association with genetic variations, with the aim to help safe use of herbal medicines in different individuals in the clinic. PMID:25821484

  10. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  11. Sizing and Design of the PV-WIND Energy Dryer for Medical Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Ahmed Sweelem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical herbs are located in Egypt in different areas and they are very important to increase the national income of Egypt. It is necessary to dry the herbs in their growing locations. As the growing locations are located far from the natural supply grid of Egypt, renewable energy sources such as PV&WIND are preferably utilized to achieve the drying process. Moreover, since the drying process is actually used to remove water from the herbs, thus it can preserve the herbs in storage drastically by preventing the attack of microorganisms during the moist conditions of herbs and also reduce their weight and bulk (for cheaper transport. Where, this paper selects, at first, the suitable drying site, and then it suggests. The suggested drying system is completely designed, and includes the following three systems: the solar thermal system, the dryer, and the renewable energy system.

  12. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  13. Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 104 to 10-3 ?g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

  14. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  15. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Ró?a?ska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. PMID:25846909

  16. Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel F

    2008-05-01

    People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies. PMID:18384986

  17. Economic evaluation of herb extraction using supercritical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariaty-Niassar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the climate diversity in different parts of Iran, a variety of plants grow across the country, many of them having pharmaceutical applications. At present, only a few companies are producing herbal essence, all of them are technically based on conventional methods of extraction such as steam distillation and others. Because of the current serious concern with respect to the environmental conservation law the use of green technology seems imperative. The supercritical fluid extraction is considered as a practical and procedural method which has become under serious consideration in recent years. For this, an economical analysis is made of herb extractions using a supercritical fluid. The results of such a survey can clarify the new methods to be of great concern. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units used for producing a different plant extract and especially that of rosemary.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  19. Alkaloids isolated from natural herbs as the anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

  20. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2006-11-01

    Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines. PMID:16906642

  1. Neuroprotective Herbs and Foods from Different Traditional Medicines and Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Iriti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.

  2. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields

  3. Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the phylum Ascomycota (13 species, and least from the phylum Oomycota (3 species. The phylum Ascomycota was represented only by species of the order Erysiphales. Other relatively frequently found fungi also were members of the phylum Basidiomycota (11 species. Of the fungi recognized, 31 species were earlier frequently recorded in Poland, and three rarely. Erysiphe flexuosa parasitizing Aesculus hippocastanum was not recorded in Poland to date; in Europe this fungus was recognized only in Germany and Switzerland.

  4. NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1 of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

  5. Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anjana, Devkota; Pramod Kumar, Jha.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old [...] seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001) higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p

  6. Information Resource: About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."

  7. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  8. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  9. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Wagner, U.; Leffke, A.; Helle, N.; Ammon, J.; Buchholtz, H.V.; Delincee, H.; Estendorfer, S.; Fuchs, K.; Grabowski, H.U. von; Kruspe, W.; Mainczyk, K.; Muenz, H.; Nootenboom, H.; Schleich, C.; Vreden, N.; Wiezorek, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  10. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  11. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  12. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

  13. The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-11-14

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed. PMID:25395193

  14. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

  15. Effects of five Ayurvedic herbs on locomotor behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R L M; Brogan, B; Whitworth, A J; Okello, E J

    2014-12-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B.?monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  16. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  17. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzy?ska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

  18. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  19. Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies. PMID:24701910

  20. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ?70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  1. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n?=?148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3?days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

  2. Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)

  3. Application of calibration standardization method to the analysis of diuretic pharmaceutical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration standardization of X-ray fluorescence method was carried out for the determination of the anorganic contents in diuretic herbs as called Folia Betulae, Stylus Maydis, Flores Verbasci, Equisetum Arvense and Flos Helichrysi, growing in Turkey. These herbs are widely used in pharmacy and public health for kidney disease therapy. Herb samples were steeped in the water and mixed through the pure cellulose, then pelletized in the intermediate thickness. An annular source of 109Cd (3.7 MBq) was used for excitation of fluorescent K lines of elements lying between potassium and zirconium. Toxic elements in considerable amounts were not found. (author)

  4. Study of genotoxic effects of antidiarrheal medicinal herbs on human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settheetham, W; Ishida, T

    1995-01-01

    The use of medicinal herbs has been a common practice in Asia but their genotoxic properties are little known. In the present study, genotoxic effects of three antidiarrheal herbs, guava leaf, mangosteen peel and pomegranate peel, were examined using established human cell lines, Raji and P3HR-1. Cells were treated with boiled-water extract of the herbs at various concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in vitro. Cell growth and viability were dose dependently reduced. No apparent chromosomal aberrations were induced by the treatment. Administration of pomegranate extract induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation. This genotoxicity test system is simple and convenient for the primary screening. PMID:8629131

  5. In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9–mediated herb–herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YupingTang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix shouldn’t be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb-herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix.

  6. Radioactive contaminated herbs after the Chernobyl accident - a retrospective view of their destruction control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rains in May 1986 'watered' the ground and the plants with a mixture of radionuclides. As a result many agricultural products and other plants in Bulgaria were radioactively polluted. Herbs widely used as medicine or as fragrant tea were also badly affected. The author reports some data about radioactive contamination of the herbs with Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Radioactivity distribution in terms of dose range and herb species is given. Measures taken for destruction of the herb crop of 1986-1987 through incineration or burial are described, as well as the administrative and technical procedures assuring control of these measures. Proposals for continuing annual monitoring of the burial sites are presented. 6 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  7. MERITS OF USING HERBS IN WHOLE STATE (AYURVEDA’s CONCEPT OVER ISOLATED FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madupu Paramkusha Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are precursors of animals and human beings. The plants growing around his vicinity fulfill all the basic needs of human life like food, water and shelter. Similarly plants act like natural tools to treat the ailments. Ayurveda i.e. the total science of human living has identified this natural truth and perfected it. At the outset, two schools of thought prevail regarding the use of herbs as drugs. The ancient school advocated and practiced by Ayurveda prefers using the herbs in the whole state, without disturbing naturally designed integrity of them. The second school insists on isolation of pharmacologically active chemicals present in the herbs preparing synthetic equivalents if possible and using them for therapeutic applications. This paper discusses the logic, eco-friendly design and merits of whole drug application against the isolated fractions with apt examples.

  8. Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum majorana L. herb and extracts obtained with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vági, E; Rapavi, E; Hadolin, M; Vásárhelyiné Perédi, K; Balázs, A; Blázovics, A; Simándi, B

    2005-01-12

    Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hydrogen-donating abilities with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl by spectrophotometric and the total scavenger capacities by chemiluminometric methods from the aqueous extracts of the herbs. The antioxidant activities of the solvent extracts were performed using the Rancimat method. The Egyptian herb and its extracts possessed better antioxidant activities than Hungarian ones. Applying supercritical CO2 extraction, the highest value of carnosol was obtained at 400 bar and 60 degrees C. PMID:15631502

  9. [Postmarketing herbs clinical evaluation should concern about re-evaluating symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2010-06-01

    Re-evaluation of premarketing medicine is a important supplementary of clinical and elementary research. It is a basement that establish the medicine administration supervisition , found and integrity postmarketing washing out mechanism and define reasonable using drug. After drug marketing, we must not only concern on the re-evaluation of herbs security but also focus on evaluating herbs suitable symptom, as well as its dosage and course of treatment, ect. The re-evaluation of symptoms were seen as the core and feature of traditional Chinese medicine's clinical evaluation. It is also seen as hot spot and difficulty of the research . This article try to focus on simply illustrating the necessity and research thinking of re-evaluation symptoms of postmarketing herbs. So we can define the re-evaluation of postmarketing drug's objection, method, and basement. It will provide beneficial experience and reference to re-evaluation symptom of marketed herbs. PMID:20822030

  10. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  11. [Consumption of medicinal herbs in patients attending a gastroenterology outpatient clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa Jordà, F; Pellicer Bataller, J; Ferrando Ginestar, J; Borghol Hariri, A; Bustamante Balén, M; Ortuño Cortés, J; Ferrando Marrades, I; Llobera Bertran, C; Sala Lajo, A; Miñana Morell, M; Nolasco Bonmatí, A; Fresquet Febrer, J L

    2004-04-01

    The consumption of medicinal herbs is one of the most important topics in alternative and complementary medicine. The widespread use of these substances among the general population gives rise to the possibility of therapeutic or toxic effects in patients seeking conventional medical assistance. To determine the frequency of medicinal herb use, the species consumed and the profile of medicinal herb consumers among patients with gastrointestinal disorders, patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of the Francesc de Borja district hospital (Gandía, Spain) over a 5-month period were interviewed and 539 valid questionnaires were obtained. A total of 34.7% of the interviewees had taken medicinal herbs at some time and 26.9% had used them in the last year. Self-prescription was reported by 67.1%. Medicinal herbs were mainly obtained in the pharmacy or herbalist's (74.7%). The results of medicinal herb therapy were considered good or excellent by 80.3% of the interviewees, average by 18.6% and poor by 1.1%. In the univariate analysis, medicinal herb consumption was positively associated with female sex (p Santolina chamaecyparissus (18.8%), Tilia platyphyllos (6.5%), Thymus vulgaris (6%), Equisetum ramosissimum (4.7%), Mentha pulegium (4.4%) and Valeriana officinalis (4.4%). The results show that consumption of medicinal herbs is frequent among patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a district hospital. The probable profile of those showing maximum consumption is: female sex, university education, lower gastrointestinal disorder, functional gastrointestinal disorder, psychotropic drug consumption and use of TE. PMID:15056410

  12. Effects of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupuncture on the Carrageenan induced arthritis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Bok Yu; Kyeong-Sun Soh; Chan-Gil Jeong; Kwang-Ho Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to check of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture on effect of anti-inflammtory function, anti-febrile function and analgestic function in carrageenan-induced arthritic rat. Each of 8 rat were classified into control, sample group. Control group were inject by normal saline and Sample group were injected by Scolopendra subspinipes multilans. Herb-Acupuncture. After elicitating edema and inflammation of Sprgue Dawely(SD) rats by injection of 1% Carrageenan 0...

  13. HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident

  14. Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum Majorana L. Herb and extracts obtained with different solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Va?gi, Erika; Rapavi, Erika; Hadolin Kolar, Majda; Va?sa?rhelyine? Pere?di, Katalin; Bala?zs, Andrea; Bla?zovics, Anna; Sima?ndi, Be?la

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hy...

  15. Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, N.; Ishrat-Ullah Siddiqui; Fahmida Perveen; Maqsood, Z. T.

    2004-01-01

    Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present a...

  16. Measurement of ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed neutron parameters and methods used in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of ?eff measurement are described. The measured and calculated quantities and estimated uncertainties are presented. Agreement between the computation and measurement suggests the validity of the calculation method

  17. The rs1142345 in TPMT Affects the Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Hypoglycemic Herbs in Prediabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Li; Feng-Mei Lian; Dong Guo; Lan Fan; Jie Tang; Jing-Bo Peng; Hong-Wen Deng; Zhao-Qian Liu; Xin-Hua Xiao; Yan-Rong Wang; Ke-Yi Qu; Sheng Deng; Qi Zhong; Yi-Ling Sha; Yan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions in prediabetes are important in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its chronic complications. However, little is known about the pharmacogenetic effect of traditional herbs on prediabetes treatment. A total of 194 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were treated with traditional hypoglycemic herbs (Tianqi Jiangtang) for 12 months in this study. DNA samples were genotyped for 184 mutations in 34 genes involved in drug metabolism or transportatio...

  18. Potential herb-drug interaction in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases during integrated traditional and Western medicine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Long

    2015-01-01

    The combination of herbs and drugs is one of the most important approaches in the prevention and treatment of diseases in the integrated traditional and Western medicine (ITWM). While most medical practices have proved that the combination of herbs and drugs led to a clinical efficacy that was often superior to merely using only one of them; results from some studies have triggered adverse reactions to such an approach. Since few herb-drug interaction studies were carried out during treatments combining herbs and drugs, it really restricts the development of treatment and treatment theory of the combination of herbs and drugs. Given that herb-drug interactions may occur through the main pathway of cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters; then to exhaustively study the role and impact of herbs in drug metabolism, as well as to establish a corresponding database, is of great significance for guiding the rational combination of herbs and drugs. When the herb-drug interaction information platform is implemented, we would get at ease a reasonable herb-drug prescription to achieve a better outcome, reduce dosage of some expensive drugs preserving the same efficacy, or even reduce some side effects of particular drugs; which might also promote the dynamic combination of Chinese and Western medicine, and accelerate the theory development of ITWM. PMID:25533650

  19. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  20. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-10-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  1. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

  2. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120?days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ?-carotene?-?linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  3. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  4. Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, d?/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

  5. Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Jin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  6. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D

    1994-01-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364

  7. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  8. Traditional Indian Herbs Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Its Medicinal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, as a rasayanawhich is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Convolvulus pluricaulisis a prostrate, spreading, perennial, wild herb commonly found on sandy or rocky ground under xerophytic conditions in northern India. The drug is used as antiepileptic. It is used alone or is administered along with modern antiepileptic drugs. Little human research has been published in the Western medical literature regarding this plant. One study shows convolvulus pluricaulis to have anti-ulcer effects due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion and glycoproteins. Another study showed that convolvulus pluricaulis may be helpful in improving symptoms of hyperthyroidism by reducing the activity of a liver enzyme. Convolvulus pluricaulis is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported toreduce mental tension.

  9. Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out

  10. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpadjan, S; Celik, G; Ta?kesen, S; Güçer, S

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 12 of thyme (Thymus serpyllum) were analyzed. The studied toxic elements were present in the medicinal plants (12-225 microg/kg As, 15-268 microg/kg Cd, 0.2-8.6 mg/kg Pb). Arsenic was found in all herbal infusions at levels up to 0.4 microg/l. Cadmium was present in infusions of chamomile, hibiscus, peppermint and thyme at levels up to 0.7 microg/l. Lead was detected only in hibiscus infusions (2-3 microg/l). It was established that the major part of arsenic and lead in herbal infusions existed in biomacromolecular fraction. Cadmium appears to be present mainly in cationic form at pH 1 (stomach acidity), but at pH 7.6 (intestine acidity) there is a non-cationic fraction as well. PMID:18614270

  11. Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Devkota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82% without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC. GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001 higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p<0.001 on seed germination. These data contribute for the establishing of an efficient protocol for C. asiatica cultivation.

  12. Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ali, Lizna; Jabeen, Ayesha; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rizvi, Tahir A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens. PMID:22700791

  13. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

  14. Linking vital rates to invasiveness of a perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramula, Satu

    2014-04-01

    Invaders generally show better individual performance than non-invaders and, therefore, vital rates (survival, growth, fecundity) could potentially be used to predict species invasiveness outside their native range. Comparative studies have usually correlated vital rates with the invasiveness status of species, while few studies have investigated them in relation to population growth rate. Here, I examined the influence of five vital rates (plant establishment, survival, growth, flowering probability, seed production) and their variability (across geographic regions, habitat types, population sizes and population densities) on population growth rate (?) using data from 37 populations of an invasive, iteroparous herb (Lupinus polyphyllus) in a part of its invaded range in Finland. Variation in vital rates was often related to habitat type and population density. The performance of the populations varied from declining to rapidly increasing independently of habitat type, population size or population density, but differed between regions. The population growth rate increased linearly with plant establishment, and with the survival and growth of vegetative individuals, while the survival of flowering individuals and annual seed production were not related to ?. The vital rates responsible for rapid population growth varied among populations. These findings highlight the importance of both regional and local conditions to plant population dynamics, demonstrating that individual vital rates do not necessarily correlate with ?. Therefore, to understand the role of individual vital rates in a species ability to invade, it is necessary to quantify their effect on population growth rate. PMID:24390414

  15. Evaluation of herbs as potential drugs/medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J A; Lukhoba, C W; Dossaji, S F

    2011-01-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times as medicines for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, for both human and livestock. A study conducted in the Lake Victoria Basin Kenya revealed vast knowledge and reliance on traditional medicine as a source of healthcare. The study documented 34 medicinal plant species distributed among 21 botanical families and 34 genera, used in the management of human ailments. The highest numbers of species were from the families Asteraceae and Leguminosae. The most commonly harvested plant parts were leaves (46.51%) and roots (34.88%). The most common growth forms utilised were herbs (40.54%) followed by shrubs (27.03%). The major methods of herbal drug preparation were concoction (31.03%) and decoction (24.14%) administered mainly through oral and dermal routes, (64.29%) and (32.14%) respectively. The use of herbal drugs as mixtures was reported to be a common practice by the herbal practitioners; 57.14% of the preparations were dispensed as mixtures while 42.86% of the preparations composed of single plants. A rich knowledge of medicinal plants was recognized and phytochemical and bioactivity analyses of these herbal plants are recommended to determine their safety and efficacy. PMID:22754068

  16. A REVIEW ON LEUCODERMA AND REPORTED HERBS FOR ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kaur

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucoderma is an idiopathic, acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The pathogenesis of leucoderma is multifunctional and includes three main factors genetic, immunological and environmental. Recently , various treatments modalities have been introduced , and treatment options and outcomes have been improving. Excimer laser, phototherapy, epidermal grafts and lifestyle modification have improved the results of treatment and quality of lives of patients with leucoderma. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in localized leucoderma. Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralen containing plants have been used for centuries in popular medicine to treat leucoderma. Further advancement in treatments using different derivatives of psoralen molecules may result in decrease possibility of long-term side effects such as cutaneous malignancies. In this review we wish to present recent pharmacological approaches of furanocoumarins and a detailed investigation on various herbs that can be used for the treatment of leucoderma

  17. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a ? ray source, 90Sr/90Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10-4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  18. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  19. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  20. EL CARIOTIPO FUNDAMENTAL EN RHODOLIRIUM SPECIOSUM (HERB.) RAVENNA Y R. ANDICOLA (POEPP.) RAVENNA (AMARYLLIDACEAE) THE FUNDAMENTAL KARYOTYPE IN RHODOLIRIUM SPECIOSUM (HERB.) RAVENNA AND R. ANDICOLA (POEPP.) RAVENNA (AMARYLLIDACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza, Carlos M.; Camila Mariangel; Eduardo Ruiz; María Negritto

    2009-01-01

    The karyotype of Rhodolirium speciosum (Herb.) Ravenna and R. andícola (Poepp.) Ravenna were examined. The species have 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 3sm + 1st chromosomes. Both species present a very different karyotype in comparison to other Amaryllidaceae from Chile.

  1. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Hoi; Ko Kam

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxid...

  2. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensoussan Alan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.

