WorldWideScience

Sample records for understorey herb trillium

  1. Ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins in a perennial understorey herb from temperate deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Castañeda, Verónica; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of abaxial anthocyanins is an intriguing leaf trait particularly common among deeply shaded understorey plants of tropical and temperate forests whose ecological significance is still not properly understood. To shed light on it, possible ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins were tested in the perennial understorey herb of temperate deciduous forests Saxifraga hirsuta, chosen as a model species due to the coexistence of green and anthocyanic leaves and the presence of an easily removable lower anthocyanic epidermis. Anthocyanins accumulated during autumn, which temporally matched the overstorey leaf fall. Patterns of development of abaxial anthocyanins and direct measurements of photochemical efficiency under monochromatic light were not consistent with a photoprotective hypothesis. Enhancement of light capture also seemed unlikely since the back-scattering of red light towards the lower mesophyll was negligible. Seed germination was similar under acyanic and anthocyanic leaves. A relevant consequence of abaxial anthocyanins was the dramatic reduction of light transmission through the leaf. The dark environment generated underneath the Saxifraga canopy was enhanced by the horizontal repositioning of leaves, which occurs in parallel with reddening. This might play a role in biotic interactions by inhibiting vital processes of competitors, which may be of especial importance in spring before the overstorey leaves sprout. PMID:25922298

  2. Ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins in a perennial understorey herb from temperate deciduous forests

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Castañeda, Verónica; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Red pigmentation in the lower surface of leaves is a common phenomenon in herb species growing in temperate and tropical forests. Nevertheless, its function is still not completely understood. We studied this process of reddening in the leaves of Saxifraga hirsuta living in a beech forest, to establish its relation with environmental factors and its potential function. We observed that the reddening occurs during autumn and that it strongly reduces the amount of light that can pass through th...

  3. Sit-and-wait pollination in the spring flowering woodland plant, Trillium grandiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Darling, Emily S.

    2011-01-01

    In animal-pollinated plants, reproductive success is commonly limited by pollen availability, which can occur in environments where pollinator activity is scarce or variable. Extended floral longevity to maximize a plant’s access to pollinators may be an adaptation to such uncertain pollination environments. Here, we investigated the effects of flower exposure time to pollinators on female fertility (fruit and seed set) in the bee-pollinated woodland herb Trillium grandiflorum, a species with...

  4. Sit-and-wait pollination in the spring flowering woodland plant, Trillium grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett, Spencer C.H.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In animal-pollinated plants, reproductive success is commonly limited by pollen availability, which can occur in environments where pollinator activity is scarce or variable. Extended floral longevity to maximize a plant’s access to pollinators may be an adaptation to such uncertain pollination environments. Here, we investigated the effects of flower exposure time to pollinators on female fertility (fruit and seed set in the bee-pollinated woodland herb Trillium grandiflorum, a species with long-lived flowers (~17-21 d that blooms in early spring when pollinator activity is often variable. We experimentally exposed flowers to pollinators for different amounts of time to determine the extent to which floral longevity influenced reproductive success. The amount of time that flowers were exposed to pollinators significantly increased fruit set and seed set per flower, but not seed set per fruit. Our results provide experimental evidence that long floral life spans may function as a ‘sit-and-wait’ pollination strategy to increase the amount of exposure time to pollinators and promote seed set in the unpredictable pollination environments often experienced by early spring ephemerals. In large populations with infrequent pollinator visitation, as commonly occurs in T. grandiflorum, pollination may be a largely stochastic process.

  5. Spatial patterning and floral synchrony among trillium populations with contrasting histories of herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Webster

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial patterning and floral synchrony within and among populations of a non-clonal, forest understory herb, Trillium catesbaei. Two populations of T. catesbaei within Great Smoky Mountains National Park were monitored for five years: Cades Cove (high deer abundance and Whiteoak Sink (low deer abundance. All individuals within each population were mapped during year one and five. Only flowering and single-leaf juveniles were mapped during intervening years. Greater distances between flowering plants (plants currently in flower and substantially lower population densities and smaller patch sizes were observed at Cades Cove versus Whiteoak Sink. However, with the exception of flowering plants, contrasting histories of herbivory did not appear to fundamentally alter the spatial patterning of the T. catesbaei population at Cades Cove, an area with a long and well-documented history of deer overabundance. Regardless of browse history, non-flowering life stages were significantly clustered at all spatial scales examined. Flowering plants were clustered in all years at Whiteoak Sink, but more often randomly distributed at Cades Cove, possibly as a result of their lower abundance. Between years, however, there was a positive spatial association between the locations of flowering plants at both sites. Flowering rate was synchronous between sites, but lagged a year behind favorable spring growing conditions, which likely allowed plants to allocate photosynthate from a favorable year towards flowering the subsequent year. Collectively, our results suggest that chronically high levels of herbivory may be associated with spatial patterning of flowering within populations of a non-clonal plant. They also highlight the persistence of underlying spatial patterns, as evidenced by high levels of spatial clustering among non-flowering individuals, and the pervasive, although muted in a population subjected to chronic herbivory, influence of precipitation and temperature on flowering in long-lived forest herbs.

  6. Fate of partial order on trillium and distorted windmill lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Sergei V.; Hopkinson, John M.; Kee, Hae-Young

    2008-07-01

    The classical Heisenberg model on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices exhibits a degenerate ground state within large- N theory where the degenerate wave vectors form a surface and line, in three-dimensional space, respectively. We name such states partially ordered to represent the existence of long-range order along the direction normal to these degenerate manifolds. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations using Monte Carlo (MC) methods and we find a first-order transition to a magnetically ordered state for both cases. We further show that the ordering on the distorted windmill lattice is due to order by disorder, while the ground state of the trillium lattice is unique. Despite these different routes to the realization of low-temperature ordered phases, the static structure factors obtained by large- N theory and MC simulations for each lattice show quantitative agreement in the cooperative paramagnetic regime at finite temperatures. This suggests that a remnant of the characteristic angle-dependent spin correlations of partial order remains above the transition temperatures for both lattices. The possible relevance of these results to ?-Mn , CeIrSi, and MnSi is discussed.

  7. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

  8. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canade...

  9. Govanoside A, a new steroidal saponin from rhizomes of Trillium govanianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq-ur-Rahman; Ismail, Muhammad; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Adhikari, Achyut; Anis, Itrat; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Khurram, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    A new spirostane steroidal saponin, govanoside A (1) along with three known compounds borassoside E (2) pennogenin (3) and diosgenin (4) were isolated from rhizomes of Trillium govanianum. Their structures were elucidated through 1D, 2D-NMR spectroscopic data analysis and acid hydrolysis. Compound (2) in genus Trillium and all compounds (1-4) in T. govanianum are reported herein for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1 &2 exhibited good to moderate activities against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16888, Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9643, Candida albicans ATCC 18804, and Candida glabrata ATCC 90030. This is a significant finding keeping in view the limited antifungal drugs for aspergillosis and candidiasis. PMID:26505320

  10. Structural organization of ribosomal DNA in four Trillium species and Paris verticillata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rDNA structure in Trillium and Paris was examined by Southern blot hybridizations of EcoRI- and Hind3-digests of nuclear DNA using 32P-rRNAs. Their rDNAs consist of repeating units of the largest lengths ever known for higher plants. Evidence for differentiation of the rDNA structure during evolution was obtained. Each Trillium species has rDNA consisting of a characteristic set of some members out of five rRNA genes of 13.7-, 14.7-, 15.6-, 17.1- and 18.5-kb repeating units. One species has a rDNA structure characterized by much higher relative frequencies of longer-sized rRNA genes, whereas another species has larger amounts of shorter-sized classes. Other two species examined have intermediatesized genes. There is no direct correspondence of each size class to a certain member of several genomic sets, haploid chromosome complements, which have been denoted on the basis of the affinity in pairing between homologous chromosomes, homologies of chromosomal morphology and external morphology. Paris verticillata, a species in a genus most closely related to Trillium, has two size classes of 15.6 and 17.1 kb, both of which correspond to those found in Trillium. The results indicate that the rDNA structure was rather stable during evolution in these genera. (author)

  11. Fate of partial order on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Isakov, Sergei V.; Hopkinson, John M.; Kee, Hae-Young

    2008-01-01

    The classical Heisenberg model on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices exhibits a degenerate ground state within large-$N$ theory, where the degenerate wavevectors form a surface and line, in 3-dimensional space, respectively. We name such states partially ordered to represent the existence of long-range order along the direction normal to these degenerate manifolds. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations using Monte Carlo (MC) methods, and find a first order transition to...

  12. The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

  13. The Herb Garden Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

  14. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and composition between different shade-casting canopy species, the eventual outcome in the prolonged absence of light is independent of dominant canopy species.

  15. Comparative dynamics of small mammal populations in treefall gaps and surrounding understorey within Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, H.; Gaines, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Variation in food resource availability can have profound effects on habitat selection and dynamics of populations. Previous studies reported higher food resource availability and fruit removal in treefall gaps than in the understorey. Therefore, gaps have been considered 'keystone habitat' for Neotropical frugivore birds. Here we test if this prediction would also hold for terrestrial small mammals. In the Amazon, we quantified food resource availability in eleven treefall gaps and paired understorey habitats and used feeding experiments to test if two common terrestrial rodents (Oryzomys megacephalus and Proechimys spp.) would perceive differences between habitats. We live-trapped small mammals in eleven gaps and understorey sites for two years, and compared abundance, fitness components (survival and per capita recruitment) and dispersal of these two rodent species across gaps and understorey and seasons (rainy and dry). Our data indicated no differences in resource availability and consumption rate between habitats. Treefall gaps may represent a sink habitat for Oryzomys where individuals had lower fitness, apparently because of habitat-specific ant predation on early life stages, than in the understorey, the source habitat. Conversely, gaps may be source habitat for Proechimys where individuals had higher fitness, than in the understorey, the sink habitat. Our results suggest the presence of source-sink dynamics in a tropical gap-understorey landscape, where two rodent species perceive habitats differently. This may be a mechanism for their coexistence in a heterogeneous and species-diverse system.

  16. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

  17. Evolutionary dynamics as a component of stage-structured matrix models: an example using Trillium grandiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Tiffany M; Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Evolution by natural selection improves fitness and may therefore influence population trajectories. Demographic matrix models are often employed in conservation studies to project population dynamics, but such analyses have not incorporated evolutionary dynamics. We project evolutionarily informed population trajectories for a population of the perennial plant Trillium grandiflorum, which is declining due to high levels of herbivory by white-tailed deer. Individuals with later flowering times are less often consumed, so there is selection on this trait. We first incorporated selection analyses into a deterministic matrix model in three ways (corresponding to different methods that have been used for analyzing evolution in structured populations). Because it is not clear which of these methods works best for stage-structured models, we compared each with a more realistic, individual-based model. Deterministic models using fitness averaged over the phenotypic distribution gave trajectories that were similar to those of the individual-based model, whereas the deterministic model using fitness at the mean phenotype gave a much faster rate of evolution than that which was observed. This illustrates that subtle differences in the way in which one splices evolution into demographic models can have a large effect on expected outcomes. This study demonstrates that, by combining demographic and selection analyses, one can gauge the potential relevance of evolution to population dynamics and persistence. PMID:18680406

  18. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Jody R Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the u...