  3. An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

    2013-04-01

    A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

  4. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with l cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given

  5. Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species. PMID:25230471

  6. Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B Y; Lau, B H; Tadi, P P; Teel, R W

    1992-06-01

    Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumors while Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL) are often used as an adjunct in cancer therapy. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. The effects of these herbs on [3H]AFB1 binding to calf-thymus DNA were assessed. Organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of AFB1 were extracted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mutagenesis assays revealed that all of these herbs produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of histidine-independent revertant (His+) colonies induced by AFB1. At a concentration of 1.5 mg/plate, SB and OD in combination exhibited an additive effect. The trend of inhibition of these four herbs on AFB1-induced mutagenesis was: SB greater than LL greater than AM. LL, OD and SB significantly inhibited AFB1 binding to DNA, reduced AFB1-DNA adduct formation, and also significantly decreased the formation of organosoluble metabolites of AFB1. Our data suggest that these Chinese medicinal herbs possess cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:1377337

  7. Macro- and Trace metals in three Medicinal Herbs Collected from Baghdad, Iraq Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Mohammed Raouf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several metals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Co were determined in three medicinal herbs (Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium, Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Chamomile or camomile (Matricaria chamomilla by applying Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The obtained results showed that Calcium content in tested herb was ranged (1-3.675 ppm. Magnesium maximum content (4247.5 ppm presented in rosemary was higher and with this content kidney stone may be formed easily with other affected factors. Zinc concentration varied from (4.8-35.5 ppm reflecting type of plant effect on element transfer and accumulation in plant. Iron was with higher content (32-490 ppm compared with WHO recommendations. Lead content (3 ppm in all tested herbs was less than the WHO highest limits but higher than Germany limits. Cadmium content found (0.575 ppm only in Rosemary among three tested herbs which is more than WHO and Germany limitations. Chromium ranged (6-12 ppm that may be a result of its low solubility water and plant uptake. Manganese - Chamomile was below WHO maximum limit (200 ppm in medicinal plants with the lowest concentration (10.25 ppm while rosemary and feverfew had (27.75 and 12.375 ppm respectively. Nickel content ranged (8.8125-10.25 ppm was higher than WHO limitations. Cobalt was found in rosemary herb (1.85 ppm while feverfew and chamomile were with the same content (0.5 ppm.

  8. Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmosph even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

  9. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method

  10. Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Yi [Chung Shan Medical Univ., Inst. of Biochemistry, Taiwan (China); Chang Lai, Sheng-Pin [Chung Shan Medical Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Chief, Taiwan (China)

    2002-04-01

    For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup -3} {mu}g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

  11. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género.

  12. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective / Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos M, Baeza; Otto, Schrader; Eduardo, Ruiz; M, Negritto.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O) hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O). La zona central del país presenta el mayor número [...] de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O) a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O) en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O), Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género. Abstract in english Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zo [...] ne of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.

  13. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the application of natural products against planned and unplanned radiation exposure. (author)

  14. Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested for the treatment of children diseased with diabetes mellitus. Received preliminary results show that the phytotherapy during the traditional treatment results into decrease of blood sugar level at children with diabetes mellitus, what in its turn will allow to reduce the dose of insulin injected from outside

  15. [Aromatic trees and herbs that connect Heaven and earth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities. Aromatics smokes that connected people on the earth with deities in Heaven healed people's mind, sometimes curing illness through what is now called aromatherapy. In fact, such use of aromatics is still practiced in China, where aromatics are highly regarded as treatment agents. There have also been reports of aromatics being used for psychological and mental disorders. PMID:18548886

  16. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts. PMID:24025211

  17. MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peši? Milan P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of new results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are achieved confirming that MCNP5 code could apply successfully to study on HERBE kinetics parameters after uncertainties in impurities in material compositions and positions of fuel elements in fast zone were removed.

  18. Protection of mouse immune system by a preparation of herb mixture against whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preparation(P.P-I) of herb mixture was designed to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. The herb preparation was water extract of herb mixture(Agelica gagantis Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix) added with its polysaccharide fraction. In the present experiments, the ability of the preparation to protect hematopoietic and immune system was assessed in mice irradiated with 60Co ?-rays. The administration of P.P-I increased regeneration of blood cells and splenic lymphocytes in irradiated mice. In the administration mice, both B and T cells of lymphocytes were repopulated to normal level following irradiation, the response of repopulated lymphocytes to mitogen was recovered and the production of antibody against injected antigen was increased. These results indicated that the preparation protect hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage, and that enhanced immunity. Since the preparation is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful radioprotector

  19. Bromine and iodine in Chinese medical herbs determined via epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen natural herbs and two prescriptions prepared from mixed herbs were analyzed via epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) to evaluate their bromine and iodine concentration. Traditional medical doctors prescribed the samples presented in this work to most Taiwanese children for strengthening their immune systems. Empirical results indicated a wide diversity of bromine in the samples. Yet, the iodine concentration was only around one to tenth or twentieth of the bromine. The maximum daily intake (MDI) for various medical herbs was also widely diversified from one to tenfold on the basis of various criteria. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of bromine and iodine found was 0.42±0.14 ppm and 0.067±0.016 ppm, respectively. Compared to that from conventional thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) for a similar evaluation, the extremely low MDC obtained here was attributed to the large amount of thermal neutron absorption during sample irradiation. (author)

  20. Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

    2014-10-21

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

  1. Genotoxicological safety of the {gamma}-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y. H.; Oh, H.; Park, H. R.; Beon, M. W.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with {gamma}-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with {gamma}-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with {gamma}-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity.

  2. Genotoxicological safety of the ?-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with ?-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity

  3. Toxicity of the Chinese herb mu tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis). What history tells us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2002-01-01

    Plant sources of some traditional Chinese herbs may have changed over time. History records of herbal toxicity should be viewed critically when different plants might have been used under the same name in earlier eras. The current main source of the Chinese herb Mu Tong is Aristolochia manshuriensis. Examination of classical Chinese herbal literature revealed that until the mid 17th century the original source plants of Mu Tong had been several Akebia species. From the 17th century until the early 20th century Clematis species were the main source of Mu Tong. A manshuriensis has only been widely used since the 1950s. Renal failure due to ingestion of large doses of A. manshuriensis has been reported in China and other countries while no such toxicity has been recorded in traditional Chinese herbal texts. Documentation of traditional Chinese herbal literature should help to ensure the safe use of Chinese herbs. PMID:12503251

  4. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  5. Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

  6. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (L...

  7. Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

  8. Determination of element contents in certain wild herbs of Uzbekistan by radioactivation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of activation methods for analysing the element composition in wild herbs is developed to exercise control from the viewpoint of pharmacology and the environment influence on the composition variation. The complex includes the neutron activation analysis method with a nuclear reactor application and charged particle activation analysis (proton and deuteron) with a cyclotron application. Concentrations of more than 20 elements in 5 herbs of Uzbekistan are determined. Methods for sample preparation for analysis are described. Analysis results are tabbulated. The detection limit is lower than 10-4%. It is shown, that toxic element concentration in the indicated plants is lower than maximum permissible one

  9. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Bariyah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like antimicrobial, anticataleptic, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic and cardioprotective activities. The aim of the present review is to present an extensive survey on the phytochemistry and pharmacological applications of the herb.

  10. Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fatima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present at ppb level, it is examined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with zeeman background correction. None of these species contain metals above the toxic limit. Fenugreek was found to be rich source of metal specially chromium.

  11. Verification of kinetic parameters of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1989 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the VINCA Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews experiments for kinetic parameters verification carried out at HERBE system. Their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results are included. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in the calculations is presented too. (author)

  12. The effect of ionizing radiation on microbiological decontamination of medical herbs and biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the national program on the application of irradiation to the decontamination of medical herbs is in progress now. The purpose of the program is to elaborate, on the basis of research work, the facility standards and technological instructions indispensable for the practice of radiation technology

  13. The effect of ionizing radiation on microbiological decontamination of medical herbs and biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Segiet-Kujawa, E.

    1998-06-01

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the national program on the application of irradiation to the decontamination of medical herbs is in progress now. The purpose of the program is to elaborate, on the basis of research work, the facility standards and technological instructions indispensable for the practice of radiation technology.

  14. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

  15. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migda?, W.; K ?dzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  16. [Isolation and structure determination of furan sesquiterpene from Chinese traditional herb ezhu (rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Chen, C; Wu, Y

    1991-05-01

    It has been reported that curdione is a major component in Chinese traditional herb ezhu. But no curdione was found in the herb ezhu collected from Guangdong province, instead a furan sesquiterpene was isolated. Its structure and configuration were determined by the analysis of IR, UV, MS, NMR and circular dichroism. PMID:1781896

  17. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  18. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  19. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  20. Studies on active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. I. Effects of herb extracts on hair growth and isolation of an active substance from Polyporus umbellatus F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Y; Shakuya, A; Fukazawa, H; Ishida, H; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kuroda, H; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Kosuge, T

    1994-03-01

    The effects of methanol extracts of 80 herbs on hair growth were investigated, using normal C3H/He mice from which telogen hair on the back had been removed. Eighteen of the extracts apparently promoted hair regrowth on the mice. As one of active principles in Polyporus umbellatus F., 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was isolated by column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. PMID:8004697

  1. Fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yea; Simonne, Amarat; Jitareerat, Pongphen

    2006-08-01

    The fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs were evaluated at a refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). Fresh herbs, including cilantro, oregano, basil, chive, parsley, and rosemary, were inoculated with six-strain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, and the microbial populations were monitored at 1, 5, 11, 16, 19, and 24 days. For both pathogens, a significant decrease in the population (P chive was terminated after 19 days because of deteriorated quality, significant numbers of both pathogens were recovered from the remaining fresh herbs after 24 days of storage. The results showed that both bacteria were extremely persistent on all test herbs under the test conditions. The results also reinforce the concept that, once contaminated, bacterial pathogens can persist on fresh herbs throughout a normal distribution time. PMID:16924931

  2. Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Xingyan Li; Xinli Gu

    2009-01-01

    [Object]: Detect whether different concentrations of Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides (CPS), astragaluspolysaccharides (APS) and angeulica polysaccharides (ASP), epimedium herb polysaccharides (EPS) have effects onthe immunity function of healthy Roman chicken. [Method]: 260 one-day-old chickens were divided into thirteengroups randomly, 20 birds each group. The physiological saline, Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides, APS, ASPor EPS had been hypodermically injected for seven days c...

  3. Effect of packaging materials and storage on major volatile compounds in three Australian native herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliha, Mridusmita; Cusack, Andrew; Currie, Margaret; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Smyth, Heather

    2013-06-19

    Lemon myrtle, anise myrtle, and Tasmanian pepper leaf are commercial Australian native herbs with a high volatile or essential oil content. Packaging of the herbs in high- or low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) has proven to be ineffective in preventing a significant loss of volatile components on storage. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of alternate high-barrier property packaging materials, namely, polyvinylidene chloride coated polyethylene terephthalate/casted polypropylene (PVDC coated PET/CPP) and polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/linear low-density polyethylene (PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE), in prevention of volatile compound loss from the three native herbs stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Concentrations of major volatiles were monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. After 6 months of storage, the greatest loss of volatiles from lemon myrtle was observed in traditional LDPE packaging (87% loss) followed by storage in PVDC coated PET/CPP (58% loss) and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE (loss of 23%). The volatile loss from anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf stored in PVDC coated PET/CPP and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE packaging was <30%. This study clearly indicates the importance of selecting the correct packaging material to retain the quality of herbs with high volatile content. PMID:23682630

  4. Investigation of Elemental Concentrations of Some Medicinal Herbs Collected from Kachin State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five medicinal herbs, which are traditionally used in the Kachin State for the treatment of tuberculosis, different types of cancers, malaria and indigestion problem, were analyzed by the EDXRF techinque to determine the relative concentrations of elements contained in them. The major elements and the trace elements were thoroughly investigated for a comparison purpose

  5. Phytochemical studies of the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. (Asteraceae). 2. Components of a methanol extract

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarz, Helena D.; Tadeusz Krzaczek

    1988-01-01

    Vitexin, orientin, isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were isolated from the herb, Tragopogon orientnlis L. The occurrence of quercetin and the phenolic acids: chlorogenic, homoprotoca-techuic, protocatechuic, caffeic, gentysic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic o-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-cumaric, syringic, vanillic, ferulic and salicylic, and of the sugars: glucose, fructose and sucrose was demonstrated chromatographically.

  6. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  7. Antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effects of wild herbs mainly cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244

  8. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo-Yong Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

  9. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Patel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, ...

  10. Decorporation of strontium and cesium radioisotope mixture with extract of Bulgarian medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decorporation efficiency of an extract of Bulgarian medicinal herbs was investigated for a case of acute intoxication with mixture of cesium and strontium radioisotopes. A slight effect of decorporation (1-2 times versus the controls) was found only with respect to the radioactive strontium. 1 tab., 3 refs

  11. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1? and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  12. Skull form of herb field mouse, Apodemus uralensis: intraspecific variation on a continental scale.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Ond?ej; Schnitzerová, P.; Mošanský, L.; Juškaitis, R.; Bogdanov, A.; Mezhzherin, S.; Macholán, Miloš

    Vantaa : Finnish Forest Research Institute, 2012 - (Henttonen, H.; Huitu, O.). s. 65 ISBN 978-951-40-2374-3. [Rodens et Spatium /13./. 16.07.2012-20.07.2012, Rovaniemi] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : herb field mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  13. Determination of gamma spectrum in the centre of the HERBE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to know influence of neutron and gamma radiation on sample during irradiation in centre of the reactor system HERBE(at the RB reactor). It was the reason that gamma energy spectrum, was measured. In this paper results of the experiments are shown. (author)

  14. Verification of temperature coefficients of reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space and fuel geometry dependent temperature coefficients of the reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core HERBE were calculated by suitable computer codes. For verification of the results, the isothermal temperature coefficient of the reactivity of the thermal core was determined by experiment. The deviation between measured and calculated value was less than 5%. (author)

  15. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  16. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects.

  17. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical constitution of the herbs. The extracts, presented no change in the color increasing the irradiation doses (results are similar in other herbs extracts) as showed in the absorption peaks. The samples showed similar curves, presenting no changes in the chemical compounds. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after treatment by high doses radiation, Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to Quimer and IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

  18. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wódkiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Bia?owie?a Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

  19. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interlukine-1? (IL-?), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-?b), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes. PMID:24494070

  20. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  1. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to search for cannabis in herb mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Herb mixtures including cannabis among the other herbs have recently appeared. When cannabinoids from herb extracts are detected by chemical examinations such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, forensic analysts have to determine whether cannabis is actually in the mixture or the cannabinoids are spiked. Morphological examinations are time-consuming, since it is difficult to find several pieces of cannabis among a large number of herb pieces using a microscope. Here, we propose a procedure for efficiently searching for cannabis in herb mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI/IMS). Pieces of herb mixtures were spread on double-sided adhesive tape attached to a stainless steel plate. The pieces were then covered with a conductive sheet and pressed. After a solution containing a matrix reagent was sprayed, the distribution of cannabinoids in the sample was visualized by MALDI/IMS. Then, just the pieces with cannabinoids could be picked up selectively with tweezers and decolorized. Cystolith hairs and trichomes, which are characteristic of cannabis, were observed in most of these pieces using a biological microscope. This MALDI/IMS procedure enables cannabis to be found in herb mixtures without inefficient random sampling and microscopic morphological examination. PMID:24838491

  2. Heavy metal uptake by two edible Amaranthus herbs grown on soils contaminated with lead, mercury, cadmium, and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunilall, V; Kindness, A; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2005-01-01

    The uptake of an element by a plant is primarily dependent on the plant species, its inherent controls, and the soil quality. Amaranthus hybridus (green herbs) and Amaranthus dubius (red herbs) were chosen to investigate their response and ability to accumulate and tolerate varying levels of elements in their roots and shoots. Red herbs and green herbs were grown in soil pots contaminated with three mixtures of Cd(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Hg(II). Plants in the control treatment were grown in the absence of the heavy metals mixture. The distribution of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Hg in the plants (in roots, stems, and leaves) was determined in two stages. Stage 1, after 5 weeks of plant growth and stage 2, full grown after 10 weeks of growth. In the red herbs the Cd concentration in the leaves at stage 2 was 150 ppm and was present in higher concentrations than Ni, Hg, and Pb. At the highest contamination level, in the green herbs plant, Hg was present in the highest concentration in the root, i.e., 336 ppm at stage 1, while the level in the leaves was 7.12 ppm. Both the green and red herbs species showed an affinity for Ni and Cd with moderate to high levels detected in the leaves, respectively. PMID:15825688

  3. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

  4. Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption ofther with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined in vivo by stable isotope erythrocyte incorporation technique. In parallel, the effect of the spice/herb on gastric emptying will be studied by stable isotope techniques using 13C-octanoicacid.Later,the effect of selected spices/herbs on iron absorption from popular northeast composite meal (mixture of spices and herbs) will be examined. Test meals will be served either with or without added spices/herbs.Data from this study can be used to effectively plan a food-based program to address iron deficiency problem in northeast Thailand. (author)

  5. Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Florou-paneri, P.; Palatos, G.; Govaris, A.; Botsoglou, D.; Giannenas, I.; Ambrosiadis, I.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4oC. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondiald...

  6. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    OpenAIRE

    Rim, In-sook; Jee, Cha-ho

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these es...

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical profile of medicinally important herb Mentha arvensis (L against various microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi S.P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out to evaluate the Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of medicinally important herb Mentha arvensis belonging to family Lamioceac commonly called as mint and Pudina. The antimicrobial potential of plant is measured against some of the important microorganism such as E.coli , Streptococcus aureus and salmonella typhi.The plant material has been extracted by using the solvent Methenol and chloroform .The present study reveals that the selected herb extracted of methanol found to be more bioactive against salmonella typhi and E-colo rather than streptococcus aureus , Similarlly the chloroform extract is found to be more bioactive against the microorganism E-coli and salmonella typhi rather than streptococcus aureus.

  8. Determination of trace elements in commonly consumed medicinal herbs by ICP-MS and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokal?o?lu, ?erife

    2012-10-15

    The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb elements in thirty medicinal herb samples widely consumed in Kayseri, Turkey were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples were digested with concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave system. The decreasing sequence of the mean metal levels in medicinal herbs is as follows: Fe>Sr>Mn>Zn>Rb>Cu>Ni>Cr>Co>Pb. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the data matrix to evaluate analytical results. It was found that four principal components account for 80.6% of the total variance in the data. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, GBW07605 Tea Certified Reference Material was analysed. PMID:23442717

  9. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  10. Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

  11. Temperature Control in a PV-WIND Medical Herb Dryer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a temperature control technique for a medical herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medical herbs at 40? even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using on/off controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using solar water collector and electric heater. While, the electrical system which contains a photovoltaic (PV-WIND hybrid system is used to feed the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in case of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.

  12. Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Scollard, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a range of stora...

  13. Changes in the species composition and structure of the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest subject to clear cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Hieronim Andrzejewski

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the herb layer of a thermophilous oak forest (Potentillo albae-Quercetum), subject to clear cutting and artificial reforestation with Scotch pine monoculture, were analysed by a comparative method. It was found that cutting of a tree stand and underbrush did not destroy phytocoenose totally. Floristically-rich clearance communities resembled in their composition and structure the ground layer of an natural form of an oak forest. The regress of the herb layer took place several year...

  14. The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional phytoestrogen-rich herbs, Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata

    OpenAIRE

    Cherdshewasart, W.; Sutjit, W.; Pulcharoen, K.; Chulasiri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pueraria mirifica is a Thai phytoestrogen-rich herb traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Pueraria lobata is also a phytoestrogen-rich herb traditionally used in Japan, Korea and China for the treatment of hypertension and alcoholism. We evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of the two plant extracts using the Ames test preincubation method plus or minus the rat liver mixture S9 for metabolic activation using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 as...

  15. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Stef Ducu; Gergen Iosif

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn...

  16. Repellent Effect of Herb Extracts on the Population of Wingless Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromi Ikeura; Fumiyuki Kobayashi; Yasuyoshi Hayata

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the repellent and insecticidal effects of 8 kinds of herb extracts (chives, dokudami, eucalyptus, lavender, peppermint, cherry sage, sweet pepper and tansy) against wingless green peach aphids were conducted in laboratory and field test. In laboratory repellent tests, 20 aphids were placed between a radish leaf and filter paper for 16 h and aphids on radish leaf were calculated. In laboratory insecticide tests, 20 aphids were placed on a radish leaf treated with herb extract,...

  17. Estimation of green grass/herb biomass from airborne hyperspectral imagery using spectral indices and partial least squares regression

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. A.; Skidmore, A. K.; Corsi, F.; Wieren, S. E.; Sobhan, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective was to determine whether partial least squares (PLS) regression improves grass/herb biomass estimation when compared with hyperspectral indices, that is normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red-edge position (REP). To achieve this objective, fresh green grass/herb biomass and airborne images (HyMap) were collected in the Majella National Park, Italy in the summer of 2005. The predictive performances of hyperspectral indices and PLS regression models were then d...

  18. Study on Herb-herb Interaction Potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on Mast Cell Stabilizing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh V. Malaviya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between the components of mixtures of herb are a vital part of their therapeutic efficacy. There is no real basis for better efficacy of a mixture of herb extract than an equivalent dose of an individual herbal extract. Speculation as to explain this, whether it involves synergy, enhanced bioavailability, cumulative effects or simply the additive properties of the constituents requires further research. Liquorice, Kantkari and Vasaka are present in number of herbal formulation available in market for asthma and respiratory disorders so, present study was undertaken to explore the interaction potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on mast cell stabilization compound 48/80 and egg albumin induced degranulation. Isobole method and Combination Index values were used to derive possible magnitude of interaction at various combinations. Compound 48/80 and egg albumin significantly disrupted mast cells (p Solanum xanthocarpum Extract (SXE and Adhatoda vasica Extract (AVE showed significant protection (pAdhatoda vasica extract and Liquorice extract (AVE+LE as well as Solanum xanthocarpum extract and Liquorice extract (SXE+LE, demonstrated significant (pin vitro study, a combination of Liquorice extract with Solanum xanthocarpum extract and Adhatoda vasica extract deserves further clinical investigation in properly designed clinical trials in patients with allergic conditions.

  19. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium(pennyroyal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, In-Sook; Jee, Cha-Ho

    2006-06-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 microliter/cm(2)) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 microliter/cm(2), which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 microliter/cm(2), 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL HERBS AND STANDARD ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST POULTRY ASSOCIATED PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Affia Rafique; Saiqa Andleeb; Tahseen Ghous; Nosheen Shahzad; Irsa Shafique

    2012-01-01

    Present study aims to access the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants and antibiotics against poultry associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is the most widespread avian pathogen and it produces a range of toxins and enzymes that may contribute to pathogenicity. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the chicken liver and identified through biochemical methods. The antibacterial activity of extracts of medicinal herbs and various antibiotics were analyzed against P. aeruginosa throug...

  1. Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, F.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry diets. Therefore, there is an intensive search for alternatives such...

  2. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Zimowska; Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Ewa Dorota Król; Ewa Dorota Zalewska

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita) was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis) stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and...

  3. Reproductive Biology of Evolvulus alsinoides L. (Medicinal Herb)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakre, G.; Bhavana; Singh, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive biology provides information on life forms, rate of flowering, type of breeding system, plant-pollinators interaction, fruit and seed output, overall fitness and survival of the species. The present study was carried out to reproductive biology of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is a medicinal herb of semi arid zone of Agra in North India. The study was carried out for a period of twenty four months to observe the reproductive parameters of the E. alsinoides in the di...

  4. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapreeyakul Natthida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P?=?0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7?±?12.3 ?g/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79?±?7.62 ?g/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

  5. Use of Chinese Herb Medicine in Cancer Patients: A Survey in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Guo Liu; Shao-Quan Xiong; Yan Yan; Hong Zhu; Cheng Yi

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is the most commonly reported traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) modality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CHM use in cancer patients in southwestern China. Cancer patients from eleven comprehensive cancer centers were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. Of 587 available replies, 53.0% used CHM. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that educational level, stage of disease, duration of cancer since diagnosis, mar...

  6. Biochemical study on the effects of some Egyptian herbs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hamdy A; Newairy, Al-Sayeda A; Yousef, M I; Sheweita, S A

    2002-01-25

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Lupinus albus, L. (Lupinus termis), family L. leguminosae, Cymbopogon proximus, (Halfa barr), family Gramineae, and Zygophyllum coccineum L. (Kammun quaramany), family L. Zygophyllacae on biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A dose of 1.5 ml of aqueous suspension of each herb/100 g body weight (equivalent to 75 mg/100 g b.wt.) was orally administered daily to alloxan-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared with the control group. In contrast, total protein and albumin were significantly decreased by 25 and 46%, respectively, versus control. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of any one of the three herb suspensions could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels after 4 weeks of treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats. However, acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the plasma compared with the control group, whereas, such activity did not change in brain. The activities of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the liver of alloxan-diabetic rats by 58, 21 and 40%, respectively, and such activities increased in testes by 39, 26 and 26%, respectively, compared with the control group. Also, brain LDH was significantly (P<0.05) increased. Treatment of the diabetic rats with the aqueous suspension of the tested herbs restored the activities of the above enzymes to their normal level in plasma, liver and testes. The present results showed that the herb suspensions exerted antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes. PMID:11788159

  7. The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    ?ozowicka, Boz?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczyn?ski, Piotr; Micin?ski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid–solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validat...

  8. Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu-qi; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and resisting aging, the lack of which are believed to underlie dementia. The...

  9. A Systematic Review of Single Chinese Herbs for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Tzu Li; Li-Min Fu

    2011-01-01

    The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore her...

  10. Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of the Traditional Chinese Herb, Phyllanthus amarus

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-fong; Chan, Kok-gan

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobact...

  11. TCMID: traditional Chinese medicine integrative database for herb molecular mechanism analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ruichao; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM’s modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human’s dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingr...

  12. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    OpenAIRE

    RAVINDRA ADE; SHIVAJI DESHMUKH

    2012-01-01

    Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combinat...

  13. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Yui Kau Fong; Qiong Gao; Zhong Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food intera...

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones. Part XV. New cytostatic active sesquiterpene lactone from herb of Anthemis nobilis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, H; Drozdz, B; Hlado?, B; Wojciechowska, J

    1977-01-01

    From fresh and dried herb (without inflorescences) of Anthemis nobilis L. a new sesquiterpene lactone C20H26O6 was isolated. This compound showed a cytotoxic activity at a level of ED50 HeLa -- 0-56 microgram/ml (1-5 x 10(-6) M), and ED50 KB -- 1.23 microgram/ml (3-5 x 10(-6) M), what qualifies it for further in vivo studies. PMID:905207

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Boo-Yong Lee; Ok-Hwan Lee; Hyeon-Son Choi; Bong Kyun Kim; Jong Seok Lee; Ju-Hyun Cho; Dan-Bi Kim; Young-Jun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenes...

  16. Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Abahussain; Ea, Abahussain; Fm, Al-oumi

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal informati...

  17. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn Caroline A; Weber Janet L; Kruger Marlena C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 s...

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of the Impact of Blending on Luminescence Detection of Irradiated Herbs and Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, L.; Sanderson, D. C. W.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been undertaken to study the impact of blending irradiated and unirradiated products on luminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices. Samples of six products (oregano, basil, sage, paprika, ginger and cinnamon) were prepared combining irradiated material at three different concentration levels - 10%, 1% and 0.1% with unirradiated product under controlled conditions. The luminescence sensitivities of both the irradiated and unirradiated products were v...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers from the Chinese Medicinal Herb Atractylodes macrocephala (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Xin Fu; Zong-Chao Wang; Zhong-Da Shao; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (Asteraceae) is an economically important Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from A. macrocephala using the compound microsatellite marker technique. Levels of polymorphism within the 15 markers were assessed using 83 individuals from two wild and two cultivated populations in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, with an average of 9.9 alleles. Observed and expected heterozygositie...

  20. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby; Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects of extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs in gentamicin (GM)-nephrotoxic rats. Material and Methods: Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into six equal groups. Group 1 was given sterile saline solution by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (negative control). Group 2 (nephrotoxic) was injected with GM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days during the last week of th...

  1. Population history, mating system, and fitness variation in a perennial herb with a fragmented distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Leimu, R.; Mutikainen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of genetic diversity are strongly influenced by the history of populations, which is often ignored when examining the viability of populations. We studied the relationship of population size, genetic variation, and fitness in the perennial herb Vincetoxicum hirundinaria (Asclepiadaceae) in the southwestern archipelago of Finland, where this species occurs commonly on many of the islands and its distribution is highly fragmented. We measured the magnitude and distribution of genetic v...

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commercial herb and spice extracts against selected food-borne bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Anna M.; Hickey, Dara K.; Mercedes Alonso-Gomez; Martin Wilkinson

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of extracts of thirty commercial herbs and spices commonly used in the production of ready meals. Various extracts of spices were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas fluorescens using a microdilution broth method. Ethanol and hexane extracts of oregano, clove, sage, rosemary and celery showed relatively strong antimicrobial a...

  3. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Brki?; Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Marina Sokovi?; Marin, Petar D.; Jasmina Glamo?lija

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

  4. Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Kh A.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of water stress on vegetative growth, essential oil, proline, total carbohydrates, N, P, K, and protein contents of two species of an herb plant ie Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) and Ocimum americanum L. (american basil). Experiments were carried out during two successive seasons, 2004 and 2005, with experimental pots containing Typic Torrifluvents soil (a clay loam) in a growth chamber at the Experimental Farm, National Research Center (NRC), Giza, Egy...

  5. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-06-01

    Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

  6. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Griselda Patricia, Scipioni; Darío Jorge, Ferreyra; Miguel Eduardo, Schmalko.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate c [...] omposta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine conce [...] ntration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.

  7. Antioxidant potential of herbs extracts and impact on HepG2 cells viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Micha?owska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury poisoning is responsible for inducing serious adverse effects in living organisms. One of protection factors could be substances proven to possess high antioxidant and metal chelating activity – plant polyphenols. There are many sources of polyphenols in plant kingdom but the most interesting for food industry could be widely consumed herbs. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative potential of selected plant extracts and its influence on HepG2 cells in different conditions. Ethanolic herbs extracts were characterised by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH• and ABTS+• radicals scavenging methods and FRAP. Research included cells viability estimation by the MTT assay and cells exposition to HgCl2, chemical agent inducing cell death. Analysis of herbs extracts antioxidative activity showed best potential represented thyme and marjoram, highest FRAP was evaluated in samples with mint and marjoram extracts. On the basis of received results it was found that examined plant extracts showed weak protection against Hg presence in examined cells environment.

  8. Traditional Use of Herbs, Shrubs and Trees of Shogran Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Matin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Shogran valley (Hazara. Information on local names, traditional medicinal uses and occurrence of the herbs, shrubs and trees has been presented. A total of 77 species of herbs, 12 species of shrubs and 18 species of trees were recorded that are used medicinally and for other purposes. Among herbs Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Bth., Convolvulus arvensis L. , Geranium nepalense Sweet, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet, Mentha longifolia (Hk. Huds., Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, Potentilla nepalensis Hk., Torilis nodosa (L. Gaertn., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb. are the most common. Podophyllum hexandrum is vulnerable due to over exploitation. Five species of shrubs and 12 species of trees are collected for sale in the local market as well as in other parts of the country. Juglans regia L. is found vulnerable in this area due to utilization of its different parts for different purposes. Melia azedarach L. is found under pressure of being used as fuel wood. Wild fruits such as Ficus carica L., Diospyrus lotus L., Morus alba L., Pyrus communis L., Pyrus pashia Ham. ex D. Don. and Prunus persica (L. Batsch. require in situ conservation in the area for future germplasm source

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Herb Formula KIOM2012H against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayong Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. KIOM2012H dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation and gene expressions involved in lipogenesis and related regulators. Experimental animals also showed a decrease in body weight changes and lipid-associated physiological parameters. This study shows that KIOM2012H has an alleviating effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation, and therefore can be applied for development of new therapeutic pharmaceuticals for treatment of NAFLD using natural products and herbs.

  10. Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, C Y; Hsieh, C L; Wu, S L; Lai, I L; Ho, T Y

    2001-01-01

    The increasing clinical use of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet against herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus has been associated with the emergence of drug-resistant herpesvirus strains. To develop anti-HSV compounds from plants, 31 herbs used as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents in Chinese medicine were screened. Five different preparations (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, ethanolic, acid ethanolic, and methanolic) from 31 herbs were analyzed by plaque reduction assay, and 7 extracts. which showed significant antiviral activities, were further elucidated for their antiviral mechanisms. Our results showed that ethanolic extract of Rheum officinale and methanolic extract of Paeonia suffruticosa prevented the process of virus attachment and penetration. Aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa and ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan inhibited virus attachment to cell surface. Aqueous extract of Sophora flavescens and methanolic extract of M. toosendan showed no effect on virus attachment and penetration. These data indicated that these 4 herbs have a potential value as a source of new powerful anti-HSV compounds. PMID:11789588

  11. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

  12. Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.A. Khalid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of water stress on vegetative growth, essential oil, proline, total carbohydrates, N, P, K, and protein contents of two species of an herb plant ie Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil and Ocimum americanum L. (american basil. Experiments were carried out during two successive seasons, 2004 and 2005, with experimental pots containing Typic Torrifluvents soil (a clay loam in a growth chamber at the Experimental Farm, National Research Center (NRC, Giza, Egypt. Seedlings were treated with different levels of water-stress, determined as a percentage of field water capacity (FWC by weight (50, 75, 100, and 125%. Fresh and dry weights of the herbs were significantly influenced by water stress. For both species under water stress, essential oil percentage, the main constituents of essential oil, proline, and total carbohydrate content increased, and N, P, K, and protein content decreased. Seventy five percent field water capacity resulted in the highest yield of herb and essential oil for both species.

  13. Repellent Effects of Volatile Extracts from Herb Plants against Larvae of Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Ikeura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and intensive use of toxic chemicals, as well as resistance to pesticides, has forced scientists to find new ways of controlling pests. Numerous substances that repel insects and inhibit eating and egg-laying have been discovered in a variety of plants. The cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval, is a serious pest to Brassicaca species such as cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli, and its larvae damage the host plant leaves when feeding. In this study, to develop a botanical insecticide against P. rapae larvae, we assessed the effect of 7 kinds of herb (rosemary, spearmint, eucalyptus, sage, chili pepper, chives and tansy extracts as feeding repellents against P. rapae larvae. Feeding repellent tests were conducted by placing two cabbage leaf disks on filter paper treated with herb extract or diethyl ether in a box; then a larva was placed between the disks and its preference was observed. The repellent rate of rosemary, spearmint, eucalyptus, sage, chili pepper, chives and tansy was 75%, 72%, 64%, 59%, 40%, 40% and 36%, respectively. These results clarified that of the tested herbs, rosemary and spearmint volatile extracts have a notable feeding repellent effect against P. rapae larvae.

  14. [Screening of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Chinese dietary herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Kaibin; Ji, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanwen; Jeffrey, Zidichouski; Tong, Yan; Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Zhimin

    2012-05-01

    The present study was conducted to develop new inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase from Chinese dietary herbs. Sixty-three dietary herbs from 39 taxonomic families were selected and extracted with aqueous ethanol or water. The extracts were then tested with in vitro enzyme assays for their ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. Orlistat and acarbose were used as two positive controls. The extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Curcuma longa, Piper longum and Morus alba showed strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects with IC50 at (28.00 +/- 5.51), (5.24 +/- 0.51), (14.76 +/- 2.58), (4.78 +/- 0.58), (3.41 +/- 0.67) mg x L(-1), respectively. These extracts also showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 at (1.98 +/- 0.13), (0. 18 + 0.007), (0.71 +/- 0.08), (0.077 +/- 0.005), (0.089 +/- 0.006) g x L(-1), respectively. The results provide useful information for developing new drugs or natural health products for hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia from Chinese dietary herbs. PMID:22803384

  15. Biosorption and preconcentration of lead and cadmium on waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption behavior of the solid waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai (seeds of Sterculia lychnophera Hance) was studied as a sorbent for trace lead and cadmium. The solid waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai has good sorption and desorption properties for Pb and Cd. The sorbed waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai was both easily eluted with 0.1 mol l-1 HNO3 and easily digested with concentrated HNO3.The extent of adsorption depends on pH, metal concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of interfering ions. The adsorption capacities were found to be 27.1 and 17.5 mg g-1 for Pb and Cd. The relative standard deviation of the metal uptake experiment was found to be less than 10% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) using 100 ?g l-1 of metal ions and 20 mg substrate. Based on above, an ecofriend and low cost method for Cd and Pb preconcentration and determination with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was developed. The method was validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (GBW 08301). The results agree with those quoted by manufactures. It was used for 90-fold preconcentration of Cd and Pb from tap water and river water samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopic (FAAS) determination with satisfactory results

  16. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  17. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework for quantitative prediction of an herb-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2014-01-01

    Herb-drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb-drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb-drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e107; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.69; advance online publication 26 March 2014. PMID:24670388

  18. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2014-01-01

    Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb–drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions. PMID:24670388

  19. Genetic diversity of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, detected by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Chen, Shao-Feng

    2007-10-01

    Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important Chinese medicinal herb. Because of overharvesting, the wild populations of this herb have greatly declined and become fragmentized. In this paper, ISSR markers were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of this variety represented by a total of 153 individuals from three natural populations and three cultivated populations. Fourteen primers produced a total of 251 bands, of which 227 were polymorphic (PPB=90.44%). For the natural populations, the results showed that genetic differentiation was mainly within populations (GST=0.1952), with low genetic diversity at the population level. At the population level, genetic diversity of the cultivated populations was relatively higher than that of the natural populations (PPB=57.24% vs. 53.38%, HE=0.153 vs. 0.151, HO=0.241 vs. 0.235). This pattern can be explained by the recent introduction and artificial selection of cultivars from comparatively wide areas of origin, and subsequent gene flow among populations in cultivation. Although the neighbour-joining cluster analysis seemed to suggest that there was conspicuous genetic differentiation between the natural and cultivated populations, the AMOVA showed that only 4.84% of the total variance existed between groups of natural and cultivated populations, while 67.51% of the variance occurred within populations. In the end, some suggestions for conservation of this important herb are proposed. PMID:17973204

  20. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

  1. Research on processing medicinal herbs with multi-steps infrared macro-fingerprint method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Sun, Su-Qin; Fan, Ke-Feng; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2005-11-01

    How to apply rapid and effective method to research medicinal herbs, the representative of complicated mixture system, is the current study focus for analysts. The functions of non-processed and processed medicinal herbs are greatly different, so controlling the processing procedure is highly important for guarantee of the curative effect. Almost, the conventional criteria of processing are based on personal sensory experience. There is no scientific and impersonal benchmark. In this article, we take Rehmannia for example, conducting a systematic study on the process of braising Rehmannia with yellow wine by using the multi-steps infrared (IR) macro-fingerprint method. The method combines three steps: conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative spectroscopy, and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy. Based on the changes in different types of IR spectra during the process, we can infer the optimal end-point of processing Rehmannia and the main transformations during the process. The result provides a scientific explanation to the traditional sensory experience based recipe: the end-point product is "dark as night and sweet as malt sugar". In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method, which is rapid and reasonable, can play an important role in controlling the processing of medicinal herbs.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of a Renewable Energy Based-Medical Herb Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The medical herbs should be dried directly after harvesting, otherwise, insects and fungi spoilage them. Conventional drying methods such as open sun drying and conventional fuel dryers are not suitable, since they contaminate the herbs, decrease the drying efficiency and at the same time increase the drying cost. Therefore, the recent trend is toward the harnessing the renewable energy to dry the medical herbs. This paper presents a new controlled drying system, which uses a solar collector and an electric heater to heat the drying air, and a PV-WIND hybrid system to supply the required electric energy to the dryer electric load. This paper also presents the dynamic modeling, simulation, and control of the suggested thermal system (i.e., the solar thermal system and the electrical heater. Moreover, this paper, exhibits the different results of the thermal system, to check the effectiveness of this system that fulfills the requirements of the drying operation. The system results are found to satisfy the ultimate goals of the drying operation.