  19. Methods for describing light capture by understorey weeds in temperate forests: consequences for tree regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Balandier, P.; Marquier, A.; Gaudio, N.; Wehrlen, L.; Casella, E; Coll, L.; Kiewitt, A.; Harmer, R

    2009-01-01

    Light quantity and light quality are two of the main environmental factors controlling the success of seed germination, seedling establishment and growth of trees in the understorey of our temperate forests. Increasing light availability by the practice of thinning also promotes the development of the ground vegetation, graminoids, forbs and shrubs, which may affect tree regeneration. These plants can intercept a significant fraction of the available light in the understorey and thus the resu...

  20. Herbs in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

    2011-12-01

    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784

  1. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  2. Radiolysis of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

  3. Medical herbs radioactive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity values of several drugs made from herbs harvested in June 1986, and of infusions as used by consumers are given in a table. It is concluded that although the activity of dried herbs is in some cases, considerable, the activity in the drink never exceeds 0,8 nC/C and is therefore harmless. 1 tab. (qui)

  4. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  5. DYNAMICS STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY VEGETATION INFLUENCED BY LOGGING IN A SOLID GROUND FOREST, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MOJU, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Silva Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989283The structure dynamics of an understorey vegetation influenced by gaps caused by reduced impact logging was analyzed during 12 years in a solid ground rain forest in the municipality of Moju, Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon forest. Angiosperm individuals from 10 cm height up to 5 cm DBH were surveyed in a 468 m² sample area in six occasions (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 and 2010, they were analyzed considering their life-forms (trees, shrub, lianas, herbs and palms, abundance, frequency, size classes (CT1 = 10 cm ? HT < 50 cm; CT2 = 50 cm ? HT < 130 cm; CT3 = 130 cm < HT and DAP < 2 cm; and CT4 = 2 cm ? DAP < 5 cm and relative natural regeneration Burseraceae, Marantaceae, Violaceae and Lecythidaceae were the most important families in the study area in every occasions, while the most representative species were Monotagma sp1., Monotagma sp2., Rinorea guianensis, Lecythis idatimon e Protium pilosum. The most frequent life forms were trees, herbs and lianas in all occasions. The dynamics of life forms depended on light intensity. The establishment of commercial and potentially commercial species was favored by gaps, suggesting that natural regeneration of those species do not need to be assisted for guaranteeing timber stocks for future harvests.

  6. Herbs in exercise and sports

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chee; Muhamad Ayu; Ooi Foong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also i...

  7. Herbs: Bridging the Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…

  8. Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea L. in Tunisia as influenced by canopy cover, litter biomass and understorey vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Adili, B.; El Aouni, M.H.; Garchi, S.; Balandier, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pinus pinea is one of the most valuable species used in Tunisia in the reforestation program. This species is shade-intolerant and hence needs light to correctly regenerate. It is also influenced by the understorey vegetation and the litter biomass, both also correlated to light availability. To quantify the importance of these different factors, the natural regeneration and evolution of the biomass of understorey vegetation and litter were studied in artificial forests of Pinus pinea located...

  9. Travelling to a former sea floor: colonization of forests by understorey plant species on land recently reclaimed from the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pierik, M.; van Ruijven, J; Bezemer, T. M.; Berendse, F

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What are important forest characteristics determining colonization of forest patches by forest understorey species? Location: Planted forests on land recently reclaimed from the sea, the Netherlands. Methods: We related the distribution of forest specialist species in the understorey of 55 forests in Dutch IJsselmeer polders to the following forest characteristics: age, area, connectivity, distance to mainland (as a proxy for distance to seed source) and path density. We used speci...

  10. Herbs in exercise and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

  11. Experimental defaunation of terrestrial mammalian herbivores alters tropical rainforest understorey diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo; Guevara, Roger; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that tropical defaunation may unleash community-wide cascading effects, leading to reductions in plant diversity. However, experimental evidence establishing cause–effect relationships thereof is poor. Through a 5 year exclosure experiment, we tested the hypothesis that mammalian defaunation affects tree seedling/sapling community dynamics leading to reductions in understorey plant diversity. We established plot triplets (n = 25) representing three defaunation contexts: ...

  12. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    GERUZA L. MELO; BARBARA MIOTTO; BRISA PERES; Nilton C. Cáceres

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven f...

  13. Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongjoh, CA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerating seedlings growing in loading bays and forest understorey. Seedling density was highest when seed tree diameter at breast height (dbh was 100 cm or more. A strong positive correlation was found between seed tree diameter dbh and crown size expressed as mean diameter of projected crown area, but crown size correlated much better with seedling density. Compared with their counterparts of the same height growing in loading bays in full sunlight but devoid of litter and topsoil, seedlings found in understorey exhibited lower root: shoot ratio, indicating that soil-derived resources were more limiting in loading bays than on undisturbed forest floor. Leaf weight per area (leaf dry weight/leaf area (LWA and leaf packing (leaf number/cm shoot height were almost 2-fold greater in loading bays than in understorey. As seedlings seldom grew taller than 50 cm in the latter environment, it may be inferred that root: shoot ratio, LWA, and leaf packing can be used to assess the sustainability of growth and development of this pioneer species at the seedling stage.

  14. Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bongjoh, CA.; Ngono, G.

    2005-01-01

    Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerat...

  15. Effects of tree species composition on within-forest distribution of understorey species

    OpenAIRE

    Oijen, D., van; Feijen, M.; Hommel, P.W.F.M.; Ouden, J., den; Waal, R.W., de

    2005-01-01

    Question: Do tree species, with different litter qualities, affect the within-forest distribution of forest understorey species on intermediate to base-rich soils? Since habitat loss and fragmentation have caused ancient forest species to decline, those species are the main focus of this study. Location: Three ancient forests, along a soil gradient from acidification-sensitive to base-rich, were studied: Limbrichterbosch and Savelsbos in The Netherlands and Holtkrat in Denmark. Methods: Canop...

  16. Driving factors behind the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of deciduous temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, K.; Baeten, L.; De Frenne, P.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M; Brunet, J.; CORNELIS, J; Decocq, G.; Eriksson, O.; H. DIERSCHKE; Hommel, P.W.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is expected to change forest understorey plant community composition and diversity, but results of experimental addition studies and observational studies are not yet conclusive. A shortcoming of observational studies, which are generally based on resurveys or sampling along large deposition gradients, is the occurrence of temporal or spatial confounding factors. 2. We were able to assess the contribution of N deposition versus other ecological drivers ...

  17. Assessing Metrics for Estimating Fire Induced Change in the Forest Understorey Structure Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying post-fire effects in a forested landscape is important to ascertain burn severity, ecosystem recovery and post-fire hazard assessments and mitigation planning. Reporting of such post-fire effects assumes significance in fire-prone countries such as USA, Australia, Spain, Greece and Portugal where prescribed burns are routinely carried out. This paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS to estimate and map change in the forest understorey following a prescribed burn. Eighteen descriptive metrics are derived from bi-temporal TLS which are used to analyse and visualise change in a control and fire-altered plot. Metrics derived are Above Ground Height-based (AGH percentiles and heights, point count and mean intensity. Metrics such as AGH50change, mean AGHchange and point countchange are sensitive enough to detect subtle fire-induced change (28%–52% whilst observing little or no change in the control plot (0–4%. A qualitative examination with field measurements of the spatial distribution of burnt areas and percentage area burnt also show similar patterns. This study is novel in that it examines the behaviour of TLS metrics for estimating and mapping fire induced change in understorey structure in a single-scan mode with a minimal fixed reference system. Further, the TLS-derived metrics can be used to produce high resolution maps of change in the understorey landscape.

  18. HERBE final safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

  19. Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H-Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied subtropical forests.

  20. Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Válio Ivany Ferraz Marques

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1-) total height; 2-) leaf number; 3-) leaf dry mass;4-) stem dry mass; 5-) root dry mass; 6-) stem length/mass; 7-)shoot/root mass; 8-) percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduce...

  1. Herbs in exercise and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra', ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  2. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mili?, Natasa; Milosevi?, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozi?, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

  3. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

  4. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima. PMID:25703618

  5. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  6. Transfer equations for cesium-137 for coniferous forest understorey plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of cesium-137 from organic soil horizons to understorey vegetation has been studied on two coniferous tree sites. In total, 14 different plants preferably taking up their nutrients from organic soil layers were taken into account. A relatively good correlation was found to exist between the transfer factor (Bq/kg plant dry wt./Bq/kg O-horizons dry wt.) for dicotyledons (r=0.51) and berry plants (r=0.63), but there was no correlation for monocotyledons (r=0.15). The correlations could not be improved by additionally taking potassium in plant and soil into account. These results are discussed in respect to different parameters influencing the amount of cesium-137 uptake, including plants supported by mycorrhizal fungi

  7. Characterisation, prediction and relationships between different wavebands of solar radiation transmitted in the understorey of even-aged oak (Quercus petraea, Q. robur) stands

    OpenAIRE

    Balandier, P.; Sonohat, G.; Sinoquet, H.; Varlet Grancher, C.; Dumas, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Solar radiation transmission in forest stands affects many processes, including biomass and diversity of understorey vegetation and tree seedling regeneration (growth and morphogenesis). However, understorey light availability is not easy for forest managers or scientists to measure. Therefore, different models have been developed to predict light transmission in forest stands according to tree or stand structure. However, these models are generally too complex to be u...

  8. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  9. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF BERRY CROPS AND HERBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits and herbs are good sources of natural antioxidants. In addition to usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, extracts of berries and herbs are also rich in anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Berry fruits and herbs have shown a remarkably high scavenging activity toward ch...

  10. Radioecological study of several herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Comparative radiological study of herbs being on the sale of city's drug stores which were collected from the areas contaminated with radioisotopes belonged to the great semi-split period at the result of Chernobyl catastrophe with the similar herbs typical to our Republic have been carried out. The study has found that the level of beta radioactivity contained in Radix unulae was tree times higher than local norms while Cormus Ledi represented about 10 times and Cortex Quercus 4 times higher proportion of beta radioactivity. Also radioactivity of Radix unulae growing in the local conditions was different from the norm which showed 12 times higher radioactivity comparing with other herbs. It was revealed that both gamma and beta radioactivity of other local herbs are meet the norms, except Radix inulae and Glycyrrhiza glabra. The study determined that the radioactivity on the leaf of clycyrrhiza glabra was in the norm while the trunk represented approximately 2 times and the root 10 times higher radioactivity. The overall study of clycyrrhiza glabra showed that radionuclides are mostly concentrated in the peel of the root, which has slightly differences from the acceptable norms in the peel. Finally, the radiation abnormality observed in Radix inulae and Clycyrriza glabra must be in the focus of their producers and users

  11. The estimation of aboveground biomass and nutrient pools of understorey plants in closed Norway spruce forests and on clearcuts

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichs, Steffi; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The estimation model PhytoCalc allows a non-destructive quantification of dry weight and nutrient pools of understorey plants in forests by using the relationship between species biomass, cover and mean shoot length. The model has been validated with independent samples in several German forest types and can be a useful tool in forest monitoring. However, in open areas within forests (e.g. clearcuts), the current model version underestimates biomass and produces unreliable nutrient pool estim...

  12. Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9 spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) hi...

  13. Chemical and Physical Environmental Conditions Underneath Mat- and Canopy-Forming Macroalgae, and Their Effects on Understorey Corals

    OpenAIRE

    Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m?2...

  14. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003, particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação.