  3. Analysis of the Detection Characteristics of Irradiated Dried Spices and Herbs by Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to determine whether Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL) is applicable for the detection of post-irradiated foods by measuring the PSL photon counts of unirradiated and irradiated dried spices and herbs. A total of 19 dried spices and herbs was irradiated with a ?60Co ?-ray source at 1, 5 and 10 kGy followed by measurement of PSL photon. The photon counts of unirradiated samples below 700 correspond to negative. Fifteen samples irradiated over 1 kGy showed photon counts of more than 5,000, indicating irradiation treatment. Intermediate counts (photon count 700-5,000) were observed in irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark at 10 kGy. These results suggest that it is possible to detect whether dried spices and herbs were irradiated by analyzing PSL, with the exception of white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark. Irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark containing low levels of minerals were not sensitive to PSL. Therefore, further investigation is suggested to be performed by Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis or another validated or standardized method

  4. Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to the successful use of the {sup 15}N natural abundance technique. Acacia leiocalyx demonstrated greater N{sub 2} fixation as well as photosynthesis and instantaneous water use efficiency than Acacia disparimma. However, no strong relationship between plant photosynthesis and N{sub 2} fixation was observed in this study. A high within-treatment variation may have masked the relationships between plant BNF activities and photosynthesis. Conclusions: The {sup 15}N natural abundance technique is preferred to be used for future studies as it is simple and inexpensive compared with {sup 15}N enrichment method. The dependence of both species on BNF at site 2, where fuel reduction burning had not taken place for 8 years, suggests that the frequent burning impoverished the soil, and this has wider implications as higher fire frequencies are to be expected in other Australian ecosystems as a result of global climate change. (orig.)

  5. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  6. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 102 to l.4 x 108 per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 102 to 4.3 x 106 per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 101 to 1.9 x 105 per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a deobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  7. The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine ANBP Enhances Wound Healing and Inhibits Scar Formation via Bidirectional Regulation of Transformation Growth Factor Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Qian; He, Wen-jun; Hao, Hao-jie; Han, Qing-wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-jing; Ma, Ying-zhi; Han, Wei-dong; Fu, Xiao-bing

    2014-01-01

    The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using ...

  8. Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  9. Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

    2012-03-01

    A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

  10. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  11. The phenomenon of microscale flow and mass transfer in medicinal herb materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Di, Q.Q.; Sun, M.D. [Tianjin Univ., Tianjin (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhang, T.J.; Gong, S.X. [Tianjin Inst. of Pharmaceutical Research, Tianjin (China)

    2008-07-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a combination of a microwave technique and conventional solvent extraction used in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. The effective component of medicinal herbs is mostly cellular material which can be released via solvent extraction. The material is diffused to solvents via the porous membrane wall. The structure of herb morphology and characteristics of the solute's molecular weight play an important role in the extraction process of target compounds. Astragalus pieces were chosen for this study in which an ultra-filtration membrane method was used to determine the molecular weight distribution characteristics of Astragalus water extraction liquid in the process of MAE. The fine structure of matrix materials was also characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM). The phenomenon of mass flow and mass transfer in the plant porous media was discussed along with the enhancement mechanism of microwave field on medicinal plant solvent extraction. The results showed that the water-soluble components in the parenchyma cells of Astragalus pieces pass through the plasmodesma with a diameter of 10 nm to adjacent cell, then through an aperture with a diameter of 0.1 {mu}m to 1 {mu}m into a trachea with a diameter of about 10 {mu}m. The water-soluble components then come onto the surface of matrix material and the main solution via the trachea. The main mass transfer occurs by the trachea and its aperture. It was concluded that in order to promote the dissolution of effective components in medicinal herb in the extraction process, a suitable extraction technology is needed to maintain the permeability of transportation tissue and parenchyma in materials. 11 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Determination of selenium in herb plants by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium in herb plants was determined by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method with a correlation of 75Se gamma-rays energies between a NaI(Tl) detector and a Ge(Li) detector. Each freeze-dried herb plants sample (c.a. 250 mg) was irradiated for 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor in a thermal flux, 3.2 x 1012 n cm-2sec-1. After about (2 -- 6) weeks from the irradiation, gamma-rays were counted by means of the coincidence counting method with a Ge(Li) detector and a NaI(Tl) detector. In this counting method, the background around the photopeak of 75Se-265 keV could be reduced to one twentieth: accordingly the detection limit of selenium could be improved by a factor of four when compared with that by the conventional counting method. For examing the accuracy and the reproducibility of this method, selenium contained in Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaves (NBS) were determined, and the content of selenium was in good agreement with the certified value. The selenium contents of five kinds of galic and onion samples were found to be in range of (0.02 -- 0.31) ?g/g dry weight and in range of (0.02 -- 0.05) ?g/g dry weight, respectively. These values were also in good agreement with fluorometry results. The selenium contents of other herb plants were less than 0.1 ?g/g. (author)

  13. Chinese medicinal herbs as source of antioxidant compounds--where tradition meets the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowski, A; Jamio?kowska-Kozlowska, W; Nawrot, I

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an essential part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), an ancient complex therapy considered today as one of the most complete complementary medicine system. Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) listings included in Chinese Materia Medica cover more than 1500 plants and a great number of composite preparations. Recently, several TCM herbs have been included into European Pharmacopoeia and many more are on the waiting list. The efficiency of TCM is based on the reinforcing of an organism's natural healing power and the ability to restore the energy homoeostasis. A likely mechanism of at least some of the activities is interacting with redox balance and prevention of oxidative stress. During the past two decades, hundreds of crude herbs, extracts, and isolated compounds have been screened for their antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, some of traditional Chinese herbs can be regarded as source of very efficient antioxidant compounds, and this activity could explain some of their therapeutic and preventive usefulness. In this review, we outline the recent achievements in the worldwide quest for more efficient antioxidants, with Chinese medicinal and food plants in the central point. Various classes of antioxidant compounds will be mentioned, such as polyphenols or terpenoids that can act either as direct reactive oxygen species scavengers, transition metal reducers and chelators, or as chain breaking antioxidants. Some methodological considerations will be also discussed, with emphasis on the potential importance of the results obtained with antioxidant assays for human health and disease prevention. In this context, several examples of selected, most promising Chinese medicinal plants will be also presented in more detail. PMID:23210784

  14. Effects of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupuncture on the Carrageenan induced arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Bok Yu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to check of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture on effect of anti-inflammtory function, anti-febrile function and analgestic function in carrageenan-induced arthritic rat. Each of 8 rat were classified into control, sample group. Control group were inject by normal saline and Sample group were injected by Scolopendra subspinipes multilans. Herb-Acupuncture. After elicitating edema and inflammation of Sprgue Dawely(SD rats by injection of 1% Carrageenan 0.1ml, then the rate of increase of paw edema, CRP, ESR, WBC were checked and rectal-temperature, topical temperature was checked about anti-febrile. writhing syndrome was checked about analgesic. The results were as follows 1. In the sample group, the rate of increase of paw edema was significantly decreased as compared with thatof control group(P<0.05 2. In the sample group, the rectal-temperature was non-significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 3. In the sample group, CRP and WBC was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group, but ESR was not.(P<0.05 4. In the sample group, opical-temperature was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 5. In the sample group, analgestic function was not sigiflcntly effected as compared with that of control group(P<0.05 According to the above result, it can be concluded Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture showed the treatment effects on the artifical arthritis resulted from carrageenan in rat and it is suggested that more interest and study in the mechanism and clinical use were needed.

  15. Oxalate Content of Egyptian Grown Fruits and Vegetables and Daily Common Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly R. Abdel-Moemin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian dieticians typically rely on foreign databases to find out oxalate content of food due to unavailability of local databases. The soil, fertilizers, climate and cultivars are often very different. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish a local database of oxalate content in Egyptian grown fruits and vegetables and selected daily common herbs. The current study analysed the total and the soluble oxalate in 37 Egyptian grown fruits, vegetables and 9 commonly used herbs. Two methods were used for screening the Egyptian foods for oxalate concentration; the first method was AOAC 1999 and the second was enzymatic method. Total oxalate varied greatly among the vegetables examined, ranging from 4 to 917 mg/100 g F.W. Total oxalate of analysed fruits ranged from 9 to 50 mg/100 g F. W. There is a strong correlation found between the two methods used. Vegetables were classified into 4 categories; low oxalate concentration containing less than 10 mg of oxalic acid /100 g F.W., such as cabbage, courgette, cucumbers, garlic, spring onions and turnip. Moderate oxalate concentration vegetables containing 10-25 mg/100 g F. W., such as aubergine, field bean, corn, peppers and watercress. High oxalate concentration vegetables containing 26-99 mg/100g F.W., such as f?l, green beans, celery, mallow, okra and sweet potatoes. Very high oxalate concentration containing 100-900 mg/100g F.W. such as Swiss chard, molokhia, purslane and vine leaves (fresh. Extensive amounts of total oxalate (201-4014 mg/100 g D.W. were found in daily common herbs such as caraway seed, green cardamom, cinnamon, coriander seeds, cumin, curry powder, ginger and turmeric powder.

  16. An evaluation of the antioxidant and antiviral action of extracts of rosemary and Provençal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, O I; Spencer, J P; Rossi, R; Aeschbach, R; Khan, A; Mahmood, N; Munoz, A; Murcia, A; Butler, J; Halliwell, B

    1996-05-01

    Extracts of herbs and spices are increasingly of interest in the food industry because they retard oxidative degradation of lipids. There is also increasing interest in the antiviral activity of plant products. A liquid, deodorized rosemary extract and an oily extract of a mixture of Provençal herbs were tested for antioxidant and antiviral action in vitro. The rosemary extract (Herbor 025) and the extract of Provençal herbs (Spice Cocktail) inhibited peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes with 50% inhibition concentration values of 0.0009% (v/v) and 0.0035% (v/v), respectively. Herbor 025 and the spice cocktail (at 0.2%, v/v) reacted with trichloromethylperoxyl radical with calculated rates of 2.7 x 10(4) s-1 and 1.5 x 10(3) s-1, respectively. The main active components in the herbal preparations, carnosol and carnosic acid, at 0.05% (v/v) react with rate constants of (1-3) x 10(6) M-1 sec-1 and 2.7 x 10(7) M-1 sec-1, respectively. Both extracts show good antioxidant activity in the Rancimat test, especially in lard. Herbor 025 and the spice cocktail inhibited human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at very low concentrations which were also cytotoxic. However, purified carnosol exhibited definite anti-HIV activity at a concentration (8 microM) which was not cytotoxic. Both preparations promoted some DNA damage in the copper-phenanthroline and the bleomycin-iron systems. The two herbal preparations possess antioxidant properties that may make them useful in the food matrix. PMID:8655093

  17. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs. - Highlights: ? The PSL and TL properties of polyminerals from foodstuffs irradiated are analyzed. ? Quartz and feldspars were identified by XRD in the powder samples. ? The first TL peak (96–102 °C) has a clear influence on PSL and TL fading deinfluence on PSL and TL fading decay. ? The glow curves show complex structure and six TL peaks were deconvoluted. ? The PSL and TL results are very appropriate for analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  18. Identification of dehydrated spices and herbs subjected to the irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research shows the possibility of determining through a combination of analytical methods whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated. The methods used were the following: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Viscosimetry was applied in suspensions of dehydrated and irradiated spices and herbs which had been gellified by heat. It was observed that the viscosity of the samples decreases when the radiation dose increases. It was also observed that the temperature of the gelification is linked to the viscosity. The variation of the capability of gelification of the samples in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) does not have any consequence on the viscosity. Thermoluminescence is based on the transference of electrons to an excited state by ionizing radiation with emission of light when the electrons thermally stimulated. The thermoluminescent signals of the spices can be explained by the presence of mineral grains adhering to the surface of the samples. The thermoluminescent signal increased in intensity with the amplification of the radiation dose. The study of the signal in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) showed that it weakened and decreased. Free radicals produced by irradiation of spices were analyzed by the electron spin resonance method (ESR). It was checked that increasing the radiation dose meant an intensification of the ESR signal. Within a 30 day storage time, a fading of the si a 30 day storage time, a fading of the signal was observed. The results of this study lead us to the following conclusion: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance are methods of analysis which are proper to detect whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated, especially when these different methods were used in combination. (author)

  19. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, F. C.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Williams, B. A.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. S.; Luo, J. Y.; Li, X. P.; Wei, Y. X.; Yan, Z. T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.

    2004-01-01

    1. This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. 2. Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0·5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, vir...

  20. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P.; Widiawati, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation c...

  1. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg...

  2. Vaginally inserted herbs causing vesico-vaginal fistula and vaginal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaji, S E; Bature, S B; Shittu, O S

    2013-06-01

    A 32-year-old woman developed a vesico-vaginal fistula and vaginal stenosis following insertion of herbs into her vagina by a traditional doctor to "melt" her uterine myomata. She underwent successful trans-abdominal repair of her fistula and passive dilatation of her vagina was recommended for the vaginal stenosis. The emerging importance of traditional treatments as a cause of vesico-vaginal fistula is highlighted. The role of quality improvement through research and strict regulation to maximise the benefits of traditional treatment and minimise complications is also emphasised. PMID:22797463

  3. Protection of Chinese Herbs Against Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yanqing; Han, Bing; Guo, Hongyang; Liu, Yanru

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Rats in group A (n=10), B (n=10) and C (n=10) were fed a standard laboratory chow and allowed tap water ad libitum. In group B and C, renal failure was induced by the ...

  4. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Devi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

  5. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zimowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and bark breaking. Phoma nepeticolawas obtained from the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca leaves and stems with symptoms of small necrotic spots. Phyllosticta plantaginiswas isolated from leaves of ribwort (Plantago lanceolata showing symptoms of small, regular, necrotic spots.

  6. Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

  7. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Patel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

  8. Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

    2012-02-01

    The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

  9. Pharmacists' attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nada A., Abahussain; Eman A., Abahussain; Fawaz M., Al-Oumi.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio fue investigar el conocimiento y actitudes entre los farmacéuticos en Kuwait hacia el uso de plantas medicinales. Métodos: Se diseñó un cuestionario auto-administrado como instrumento para el estudio y se distribuyó entre 100 farmacéuticos cualificados que tra [...] bajan en farmacias privadas y gubernamentales de Kuwait. Resultados: La edad media fue de 34,2 (DE=7,5) años. Alrededor del 51% de los farmacéuticos comunicaron que habían usado plantas medicinale sen su vida. La mayoría estaban interesados en la información sobre plantas medicinales, y su información sobre ellas venía principalmente de la enseñanza en la Universidad. Aunque el conocimiento de los farmacéuticos sobre los usos de las plantas seleccionadas era bueno, su conciencia sobre los efectos adversos era modesta. Alrededor del 31% de los farmacéuticos no tenía suficiente información sobre las posibles interacciones entre las plantas medicinales y los medicamentos convencionales. Conclusión: Se necesita información de plantas medicinales para los estudiantes de farmacia como parte del currículo de la facultad de Farmacia. Deberían establecerse en Kuwait programas de formación continuada para farmacéuticos en ejercicio sobre la seguridad de las diferentes plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private p [...] harmacies in Kuwait. Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists' knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

  10. [The motive characteristics and pattern of manifestation of Chinese medicinal herb during the period of "Cultural Revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-01-01

    During the period of "Cultural Revolution", there started a movement of Chinese medicinal herb throughout the whole country. As a national movement meeting the needs of the time, not only had the guarantee of national policy, but also had the support of finance and the propaganda of People's Daily, PLA Daily and Red Flag Magazine. The movement had all kinds of different manifestations such as cooperative medical care, mobile medical team, research team, three tu (folk recipe, folk healer, folk medicine), four selves (self-planting, self-collection, self-making, self-use), exhibition of Chinese medicinal herb, compiling the handbook of Chinese medicinal herb etc. It had reference values to the current medical care system. PMID:19824359

  11. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  12. Preliminary observations on the effects of the Chinese medicinal herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum on lymphocyte blastogenic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Hersh, E M; Lee, S L; McLaughlin, M; Loo, T L; Mavligit, G M

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, on in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis were assessed. Aqueous extracts augmented the spontaneous [3H]thymidine incorporation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) of 14 normal subjects from 273.0 to 609.3 counts per minute (cpm) and 252.9 to 656.9 cpm for the two herbs, respectively. The stimulation indices were 2.4 and 3.1, respectively (p less than 0.001). They also augmented the proliferation of normal subjects' lymphocytes induced by suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) from 5084.6 to 23,398.3 and 221.7 to 24,132.8 cpm, of concanavalin A (con A) from 4046.5 to 15,661.5 and 677.6 to 14,644.6 cpm, and of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) from 4377.9 to 24,405.6 and 322.7 to 11,730.0 cpm, respectively (p less than 0.00). Herb extracts augmented the PHA responses of the MNC from 14 cancer patients significantly (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Extracts of L. lucidum also augmented the con A response of patients (p less than 0.05). The augmenting effect of the herbs on the PHA, con A, and PWM responses was dose dependent, and proliferation was inhibited at higher concentrations. The optimal concentration for stimulating the MNC of cancer patients was 100 micrograms/ml, compared to 10 micrograms/ml for the MNC of normal donors. MNC of seven patients depressed the mitogen responses of normal cells in a co-culture system. This was partially abrogated in five by preincubating the patients' cells in herb extracts for 45 min or by irradiation of the patients' cells. These results suggest that the herb extracts contain immunomodulatory components which may be useful in the immunotherapy of disease. PMID:6644339

  13. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Ducu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast. Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract

  14. Classification of Herbs Plant Diseases via Hierarchical Dynamic Artificial Neural Network after Image Removal using Kernel Regression Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili N.A,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When herbs plants has disease, they can display a range of symptoms such as colored spots, or streaks that can occur on the leaves, stems, and seeds of the plant. These visual symptoms continuouslychange their color, shape and size as the disease progresses. Once the image of a target is captured digitally, a myriad of image processing algorithms can be used to extract features from it. The usefulness of each of these features will depend on the particular patterns to be highlighted in the image. A key point in the mplementation of optimal classifiers is the selection of features that characterize the image. Basically, in this study, image processing and pattern classification are going to be used to implement a machine vision system that could identify and classify the visual symptoms of herb plants diseases. The image processing is divided into four stages: Image Pre-Processing to remove image noises (Fixed-Valued Impulse Noise, Random-Valued Impulse Noise and Gaussian Noise, Image Segmentation to identify regions in the image that were likely to qualify as diseased region, Image Feature Extraction and Selection to extract and select important image features and Image Classification to classify the image into different herbs diseases classes. This paper is to propose an unsupervised diseases pattern recognition and classification algorithm that is based on a modified Hierarchical Dynamic Artificial Neural Network which provides an adjustable sensitivity-specificity herbs diseases detection and classification from the analysis of noise-free colored herbs images. It is also to proposed diseases treatment algorithm that is capable to provide a suitable treatment and control for each identified herbs diseases.

  15. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

  16. The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401

  17. Distinguishing the medicinal herb Oldenlandia diffusa from similar species of the same genus using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Tao; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Leung, Kelvin-Sze-Yin; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2006-04-01

    The light microscope is routinely used for microscopic identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM). However, the fluorescence microscope has not been used for this purpose until now. The CMM, Baihuasheshecao, mostly used as a component of herb tea, is a well known folk-medicine in China. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, its source is the species Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd.) Roxb. Two other species of the same genus, namely O. corymbosa (L.) Lam and O. tenelliflora Bl., had been found in use as Baihuasheshecao. To find a quick and easy method to distinguish O. diffusa from these similar species of the same genus, the fluorescence microscope was used to investigate the fluorescence emission characteristics of the three tissues, which were compared with light microscopy images of the same material. The results showed that some tissues of the three herbs emit autofluorescence. Specially, the wall of endoderm cells of O. diffusa and O. tenelliflora emit autofluorescence, while similar tissue of O. corymbosa does not. Hence, fluorescence microscopy can be helpful in the identification of CMM. PMID:16586483

  18. Influence of void effects on reactivity of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at the experimental zero power heavy water reactor RB is a system with the significant effects of the neutron leakage and neutron absorption. Presence of a coolant void introduces a new structure in an extremely heterogeneous core. In those conditions satisfactory results of the calculation are acquired only using specified space-energy homogenization procedure. In order to analyze transient appearances and accidental cases of the reactor systems, a procedure for modeling of influence of moderator and coolant loss on reactivity ('void effect') is developed. Reduction of the moderator volume fraction in some fuel channels due to air gaps or steam generation during the accidental moderator boiling, restricts validity of the diffusion approximation in the reactor calculations. In cases of high neutron flux gradients, which are consequence of high neutron absorption, application of diffusion approximation is questionable too. The problem may be solved using transport or Monte Carlo methods, but they are not acceptable in the routine applications. Applying new techniques based on space-energy core homogenization, such as the SPH method or the discontinuity factor method, diffusion calculations become acceptable. Calculations based on the described model show that loss of part of moderator medium introduce negative reactivity in the HERBE system. Calculated local void reactivity coefficients are used in safety analysis of hypothetical accidents

  19. Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser known Alliaria officinalis Andrz. are described as a good sources of highly prized essential oils in several wild-growing herbs. They are traditionally used in cooking. Quinoa seeds considered as multipurpose agro-industrial crop and the seeds may be utilized for human food and in flour products and in animal feed stocks because of its high nutritive value. Furthermore, watermelon meal possesses good nutritional quality, which may be commercially used as a new feed in the human or in the cattle nutrition. Seed oils, from Rubus ideaus, Ribes nigrum and walnut are also presented. The chemical composition on the sterols and essential fatty acids content, of these seed oils are shown that some of them can be successfully used in human nutrition, under specific conditions. Finally, developing new cholesterol-reducing products, such as phytosterols and their esters, which are marked as cholesterol-reducing food ingredient as well as the information on its incorporation into foods, are also included.

  20. Anti-quorum sensing activity of the traditional Chinese herb, Phyllanthus amarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA::lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

  1. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  2. Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34gg-1) which is more than the amount (95.0gg-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599gg-1 and 702gg-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.nal formulation.

  3. Comparative identification of irradiated herbs by the methods of electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Gancheva, V.; Radicheva, M.; Hristova, B.; Guelev, M.; Penchev, O.

    1998-12-01

    Non irradiated and ?-irradiated dry herbs savoury ( Savoury), wild thyme ( Thymus serpollorium) and marjoram ( Origanum) with absorbed dose of 8 kGy have been investigated by the methods of elecrtron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL). Non-irradiated herbs exhibit only one weak siglet EPR signal whereas in irradiated samples its intensity increase and in addition two satelite lines are recorded. This triplet EPR spectrum is attributed to cellulose free radical generated by irradiation. It has been found that upon keeping the samples under the normal stock conditions the life-time of the cellulose free radical in the examined samples is ˜60-80 days. Thus the conclusion has been made that the presence of the EPR signal of cellulose free radical is unambiguous indication that the sample under study has been irradiated but its absence can not be considered as the opposite evidence. In the case when EPR signal was absent the method of TL has been used to give the final decision about the previous radiation treatment of the sample.

  4. Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  5. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paullinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some comparisons about the influence of high doses of irradiation and biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids and flavonoids. Since raw materials are often contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, they can also result in serious human illness. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of microorganisms. Whether the essential oils, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation will be analyzed. The powdered and dehydrated herbs for and medical uses will be irradiated with electron bean applying doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated will be Paullinia cupana Kunth (popular name Guarana) is largely cultivated in Brazil and to very used as energetic drink, and Rhamus purshiana D.C. despite the nutritional value, this vegetable has important medicinal proprieties as depurate and diuretic. The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation will be analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography. (author)

  6. Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

    2006-11-01

    The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

  7. Renal interstitial fibrosis and urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortier, J L; Vanherweghem, J L

    2002-12-27

    A new renal disease called 'Chinese-herb nephropathy' (CHN) has been reported to occur in women who have ingested slimming pills containing powdered extracts of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra (ST). Moderate to end-stage renal disease developed, requiring renal replacement therapy by dialysis or transplantation. Phytochemical analyses of the pills revealed the presence of aristolochic acids (AA) instead of tetrandrine, suggesting the substitution of ST (Han fang ji) by Aristolochia fangchi containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic AA. A typical histological feature of CHN is a progressive interstitial fibrosis leading to a severe atrophy of the proximal tubules, as documented by the urinary excretion rates of markers of tubular integrity (reduction of neutral endopeptidase enzymuria and high levels of microproteinurias). Removal of the native kidneys and ureters in end-stage CHN patients provided a high prevalence of urothelial carcinoma (46%). Tissue samples contained AA-related DNA adducts, which are not only specific markers of prior exposure to AA but are also directly involved in tumorigenesis. Exposure to Aristolochia species (spp.) is associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (CHN) and urothelial cancer in humans. Health professionals should be aware that in traditional Chinese medicine, Aristolochia spp. are considered interchangeable with certain other herbal ingredients and are also sometimes mistaken for ST, Akebia, Asarum, Clematis spp. and Cocculus spp. in herbal remedies. PMID:12505369

  8. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-08-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  9. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications

  10. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, A. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Corda, U. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuochi, P. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.it; Bortolin, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Calicchia, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  11. Immunosuppressive effects of the traditional Chinese herb Qu Mai on human alloreactive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Adam, J; Yang, N; Song, Y; Cravedi, P; Li, X-M; Heeger, P

    2013-05-01

    Current therapies for transplant rejection are suboptimally effective. In an effort to discover novel immunosuppressants we used cytokine ELISPOT and ELISAs to screen extracts from 53 traditional Chinese herbs for their ability to suppress human alloreactive T cells. We identified a dichloromethane-soluble fraction (Qu Mai fraction AD [QMAD]) of Qu Mai (Dianthus superbus) as a candidate. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of QMAD revealed three dominant peaks, each with a MW ~600 Daltons and distinct from cyclosporine and rapamycin. When we added QMAD to human mixed lymphocyte cultures, we observed dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and IFN? production, by naïve and memory alloreactive T cells, and observed an increased frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. To address whether QMAD induces regulatory T cells we added QMAD to anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated naïve CD4 T cells and observed a dose-dependent upregulation of Foxp3 associated with new suppressive capacity. Mechanistically, QMAD did not induce T cell IL-10 or TGF? but blocked T cell AKT phosphorylation, a key signaling nexus required for T cell proliferation and expansion, that simultaneously prevents Foxp3 transcription. Our findings provide novel insight into the antiinflammatory effects of one traditional Chinese herb, and support the need for continued isolation, characterization and testing of QMAD-derived components as immune suppressants for transplant rejection. PMID:23433080

  12. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commercial herb and spice extracts against selected food-borne bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Witkowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of extracts of thirty commercial herbs and spices commonly used in the production of ready meals. Various extracts of spices were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas fluorescens using a microdilution broth method. Ethanol and hexane extracts of oregano, clove, sage, rosemary and celery showed relatively strong antimicrobial activities against all bacteria tested. In contrast, water extracts displayed little or no antimicrobial activity. Flow cytometry revealed that cell membrane structures were damaged by spice and herb active extracts, while analysis of intra- and extracellular ATP contents of bacteria indicated that an increase in extracellular ATP was partially due to intracellular leakage. Extract combinations assessed using the checkerboard method did not display synergistic effects, however, some additive effects were observed when oregano was combined with sage or rosemary against L. innocua or S. aureus. This study has demonstrated that some commercial spice extracts have antimicrobial activity against food-borne bacterial species and may be considered as potential antibacterial agents for addition to ready meals.

  14. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl. Dans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Katrin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of > 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of > 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of < 30 µg/ml. Fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of each sample by open column chromatograph was obtained four fractions from each extract. Among the fractions, fraction 2 was the most active fraction which had a potent as anticancer agent. Cytotoxic activities assay of fraction 2’s showed that this fractions significantly decreased after irradiation of samples with doses up to 10 kGy. The thin layer chromatogram profiles of fraction 2 from irradiated and unirradiated samples showed that spot 2 and 3 gradually tended to fade. It is suggested that 7.5 and 10 kGy were the minimum and maximum irradiation dose for bacterial and mold/yeast decontamination with the initial contamination of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2 in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities.

  15. Herb-drug interaction of 50 Chinese herbal medicines on CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Li-Heng; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chang-Ching; Liu, Liang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 and the possible metabolism-based herb-drug interactions in human liver microsomes and in rats. Fifty single-herbal preparations were screened for the activity of CYP3A4 using human liver microsomes for an in vitro probe reaction study. The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 was estimated by determing the 6?-hydroxytestosterone metabolized from testosterone performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Huang Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Geprgi), Mu Dan Pi (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), Ji Shiee Terng (Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.) and Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bge) have been demonstrated to have remarkable inhibiting effects on the metabolism of CYP3A4, whereas Xi Yi Hua (Magnolia biondii Pamp.) exhibited a moderate inhibition. These five single herbs were further investigated in an animal study using midazolam. Mu Dan Pi, Ji Shiee Terng and Huang Qi were observed to have greatly increased in the C(max) and AUC of midazolam. This study provides evidence of possible herb-drug interactions involved with certain single herbs. PMID:22298448

  16. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Rong-liang; Yao, Min; Cui, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  17. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ?9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (-3.2 ?g/L, p BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  18. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Rong-Liang; Yao, Min; Yang, Long; Cui, Xue-Jun; Mao, Jian-Min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  19. Phytochemical studies of the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. (Asteraceae. 1. The components of a petroleum ether extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, triterpenes and sterols were shown to occur in the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. The following were obtained in crystalline form: n-triacontan, hexacosanol, (?-amyrin and lupeol. The presence of (?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, cholesterol and four unidentified sterols was demonstrated by gas chromatography.

  20. Historical landscape explotation and its influence on a composition of herb layer in cultural forests in consider of ecotones.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halas, Petr; Vlková, V.

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2008, s. 104-107 ISBN 978-80-210-4600-9. [Geografické aspekty st?edoevropského prostoru. Brno (CZ), 13.09.2007-13.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : ecotones * herb layer * forest plant species * cultural landscape Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  1. Herbs as new type of green inhibitors for acidic corrosion of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamis, E. [Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 426 Ibrahimia Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); AlAndis, N. [College of Science, Chemistry Department, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-09-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulphuric acid by six different herb plants has been studied using a.c and d.c electrochemical techniques. The environmentally friendly investigated compounds are namely: thyme, coriander, hibiscus, anis, black cumin and Garden cress. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been successfully used to evaluate the performance of these compounds. The ac measurements showed that the dissolution process is activation controlled. Bode and theta diagrams show only one time constant ({tau}). Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicate that the studied compounds are mixed-type inhibitors. The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the change of the constituent active materials of the compounds. Thyme, which contains the powerful antiseptic thymol as the active ingredient, offers excellent protection for steel surface. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

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    Dejan Brki?

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  3. Antioxidant capacity of some herbs/spices from cameroon: a comparative study of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Oben, Julius E; Ngogang, Jeanne Y; Xinxing, Cai; Vinson, Joe A

    2005-08-24

    This study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of 14 herbs/spices from Cameroon. Freeze-dried samples extracted in methanol (free or unconjugated polyphenol) and in 1.2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) in methanol (total antioxidant that is both unconjugated and conjugated) were analyzed using two different antioxidant assay methods [Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Folin) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)]. The 1.2 M HCl in methanol extracts had significantly higher (P Irvingia gabonensis tops the FRAP free antioxidant list, while Piper umbellatum leads the Folin free antioxidant followed by Thymus vulgaris. Thus, the antioxidant capacity of plant samples determined by different methods should be interpreted with caution. However, irrespective of the assay method used, the samples were rich in antioxidants. PMID:16104805

  4. Variation of phenolic acids from herb and roots of Salsola kali L.

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    Krystyna Skalicka-Wo?niak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic acids present as free and liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols after hydrolysis in Salsola kali L was done, together with comparison of their content in roots and herb. Analysis was conducted by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. Eleven phenolic acids were identified such as: protocatechuic, caffeic, gentisic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, syryngic, vanillic, ferulic, ?- and ß-resorcylic. Differences in composition of fraction of free phenolic acids and those liberated after hydrolysis were noticed. The amount of individual compounds were in the range between 0.10±0.04 mg/100 g of dry weight for p-OH-benzoic acid and 6.40±1.75 mg/100 g of dry weight for ferulic acid.

  5. Stimulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, B E; Yoshida, Y; Sugiura, T; Yamashita, U

    1999-03-01

    The effects of eight kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) on human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. The extract of Cinnamomum cassia presl markedly stimulated human lymphocytes to proliferate. Codonopsis pilosula, Oldenlandia diffusa and Rhizoma typhonii weakly stimulated. These extracts enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, but failed to enhance natural killer (NK)-cell activity. The extracts of these CMHs have stimulatory effect on immunoglobulin (Ig) production by B-cells and interleukin(IL)-1 production by monocytes. These activities of Cinnamomun cassia presl extract are associated with glycoproteins, whose molecular weight was about 100 KDa. These results suggest that CMH extracts have a stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and these abilities could be used clinically for the treatment of diseases such as cancer. PMID:10348365

  6. Microsatellite Markers in Rhodiola (Crassulaceae, a Medicinal Herb Genus Widely Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Jianling You

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci are described for Rhodiola, a medicinal herb genus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods and Results: A total of 17 polymorphic microsatellite primer pairs were developed using the combined biotin-capture method. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12 across 192 individuals from R. bupleuroides, R. crenulata, R. fastigiata, and R. sacra, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.177 to 0.412 and from 0.363 to 0.578, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential use of this new set of microsatellite markers for genotyping individuals and estimating genetic diversity in Rhodiola.

  7. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

  8. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

    2010-05-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

  9. Development of Antarctic herb tundra vegetation near Arctowski station, King George Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeretska, I. A.; Parnikoza, I. Yu.; Mustafa, O.; Tyschenko, O. V.; Korsun, S. G.; Convey, P.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the development of the Antarctic herb tundra vegetation formation in relation to the history of deglaciation across a range of habitats near H. Arctowski Research Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Across the three identified environmental zones (coastal, intermediate, periglacial), we quantified the total vegetation cover, cover of the two indigenous flowering plants and bryophytes, age structure and reproductive features of the two flowering plants, and species diversity of mosses and liverworts. Analysis of these data supported the recognition of the three environmental zones; however, there were few indications of systematic differences in biological features of the two higher plants across the three zones, generally supporting the view that these, and the grass Deschampsia antarctica in particular, are effective primary colonists of recently deglaciated ground in this region.