  15. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERUZA L., MELO; BARBARA, MIOTTO; BRISA, PERES; NILTON C., CACERES.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacion [...] al no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus) e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus) foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003), particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação. Abstract in english Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap s [...] tations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

  16. Experimental defaunation of terrestrial mammalian herbivores alters tropical rainforest understorey diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A; Mendoza, Eduardo; Guevara, Roger; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that tropical defaunation may unleash community-wide cascading effects, leading to reductions in plant diversity. However, experimental evidence establishing cause-effect relationships thereof is poor. Through a 5 year exclosure experiment, we tested the hypothesis that mammalian defaunation affects tree seedling/sapling community dynamics leading to reductions in understorey plant diversity. We established plot triplets (n = 25) representing three defaunation contexts: terrestrial-mammal exclosure (TE), medium/large mammal exclosure (PE) and open access controls (C). Seedlings/saplings 30-100 cm tall were marked and identified within each of these plots and re-censused three times to record survival and recruitment. In the periods 2010-2011 and 2011-2013, survival was greater in PE than in C plots and recruitment was higher in TE plots than in C plots. Overall, seedling density increased by 61% in TE plots and 23% in PE plots, whereas it decreased by 5% in C plots. Common species highly consumed by mammals (e.g. Brosimum alicastrum and Ampelocera hottlei) increased in their abundance in TE plots. Rarefaction curves showed that species diversity decreased in TE plots from 2008 to 2013, whereas it remained similar for C plots. Given the prevalence of tropical defaunation, we posit this is an anthropogenic effect threatening the maintenance of tropical forest diversity. PMID:25540281

  17. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Amit; Dubey Subodh; Gupta Alka; Kannojia Pushpendra; Tomar Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity d...

  18. SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER HERBS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of pharmaceutical research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs used against various types of cancer. With the advanced knowledge of molecular science and the refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, we are in a much better position now to identify various anticancer herbs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on the use of herbs to boost immune system of the body against cancer. Scientists have contributed for a number of years to identify hundreds of anticancer herbs, and developed various herbal formulations from their active principles that inhibit growth and spread of cancer without any side effect. Such herbs possess anticancer, immunoenhancing, antiangiogenesis, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. They inhibit growth and spread of cancer by modulating the activity of hormones, enzymes and other biological factors. The therapeutic effect of these herbs is executed by the complex synergistic interaction among their various active principles. Some important anticancer herbs have been discussed here.

  19. A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Badri Nagarani; Subal debnath; Santhosh Kumar C; Chiranjib Bhattacharjee; G. Ganesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may...

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...... B....

  1. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Gluud, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  2. Ecological filtering by a dominant herb selects for shade tolerance in the tree seedling community of coastal dune forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvuura, Zivanai; Griffiths, Megan E; Gunton, Richard M; Franks, Peter J; Lawes, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The regeneration niche is commonly partitioned along a gradient from shade-tolerant to shade-intolerant species to explain plant community assembly in forests. We examined the shade tolerance of tree seedlings in a subtropical coastal forest to determine whether the ecological filtering effect of a dominant, synchronously monocarpic herb (Isoglossa woodii) selects for species at either end of the light response continuum during the herb's vegetative and reproductive phases. Photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of 20 common tree species and the herb were measured. Seedlings were grown in the greenhouse at 12-14% irradiance, and their light compensation points measured using an open-flow gas exchange system. The light compensation points for the tree species were low, falling within a narrow range from 2.1 ± 0.8 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) in Celtis africana to 6.4 ± 0.7 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) in Allophylus natalensis, indicating general shade tolerance, consistent with a high and narrow range of apparent quantum yield among species (0.078 ± 0.002 mol CO(2) mol(-1) photon). Rates of dark respiration were significantly lower in a generalist pioneer species (Acacia karroo) than in a forest pioneer (C. africana), or in late successional phase forest species. We argue that the general shade tolerance, and phenotypic clustering of shade tolerance, in many tree species from several families in this system, is a result of ecological filtering by the prevailing low light levels beneath the I. woodii understorey, which excludes most light-demanding species from the seedling community. PMID:20628885

  3. Photoluminescence Decay of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence of inorganic dust extract from herbs and spices has been demonstrated to be a useful method to discriminate irradiated food products as well as to estimate the total dose exposure. The time evolution of infrared stimulated luminescence has been systematically investigated in potassium feldspar and albite minerals subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (ranging from 0 to 8 kGy). Experimental results reveal a 300-600 nm signal which is greatly intensified for irradiated samples, following the same irradiation dose dependence observed in thermoluminescence. The luminescence intensity disappears after few seconds of illumination, following a time evolution which is proportional to (1 + Bt)-P. The influence of both B and P factors upon the irradiation dose has been systematically analysed. (author)

  4. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.; Elgersma, A.

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  5. HERBE- Analysis of test operation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding

  6. Integrating herbs and botanicals into patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, M; McDermott, J

    2000-01-01

    Consumer use of herb and botanical preparations is burgeoning. Many common herbal remedies have proven efficacy, reported mainly in the European scientific literature. Although not mandated by law, responsible manufacturers of herbal products are working to establish efficacy, safety, and good manufacturing standards. Pharmacists should be alert for possible drug interactions between phytomedicines and pharmaceuticals, as well as potential adverse effects. Well-informed pharmacists can provide useful counseling and education about herbs and botanicals. PMID:11029862

  7. Interaction of Herbs and Glibenclamide: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Rai; Cicy Eapen; Prasanth, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypogly...

  8. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  9. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Amit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

  10. Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

  11. Carbon dioxide and energy flux partitioning between the understorey and the overstorey of a maritime pine forest during a year with reduced soil water availability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosz, Nathalie; BRUNET, Yves; Lamaud, Eric; Irvine, Mark; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Loustau, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes were measured above and within a maritime pine forest during an atypical year with long-lasting reduced soil water availibility. Energy balance closure was adequately good at both levels. As compared with what is usually observed at this site the ecosystem dissipated less energy via latent heat flux and more via sensible heat flux. The understorey canopy was responsible for a variable, significant component of the whole canopy fluxes of water vap...

  12. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Detection of irradiated food: Thermoluminescence analysis of spices, herbs, and spice-and-herb products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 3 and 9 months after irradiation 14 laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations which were isolated from different coded spice-and-herb products. In both study periods 99% of the 317 samples (total number) were correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated on the basis of normalized TL intensities. Only three irradiated samples were not identified as irradiated. The results show that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored, and that the method is suitable for routine analysis in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  14. Concentrations of radionuclides in mushrooms and herbs from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concentration of 134-Cs and 137-Cs in mushrooms and herbs from Latvia was determined using the method of gamma spectrometry. 585 samples of mushrooms and 107 of herbs were analysed. The total cocentration of cesium radionuclides in different samples of mushrooms was in the range from 5 to 1560 Bk/kg, in herbs from 5 to 230 Bk/kg. (orig.)

  15. A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Nagarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may spread through the blood stream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The search for anticancer agents from the plant sources alkaloids in earnest in the 1950s such as Vincristine, Vinblastine and the isolation of cytotoxic Podophyllotoxins will reduce white blood cell count and caused bone marrow depression in rats. Roots, leaves, stem, root, bark and fruity of the plant herbs are used in the treatment of cancer. The dietary antioxidants having anti carcinogenic property are in demand. Identification and characterization of these anti-carcinogens in the diet can be used for reducing the risk of human cancer. Tea (Camellia thea an evergreen plant contains antioxidants which prevent and repair cellular damage caused by reactive free radicals. Supervitamin drinks containing a combination of Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa and Spirulina enhances the activity of immune cells against cancer. Mentha species containing antioxidants prevent reocurrence of cancer.

  16. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  17. Radiation decontamination of herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review regarding application of radiation for decontamination of herbs and spices is presented. General principles of the process and the results of the research on biologically active components are discussed. The report regarding the development in this field in selected countries and regions is included. (author)

  18. Quantifying understorey vegetation in the US Lake States: a proposed framework to inform regional forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew B.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Schulz, Bethany K.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Domke, Grant M.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of understorey vegetation (UVEG) to forest ecosystem biomass and carbon (C) across diverse forest types has, to date, eluded quantification at regional and national scales. Efforts to quantify UVEG C have been limited to field-intensive studies or broad-scale modelling approaches lacking field measurements. Although large-scale inventories of UVEG C are not common, species- and community-level inventories of vegetation structure are available and may prove useful in quantifying UVEG C stocks. This analysis developed a general framework for estimating UVEG C stocks by employing per cent cover estimates of UVEG from a region-wide forest inventory coupled with an estimate of maximum UVEG C across the US Lake States (i.e. Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin). Estimates of UVEG C stocks from this approach reasonably align with expected C stocks in the study region, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.06 Mg ha-1 in red pine-dominated to 1.59 ± 0.06 Mg ha-1 for aspen/birch-dominated forest types. Although the data employed here were originally collected to assess broad-scale forest structure and diversity, this study proposes a framework for using UVEG inventories as a foundation for estimating C stocks in an often overlooked, yet important ecosystem C pool.

  19. Experimental testing of a volume index as a fast method for estimating carbon stock in the understorey vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirici G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The biomass of understory vegetation has an important role in several forest ecosystem processes, though it is not frequently included in forest inventory programs, which are commonly focused on the tree component. The objective of the study is to test a fast procedure for obtaining an accurate estimation of three components of the aboveground understory vegetation: herbaceous, bush, regeneration. For such a purpose a Volume Index has been calculated on the basis of the product between the percent coverage of vegetation and the average height of the three different components of understory vegetation. The index has been quantified in twenty clusters of four squared plots 1 m2 wide; clusters were located in two study areas in the northern part of Molise Region (southeastern Italy. For each plot, the dry biomass has been collected and weighted, and then transformed in carbon stock. This study presents the field protocol and the achieved results in terms of measured aboveground understorey carbon stock in six different forest and pre-forest types (the average carbon stock was 1.19 t C ha-1 and correlation between Volume Index and carbon stock (the Pearson’s correlation index was 0.8 on 309 field observations.

  20. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives, coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones wer...

  1. SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital Tanaji Jadhav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling haemorrhage from cuts and bruises. In vitro clotting time of blood in presence and  absence  of various plant extracts was used as a guide to study haemostatic activityof the herbs under study. Of the ten plants evaluated, aqueous extracts of Quercus pubescens, Thevetia peruviana proved to have  significant  haemostatic activity at PZingiber officinale, Zanthoxylum rhetsa and petroleum ether extracts of Psidum guajava, Terminalia chebula, Zanthoxylum rhetsa confirmed the same results.

  2. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang George

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation, Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to. The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.

  3. Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, N

    2000-01-01

    Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed. PMID:11237173

  4. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W

    2009-01-01

    Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  6. Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The NTP studies a large variety of substances to which the population may be exposed in the environment, occupationally, in the food supply, or els...

  7. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tang George; Hui Hongxiang; Go Vay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparation...

  8. Thermoluminescence of irradiated herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9oCs-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate. (Author)

  9. HERBE - Coupled fast-thermal core as possible criticality benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in fast neutron fields in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences in 1990's resulted in the design of the 'HERBE System', a coupled fast-thermal core at RB critical assembly. One of the basic purposes of the HERBE System was application in validations of computer codes for the calculation of reactor cells with large heterogeneous regions filled with air and high-absorption material. Calculations of criticality and neutron spatial and energy distribution of the HERBE System were carried out again recently, by using the MCNP code. A three-dimensional (3D) geometry model of the RB reactor with the HERBE System, based on 3D geometry models of fuel elements, was developed. Validation of the MCNP code for experimental criticality data at the HERBE System is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of flooded zone of the neutron converter by heavy water. The flooding criticality experiments were carried out at the HERBE core labelled RB no.77/1990. Satisfactory agreements of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite of the complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, were obtained and it was confirmed that the HERBE System could be used as a criticality benchmark for a coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

  10. Afforestation of agricultural land with Pinus radiata D. don and Betula alba L. in NW Spain: effects on soil PH, understorey production and floristic diversity eleven years after establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A.; Mosquera-Losada, M. R.; Fernández-Núñez, E.