  10. Artificial selection shifts flowering phenology and other correlated traits in an autotetraploid herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K S; Etterson, J R; Galloway, L F

    2007-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that plants are responding to anthropogenic climate change with shifts in flowering phenologies. We conducted a three-generation artificial selection experiment on flowering time in Campanulastrum americanum, an autotetraploid herb, to determine the potential for adaptive evolution of this trait as well as possible costs associated with enhanced or delayed flowering. Divergent selection for earlier and later flowering resulted in a 25-day difference in flowering time. Experiment-wide heritability was 0.31 and 0.23 for the initiation of flowering in early and late lines, respectively. Selection for earlier flowering resulted in significant correlated responses in other traits including smaller size, fewer branches, smaller floral displays, longer fruit maturation times, fewer seeds per fruit and slower seed germination. Results suggest that although flowering time shows the potential to adapt to a changing climate, phenological shifts may be associated with reduced plant fitness possibly hindering evolutionary change. PMID:17687248

  11. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate

  12. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

  13. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  14. Preliminary results of the effect of gamma rays to fungi and pests on stored medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the study showed that fungus flora existed in stored traditional medicinal herbs was plentiful. For Flos sophorae japonicae, Licorice, Radix Angelicae dahuricae only, it was identified 1424 strains of 43 varieties of 10 species; among them there are two main species: Aspergillus (19 varieties with 850 strains) and Penicillium (14 varieties with 250 strains). Beside of that, pests also existed numerously, for Plastrum testunidis of Sapa only it was defined 10 kinds of harmful pests with density of more than 500 pests/kg of sample. Gamma rays of 5 kGy changed fibre system and reproduce organ as well inhibited the spore growths for the fungi. Irradiation dose of 0.5-1 kGy was effective to kill pests. Insecticides of Pyrethroid and Phosphorous groups could kill all adults but not pupae and laval lied inside product. Due to high penetration, gamma rays could be effective for all stages of pest. (author). 10 refs, 6 tabs

  15. The Measurement Of Uranium Concentration In Deferent (13) Types Of Natural Herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research the uranium concentrations in (13) different types of natural herb samples had been measured, and to limit the level of contamination with radio nuclides.The determination of uranium concentration in these samples has been done by using CR-39 track detector, the nuclear reaction used a source of nuclear fission fragments is 235U (n,f) obtained by the bombardment of 235U with thermal neutrons from (Am-Be) neutron source which has a flux of (5000 n cm3 s-1).The results obtained show that the concentration of Uranium were calculated by comparison with standard samples, and varies from 0.235 ppm in (alum) type to 0.552 ppm in (Lazmender) type, all the results obtained are within the international levels as given by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) data

  16. New data on thermoluminescence of inorganic dust from herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic dusts from different herbs and spices are investigated in this study using both standard thermoluminescence measurements of integrated intensity versus temperature and measurements of the thermoluminescence emission spectra (intensity as a function of both temperature and wavelength). The importance of particular minerals in the composition of glow peaks detected is discussed. Thermoluminescence emission spectra of the samples studied reveal (i) the presence of a broad high-intensity signal in the red to infra-red spectral region in all irradiated polymineral dusts; (ii) the hitherto unsuspected importance of calcite in the polymineral fractions of the dust; (iii) the existence of high-temperature unbleachable peaks from the silicate fraction in the orange to near infra-red portions of the emission spectrum; and (iv) the potential for quantification of absorbed dose. Discrimination between irradiated and un-irradiated spices appears to be feasible. (author)

  17. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products

  18. The effect of a Chinese herb (Saireito) therapy for edema and inflamation in early radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a course of radiotherapy, inflamation and edema in limbs and in the local skin, occures frequently due to acute radiation injury. Seventeen cases with radiation induced edema and relavant symptoms, are treated with four weeks of oral administration of Saireito, a Chinese herb of diuretic and antiinflamatory effects. Radiotherapies could be carried out without interruption. After four weeks, the edema decreased in 7 of 15 patients, circumference measure of swoolen limbs decreased than 2 cm in 3 of 11, local skin hardness relaxed in 3 of 9, local skin redness decreased in 2 of 11, disturbed limb mobility improved in 4 of 8. In all, at least one symptomatic improvement was obtained in relevant to the radiation induced edema in 11 of 17 patients (63%). No conspicuous side effect was recorded. (author)

  19. Antidiabetic activities of chalcones isolated from a Japanese Herb, Angelica keiskei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Tatsuji; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Nagamine, Kinuko; Kudo, Yoko; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Tanabe, Masashige; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2007-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin action. We have explored the edible ingredients from folk medicines in Japan that contain substances complementing insulin action, such as the induction of adipocyte differentiation and the enhancement of glucose uptake. We eventually found that the ethanol extract from a Japanese herb "Ashitaba", Angelica keiskei, contained two major chalcones of 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD) and xanthoangelol that showed strong insulin-like activities via a pathway independent of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation. The 4-HD especially showed the preventive effects on the progression of diabetes in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. PMID:17583349

  20. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi?, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavkovi?, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of herb extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Zhou, Song; Ding, Guo Xun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hong, Myung Hee; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Gyung Jun; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the effects of herb extracts, Rhus verniciflua, Agrimonia pilosa, Sophora japonica, and Paeonia suffruticosa, on the lowering of blood glucose levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 4 weeks, oral administration of Rhus verniciflua extract (50 mg/kg) exhibited a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (P<0.05). Blood TBARS concentrations, the products of glucose oxidation in blood, were also lowered by Rhus verniciflua extract supplementation. In addition, Sophora japonica and Paeonia suffruticosa extracts significantly reduced TBARS levels versus diabetic controls. Serum concentrations of liver-function marker enzymes, GOT and GPT, were also restored by Rhus verniciflua (50 mg/kg) supplementation in diabetic rats. PMID:17031059

  2. Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaolan; Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; But, Paul P H; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    The aqueous extracts from 21 medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China were screened for antiviral activities against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Three extracts from Agrimonia pilosa, Pithecellobium clypearia and Punica granatum, respectively, showed anti-HSV-1 activity, which was possibly contributed by the polyphenolic compounds in the herbal extracts. Six of the extracts, from Blumea laciniata, Elephantopus scaber, Laggera pterodonta, Mussaenda pubescens, Schefflera octophylla and Scutellaria indica, respectively, exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 32 microg/mL, and selective indices (SI) ranging from 11.2 to 40. In addition to polyphenolic compounds, other constituents present in these extracts may also contribute to their anti-RSV activity. PMID:15478204

  3. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of commonly used South asian herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

  4. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  5. Microsatellite Primers in the Weedy Annual Herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae and Four Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Agudo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus.

  6. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23531917

  7. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeremyJohnson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol are known to possess antioxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  8. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from the Chinese medicinal herb Atractylodes macrocephala (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Shao, Zhong-Da; Wang, Zong-Chao; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (Asteraceae) is an economically important Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from A. macrocephala using the compound microsatellite marker technique. Levels of polymorphism within the 15 markers were assessed using 83 individuals from two wild and two cultivated populations in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, with an average of 9.9 alleles. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.083 to 1.000 and from 0.097 to 0.938, respectively. These markers will be valuable for germplasm classi?cation and identi?cation, as well as for assessing the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure among wild and cultivated populations of A. macrocephala. PMID:23443109

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers from the Chinese Medicinal Herb Atractylodes macrocephala (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xin Fu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (Asteraceae is an economically important Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from A. macrocephala using the compound microsatellite marker technique. Levels of polymorphism within the 15 markers were assessed using 83 individuals from two wild and two cultivated populations in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, with an average of 9.9 alleles. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.083 to 1.000 and from 0.097 to 0.938, respectively. These markers will be valuable for germplasm classi?cation and identi?cation, as well as for assessing the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure among wild and cultivated populations of A. macrocephala.

  10. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  11. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, C; Richardson, M A; Diamond, S; Skoda, I

    2000-02-01

    The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. PMID:10641040

  12. Role of Some Medicinal Herbs Plants (Anise and Chamomile) in Male Rats Intoxicated with Metacide Pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function

  13. Uterus-Relaxing Study of a Sudanese Herb (El-Hazha

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    Aimun A.E. Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological effects of the Methanolic-extract (AH2 of El-Hazha and its sub-fractions. Approach: These investigations were carried out on in vitro isolated uterus preparations from Non-Pregnant (NP and Late-Pregnant rats (LP. In parallel displacement radio-ligand binding assay was performed for â-Adrenergic Receptors (â-ADR. Results: Showed that the herb and its different fractions produced dose-dependent relaxant effect (pConclusion: We validate the fractionation effect on its relaxant activity and found partial role for â-ADR on mediating this activity. Future study was recommended to isolate and investigate its active components to enhance this activity or to discover a new novel natural therapeutic agent(s.

  14. A UK retail survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices and their fate during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, S; Castle, L

    1996-01-01

    A survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices has been carried out and cooking experiments conducted to assess the stability of aflatoxin in spice sauces. Of 157 retail samples which included curry powders, pepper, cayenne pepper, chilli, paprika, ginger, cinnamon and coriander, nearly 95% of samples contained below 10 micrograms/kg total aflatoxins and only nine samples had higher levels. The highest concentration in a retail sample was 48 micrograms/kg in a chilli powder. In addition to retail sampling, 14 consignments of whole chilli and chilli powder were sampled at the port of entry. Only two samples, both chilli powder, were above 10 micrograms/kg; containing 35 and 51 micrograms/kg total aflatoxins. Cooking experiments showed that aflatoxin levels in spiced sauces are not reduced by domestic cooking with either microwave or conventional gas oven heating. PMID:8647302

  15. Water deficit affects photosynthetic induction in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) growing in understorey and gap conditions / Déficit hídrico afeta a indução fotossintética em Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae) e em Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) desenvolvendo-se em condições de sub-bosque e de clareira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria T., Portes; Thiago H., Alves; Gustavo M., Souza.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em florestas tropicais, a luz é considerada o recurso mais limitante para o crescimento e reprodução das plantas. Além da luz, o déficit hídrico leva invariavelmente à diminuição da fotossíntese. Assim, apesar do indiscutível papel da luz na assimilação de CO2 (A), espera-se que o déficit hídrico af [...] ete e limite a utilização da luz pelas plantas. Neste estudo, investigou-se como o déficit hídrico influenciou a indução fotossintética de uma espécie pioneira arbórea, Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), e de uma secundária, Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae), no sub-bosque e na clareira. As medidas foram feitas em junho e agosto de 2006 em plantas com aproximadamente dois anos. Em agosto, as plantas foram sujeitas a um período de 45 d sem chuva, caracterizando uma situação de déficit hídrico. O potencial hídrico foliar foi significativamente menor em agosto, na clareira e no sub-bosque (-2,5 e -3,8 MPa, respectivamente), do que em junho (-0,6 and -1,6 MPa, respectivamente). Em junho, ambas espécies apresentaram um rápido aumento em A após o pulso de luz saturante na clareira. Contudo, no sub-bosque, o aumento em A foi mais lento em B. forficata do que em E. leiocarpa. Em agosto, o déficit hídrico limitou o aumento em Amax em ambas espécies, indicando que a utilização potencial do aumento da irradiância foi reduzida por condições de déficit hídrico. A restrição em Amax foi menos pronunciada no sub-bosque, onde as plantas ao menos atingiram a irradiância de compensação, enquanto o ganho de carbono pela fotossíntese das plantas desenvolvidas na clareira não compensou a perda de carbono pela respiração. Abstract in english In tropical forests, light is considered the most limiting resource for plant growth and reproduction. Besides light, water deficit leads invariably to a decrease in photosynthesis. Thus, despite of the unquestionable role of light in CO2 assimilation (A), it is expected that water deficit affects a [...] nd limits the light utilization by plants. In this study, we investigated how water deficit influenced the photosynthetic induction of the early successional tree Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae) and the late successional Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae) in the understorey and in the forest gap. Field measurements were carried out in June and August 2006 in plants of approximately two-years-old. In August, the plants were subjected to a period of 45 d without rain characterizing a water deficit situation. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in August, both in forest gap and understorey (-2.5 and -3.8 MPa, respectively), than in June (-0.6 and -1.6 MPa, respectively). In June, both species presented a rapid increase in A after a saturating light pulse under gap conditions. However, in the understorey the increase in A was slower in B. forficata than in E. leiocarpa. In August water deficit limited the increase in Amax in both species, indicating that potential utilization of increasing irradiance was reduced by water deficit conditions. The constrain in Amax was less pronounced in the understorey where plants at least reached the irradiance compensation point, whereas carbon gain by photosynthesis of the plants grown in the gap did not compensate the carbon loss by respiration.

  16. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a 60Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  17. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a molecular vascular target for the Chinese herb Danshen in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Kim (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery)

    2006-12-15

    Danshen, a Chinese herb, reduces hypertension in Oriental medicine. We hypothesized that Danshen acts partially through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis using tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Danshen, and the two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension model in hamsters. Oral tanshinone (50 µg/100 g body wt) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 161.2 ± 6.9 to 130.0 ± 7.8 mmHg (mean ± SE; P nitric oxide concentration from 87.1 ± 11.3 to 146.9 ± 23.1 nM (P < 0.05) at 5 µg/ml in hamster cheek pouch. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibited tanshinone-induced vasodilation. Hypertension reduced eNOS protein relative to sham-operated control. Tanshinone prevented the hypertension-induced reduction of eNOS and increased eNOS expression to levels higher than sham-operated control in hamster cheek pouch. Topical tanshinone increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.0 to 1.47 ± 0.08 in the cremaster muscle of control mice and to 1.12 ± 0.13 in cremasters of eNOS knockout mice. In ECV-304 cells transfected with eNOS-green fluorescent protein, tanshinone increased eNOS protein expression 1.35 ± 0.05- and 1.85 ± 0.07-fold above control after 5-min and 1-h application, respectively. Tanshinone also increased eNOS phosphorylation 1.19 ± 0.07- and 1.72 ± 0.20-fold relative to control after 5-min and 1-h application. Our data provide a basis to understand the action of a Chinese herb used in alternative medicine. We conclude that eNOS stimulation is one mechanism by which tanshinone induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure.

  18. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

  19. Influence of different levels of gypsum on growth, herb and essential oil yields of lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Sastry Kakaraparthi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus is an industrially important essential oil being used widely for the isolation of citral which can be converted into ionones. Improving the economic yield of the aromatic grass lemongrass is part of the rural development mandate of Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP. Salt affected soils occupy wide regions scattered all over the world and India has considerable salt-affected soils. The experiment was conducted on a red sandy loam soil at the research farm of CSIR-CIMAP, Hyderabad, India with five levels of gypsum as treatments(0-4 tons/ha.The soils of the experimental site are on the leeward side of an industrial area and the ground water has become saline due to industrial effluents. A field experiment was initiated to study the influence of gypsum in soil remediation and its influence on the growth and herb yield of lemongrass. Due to application of four tons of gypsum /ha a progressive decrease in the soil pH was observed and soil pH also decreased with advancement in time and it decreased from 7.73 to 7.40 at 120 days after planting due to gypsum application. EC increased progressively in all the treatments with time. The increase was less due to gypsum treatments. Similar trend was noticed in case of bicarbonate content of the soil and carbonates were absent in the soil. Gypsum application resulted in increased herb and essential oil yield of lemongrass due to better growth of plants(plant height, number of leaves /plant , number of tillers / clump and weight of plant / clump and the optimum dose of gypsum required is four tons/ha.

  20. Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mrinal K; Sil, Parames C

    2007-10-01

    The herb, Phyllanthus niruri has been known to possess protective activity against various drugs and toxins induced hepatic disorders. Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of the protein isolate of the herb against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cytotoxicity in mice hepatocytes. In vitro cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) leakage were measured as the indicators of cell damage. In addition, measurement of the level of non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH); activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation were carried out to evaluate the prooxidant-antioxidant status of the cell. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed to determine the radical scavenging activity of the protein isolate. Results showed that the administration of the protein isolate prior to TAA exposure significantly reduced the release of LDH and ALT leakage and enhanced the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes. Besides, the protein isolate appeared to prevent the alterations in GSH levels and activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes related to prooxidant-antioxidant status of hepatocytes. It also reduced the TAA-induced lipid peroxidation significantly as demonstrated by the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the protein isolate possessed radical scavenging activity. Combining, the data suggest that the protein isolate could protect hepatocytes from TAA-induced cellular injury probably by its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. PMID:17913477

  1. Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyan Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available [Object]: Detect whether different concentrations of Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides (CPS, astragaluspolysaccharides (APS and angeulica polysaccharides (ASP, epimedium herb polysaccharides (EPS have effects onthe immunity function of healthy Roman chicken. [Method]: 260 one-day-old chickens were divided into thirteengroups randomly, 20 birds each group. The physiological saline, Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides, APS, ASPor EPS had been hypodermically injected for seven days continuously, and the blood was drawn on the 7th, 14th, 21st,28th, 35th, 42nd, 49th and 56th day to evaluate the activity of the translation rate of blood lymphocyte and AI-HI antibodytiters in chickens. [Result]: The results of the experiment showed that the translation rate of blood lymphocyte andAI-HI antibody titers increased markedly after the use of Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides, APS, ASP and EPSto the chickens. Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides had more effective function improving the translation rate ofblood lymphocyte and AI-HI antibody titers than others. [Conclusion]: The Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides,APS, ASP and EPS could promote the immunity function of the chickens. The Chinese herbs compoundpolysaccharides were the strangest one among them.

  2. Characterization and classification of seven citrus herbs by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Liu, Ke; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

    2014-04-25

    Citrus herbs have been widely used in traditional medicine and cuisine in China and other countries since the ancient time. However, the authentication and quality control of Citrus herbs has always been a challenging task due to their similar morphological characteristics and the diversity of the multi-components existed in the complicated matrix. In the present investigation, we developed a novel strategy to characterize and classify seven Citrus herbs based on chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods. Firstly, the chemical constituents in seven Citrus herbs were globally characterized by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Based on their retention time, UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior, a total of 75 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in these herbal medicines. Secondly, a segmental monitoring method based on LC-variable wavelength detection was developed for simultaneous quantification of ten marker compounds in these Citrus herbs. Thirdly, based on the contents of the ten analytes, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to differentiate and classify the 64 samples covering these seven herbs. The obtained classifier showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 96.88%. The proposed strategy is expected to provide new insight for authentication and quality control of traditional herbs. PMID:24656543

  3. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. PMID:24518346

  4. Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta E. Petenatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

  6. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Deborah Elaine; Mcdevitt, Regina; Acamovic, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT 1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed wheat-soybea...

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Polyphenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activities of Cooked and In Vitro Digested Culinary Herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P.; Jones, Lucy; Opara, Elizabeth I.

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on how cooking and digestion affect the anti-inflammatory activity of culinary herbs. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate this activity following cooking and in vitro digestion of the common culinary herbs, rosemary, sage, and thyme, and the relationship between their anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity. The anti-inflammatory activity of uncooked (U), cooked (C), cooked and in vitro digested (C&D), and standardised (STD,...

  8. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Real; Li, Guangdi D.; Steve Clark; Albertsen, Tony O.; Hayes, Richard C.; Denton, Matt D.; D’antuono, Mario F.; Dear, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rain...

  9. Matrix Modulation of the Bioactivation of Estragole by Constituents of Different Alkenylbenzene-containing Herbs and Spices and Physiologically Based Biokinetic Modeling of Possible In Vivo Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Al-husainy, W. A. A. M.; Berg, S. J. P. L.; Paini, A.; Campana, A.; Asselman, M.; Spenkelink, A.; Punt, A.; Scholz, G.; Schilter, B.; Adams, T. B.; Bladeren, P. J.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    The alkenylbenzene estragole is a constituent of several herbs and spices. It induces hepatomas in rodents at high doses following bioactivation by cytochrome P450s and sulfotransferases (SULTs) giving rise to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole which forms DNA adducts. Methanolic extracts from different alkenylbenzene-containing herbs and spices were able to inhibit SULT activity. Flavonoids including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and nevadensin were the m...

  10. Comparative Effects of Er-Xian Decoction, Epimedium Herbs, and Icariin with Estrogen on Bone and Reproductive Tissue in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liming Xue; Yin Wang; Yiping Jiang; Ting Han; Yan Nie; Lu Zhao; Qiaoyan Zhang; Luping Qin

    2012-01-01

    Er-Xian Decoction (EXD), Epimedium herbs (herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, EBH), and icariin (ICA) have been proven to have estrogen-like and antiosteoporotic activity and are used for the treatment of osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome, and age-associated diseases. The present study found that EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments, emulating estrogen, significantly contributed to bone density and architecture in OVX rats and that EXD is similar to estrogen and exerts a concomitant effect on bone ...

  11. Why have European herbs so successfully invaded the Chilean matorral? Effects of herbivory, soil nutrients, and fire

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, M.; Avile?s, R.; Sierralta, L.; Segura, A. M.; Fuentes, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    We show field and experimental evidence that introduced herbivores and soil degradation strongly influence the distribution of introduced herbs in the Chilean matorral. In the field, the relative abundance of introduced species was higher on sites grazed by livestock and on very poor soils. Two factorial experiments assessed the effects of rabbit grazing, nutrient addition, and fire. Native grasses were more sensitive than introduced grasses to grazing. With nutrient addition, native grasses ...

  12. Analysis of major herbs in Chinese herbal formula Jianpi Huoxue Decoction for improving intestinal permeability based on uniform design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-lin Fu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the herbal medicines which play a main role in Chinese herbal formula Jianpi Huoxue Decoction for improving intestinal permeability and protect alcohol-induced liver injury and intestine damage, and to explore the analysis method for the material base of pharmacological effects of the Chinese herbal compound. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were given Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet once daily for 6 weeks to induce alcoholic liver injury. In step one, U17(1716 table of uniform design was adopted to design the experiment and the eight herbs of Jianpi Huoxue Decoction were screened to seek the herbs which play the main role. Three and a half hours before the rats were killed, each rat was administered lipopolysaccharide once, then blood sample was collected from portal vein and endotoxin content in plasma was detected as the index of intestinal permeability. The data were analyzed by stepwise regression to find the herbal drugs which had the best effects and the compatibility ratio of these drugs. In step two, the rats with Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet-induced liver injury were divided into four groups to test and verify the results.Results: According to the obtained regression equation, Rasux Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, Rhizoma Alismatis (Zexie and Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis (Wuweizi were the main herbal drugs in Jianpi Huoxue Decoction in improving intestinal permeability, and the doses for rats were 1.33, 0.50 and 0.17 g/kg respectively. In the verification experiment, combination of Baishao, Zexie and Wuweizi significantly decreased the endotoxin level in plasma of rats with Lieber-DeCarli-induced liver injury and showed reliability. Conclusion: Baishao, Zexie and Wuweizi are the major herbs of Jianpi Huoxue Decoction for improving intestinal permeability. Uniform design is efficient in screening the major herbs or their optimal combination in a certain Chinese compound.

  13. Nutrient Profile, Floristic Compositions and Preference Index of Shrubs and Herbs Consumed by Goats in Semiarid Region of Northeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-parra, A.; Hernandez-pinero, J. L.; Foroughbakhch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the semiarid and subtropical regions of Northeastern Mexico, leaves, young stem, fruit and pods of shrubs and herbs are important forage complement into ruminant feeding. In order to determine the effectiveness of the use of shrubs as fodder by goats, floristic compositions, voluntary intake and nutritive value of diets were determined. It was observed in a total of 100 goats (10 goats month-1) grazing in a semiarid shrubland Northeastern Mexico during 10 months. Plant selectivity by goats...

  14. Effect of Red Clover on CYP Expression: An Investigation of Herb-Drug Interaction at Molecular Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Anubhuti; Singh, S. P.; Raju, K. S. R.; Wahajuddin,; Gayen, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulator are the most common therapy for women going through menopause. These therapies though popular fail to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, fatigue, leg cramps and nausea. This scenario necessitates to herbal preparations as alternative which may lead to simultaneous intake of herbal preparations, containing flavonoids, as well as Selective estrogen receptor modulator hence creating a phenomenon of herb drug inte...

  15. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-tse; Wu, Ming-tsang; Lin, Chia-chun; Chien, Chao-feng; Tsai, Tung-hu

    2012-01-01

    The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the...

  16. The effect of population density on shoot morphology of herbs in relation to light capture by leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sekimura, T.; Roose, T.; Li, B.; Maini, Pk; Suzuki, J.; Hara, T.

    2000-01-01

    Plants change their shapes, depending on their environment, for example, plant height increases with increasing population density. We examined the density-dependent plasticity in shoot morphology of herbs by analysing a mathematical model which identifies a number of key factors that influence shoot morphology, namely (i) solar radiation captured by leaves; (ii) shading from neighbouring plants; and (iii) utilisation efficiency of resource by leaves, stems and veins. An optimisation theory w...

  17. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M.; Clarke, Stephen J.; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; Mclachlan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkg...

  18. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 ?g of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 ?g of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC50=16, 29, and 59 ?M, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 ?M). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC50=0.43±0.07 ?M), hispidulin (IC50=0.49±0.06 ?M), and naringenin (IC50=2.5±0.29 ?M). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

  19. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokovic?, M.; Glamoc?lija, J.; Marin, P. D.; Brkic?, D.; Griensven, L. J. L. D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

  20. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were sol...

  1. Herb-Drug Interaction of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc. Maxim Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc. Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The rat plasma was sampled from each anesthetized rat after pretreatment with 3-days Epimedium sagittatum extract (1/2 g/kg/day and intravenous injection with sildenafil (10/30 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC of sildenafil (10 mg/kg was significantly decreased in groups that received a high dose of Epimedium sagittatum extract. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that there was significant herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil at low and high daily doses, suggesting co-administration use of Epimedium sagittatum extract and sildenafil in clinical practice should be prevented due to possible herb-drug interactions.

  2. Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

  3. Repellent Effect of Herb Extracts on the Population of Wingless Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Ikeura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the repellent and insecticidal effects of 8 kinds of herb extracts (chives, dokudami, eucalyptus, lavender, peppermint, cherry sage, sweet pepper and tansy against wingless green peach aphids were conducted in laboratory and field test. In laboratory repellent tests, 20 aphids were placed between a radish leaf and filter paper for 16 h and aphids on radish leaf were calculated. In laboratory insecticide tests, 20 aphids were placed on a radish leaf treated with herb extract, and live aphids were counted after 16 h. In field tests, the number of aphids that propagated on radish leaves treated with each herb extract was assessed every 3 days. In the laboratory, dokudami, tansy and sweet pepper extracts repelled aphids, while chives, sweet pepper and tansy extracts killed them. In particular, sweet pepper and tansy extracts proved to be a potent insecticide against aphids. In the field test, the results found that extracts from dokudami, cherry sage and lavender had repellent effect on aphids. In particular, dokudami extract was a highly effective repellent against aphids. These findings suggest that dokudami extract can be used to control wingless green peach aphids in the field.

  4. Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets. PMID:24374449

  5. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Jugjeet S; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Ahmed, Nessar; Subratty, Anwar H

    2012-12-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential. PMID:23134460

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL HERBS AND STANDARD ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST POULTRY ASSOCIATED PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affia Rafique

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study aims to access the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants and antibiotics against poultry associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is the most widespread avian pathogen and it produces a range of toxins and enzymes that may contribute to pathogenicity. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the chicken liver and identified through biochemical methods. The antibacterial activity of extracts of medicinal herbs and various antibiotics were analyzed against P. aeruginosa through agar disc diffusion method. P. aeruginosa was susceptible against Norfloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin, and Ciprofloxacin. Whereas, moderately susceptible in case of Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Lincomycin, and Sulfomethoxyzol. It was also analyzed that Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Penicillin G and Trimethoprim had no effect. Among the plants tested C. zylanicum, C. cyminum, T. ammi, S. aromaticum and green part of M. charantia were most active. The maximum antibacterial activity was calculated by the extracts of isoamylalcohol of C. zylanicum, C. cyminum, T. ammi, S. aromaticum, and ethanolic and methanol extract of green part of M. charantia against P. aeruginosa. This study indicated that these medicinal plants could be the potential source for antimicrobial agents. Hence, these medicinal plants can be further subjected to isolation of the therapeutic antimicrobials and further pharmacological evaluation.

  7. Study on stability of components and antioxidative activity of a {gamma}-ray irradiated herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. Y.; Lee, J. S.; Jung, W. H.; Byun, M. W.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate the stability of components and antioxidative activities of a gamma irradiated herb, Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge (AMB). The chemical components of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated AMB were analyzed by HPLC, and their antioxidative activities were also evaluated in scavenging of DPPH radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. For HPLC analysis, calycosin, a major component, was isolated as a standard material, and EtOAc fractions were prepared from irradiated (10 kGy) and non-irradiated AMB. HPLC profile of the two EtOAc fractions showed almost same pattern. One major peak was detected during retention times (tR) at 15.07 min in irradiated sample, and at 15.09 min in non-irradiated sample, compared with calycosin (15.11 min). In the experiment of antioxidative effects, gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples also showed the same level of EDA value and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. These results suggest that chemical components and biological activities of AMB were not affected by gamma irradiation.

  8. Pinelliae Rhizoma, a Toxic Chinese Herb, Can Significantly Inhibit CYP3A Activity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw Pinelliae Rhizoma (RPR is a representative toxic herb that is widely used for eliminating phlegm or treating cough and vomiting. Given its irritant toxicity, its processed products, including Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine (PRPZA, are more commonly applied and administered concomitantly with other chemical drugs, such as cough medications. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RPR, PRP, and PRPZA on CYP3A activity. Testosterone (Tes and buspirone (BP were used as specific probe substrates ex vivo and in vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolite formation ratios from the substrates. Ex vivo results show that the metabolite formation ratios from Tes significantly decreased, indicating that RPR, PRP, and PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity in rats. CYP3A protein and mRNA levels were determined to explore the underlying mechanism. These levels showed marked and consistent down-regulation with CYP3A activity. A significant decrease in metabolite formation ratios from BP was also found in PRPZA group in vivo, implying that PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity. Conclusively, co-administration of PR with other CYP3A-metabolizing drugs may cause drug–drug interactions. Clinical use of PR-related formulae should be monitored carefully to avoid adverse interactions.

  9. Extraction, separation and quantitative structure-retention relationship modeling of essential oils in three herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431

  10. Classification of antituberculosis herbs for remedial purposes by using fuzzy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Gabriela; Grzywna, Zbigniew J; Willcox, Merlin L

    2008-12-01

    Using fuzzy set theory, we created a system, that assesses a herb's usefulness for the treatment of tuberculosis, based on ethnobotanical data. We analysed two systems which contain different amount of inputs. The first system contains four inputs, the second one contains six inputs. We used the Takagi-Sugeno-Kanga model. Mamdani model is poor at representation as it needs more fuzzy rules than that of TSK to model a real world system where accuracy is demanded. It has been employed a fuzzy controller, and a fuzzy model, in successfully solving difficult control and modelling problems in practice. It is implemented in the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in Matlab. The data for inputs are gathered in the database named SOPAT (selection of plants against tuberculosis), which is part of a project coordinated by the Oxford International Biomedical Centre. In this database there could be up to one million plant species. It would be cumbersome to select a remedy from one (or some) of these species looking at the data base one-by-one. By means of the fuzzy set theory this remedy can be chosen very quickly. PMID:18773936

  11. Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs and Oldenlandia diffusa in particular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Wang, M Q; Liu, J N; Shan, B E; Yamashita, U

    1997-07-01

    The effect of eight different Chinese medicinal herbs (CMHs) on lymphocytes was studied in vitro using murine spleen cells. Among the studied eight CMHs, Astragalus membranaceus and Oldenlandia diffusa markedly stimulated murine spleen cells to proliferate. The responder cells for CMHs were B cells, because the response was depleted by the treatment of spleen cells with anti-immunoglobulin (i.g.) antibody and complement and after purification by nylon wool column. This response was not due to contamination by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), because CMHs could stimulate C3H/HeJ spleen cells which are low responders to LPS. CMHs enhanced the production of Ig. CMHs also enhanced the induction of allo-antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, CMHs had no effect on natural killer cells. Furthermore, CMHs stimulated macrophages to produce interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. The electroelution of the proteins from SDS-PAGE gel showed that the active components of Oldenlandia diffusa had an apparent molecular weight of 90-200 kD and were sensitive to pronase E and NaIO4 treatment, suggesting glycoproteins in nature. These results suggest that CMHs have immunomodulating activity in vitro and this activity could be used clinically for the modulation of immune responses. PMID:9568540

  12. Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Johan P; Ostergård, Hannah; Ehrlén, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots that were less shaded by the tree canopy, indicating an environmentally determined carrying capacity. A size-structured integral projection model based on the vital rate regressions revealed that the identified effects of shade and density were strong enough to produce differences in stable population sizes similar to those observed in the field. The results illustrate how the local environment can determine dynamics of populations and that intraspecific density may have to be more carefully considered in studies of plant demography and population viability analyses of threatened species. We conclude that demographic approaches incorporating information about both density and key environmental factors are powerful tools for understanding the processes that interact to determine population dynamics and abundances. PMID:25224800

  13. Medicinal herb drying using a photovoltaic array and a solar thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargali, Hanaa M.; Nafeh, Abd El-Shafy A.; Fahmy, Faten H. [Electronics Research Institute, National Research Center Building, Cairo 12622 (Egypt); Hassan, Mohamed A. [Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2008-12-15

    Drying of medicinal herbs should take place as soon as possible after harvesting; otherwise insects and fungi, which thrive in most conditions, render them unusable. Conventional drying methods such as open sun drying and conventional-fuel dryers are not suitable; since they may yield a less quality product and/or may increase the drying cost and/or time. Moreover, they may not be reliable and environmentally safe. Therefore, the trend is toward using controlled-nonconventional drying methods, to improve the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time to decrease the drying cost and time. These methods use renewable energy sources for their operation, which are highly recommendable. This work proposes and develops a new controlled drying method; which uses a solar collector and a bio-gas fuel to heat the drying air, and a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system to feed the electrical load of the dryer. The designed control technique ensures correct and continuous operation of the dryer's subsystems. Also, this work presents the dynamic modeling for the different components in the solar thermal system, which is responsible for heating the drying air. The results indicate the high effectiveness of the drying method. (author)

  14. Changes in use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS among clinicians enrolled in an online curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner Paula

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about clinicians' use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS, how their personal HDS use changes with time and training, and how changes in their personal use affect their confidence or communication with patients about HDS. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of clinicians before and after an on-line curriculum about HDS in winter-spring, 2005. Results Of the 569 clinicians who completed surveys both at baseline and after the course, 25% were male and the average age was 42 years old; 88% used HDS before and after the course. The average number of supplements used fell slightly from 6.2 at baseline to 5.8 after the course (P Conclusion Many clinicians use HDS personally; use changes seasonally and to a small extent with professional education. Professional use of HDS is dynamic and seasonal. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of personal use on professional attitudes and behavior in populations with lower baseline uses of HDS.

  15. Study on stability of components and antioxidative activity of a ?-ray irradiated herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the stability of components and antioxidative activities of a gamma irradiated herb, Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge (AMB). The chemical components of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated AMB were analyzed by HPLC, and their antioxidative activities were also evaluated in scavenging of DPPH radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. For HPLC analysis, calycosin, a major component, was isolated as a standard material, and EtOAc fractions were prepared from irradiated (10 kGy) and non-irradiated AMB. HPLC profile of the two EtOAc fractions showed almost same pattern. One major peak was detected during retention times (tR) at 15.07 min in irradiated sample, and at 15.09 min in non-irradiated sample, compared with calycosin (15.11 min). In the experiment of antioxidative effects, gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples also showed the same level of EDA value and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. These results suggest that chemical components and biological activities of AMB were not affected by gamma irradiation

  16. Large-scale adaptive differentiation in the alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toräng, Per; Wunder, Jörg; Obeso, José Ramón; Herzog, Michel; Coupland, George; Ågren, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Information about the incidence and magnitude of local adaptation can help to predict the response of natural populations to a changing environment, and should be of particular interest in arctic and alpine environments where the effects of climate change are expected to be severe. To quantify adaptive differentiation in the arctic-alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for 3 yr between Spanish and Scandinavian populations. At the sites of one Spanish and one Scandinavian population, we planted seedlings representing two Spanish and four Scandinavian populations, and recorded survival, flowering propensity and fecundity. The experiment was replicated in two subsequent years. The results demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation between A. alpina populations from the two regions. At the field site in Spain, survival and fruit production of Spanish populations were higher than those of Scandinavian populations, while the opposite was true at the site in Scandinavia, and these differences were consistent across years. By comparison, fitness varied little among populations from the same region. The results suggest that the magnitude and geographical scale of local adaptation need to be considered in predictions of the effects of global change on the dynamics of arctic and alpine plant populations. PMID:25422098

  17. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF THE HERB, EXACUM BICOLOR ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeshna M. V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Exacum bicolor Roxb. (Gentianaceae is a phytochemically unexplored traditional medicinal herb, generally distributed in the grasslands of northern Kerala during July-October. The present study through GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of six phytochemical compounds of medicinal importance (two compounds of polyphenolic group viz. 7'-Chloro-3'-(2, 4 dichlorophenyl-3',4'-dihydrospiro(1, 3- dioxolane- and a’-D- Galactopyranoside, methyl 2,6- bis-0-(trimethylsilyl -, cyclic butylboronate, two compounds of alkaloid group viz. 1, 16- Cyclocorynan-16-carboxylic acid, 17-( acetyloxy-19,20-didehydro-10-methoxy-, methyl ester,(16.xi., 19E- and 4 – ( 4 – Chlorophenyl- 5 – morpholin - 4 - yl- thiophen -2- carboxylic acid, ethyl ester, one compound of glycoside group, a’-D- Galactopyranoside, methyl 2,3- bis-0-(trimethylsilyl -, cyclic phenylboronate and one compound of steroid group, 9,19 – Cycloergostan – 3 – ol – 7 – one , 4 , 14 – dimethyl – in addition to number of other compounds. In bioinformatics approach, by using the software, Prediction Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS, molecular formula, pharmacological effects and drug likeness were determined for all the six compounds scientifically which confirm the traditional usage of Exacum bicolor.

  18. Resprouting after disturbance in the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris (Brassicaceae): an experiment with juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Jana; Ko?varová, Marie; Klimešová, Jitka

    2004-05-01

    The impact of plant age, severity of injury and nutrient levels on the ability to resprout from roots was experimentally assessed in juveniles of the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser. In a chamber experiment, six cohorts of young plants (1-6 week old) were injured to obtain data on the threshold age for the ability to resprout from roots. We found that plant age was an important factor influencing resprouting ability: injured individuals older than 5 weeks were able to resprout, but not plants younger than 3 weeks. The impact of injury severity (defoliation and removal of axillary buds) and nutrient levels on resprouting ability was assessed on juveniles in a greenhouse experiment. Injury induced growth of new shoots from root buds, while the number of adventitious buds on roots was not influenced by injury. Both injury treatments had a similar effect in this respect, and the amount of regenerated biomass and the extent of regeneration were not different among injury treatments. The number of new shoots produced after injury was higher at the high nutrient level, but the number of formed adventitious buds on roots was not influenced by nutrient level. Nutrient level also influenced the amount of regenerated biomass, but the extent of regeneration (regenerated/removed biomass) was not influenced. The short-lived monocarpic species R. palustris is able to resprout from roots relatively easily. This ability seems to be advantageous in disturbed habitats and this idea is discussed throughout the paper.