    2012-01-01

    Afforestation of abandoned agricultural lands has been the main change in land use over the past decade in Europe. However, the impact of tree species and understorey management on production and plant diversity over the medium- and long-term has not been thoroughly studied. This paper aims to evaluate the effects of an afforestation of Pinus radiata D. Don and Betula alba L. on soil pH, understorey production and plant diversity and life cycle type (annuals vs. perennials) managed with diffe...

  11. Identification of gamma-irradiated Chinese herbs by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) to differentiate irradiated Chinese medicinal herbs from non-irradiated was investigated. Thirty different dried Chinese herbs were tested, including root, flower, ramulus, rhizome, cortex, and whole plant samples. Irradiation of Chinese herbs was associated with strong TL peaks at ?150-250 deg C, while TL curves of non-irradiated herbs had very low intensities above 250 deg C, which was also confirmed by the TL ratio (non-irradiated, TL1/TL2 1/TL2 > 0.1) except for sterculia lychnophora, semen cassia, flos inulae, and anemone root. TL ratios of some herbs indicated irradiation (TL1/TL2 > 0.1) even if the irradiated components were as low as 0.1 %. Thus we demonstrated that TL analysis had excellent sensitivity and reliability for the identification of irradiated Chinese herbs. (author)

  12. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa; I ketut Gede Darma Putra; Ni Kadek Ayu Wirdiani

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints). Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotat...

  13. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  14. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zeping; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ho, Paul Chi Lui; Chan, Sui Yung; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Eli; Duan, Wei; Koh, Hwee Ling; Zhou, Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    Herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. An extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). Allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration of saquinavir, but not ritonavir and paracetamol (acetaminophen), in volunteers. A. sativum increased the clotting time and international normalised ratio of warfarin and caused hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) caused bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and even caused coma when combined with trazodone in patients. Panax ginseng (ginseng) reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol (ethanol) and warfarin, and induced mania when used concomitantly with phenelzine, but ginseng increased the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Scutellaria baicalensis (huangqin) ameliorated irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in cancer patients.Piper methysticum (kava) increased the 'off' periods in patients with parkinsonism taking levodopa and induced a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazolam. Kava enhanced the hypnotic effect of alcohol in mice, but this was not observed in humans. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) decreased the trough concentrations of indinavir in humans. Piperine from black (Piper nigrum Linn) and long (P. longum Linn) peppers increased the AUC of phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers and plasma concentrations of rifamipicin (rifampin) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eleutheroccus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) increased the serum concentration of digoxin, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and alprazolam in humans. Hypericum perforatum (hypericum; St John's wort) decreased the blood concentrations of ciclosporin (cyclosporin), midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, pravastatin, mycophenolate mofetil and dextromethorphan. Cases have been reported where decreased ciclosporin concentrations led to organ rejection. Hypericum also caused breakthrough bleeding and unplanned pregnancies when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives. It also caused serotonin syndrome when used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. sertraline and paroxetine). In conclusion, interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequences. There are other theoretical interactions indicated by preclinical data. Both pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms have been considered to play a role in these interactions, although the underlying mechanisms for the altered drug effects and/or concentrations by concomitant herbal medicines are yet to be determined. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical carers. PMID:15916450

  15. Radioprotective activity in some medicinal herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, Morio (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Center for Radioisotopes)

    1993-09-01

    Water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs of the Araliaceae and other families were tested for their radioprotective activity by either measuring 30 days survival rates (a commonly applied method) or counting the thrombocytes 14 days after irradiation (an improved method) in mice. The extracts were i.p. injected once within 4 min after the whole body X-ray irradiation. Of 12 materials examined, Aralia elata, Angelica acutiloba and Morus bombysis seemed to be good starting materials for preparing radioprotective substance(s) because of their relatively high specific activity and high yields of the extracts. (author).

  16. Radioprotective activity in some medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs of the Araliaceae and other families were tested for their radioprotective activity by either measuring 30 days survival rates (a commonly applied method) or counting the thrombocytes 14 days after irradiation (an improved method) in mice. The extracts were i.p. injected once within 4 min after the whole body X-ray irradiation. Of 12 materials examined, Aralia elata, Angelica acutiloba and Morus bombysis seemed to be good starting materials for preparing radioprotective substance(s) because of their relatively high specific activity and high yields of the extracts. (author)

  17. The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of ?-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

  18. [The content of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in selected species of herbs and herb infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Biardzka, Elzbieta; Daruk, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was the recognition of the contents and distributions of calcium, magnesium, iron and copper in 6 herb species (matricaria chamomila, tilia cordata, equisetum arvense, melissa officinalis, mentha piperita, hypericum perforatum) and in the herb infusions. The samples were digested using a microwave oven, and the elements concentration was determined by AAS method. The following levels of Ca, Mg, Mg and Cu in the herbs were determined: 6872-19802 mg/kg Ca, 4630-8530 mg/kg Mg, 149.9-415.6 mg/kg Fe and 15.15-24.64 mg/kg Cu. The values of extractions in the infusions of herb were as follows: 16.1-73.8% Ca, 14.4-37.3% Mg, 5.1-9.7% Fe, 13.1-21.8% Cu. This indicates, that a very small part of the iron can be potentially treated as a bioavailable fraction for persons, using plant drugs as infusions. One glass of infusion (250 cm3) contain elements in quantities corresponding to: 0.78-2.61% average daily dietary intake (ADDIs) of Ca, 0.76-1.36% ADDIs of Mg, 0.26-0.38% ADDIs of Cu and only 0.15-0.33% ADDIs of Fe. PMID:18666620

  19. Herb-drug interaction between irinotecan and psoralidin-containing herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Shan; Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Qin, Zhen-Sheng; Wu, Kun; Xia, Tian-Fang; Pang, Li-Qun

    2015-12-01

    Herb-drug interaction strongly limits the clinical utilization of herbs and drugs. Irinotecan-induced diarrhea is closely related with the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1-catalyzed glucuronidation of SN-38 which has been widely regarded to be the toxic substance basis of irinotecan. The present study aims to determine the influence of herbal component psoralidin toward the toxicity of irinotecan. In vitro inhibition potential of psoralidin toward the glucuronidation of SN-38 was firstly investigated using human intestinal microsomes incubation system. Dose-dependent inhibition of psoralidin toward SN-38 glucuronidation was observed. Furthermore, Dixon plot showed that the intersection point was located in the second quadrant, indicating the competitive inhibition of psoralidin toward the glucuronidation of SN-38. Through the data fitting using competitive inhibition fitting equation, the inhibition kinetic parameter (K i) was calculated to be 5.8 ?M. The translation of these in vitro data into the in vivo situation showed that pre-treatment with psoralidin significantly increased the toxicity of irinotecan, as indicated by the increased body weight loss and more severe colon histology damage. All these data indicated the herb-drug interaction between irinotecan and psoralidin-containing herbs. PMID:25216634

  20. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms. An indicator was developed which combines the presence of individual herbs expressed as a percentage of pasture dry matter and the potential medicinal value of a herb. The results indicate that pa...

  1. RECENT UPDATE ON PROFICIENT BONE FRACTURE REVIVIFYING HERBS

    OpenAIRE

    Singla Chhavi; Drabu Sushma; Verma Ravinder; Dhiman Anju; Sharma Asha

    2011-01-01

    Fracture healing phenomenon is a complex process which involves cell and tissue differentiation and proliferation . Herbs influence rate of fracture healing by influencing the regeneration of connective tissue of mesenchymal origin viz. chondroblast, fibroblast and osteoblast that are involved in healing and quicker mineralization of callus. The present review highlights some of the potential herbs along with their application in healing bone fracture.

  2. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  3. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; SØegaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional groups (grasses, legumes and herbs). Herb species included chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor L.). We also investigated the effect of slurry application on the macro- and micromineral concentration of grasses, legumes and herbs. In general, herbs had greater concentrations of the macrominerals P, Mg, K and S and the microminerals Zn and B than grasses and legumes. Slurry application indirectly decreased Ca, S, Cu and B concentrations of total herbage because of an increase in the proportion of mineral-poor grasses. Our study indicates that including herbs in forage mixtures is an effective way of increasing mineral concentrations in herbage.

  4. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First a map of grass contamination (of May 1986) in Styria, Austria and the sites of plantation of medical herbs are given. Then tables of radioactivity of several dried herbs and of infusions, tinctures and essential oils are presented. There is no danger to the users of drugs. 2 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (qui)

  5. The thermoluminescence method for identification of irradiated spices and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence method for identification of irradiated dried food products on example of spices and herbs has been described. The equipment needed as well as sample preparing procedure have been presented. The examples of positive identification of different spices and herbs being previously irradiated has been included. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Eriksen, J.; Sanderson, M.A.; Rasmussen, J.; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is...... limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional......, legumes and herbs. In general, herbs had greater concentrations of the macrominerals P, Mg, K and S and the microminerals Zn and B than grasses and legumes. Slurry application indirectly decreased Ca, S, Cu and B concentrations of total herbage because of an increase in the proportion of mineral...

  7. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. (CHIRCHIRA: A MAGIC HERB IN FOLK MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prickly chaff (achyranthes aspera linn herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian system of medicine.Achyranthes aspera linn known as chirchira in hindi is an indigenous herb found in India, It has been used in almost all the traditional system of medicine, ayurveda, unani, and sidha from the ancient time . The tribal, rural, and aboriginal people our country commonly  in this herb in various disorders. Achyranthes aspera leaves reported to have antimicrobial property so mostly  used in the treatment of skin and teeth disorder.The present paper enumerates the ethnopharmacognostic, ethopharmacologic, traditional value and folk remedies of this herb, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of herb.

  8. Triterpenoids from the Herbs of Salicornia bigelovii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yu; Li, Huan; Guan, Fuqin; Chen, Yu; Yin, Min; Wang, Ming; Feng, Xu; Wang, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    A new nortriterpene saponin, 3-O-?-d-glucuronopyranosyl-30-norolean-12,20(29)-dien-23- oxo-28-oic acid, namely bigelovii D (11), was isolated from the hydroalcoholic extract of herbs of Salicornia bigelovii along with 10 known saponins (1-10). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional NMR and a comparison with literature data. Some of these compounds showed potent antifungal activities in vitro. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 demonstrated potent inhibitory activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and compound 11 displayed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Botrytis cinerea, C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, F. verticilloides, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, with EC50 values ranging from 13.6 to 36.3 ?g/mL. PMID:26569214

  9. ANTICANCER HERBS IN AYURVEDA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Vijaya Lakshmi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells are the building blocks of living things. Normal cells multiply when the body needs them, and die when the body doesn't need them. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer grows out of normal cells in the body. Cancer appears to occur when the growth of cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly. In the present world of increased life span Cancers account for approximately 13% of all deaths each year. In 2008 approximately 12.7 million cancers were diagnosed and 7.6 million people died of cancer worldwide. There are many reasons for this like increased pollution, altered life style and increasing anxiety levels in the psychosomatic front. In Ayurveda there is mention of a condition similar to cancerous growths, their properties, types, signs and symptoms and treatments. This paper reviews the work done on anticancer properties of some of the herbs.

  10. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  11. Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi

    2011-10-01

    Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786

  12. Radiation decontamination of herbal row materials and medical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique can effectively replaced them. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the National programme on the application of irradiation on the decontamination medical herbs is in progress now. The first aim of the programme is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on microbial purity herbal raw materials and medical herbs. (author)

  13. Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Saud S. AL-Oud

    2003-01-01

    The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P < 0.01) in their contents of heavy metals. Among tested heavy metals, Mn was the most abundant one in tea leaves (390-...

  14. Analysis of toxic elements in Chinese medicines and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese medicines and herbs have been used and are presumed safe. The concentrations of the toxic elements Cr, Co, As, Sb and Hg were analysed in Chinese medicines and herbs via instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 119 samples purchased from four countries with five procedures were tested. Niuhuang Jiedu Pian purchased with a doctor's prescription in Shanghai contained As of approx 8.3 %. Additionally, approx 7.4 % of both As and Hg were found in Liushen wan. Many herbs for other Chinese medicines contained low concentrations of Hg and Co. Some chemical structures were studied via X-ray diffraction. (author)

  15. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Eriksen, J.; Sanderson, M.A.; Rasmussen, J.; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is...... groups (grasses, legumes and herbs). Herb species included chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor L.). We also investigated the effect of slurry application on the macro- and micromineral concentration of grasses...

  16. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P K; Roy, J

    2004-06-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and to treat ailments. Scientific evidence is accumulating that many of these herbs and spices do have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. A growing body of research has demonstrated that the commonly used herbs and spices such as garlic, black cumin, cloves, cinnamon, thyme, allspices, bay leaves, mustard, and rosemary, possess antimicrobial properties that, in some cases, can be used therapeutically. Other spices, such as saffron, a food colorant; turmeric, a yellow colored spice; tea, either green or black, and flaxseed do contain potent phytochemicals, including carotenoids, curcumins, catechins, lignan respectively, which provide significant protection against cancer. This review discusses recent data on the antimicrobial and chemopreventive activities of some herbs and spices and their ingredients. PMID:15180577

  17. Radioactive survey of herb teas marketed in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides, such as 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K in 49 dried herbs marketed in Saitama were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. No 134Cs was detected. On the other hand, 137Cs concentrations were ranged from 2.1 to 240 Bq/kg-dry in 10 dried herbs imported from Europe. 40K level was 99.9 - 1400 Bq/kg-dry in all dried herbs. Obvious regional differences of 137Cs concentrations of 'eyebright' between Polish product and Bulgarian were observed. The committed effective dose of 137Cs by annually drinking a cup of herb tea in adults was estimated to be about 1.0 x 10-3 mSv and the contribution of 137Cs is proved to be very small in this study. (author)

  18. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; ?íž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Vaší?ek, Ond?ej; Blazheva, D.; Nedelcheva, P.; Vojtek, L.; Hyršl, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 61, ?. 2 (2014), s. 359-367. ISSN 0001-527X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : herbs * polyphenols * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.153, year: 2014

  19. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  20. EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sumithra, M.; N.Vasugi Raaja

    2013-01-01

    An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds), Datura metel (leaves with fruits ), Aloe Vera (flower ),Abutilon indicum (leaves), Solanum surattense (Leaves), Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves),Aloe vera (leaves), Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave), have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have ...

  1. A REVIEW ON BENEFITS AND TOXICITIES OF SOME POPULAR HERBS

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar Harshal Ashok; Pawar Sandip; Pawar Prashant A

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines are being used by about 80 per cent of the world population, mainly in the developing countries for primary healthcare. It is assumed that all the herbs and the products made thereof are safe and free from undesirable side effects. But this assumption is wrong and there are many scientific evidences which prove that herbs may possess toxicity or can produce undesirable side effects. The present communication reports benefits and toxicities of some well-known medicinal plants ...

  2. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas

    OpenAIRE

    Shizuo Toda

    2011-01-01

    Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by o...

  3. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have bee...

  4. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Nemet Nevena T.; Škrinjar Marija M.

    2009-01-01

    Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most ...

  5. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a...

  6. RECENT UPDATE ON PROFICIENT BONE FRACTURE REVIVIFYING HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singla Chhavi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing phenomenon is a complex process which involves cell and tissue differentiation and proliferation . Herbs influence rate of fracture healing by influencing the regeneration of connective tissue of mesenchymal origin viz. chondroblast, fibroblast and osteoblast that are involved in healing and quicker mineralization of callus. The present review highlights some of the potential herbs along with their application in healing bone fracture.

  7. Irradiation on spices, dried herbs and condiments preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among food irradiation applications, radiation decontamination of spices, condiments and dried herbs has the most immediate application potential in many countries. The article is intended to provide justification for the radiation decontamination of spices, herbs and others vegetables seasonings, compared to conventional methods used today by industry, namely the technique of fumigation with ethylene oxide (ETO). The article provides also information both to industrial users and governmental officers for the necessary authorization of the process

  8. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxid...

  9. Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Xiao; Yun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People’s Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzi...

  10. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SharmaYashaswini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

  11. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

  12. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives......, coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and...... quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify the...

  13. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

  14. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  15. Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)

    1994-12-31

    The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

  16. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zava, D T; Dollbaum, C M; Blen, M

    1998-03-01

    In this study we report on the content and bioactivity of plant (phyto) estrogens and progestins in various foods, herbs, and spices, before and after human consumption. Over 150 herbs traditionally used by herbalists for treating a variety of health problems were extracted and tested for their relative capacity to compete with estradiol and progesterone binding to intracellular receptors for progesterone (PR) and estradiol (ER) in intact human breast cancer cells. The six highest ER-binding herbs that are commonly consumed were soy, licorice, red clover, thyme, tumeric, hops, and verbena. The six highest PR-binding herbs and spices commonly consumed were oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover and damiana. Some of the herbs and spices found to contain high phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancer cell lines and to induce or inhibit the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase, an end product of progesterone action, in PR (+) cells. In general, we found that ER-binding herbal extracts were agonists, much like estradiol, whereas PR-binding extracts, were neutral or antagonists. The bioavailability of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins in vivo were studied by quantitating the ER-binding and PR-binding capacity of saliva following consumption of soy milk, exogenous progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or wild mexican yam products containing diosgenin. Soy milk caused a dramatic increase in saliva ER-binding components without a concomitant rise in estradiol. Consumption of PR-binding herbs increased the progestin activity of saliva, but there were marked differences in bioactivity. In summary, we have demonstrated that many of the commonly consumed foods, herbs, and spices contain phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins that act as agonists and antagonists in vivo. PMID:9492350

  17. EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sumithra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds, Datura metel (leaves with fruits , Aloe Vera (flower ,Abutilon indicum (leaves, Solanum surattense (Leaves, Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves,Aloe vera (leaves, Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave, have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have beentested for its antimicrobial activity using standard test method ENISO 20645 and it is concluded that datura metel ( leaves with fruits have good antibacterial activity on theselected denim fabrics when compared to other herbs enhanced the wearing capacity of the denim fabric for an extended period without any skin/dermal irritations/infectionsand bad odor.

  18. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints. Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF on OpenCV library. This keypoints distance calculation using Brute-Force Hamming. Matching is done by calculating the shortest distance between test image and reference image. If the result is less than or equal to threshold then image is match. Experiment result show this application can achieve 79% of success rate by using keypoints. This result is influenced by glossy leaf surface, so there is many reflected light that become noise.

  19. Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30oC, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the testers acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the testers accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

  20. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoom, S A; Al-Safi, S A; Kerem, Z K; Alkofahi, A

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. To date, there have been no reports on the frequency of use of herb medicines in the managements of diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 310 diabetic patients visiting two medical centers in Jordan: Jordan University of Science & Technology Medical Center and Sarih Medical Center between December 2003 and August 2004. It is found that 31% of interviewed patients have used herbal products (96 patients). The results revealed that the most commonly used herbs by diabetic patients in Jordan were Trigonella foenumgraecum (22.9%), Lupinus albus (14.6%), Allium sativum (11.5%), Allium cepa (5.2%), Nigella sativa (7.3%), Zea mays L. (6.3%), Urtica dioica L. (8.3%), Eucalyptus globules LA (9.4%), Olea europea L. (3.1%), Cumminum cyminum (9.4%), Coriandrum sativum (10.4%), Salvia officinalis L. (3.1%), and Tilia cordata (1%). Furthermore, it is found that 47.9% of the patients used herbs according to advice from their friends on a daily basis. The side effects were reported by 36.5% of the patients and include headache, nausea, dizziness, itching, palpitation, and sweating. Among the patients, 72.9% used the herbs as adjunctive therapy along with their anti-diabetic drugs and 80.2% of the patients informed their physicians about their use. A 79.2% of the sample confirmed their intention to re-use these herbs as 86.5% of them were satisfied with their diabetes control. There was a significant relationship between the use of herbs, the patient's place of residence and his/her level of education. The main conclusion of this survey is that the use of medicinal herbs among diabetic patient in Jordan is common. Therefore, it is essential to increase the level of awareness among diabetic patients and health care providers regarding the efficacy and toxicity of these medicinal herbs. PMID:17182483

  1. Kinetic experiments at coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.; Milosevic, M.; Zavaljevski, N.; Nikolic, D.; Milovanovic, S. [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-09-01

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1991 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the `Vinca` Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and used for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews the kinetic experiments carried out at HERBE system, including their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in calculation is presented too. (author)

  2. Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6-8 kGy ?-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by ?-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

  3. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 ?g/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 ?g/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 ?g/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 ?g/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 ?g/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 ?g/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 ?g/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 ?g/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  4. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  5. Chemical constituents from Mongolian herb Syringa pinnatifolia var. alashanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Wang, Na-Na; Wu, Ji-Mu; Xue, Pei-Feng

    2015-02-01

    Two new sesquiterpenes, innatifolone A (1) and pinnatifolone B (2), along with 6 known compounds, furostan (3), isocalamendiol (4), pluviatolide (5), (8S,8'R,9S)-cubebin (6), 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl) tetrahydrofuran (7), and methyl 3-acetoxy-12-oleanen-28-oate (8), were isolated from Mongolian herb Syringa pinnatifolia. PMID:25769897

  6. Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

  7. Experimental verification of calculating neutron doses in the HERBE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental verification of calculation of neutron dose rate in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE is described. determination of the neutron dose rate is based on on calculation and measurement of neutron flux. Calculation and experimental data evaluation are performed by computer codes developed in the NET laboratory. The good agreement between calculation and experimental results is achieved. (author)

  8. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  9. Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Herb-drug Interactions in Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasinu, Pius S; Gurley, Bill J; Walker, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In this review, the bases for potential interaction of medicinal herbs with specific antiretroviral drugs are presented, and several botanicals are discussed for which clinically relevant interactions in humans are established. Such studies have provided, in most cases, sufficient ground to warrant the avoidance of concurrent administration of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), black pepper (Piper species) and grapefruit juice. Other botanicals that require caution in the use with antiretrovirals include African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax species), garlic (Allium sativum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum). The knowledge of clinically significant herb-drug interaction will be important in order to avoid herb-induced risk of sub-therapeutic exposure to ARVs (which can lead to viral resistance) or the precipitation of toxicity (which may lead to poor compliance and/or discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy). PMID:26526838

  10. Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented. (author)

  11. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

  12. Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

  13. Dosimetry Characteristics of Coupled Fast-Thermal Core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'HERBE' is new coupled fast-thermal core, designed in 1991, at the 'RB' reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute. It is used for verification of designed oriented computer codes developed in the Institute, training and sample irradiation in fast neutron field. For the last purpose a vertical experimental channel (VCH) is placed in the central axis of the fast core. Neutron spectrum in the centre of the VCR is calculated in 44 energy groups. Space distributions of two energy group neutron flux in the 'HERBE' are measured using gold foils and converted into the neutron absorbed dose (in air and tissue) using group flux-dose conversion factors. Gamma absorption doses in the air in the centre of the VCH are measured using calibrated small ionisation chamber filled with air. Determined dose rates are related to the reactor power. The first preliminary irradiations of silicon diodes (designed for production of the neutron dosemeters) in the centre of the VCH of the 'HERBE' fast core are carried out in 1994 and 1995. This paper describes calculation methods and measurement techniques applied to determination of the irradiation performance and dosimetry characteristics of the 'HERBE' system. (author)

  14. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  15. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 2: Using free-lists to explore farmers’ knowledge about herbs and cows health

    OpenAIRE

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’ was carried out by the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pasture herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms. Participating farmers expressed a special interest in the inclusion of pasture herbs in the cows’ diet to promote the health of their dairy cattle. This study explored the existing knowledge of farmers on herbs used for animal health us...