  19. Studies on genetic divergence among Indian varieties of a spice herb, Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna

    2012-07-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance. PMID:23360008

  20. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

  1. Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Petter; Östergård, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots that were less shaded by the tree canopy, indicating an environmentally determined carrying capacity. A size-structured integral projection model based on the vital rate regressions revealed that the identified effects of shade and density were strong enough to produce differences in stable population sizes similar to those observed in the field. The results illustrate how the local environment can determine dynamics of populations and that intraspecific density may have to be more carefully considered in studies of plant demography and population viability analyses of threatened species. We conclude that demographic approaches incorporating information about both density and key environmental factors are powerful tools for understanding the processes that interact to determine population dynamics and abundances.

  2. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Beata; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-06-01

    There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB. PMID:24914722

  3. Life-history variation in contrasting habitats: flowering decisions in a clonal perennial herb (Veratrum album).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Elze; Rees, Mark; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    Quantifying intraspecific demographic variation provides a powerful tool for exploring the diversity and evolution of life histories. We investigate how habitat-specific demographic variation and the production of multiple offspring types affect the population dynamics and evolution of delayed reproduction in a clonal perennial herb with monocarpic ramets (white hellebore). In this species, flowering ramets produce both seeds and asexual offspring. Data on ramet demography are used to parameterize integral projection models, which allow the effects of habitat-specific demographic variation and reproductive mode on population dynamics to be quantified. We then use the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) approach to predict the flowering strategy-the relationship between flowering probability and size. This approach is extended to allow offspring types to have different demographies and density-dependent responses. Our results demonstrate that the evolutionarily stable flowering strategies differ substantially among habitats and are in excellent agreement with the observed strategies. Reproductive mode, however, has little effect on the ESSs. Using analytical approximations, we show that flowering decisions are predominantly determined by the asymptotic size of individuals rather than variation in survival or size-fecundity relationships. We conclude that habitat is an important aspect of the selective environment and a significant factor in predicting the ESSs. PMID:18817459

  4. Detection of radiation treatment of spices and herbs of Asian origin using thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight types of spices and herbs or their mixtures of Asian origin have been investigated for detection of irradiation treatment using thermoluminescence (TL) of insoluble mineral contaminants adhering to the samples. These samples were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays (at absorbed doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy) as well as by 10-MeV electrons using an accelerator (at a dose of 5.4 kGy). The integrated TL intensities of glow curves from the irradiated samples were found to be much higher than those from unirradiated samples. These results were normalized by administering a re-irradiation ?-ray dose of 1 kGy and calculating the ratio of the integral of the first glow curve (of unirradiated or irradiated samples) to that of the second glow curve (after re-irradiation). This ratio is less than 0.02 for all unirradiated samples and more than 0.3 for all irradiated samples (more than 1 for samples irradiated to 5 kGy or at higher doses), thereby making discrimination between irradiated and unirradiated samples possible. If one also compares the different temperature regions of the glow-curve maxima of unirradiated and irradiated samples, unequivocal discrimination is achieved for those previously irradiated to dose equal to or greater than 1 kGy. (author)

  5. Ecodiagrams of common species of the forest herb layer in the Roztocze National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?ena Czarnecka

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in graphic standardised form ("ecodiagrams" the conditions in which 24 common species of the herb layer of forest communities occur in the Roztocze National Park. After determining the soil type, its mechanical composition, active and exchangeable acidity, humus content and the content in the rhizosphere layer of nutrient components essential for plants, such as P, K, Na, Ca. Mg. AI, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, the habitats of common plants of the forest from the class Querco-Fagetea were classified as meso-, eu-meso- and cutrophic. Forest plants connected with communities from the class Vaccinio-Piceetea (Hierncium lachenalii Gmel., Melampyrum pratense L., Trientalis eurnpaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L. are generally associated with fresh, moderately poor and quite frequently also mesotrophic soils. Only Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. is a local species of dry hungry soils, poor in mineral and organic components. The group of accompanying species such as Fragaria vesca L., Galium vernum Scop., Luzula pilosa (L. Willd., Mycelis ruralis (L. Dum. and Oxalis ucetosella L.. show a much wider ecological amplitude-from oligotrophic to eutrophic habitats.

  6. Genetic diversity of the Chinese traditional herb Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae) based on AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y X; Wang, W Q; Zhang, Y B; Yuan, Y; Yu, J B; Zhu, M; Chen, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    Blumea balsamifera is a commercially important medicinal herb in China and other parts of Asia. It is used to produce borneol. This plant grows in the wild, but resources have diminished greatly in recent years. We examined the genetic diversity of this species to help develop conservation strategies; 35 plants from five provinces were analyzed using AFLPs. Eight AFLP primer combinations generated 1367 fragments, giving a mean of 172 fragments per primer combination. Polymorphism in the germplasm analysis was found for 1360 (99.48%) of the fragments, of which 264 (19.27%) fragments were unique (accession specific) and 423 (25.33%) of the fragments were rare (present in less than 10% of the accessions). The polymorphic fragments were used to group the accessions in a UPGMA phenogram. Most grouping was geographical. In general, accessions coming from Guizhou and Guangxi showed higher diversities as these accessions were scattered in different groups. The genetic distance estimated by Jaccard similarity coefficient index showed low variability among genotypes (coefficient value ranged from 0.60 to 0.95). More attention should be given to the study and conservation of the biodiversity of this economically important genus. PMID:24782086

  7. Yeasts in nectar enhance male fitness in a montane perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N

    2014-07-01

    Floral nectar of many plant species is prone to colonization by microbial organisms such as yeasts. Their presence and metabolism of nectar chemical components have the potential to modify a suite of floral traits important for pollinator attraction, including nectar quality and scent. However, studies on the direct and indirect effects of nectar-inhabiting microorganisms on pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success remain rare. To determine their potential to affect pollinator behavior and plant fitness, we experimentally manipulated the common nectar-inhabiting yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii in the nectar of Delphinium nuttallianum, a short-lived montane perennial herb. We detected positive, indirect, pollinator-mediated effects of yeasts on male plant fitness measured as pollen donation using powdered fluorescent dyes. However, we detected no direct or indirect effects on components of female fitness. Matching effects on male plant fitness, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts, removing more nectar from flowers treated with M. reukaufii. Our results provide evidence of effects of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on male plant fitness and highlight the importance of microorganisms in mediating plant-pollinator interactions and subsequent plant fitness. PMID:25163113

  8. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral display and flowering time in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandring, Saskia; Agren, Jon

    2009-05-01

    The evolution of floral display and flowering time in animal-pollinated plants is commonly attributed to pollinator-mediated selection. Yet, the causes of selection on flowering phenology and traits contributing to floral display have rarely been tested experimentally in natural populations. We quantified phenotypic selection on morphological and phenological characters in the perennial, outcrossing herb Arabidopsis lyrata in two years using female reproductive success as a proxy of fitness. To determine whether selection on floral display and flowering phenology can be attributed to interactions with pollinators, selection was quantified both for open-pollinated controls and for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination. We documented directional selection for many flowers, large petals, late start of flowering, and early end of flowering. Seed output was pollen-limited in both years and supplemental hand-pollination reduced the magnitude of selection on number of flowers, and reversed the direction of selection on end of flowering. The results demonstrate that interactions with pollinators may affect the strength of selection on floral display and the direction of selection on phenology of flowering in natural plant populations. They thus support the contention that pollinators can drive the evolution of both floral display and flowering time. PMID:19154392

  9. Safety monitoring of herb-drug interactions: a component of pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2012-10-01

    Adverse drug reactions, including those resulting from interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs, are a public health problem worldwide. The need for pharmacovigilance for herb-drug interactions (HDIs) is essential for the identification and assessment of risks of using herbal products (questionable safety, efficacy and quality), which are not always tested with rigor, or often not subject to approval by regulatory agencies. Spontaneous and active surveillance conducted by national pharmacovigilance centres permits a rapid detection of potentially harmful combinations of products. The incidence and prevalence of HDIs are difficult to predict because of the underreporting of adverse effects. It is important for health professionals, consumers, regulatory authorities and suppliers of herbal medicines to be aware of the possible adverse effects and drug interactions caused when herbal medicines are co-administered with conventional drugs. National pharmacovigilance centres continue to play a significant role in increasing awareness of drug safety, in this case with HDIs. The authors' objective for this paper is to provide awareness among policy makers responsible for the design of appropriate pharmacovigilance practices and therefore to highlight the importance of pharmacovigilance in the safety monitoring of HDIs. PMID:22876741

  10. Are medicinal herbs safe? The opinion of plant vendors from Diadema (São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lanini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants (MP have been used world-wide for the treatment or prevention of health conditions and due to their natural origin; they have been historically considered harmless. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with an intentional sample of twenty plant vendors in the city of Diadema to explore their knowledge and beliefs on the safety and efficacy of MP. Different levels of perceptions about the safety of MP were found, varying from "completely safe" to "completely harmful". The majority of the interviewees declared that "if herbs have an effect, they are also likely to have a side effect", depending on many factors such as dosage, concomitant use of other drugs, characteristics of the plant material and consumer related factors, specially those related to pregnant women, children and elderly people. Thirty-nine unexpected events related to 21 species of MP were reported. One case of serious gastrointestinal disease related to the consumption of a contaminated "slim mixture" was also described. Adverse events and other problems that result from MP are relatively uncommon, but they are almost certainly underreported and occur more often than acknowledged. This study strengthens the call for further research and educational efforts into this complex area.

  11. Chemoprevention and inhibition of P-glycoprotein in cancer cells by Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Helga; Hohmann, Judit; Gang, Geng; Pusztai, Rozália; Rédei, Dóra; Kovács, Orsolya; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Many of the herbal extracts used in the Chinese clinical medical routine inhibit the growth of tumor cells. In the present work, extracts of 12 selected herbs were prepared with methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, and the effects of these on the multidrug resistance (MDR) and P-glycoprotein of mouse lymphoma cells transfected with the human mdr1 gene and on a human lung alveolar epithelial cell line were investigated. The extracts were tested for antiproliferative effects, and the reversal of MDR in mouse lymphoma cells. The possible chemopreventive effect of the chloroform extracts was studied on the expression of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early (IE) antigen in human lung cancer cells (A549). The antimicrobial effects of the extracts were tested on some representative micro-organisms. Certain of the chloroform extracts of the plant materials were the most effective compounds on the reversal of MDR. Two of the chloroform extracts enhanced the antiproliferative effect of doxorubicin on MDR mouse lymphoma cells. The selected extracts did not show any antibacterial effect with the agar diffusion method. Certain chloroform extracts decreased the intermediate IE antigen expression of CMV in A459 cells. PMID:18690658

  12. Effects of the extract of a Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii hook f on rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Huijun; Zhao, Ziqin; Zhang, Yihu; Huang, Guangzhao

    2005-01-01

    In China, the ethylacetate extract of the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TWEE), containing the major active ingredient triptolide, is often used with favorable effect on rheumatoid arthritis patients, in alternation with the use of prednisone. The mechanism of this therapeutic effect, however, has not been completely delineated. In this study, we studied how TWEE and prednisone affect the pituitary and adrenal glands in rats. Thirty normal male Sprague-Dawley rats (ten per group) were randomly assigned to receive: (1) TWEE (25 mg/kg, twice a day), (2) prednisone (2 mg/kg, twice a day), or (3) vehicle (control) (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 1 ml, twice a day), orally for 30 days. Pituitary and trunk blood were collected on day 31. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) expression in the pituitary gland was assessed morphologically by immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma ACTH concentrations and serum corticosterone concentrations were quantitatively measured by radioimmunoassay. We found that TWEE significantly increased plasma ACTH concentration and serum corticosterone concentration and dramatically increased the number of ACTH-positive cells in the pituitary. Our findings indicate that TWEE can promote the synthesis and secretion of ACTH cells--in the pars distalis of the rat pituitary gland and the production of corticosterone in the zone fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Our results indicate that TWEE has a cortical hormone-like function and can promote adrenal cortex function by activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:16355451

  13. Linking environmental and demographic data to predict future population viability of a perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toräng, Per; Ehrlén, Johan; Agren, Jon

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in stochastic demography provide tools to examine the importance of random and periodic variation in vital rates for population dynamics. In this study, we explore with simulations the effect of disturbance regime on population dynamics and viability. We collected 7 years of demographic data in three populations of the perennial herb Primula farinosa, and used these data to examine how variation in vital rates affected population viability parameters (stochastic growth rate, lambda(S)), and how vital rates were related to weather conditions. Elasticity analysis indicated that the stochastic growth rate was very sensitive to changes in regeneration, quantified as the production, survival, and germination of seeds. In one of the study years, all seedlings and mature plants in the demography plots died. This extinction coincided with the driest summer during the study period. Simulations suggested that a future increase in the frequency of high-mortality years due to climate change would result in reduced population growth rate, and an increased importance of survival in the seed bank for population viability. The results illustrate how the limited demographic data typically available for many natural systems can be used in simulation models to assess how environmental change will affect population viability. PMID:20072788

  14. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  15. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were ?- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ? - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, ? -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and ?- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  16. EVALUATION OF NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF STEPHANIA VENOSA HERB CONSUMPTION IN HEALTHY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terdthai Tong-Un

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders especially anxiety and depression. Most of the drugs for these conditions used nowadays have adverse side effects so the need for newer, better-tolerated and more efficacious treatments is remaining high. Growing attention is being paid to traditional herbal medicines. Stephania venosa Spreng (S. venosa; SV is a Thai traditional herb which has been used for cancer treatment as well as an aphrodisiac. In addition, accumulating lines of evidence reported that the ethanol extract of SV exhibited an antioxidant and exerted acetylcholinesterase inhibitory. However, the in vivo neurophamacological activities of this plant have never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the neurophamacological effects of a crude extract of SV introduced orally at various doses ranging from 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1 BW once daily for a period of 2 weeks. The anxiolytic and anti-depression like activities were determined after single administration, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment using elevated plus maze and forced swimming test respectively. Only SV 20 mg kg-1 treated rats exhibited a significant anxiolytic effect at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anti-depression like activity. Our findings provide a potential of the SV consumption might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for the anti-anxiety disorder. However, further investigations about possible active ingredients and the precise underlying mechanisms are still necessary.

  17. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are needed to evaluate the efficacy and the combination pattern of these Chinese herbs. The mechanism of the combination pattern of these prescriptions should also be investigated whether additive, synergistic or antagonistic effect exist using in vitro or in vivo models. PMID:25172790

  18. Caracterização do dossel e do estrato de regeneração natural no sub-bosque e em clareiras de uma florestal estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa, MG / Canopy and natural regeneration stratum characterization in the understorey and gaps of a seasonal semideciduous forest in the county of Viçosa, MG

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastião Venâncio, Martins; José Marinaldo, Gleriani; Cibele Hummel do, Amaral; Tiago Maciel, Ribeiro.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Reserva Mata do Paraíso, pertencente à Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram selecionadas 10 clareiras naturais com diferentes tamanhos. No centro das clareiras e numa faixa de 5 m de sub-bosque (entorno) ao redor destas foram obtidas fotografias hemisféricas digitais [...] . Através dessas fotografias, foram calculadas as áreas das clareiras e a sua correspondente abertura de dossel e dos seus entornos. No interior das clareiras e nos seus entornos foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com altura > 1,00 m e diâmetro na altura de 1,30 m do solo (DAP) inferior a 5,00 cm. Constatou-se a predominância de pequenas clareiras com áreas inferiores a 100 m² e com pequena abertura do dossel nas quais predominam as mesmas espécies típicas dos estádios finais de sucessão tolerantes à sombra e abundantes no sub-bosque ao redor dessas clareiras. No conjunto das clareiras foram amostrados 759 indivíduos, distribuídos em 69 espécies pertencentes a 28 famílias botânicas. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H') das clareiras variou de 1,026 a 3,011. Coffea arabica e Picramnia regnelli foram as espécies mais abundantes tanto no conjunto das clareiras quanto no conjunto dos entornos (sub-bosque). A similaridade florística entre o conjunto das clareiras e o conjunto dos entornos foi alta (Ij = 69%), indicando que as mesmas espécies que regeneram no sub-bosque estão conseguindo fazer o mesmo também no ambiente de clareira. A dominância ecológica de Coffea arabica nos dois ambientes pode, no longo prazo, comprometer a conservação das espécies autóctones desse trecho da floresta. Abstract in english This study was developed in the Mata do Paraíso Reserve from the Viçosa Federal University. Ten natural gaps of different sizes were selected. Digital hemispherical photographs were obtained from the middle of the gaps, in a 5 m understorey area (surroundings) and neighboring areas. These hemispheri [...] cal photographs allowed calculating areas corresponding to gaps and their respective canopy openness and surroundings. Inside the gaps and surroundings, all individuals with height > 1.00 m and diameter in height of 1.30 m from the soil (DAP) below 5.00 m were sampled. The predominance of small gaps with areas below 100 m2 and with small canopy openness was verified, as well as the predominance of the same shade-tolerant species typical of the final succession stadiums, which are abundant in the understorey around these gaps. In the set of gaps, 759 individuals were sampled and distributed into 69 species belonging to 28 botanical families. The Shannon diversity index (H') of gaps ranged from 1.026 to 3.011. Coffea arabica and Picramnia regnelli were the most abundant species both in the set of gaps and in the set of surroundings (understorey). The floristic similarity between both sets was high (Ij = 69%), indicating that the same species that regenerate in the sub-wood also regenerate in the gaps environment. At long term, the ecological dominance of Coffea arabica in both environments may impair the conservation of autoctone species in this part of the forest.

  19. The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Hillman, K; Acamovic, T

    2007-08-01

    1. The effect of the dietary inclusion of 5 culinary herbs or their essential oils on the growth, digestibility and intestinal microflora status in female broiler chicks was assessed. From 7 to 28 d of age, either a basal control diet without supplement was given or one of 10 others, consisting of the basal diet with either 10 g/kg herb (thyme, oregano, marjoram, rosemary or yarrow) or 1 g/kg of essential oil. 2. Body mass (BM) and feed consumption (AFC) were measured on a weekly basis and used to calculate chick performance. Total viable counts of lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, anaerobes and Clostridium perfringens were determined at 25 d. Apparent nutrient digestibilities were calculated from the measured values for gross energy, nitrogen (N), dry matter (DM) and organic matter, and sialic acid concentration was also measured. 3. Generally, dietary thyme oil or yarrow herb inclusion had the most positive effects on chick performance, while oregano herb and yarrow oil were the poorest supplements. Only thyme and yarrow in these diets had a different effect when used as a herb or oil on weight gain and BM. 4. Dietary treatment had no effect on the intestinal microflora populations, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) or the calculated coefficients of digestibility. Sialic acid concentration was greatest in the birds given dietary thyme oil, compared with all other treatments except those birds receiving marjoram oil, rosemary herb and the controls. However, less sialic acid was excreted in those birds given diets with oregano or rosemary oils, or oregano herb, than in the controls. 5. Plant extracts in diets may therefore affect chick performance, gut health and endogenous secretions, although the chemical composition of the extract appears to be important in obtaining the optimal effects. PMID:17701503

  20. Evidence Based Antibacterial Potentials of Medicinal Plants and Herbs Countering Bacterial Pathogens Especially in the Era of Emerging Drug Resistance: An Integrated Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat and zoonotic threats.