  16. Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

  17. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  18. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  19. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Weiyang Tao; Bohui Li; Shuo Gao; Yaofei Bai; Piar Ali Shar; Wenjuan Zhang; Zihu Guo; Ke Sun; Yingxue Fu; Chao Huang; Chunli Zheng; Jiexin Mu; Tianli Pei; Yuan Wang; Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records antican...

  20. Inactivation of Enteric Viruses in Minimally Processed Berries and Herbs?

    OpenAIRE

    Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Amoroso, R.; G Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral ...

  1. The application of Herzegovinian herbs in production of tea mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Raji?, Marina; JOKI?, Stela; Bili?, Mate; Vidovi?, Senka; Bošnjak, Andreja; Adži?, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is a country that is biologically diverse in its rich and varied landscape surroundings. Due to the rapid development of chemistry in the last decade it is assumed that the synthetic substances will obtain advantage over herbs. However, there was a sudden increase in demand for products obtained from medicinal plants in western European countries. Special significance for human life had a plant species that can be used for production of herbal remedies in the phar...

  2. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's n...

  3. Herbs and spices in traditional recipes of Alentejo (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, A.S.; Dias, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    Alentejo, representing about 30% of the area and 5% of the population of Portugal, is a semi-arid region of undulated plains with a Mediterranean climate softened by the Atlantic, with mild winters but hot and dry summers. With an old history of scarcity and pauperism, it shows very particular cultural traits, including a unique culinary tradition, with a high use of wild plants, herbs, and bread-based dishes. An inventory of traditional recipes of Alentejo was built from various sources, ...

  4. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-01-01

    The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory). Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these...

  5. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  6. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radava R Korać

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  7. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum. PMID:25346283

  8. Botanicals and herbs: a traditional approach to treating epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Steven C

    2009-04-01

    Botanicals and herbs have a centuries-old tradition of use by persons with epilepsy, in many cultures around the world. At present, herbal therapies are tried by patients in developing as well as developed countries for control of seizures or adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or for general health maintenance, usually without the knowledge of physicians who prescribe their AEDs. Well-designed clinical trials of herbal therapies in patients with epilepsy are scarce, and methodological issues prevent any conclusions of their efficacy or safety in this population. Furthermore, some botanicals and herbs may be proconvulsant or may alter AED metabolism. In spite of these limitations, further preclinical evaluation of botanicals and herbs and their constituent compounds using validated scientific methods is warranted based on numerous anecdotal observations of clinical benefit in patients with epilepsy and published reports showing mechanisms of action relevant to epilepsy or anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy. This review highlights the use of herbal therapies for epilepsy, outlines the role of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in regulating herbal products, and presents the author's approach to the scientific assessment of herbal therapies as potential therapies for patients with epilepsy. PMID:19332338

  9. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  10. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL B. SOMANI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum, Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum, Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol. An antibacterial activity was observed in all herbs used. Most effective an antibacterial activity were observed in Tulsi, Neem and Wheat. In all herbs maximum removal of E.coli was found at 30 minutes contact time onwards. The percentage removal of E.coli were found 82.05% , 71.79% , 64.1% , 41.03% & 28.20% by using Tulsi, Neem , Wheatgrass , Amla and Katakphala herbs extract respectively, at 30 minute optimum contact time. The optimum removal of E.coli was observed at 1% concentration of extract of different herbs used.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni; Darío Jorge Ferreyra; Miguel Eduardo Schmalko

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of ...

  13. Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system

  14. Modeling and Simulation of a Renewable Energy Based-Medical Herb Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh; Emad Ahmed Sweelem; Faten Hosny Fahmy

    2013-01-01

    The medical herbs should be dried directly after harvesting, otherwise, insects and fungi spoilage them. Conventional drying methods such as open sun drying and conventional fuel dryers are not suitable, since they contaminate the herbs, decrease the drying efficiency and at the same time increase the drying cost. Therefore, the recent trend is toward the harnessing the renewable energy to dry the medical herbs. This paper presents a new controlled drying system, which uses a solar collector...

  15. Traditional Use of Herbs, Shrubs and Trees of Shogran Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Matin; Mir Ajab Khan; Muhammed Ashraf; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Shogran valley (Hazara). Information on local names, traditional medicinal uses and occurrence of the herbs, shrubs and trees has been presented. A total of 77 species of herbs, 12 species of shrubs and 18 species of trees were recorded that are used medicinally and for other purposes. Among herbs Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Bth., Convolvulus arvensis L. , Geranium nepalense Sweet, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Swee...

  16. A Hypothetical Anti-Aging Mechanism of “Yang-Invigorating” Chinese Tonic Herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Ming Ko; Jihang Chen; Hoi Shan Wong; Lam, Philip Y

    2012-01-01

    Chinese tonic herbs are generally classified into Yin and Yang categories based on their health-promoting action. Emerging evidence has suggested that in addition to up-regulating mitochondrial functional status, Yang tonic herbs also enhance cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant capacity, and may thus prevent age-related diseases and prolong the healthy part of lifespan (i.e. healthspan). The proposed biochemical mechanism underlying the antioxidant action of Yang tonic herbs involves a sustain...

  17. Sizing and Design of the PV-WIND Energy Dryer for Medical Herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Ahmed Sweelem; Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh; Faten Hosny Fahmy

    2013-01-01

    Medical herbs are located in Egypt in different areas and they are very important to increase the national income of Egypt. It is necessary to dry the herbs in their growing locations. As the growing locations are located far from the natural supply grid of Egypt, renewable energy sources such as PV&WIND are preferably utilized to achieve the drying process. Moreover, since the drying process is actually used to remove water from the herbs, thus it can preserve the herbs in storage drasticall...

  18. The methods of microbiological contaminants elimination in herbs. Part 2. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland is one of 27 members of International Consulting Group for Food Irradiation (ICFGI), who allows microbiological decontamination of spices and herbs with ionizing radiation dose not greater than 10 kGy. Ionizing radiation doses 1-10 kGy significantly decrease contamination of herbs and spices with aerobic bacteria, yeast-like fungi and mold spores. Important issue concerning microbiological decontamination of herbs is the influence of radiation on biologically active substances. Investigations show that most of herbs subjected to this process do not change its chemical composition (essential oils, alkaloids, antocyanes, phenol glycosides, triterpen saponins, flavenoids)

  19. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ahmad, Ghorbani.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus é um problema de saúde pública que leva a complicações graves ao longo do tempo. Experimentalmente, muitas ervas têm sido recomendadas para o tratamento da diabetes. Contudo, na maior parte dos casos as recomendações são baseadas em estudos em animais e existem evidências limitadas [...] sobre a sua utilidade clínica. Esta revisão tem como foco as ervas nas quais as ações hipooglicêmicas são apoiadas por três ou mais estudos clínicos. Realizou-se pesquisa no Google Scholar, Medline e Science Direct utilizando palavras-chave diabete, plantas, ervas, glicose e pacientes. Segundo os estudos clínicos, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum mostraram atividade hipoglicêmica e, em alguns casos, hipolipidêmica em pacientes diabéticos. Entre elas, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum apresentam grande reputação no manejamento da diabetes. Portanto, parece que os médicos podem confiar nessas ervas e aconselhar aos pacientes para que melhorem o tratamento da diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefu [...] lness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  20. Thermoluminescence spectra of inorganic dust from irradiated herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is used to determine whether certain foodstuffs have been irradiated. A high sensitivity TL spectrometer was used to analyze irradiated and unirradiated inorganic dusts from herbs and spices. Unlike earlier TL work using emissions in the UV-green spectral range, the spectrometer monitored transient TL emissions across the spectral range from UV to infra-red as samples were heated to 400 degrees C. A strong high temperature red emission peak was detected in all irradiated samples. This signal was much higher than the background level, insensitive to post-irradiation light exposure, and has potential for irradiation exposure determination

  1. Investigations on the contamination of Styrian medical herb plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity of herbs of harvests 1986 and 1987 - both from the regions of Styria (Austria) with the most important fallout from Chernobyl - are compared. As expected, the radioactive contamination from harvest 1987 is much lower than that from 1986, restricted to Cs 134 and Cs 137 and very low absolutely. Values of soil contamination in the plantation regions are also listed. Hypotheses on the mechanism of radioactivity uptake from the contaminated soils, in particular the importance of potassium-containing fertilizers, are put forward. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (qui)

  2. Characterization of Phenolic Constituents from Ephedra Herb Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Hanawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nine known compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, and pollenitin B and a new flavonoid glycoside, characterized as herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside (1 on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, were isolated from a traditional crude drug, “Ephedra herb extract”. Compound 1 had no effects on HGF-induced motility, whereas herbacetin, which is an aglycone of 1, significantly inhibited it.

  3. Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

  4. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yi [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jia-bo, E-mail: pharm_sci@126.com [China Military Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Bao-cai [Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Xiao, Xiao-he, E-mail: pharmacy302@126.com [Integrative Medicine Center, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  5. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ? Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ? The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  6. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  7. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  8. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  9. In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Mark; Hamilton, Bobbi; Dairkee, Schanaz H; Cohen, Isaac; Campbell, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    Aqueous extracts of 12 Chinese medicinal herbs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Artemisia argyi, Commiphora myrrha, Duchesnea indica, Gleditsia sinensis, Ligustrum lucidum, Rheum palmatum, Rubia cordifolia, Salvia chinensis, Scutellaria barbata, Uncaria rhychophylla and Vaccaria segetalis were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on eight cancer cell lines as well as on normal human mammary epithelial cells. Five human and three murine cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung, pancreas and prostate) were used. All the crude aqueous extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity on some or all of the cancer cell lines, but only two showed activity against the normal mammary epithelial cells. Overall, the murine cell lines tended to be more sensitive to most of the extracts compared with the human cell lines. Among the human cell lines, cell type specificity was observed for two extracts. These results indicate the potential use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as antineoplastic agents and suggest that further studies evaluating their mechanism(s) of action and the isolation of active antitumor compounds are warranted. PMID:16161030

  10. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

  11. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  12. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  13. Climate change - Bad news for montane forest herb layer species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2013-07-01

    Global warming presents a threat to plant species distributed at montane or alpine altitudes if the topography does not allow upward shifts in distribution ranges. Nevertheless, the species might also benefit from increasing temperatures and secondary effects on dominant species (e.g. bark beetle outbreaks or summer drought affecting the canopy species). As a consequence, disturbance frequency in montane forests might increase and light availability for herb layer species will increase. We addressed these interactions in a common garden experiment in Central Germany at different altitudes, representing cold and moist vs. warm and dry conditions. We investigated three montane species with different life forms, including a herb (Trientalis europaea), a grass (Calamagrostis villosa) and a dwarf shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) under three shading treatments (3%, 28% and 86% of full sunlight). We hypothesized that montane species are at a disadvantage in the lowland, with the dwarf shrub suffering more than the grass. Furthermore, we hypothesized an antagonistic interaction of increased temperature and increased light conditions. While T. europaea and V. myrtillus showed only slightly responses to low altitude conditions, C. villosa displayed a nearly fifteen fold increase in biomass production, despite higher observed herbivory levels in the lowland. We failed to show an antagonistic effect of increased temperature and increased light availability, as all study species suffered from deep shade conditions and grew best under full light conditions at both sites. In conclusion, both improved temperature and light conditions might be principally beneficial for the investigated boreal species, in particular for the grass species C. villosa.

  14. Accelerated healing by composites containing herb epimedium for osteoinductive regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous composites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), herb epimedium (EP), and chitosan (CS) were used to improve the repair of rabbit bone defects. The in vivo implantation of the HA/CS-EP showed that homogeneous bone formation occurred after 12 weeks' implantation and possessed good osteogenesis. The osteogenic process of the HA/CS-EP group was different from that of the HA/CS group. Direct bone formation of osteoblasts with HA/CS-EP as the matrix could be observed. Compared with the group filled with HA/CS, the group filled with HA/CS-EP showed significant increases in the number of osteoblasts and the bone formation area, and the areas of new bone formation in the HA/CS-EP group after 4 or 12 weeks' implantation reached 33% and 87%, respectively. The novel repair system of HA/CS-EP can induce bone formation, increase osteoblast quantity and improve osteogenesis, for EP can significantly promote the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts in the early stage and accelerate bone remodeling in the later stage. Composites containing EP could be a promising material with multifunctions of osteoinduction, osteoconduction and medication for bone repair, and herb medicine EP could be used as an osteoinduction material for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  15. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php.

  16. An update on cutaneous aging treatment using herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2015-12-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure as well as oxidative stress elevates inflammatory mediators causing degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as the major cause of skin wrinkles, one of the signs of aging. Topical applications of active ingredients protect against dermal photodamage and scavenge radicals that can delay skin aging. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors against degradation of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan are the key strategy to combat cutaneous aging. In addition, active ingredients with the efficacy to enhance extracellular matrix production, including those with UV protection efficacy, play an important role in protecting the skin from aging. Naturally derived compounds for combating skin wrinkles are gaining more interest among the consumers as they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier. This article, therefore, briefly addresses the causes of skin aging and extensively summarizes on herbs appraisal for skin wrinkles treatment. Therefore, delaying aging of skin using the functional herbs would maintain the individual's appearance with high esthetic and psychosocial impacts. PMID:25968169

  17. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot / Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MA., Manhães; MM., Dias.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópode [...] s coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera. Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat. Abstract in english Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna col [...] lected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-hao Zheng; Ping Wei; Hui-ling Huo; Xue-feng Xing; Fei-long Chen; Xiao-mei Tan; Jia-bo Luo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma H...

  19. Natural swine health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, T., van

    2010-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide pig farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products that can be purchased nowadays. Herbs and other natural products can support healthy animals in stressful situations or enhance treatment with conventional medication. The greatest added value of the use of natural products is prevention of diseases and other health problems..

  20. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

  2. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection. Protokol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Manheimer, E; Tsutani, K; Gluud, C

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C....

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  4. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mohammadirad

    2013-11-01

    These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes.

  5. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

  6. Trace element analysis of some medicinal herbs by proton induced x-ray emission (pixe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element analysis of some medicinal herbs by proton induced x-ray emission (pixe) Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used to investigate the concentration of nineteen trace elements in eleven medicinal herbs commonly used for the treatment of different diseases in Pakistan. Mg, Si, K, Ca and Fe were detected in all the medicinal herbs studied. Germanium has been detected only in violet flower. Indian Lilac, field marigold and violet flower have the highest number of trace elements with maximum concentration. No toxic elements such as Pb, Hg etc. were detected in these medicinal herbs. The accuracy of our results was validated by analyzing standard reference material Citrus Leaf (NIST- SRM -1572). Results indicate that medicinal herbs are a rich source of trace elements which may be useful for the cure of certain ailments. (author)

  7. Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 104 to 10-3 ?g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

  8. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  9. Coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE', as the benchmark experiment at the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNPTM against measured criticality data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE. System at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of controlled flooding of the neutron converter zone by heavy water. Earlier calculations of these criticality parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using 2D geometry model are also compared to new calculations carried out by the MCNP code in 3D geometry, applying new detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug, developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are obtained and confirmed that HERBE core could be used as a criticality benchmark for coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

  10. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  11. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Ró?a?ska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. PMID:25846909

  12. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  13. NYMPHAEA STELLATA: A POTENTIAL HERB AND ITS MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doli Rani Das

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea stellata is a perennial aquatic herb belongs to family Nymphaeaceae, with a short ovoid and acute root stock. It is found in ponds, lakes and ditches throughout Bangladesh, Africa and warmer part of India. Commonly referred to as “Water Lilies”, these plants have adapted to living in total water environment. Flower of N. stellata contain a lead compound Nymphayol (25, 26- dinorcholest-5-en-3?–ol The structure was determined on the basis of X-ray crystallography and spectral data.The flowers of plant contain flavonoids, gallic acid, astrgalin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The activity has been reported the antihyperlipidaemic and antihepatotoxic. Recently, Nymphaea stellata flowers have been reported to have hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage

  14. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2006-11-01

    Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines. PMID:16906642

  15. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  16. Neuroprotective Herbs and Foods from Different Traditional Medicines and Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Iriti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.

  17. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmbovi?a County, and Secuieni, Neam? County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  18. Economic evaluation of herb extraction using supercritical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariaty-Niassar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the climate diversity in different parts of Iran, a variety of plants grow across the country, many of them having pharmaceutical applications. At present, only a few companies are producing herbal essence, all of them are technically based on conventional methods of extraction such as steam distillation and others. Because of the current serious concern with respect to the environmental conservation law the use of green technology seems imperative. The supercritical fluid extraction is considered as a practical and procedural method which has become under serious consideration in recent years. For this, an economical analysis is made of herb extractions using a supercritical fluid. The results of such a survey can clarify the new methods to be of great concern. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units used for producing a different plant extract and especially that of rosemary.

  19. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields

  20. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  1. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  2. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  3. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  4. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the application of natural products against planned and unplanned radiation exposure. (author)

  5. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  6. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Fernando, Verissimo; Andre D., Bacchi; Tiago, Zaminelli; Gustavo Henrique O. de, Paula; Estefania G., Moreira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity informat [...] ion of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens) or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa). For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  7. Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies. PMID:24701910

  8. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzy?ska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

  9. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  10. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; SØegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all herbs, except lucerne, was higher at a 6-cut than at a 4-cut strategy, and application of cattle slurry also affected the competitiveness of the herbs. In general, lucerne, chicory, caraway and plantain were the strongest competitors; salad burnet and birdsfoot trefoil were intermediate; and melilot, fenugreek, and chervil were very weak competitors.

  11. Effects of five Ayurvedic herbs on locomotor behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R L M; Brogan, B; Whitworth, A J; Okello, E J

    2014-12-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B.?monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  12. The effect of drying on antioxidant activity of selected lamiaceae herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of selected fresh and dried herbs from the Lamiaceae family were compared. The analysed herbs included Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, and Origanum heracleoticum from the 1st and the 2nd harvests. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method and the total content of phenols was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Ascorbic and gallic acids were used as reference standards. All the analysed herbs had the reasonable potential to reduce the DPPH radical. The dried herbs from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity. Oregano exhibited the highest antioxidant activity from the analyzed samples of both harvests together. The descending order of the samples was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. Marjoram from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity from the fresh samples. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 2nd harvest. In case of dried samples, the highest antioxidant activity was measured in sample of Greek oregano from the 2nd harwest. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 1st and 2nd harvest again. The descending order of total phenolics content for both harvests together was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. In case of fresh herbs the highest total phenolics content was measured in oregano from the 1st harvest, the lowest content was measured in summer savory from the 2nd harvest. Greek oregano from the 2nd harvest had the highest values from dried herbs. Dried thyme from the second harvest had the lowest total phenolics content. The correlation between the DPPH values and the total content of phenols was determined (for fresh herbs: 0.4917; for dried herbs: 0.8698. According to the total content of phenols a statistically significant difference between the fresh and dried herbs from the 2nd harvest (p = 0.0185 was found.

  13. Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)

  14. Application of calibration standardization method to the analysis of diuretic pharmaceutical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration standardization of X-ray fluorescence method was carried out for the determination of the anorganic contents in diuretic herbs as called Folia Betulae, Stylus Maydis, Flores Verbasci, Equisetum Arvense and Flos Helichrysi, growing in Turkey. These herbs are widely used in pharmacy and public health for kidney disease therapy. Herb samples were steeped in the water and mixed through the pure cellulose, then pelletized in the intermediate thickness. An annular source of 109Cd (3.7 MBq) was used for excitation of fluorescent K lines of elements lying between potassium and zirconium. Toxic elements in considerable amounts were not found. (author)

  15. Neuroprotective effect of gui zhi (ramulus cinnamomi) on ma huang- (herb ephedra-) induced toxicity in rats treated with a ma huang-gui zhi herb pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang-Hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-Ling; Xing, Xue-Feng; Chen, Fei-Long; Tan, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48?mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  16. The species richness-productivity relationship in the herb layer of European deciduous forests.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axmanová, I.; Chytrý, M.; Zelený, D.; Ching-Feng, L.; Vymazalová, M.; Danihelka, Ji?í; Horsák, M.; Ko?í, M.; Kubešová, S.; Lososová, Z.; Otýpková, Z.; Tichý, L.; Martynenko, V. B.; Baisheva, E. Z.; Schuster, B.; Diekmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 6 (2012), s. 657-667. ISSN 1466-822X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : broad-leaved woodland * diversity - productivity relationship * herb-layer biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.223, year: 2012

  17. Radioactive pollution of medicinal herb of the Vetka district, the Gomel region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    27 species of medicinal herb of the Vetka district have been studied for the contents of Cs 137. There has been determined a possibility of their safe use for curing and preventive measures. (authors)

  18. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all...

  19. Correlation between the different therapeutic properties of Chinese medicinal herbs and delayed luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jingxiang; Fu, Jialei; Yang, Meina; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    In the practice and principle of Chinese medicine, herbal materials are classified according to their therapeutic properties. 'Cold' and 'heat' are the most important classes of Chinese medicinal herbs according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this work, delayed luminescence (DL) was measured for different samples of Chinese medicinal herbs using a sensitive photon multiplier detection system. A comparison of DL parameters, including mean intensity and statistic entropy, was undertaken to discriminate between the 'cold' and 'heat' properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. The results suggest that there are significant differences in mean intensity and statistic entropy and using this method combined with statistical analysis may provide novel parameters for the characterization of Chinese medicinal herbs in relation to their energetic properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26106025

  20. Characterization of trace elements in medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medicinal herbs are often used as alternative medicines for healing and controlling some diseases in the world. This study focuses on the content of heavy and trace elements of some widely consumed herbs in Libya. Nine most popular herbs were analyzed by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. All the samples, SRM and flux monitors were irradiated for 7 and 10 hours under thermal neutron flux of 1.3 x 1013 cm-2 x s-1 at Tajoura nuclear reactor. In total, 33 elements were analyzed in different herbs. The variations in the concentration of the elements are attributed to soil composition and the climate in which the plant grows. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing the reference materials Pine Needles SRM 1575 and Citrus Leaves SRM1572. (author)

  1. Radioactive contaminated herbs after the Chernobyl accident - a retrospective view of their destruction control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rains in May 1986 'watered' the ground and the plants with a mixture of radionuclides. As a result many agricultural products and other plants in Bulgaria were radioactively polluted. Herbs widely used as medicine or as fragrant tea were also badly affected. The author reports some data about radioactive contamination of the herbs with Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Radioactivity distribution in terms of dose range and herb species is given. Measures taken for destruction of the herb crop of 1986-1987 through incineration or burial are described, as well as the administrative and technical procedures assuring control of these measures. Proposals for continuing annual monitoring of the burial sites are presented. 6 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  2. Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum majorana L. herb and extracts obtained with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vági, E; Rapavi, E; Hadolin, M; Vásárhelyiné Perédi, K; Balázs, A; Blázovics, A; Simándi, B

    2005-01-12

    Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hydrogen-donating abilities with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl by spectrophotometric and the total scavenger capacities by chemiluminometric methods from the aqueous extracts of the herbs. The antioxidant activities of the solvent extracts were performed using the Rancimat method. The Egyptian herb and its extracts possessed better antioxidant activities than Hungarian ones. Applying supercritical CO2 extraction, the highest value of carnosol was obtained at 400 bar and 60 degrees C. PMID:15631502

  3. MERITS OF USING HERBS IN WHOLE STATE (AYURVEDA’s CONCEPT OVER ISOLATED FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madupu Paramkusha Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are precursors of animals and human beings. The plants growing around his vicinity fulfill all the basic needs of human life like food, water and shelter. Similarly plants act like natural tools to treat the ailments. Ayurveda i.e. the total science of human living has identified this natural truth and perfected it. At the outset, two schools of thought prevail regarding the use of herbs as drugs. The ancient school advocated and practiced by Ayurveda prefers using the herbs in the whole state, without disturbing naturally designed integrity of them. The second school insists on isolation of pharmacologically active chemicals present in the herbs preparing synthetic equivalents if possible and using them for therapeutic applications. This paper discusses the logic, eco-friendly design and merits of whole drug application against the isolated fractions with apt examples.

  4. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be developed as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 19-23

  5. Rapid identification of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-wei CHEN

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method for rapid identification of the quality of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC). Methods: The constituents of headspace gas from Chinese herbs, such as Cortex moutan radicis, Radix cynanchi paniculati and root-bark of Paeonia lactiflora. were analyzed by HSGC. Results: The characteristic finger-print headspace chromatograms of these three drugs were different from one another. Cortex moutan radicis s...

  6. Temperature Control in a PV-WIND Medical Herb Dryer System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh; Emad Ahmed Sweelem; Faten Hosny Fahmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a temperature control technique for a medical herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medical herbs at 40? even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using on/off controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using solar water collector and electric heater. While...

  7. Determination of Malaysian Herbs and Spices as Biopreservative Agents in Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Saripah Salbiah Syed Abdul Azziz; Munirah Abdul Talip; Chee Fah Wong; Hasimah Alimon; Norlaili Abu Bakar; Wan Rusmawati Wan Mahamod; Rozita Yahaya; Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad; Yusnita Juahir

    2015-01-01

    Preservatives are usually added to food products to ensure longer shelf life and prevent decomposition process and microbial growth. However, synthetic food preservatives can also give negative side effect to health and are harmful to human and animal physiology. Based on the potential of herbs and spices as antimicrobial agent, the purpose of this study is to identify antibacterial activity from extracts of some local herbs and spices: Phaeomeria speciosa (P. speciosa), Aquilaria subintegra ...

  8. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee Hun Do; Tae Jin An; Sang-Keun Oh; Yuseok Moon

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influ...

  9. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  10. Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima , N; Ishrat-Ullah Siddiqui; Fahmida Perveen; Z.T. Maqsood

    2004-01-01

    Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present a...

  11. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Rochelle; Watson Nadya; Chase Ronald; Aranda Derick; Williams Arlene F; Clement Yuri N; Stubbs Odia; Williamson Deneil

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Tri...

  12. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan; Walker, Emer A.; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2013-01-01

    mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica on...... for allelopathic effects of the invasive H. mantegazzianum on germination of co-occurring native herbs....

  13. Phenotypic recurrent selection on herb growth yield of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) grown in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim; Khalid A Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Ibrahim MM,Khalid KA. 2013. Phenotypic recurrent selection on herb growth yield of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) grown in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 68-72. This investigation was conducted in four generations: base population (G0, G1, G2) and G3 (clone selection generation) to evaluate the genetic variability of citronella clones. Thirteen clones were selected from base population to study the herb growth yield characters and oil production as well as genetic parameters, correlatio...

  14. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  15. Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ali, Lizna; Jabeen, Ayesha; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rizvi, Tahir A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens. PMID:22700791

  16. Traditional Indian Herbs Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Its Medicinal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, as a rasayanawhich is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Convolvulus pluricaulisis a prostrate, spreading, perennial, wild herb commonly found on sandy or rocky ground under xerophytic conditions in northern India. The drug is used as antiepileptic. It is used alone or is administered along with modern antiepileptic drugs. Little human research has been published in the Western medical literature regarding this plant. One study shows convolvulus pluricaulis to have anti-ulcer effects due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion and glycoproteins. Another study showed that convolvulus pluricaulis may be helpful in improving symptoms of hyperthyroidism by reducing the activity of a liver enzyme. Convolvulus pluricaulis is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported toreduce mental tension.

  17. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; SØegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6 as the dominating FA.

  18. A REVIEW ON LEUCODERMA AND REPORTED HERBS FOR ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kaur

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucoderma is an idiopathic, acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The pathogenesis of leucoderma is multifunctional and includes three main factors genetic, immunological and environmental. Recently , various treatments modalities have been introduced , and treatment options and outcomes have been improving. Excimer laser, phototherapy, epidermal grafts and lifestyle modification have improved the results of treatment and quality of lives of patients with leucoderma. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in localized leucoderma. Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralen containing plants have been used for centuries in popular medicine to treat leucoderma. Further advancement in treatments using different derivatives of psoralen molecules may result in decrease possibility of long-term side effects such as cutaneous malignancies. In this review we wish to present recent pharmacological approaches of furanocoumarins and a detailed investigation on various herbs that can be used for the treatment of leucoderma

  19. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a ? ray source, 90Sr/90Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10-4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D

    1994-01-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364

  1. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  2. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

  3. Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out

  4. Heavy metals in chinese therapeutic foods and herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study 15 samples of Chin ese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed, for the content of cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic, cuprum and zinc, by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd(0.49 mg kg/sup -1/), Hg(0.34 mg kg/sup -1/), Pb(9.01 mg kg/sup -1/), As(3.26 mg kg/sup -1/), Cu(33.56 mg kg/sup -1) and Zn(38.32 mg kg/sup -1/) were found in Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Puerariae, Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Fructus Crataegi, Herba andrographis, respectively.The Cd levels of two samples and Cu levels of one sample were found to be higher than the recommended values of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. Mercury, lead, and arsenic levels of one sample were higher than the recommended limit of China Pharmacopoeia, but it were below the WHO and FDA. All other heavy metals in other medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  5. Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Yin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities.

  6. Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, d?/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

  7. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  8. Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Jin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  9. A systematic review of single chinese herbs for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease. PMID:19737808

  10. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

  11. Potential herb-drug interaction in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases during integrated traditional and Western medicine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Long

    2015-01-01

    The combination of herbs and drugs is one of the most important approaches in the prevention and treatment of diseases in the integrated traditional and Western medicine (ITWM). While most medical practices have proved that the combination of herbs and drugs led to a clinical efficacy that was often superior to merely using only one of them; results from some studies have triggered adverse reactions to such an approach. Since few herb-drug interaction studies were carried out during treatments combining herbs and drugs, it really restricts the development of treatment and treatment theory of the combination of herbs and drugs. Given that herb-drug interactions may occur through the main pathway of cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters; then to exhaustively study the role and impact of herbs in drug metabolism, as well as to establish a corresponding database, is of great significance for guiding the rational combination of herbs and drugs. When the herb-drug interaction information platform is implemented, we would get at ease a reasonable herb-drug prescription to achieve a better outcome, reduce dosage of some expensive drugs preserving the same efficacy, or even reduce some side effects of particular drugs; which might also promote the dynamic combination of Chinese and Western medicine, and accelerate the theory development of ITWM. PMID:25533650

  12. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

  13. THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ferreira de Lima

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

  14. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given

  15. Conceptualizing the human use of wild edible herbs for conservation in South African communal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovie, Delali B K; Shackleton, Charlie M; Witkowski, E T F

    2007-07-01

    The importance of wild edible herbaceous species to resource poor households in most rural economies within savannas has been little studied. This is because most of the herbs grow in impoverished species communities and lands, often referred to as 'marginal lands'. The aim of this paper is to conceptualize how the economics of wild edible herbs to households can be used to add value to total livelihoods and conservation within traditional communal areas of South Africa. Analysis of the economics of the consumption of wild edible herbs in Thorndale (Bushbuckridge district) of the Limpopo province is presented. The majority of households consumed wild edible herbs, averaging 15.4 kg dried weight per household per year and valued at $167 per household. The herbs were mostly harvested from uncultivated areas of farms, and rangelands. There was little correlation between household characteristics and the dependence on wild herbs for food. The local people noted a decline in the availability of the species, although not much is known about attempts to cultivate them. The only reasons attributed to the decline were nutrient poor soils and insufficient rains. With this background, developing a local strategy to sustain the species through cultivation by households was found to be feasible. A multiple-use system for the herbs, their improvement and value addition towards commercialization and increased household usage may result in wider acceptance and subsequent cultivation. Species diversity will be enhanced whilst conserving the land on which they grow. This multiple use system may include species roles in soil and water conservation. PMID:17045732

  16. An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

    2013-04-01

    A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

  17. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Shing Lin,1,2 Chiu-Lin Tsai,3 Ching-Yeh Tu,3 Ching-Liang Hsieh2,4,5 1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 2Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 3Division of Chinese Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 5Research Center for Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions.Methods: Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient.Results: During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ?70 mg/dL.Conclusion: Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, adverse reaction

  18. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensoussan Alan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.

  19. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rochelle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4% reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6% obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1% obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%, and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

  20. Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 ?l CD3OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

  1. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential abilit...

  2. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective / Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos M, Baeza; Otto, Schrader; Eduardo, Ruiz; M, Negritto.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O) hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O). La zona central del país presenta el mayor número [...] de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O) a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O) en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O), Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género. Abstract in english Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zo [...] ne of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.

  3. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género.

  4. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  5. Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

  6. Essentials of Herb-Drug Interactions in the Elderly With Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Sultan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of individuals, particularly the elderly, using herbal products with prescription drugs continues to grow, the risk for adverse interactions increases but remains poorly recognized. The true incidence and nature of adverse herb reactions or herb-drug interactions remains unknown since no postmarketing surveillance mechanism exists. Adverse events are greatly underreported, and information regarding safety mainly comes from case reports and suboptimally conducted studies in a limited number of healthy young volunteers or patients with limited comorbidities. Therefore, convincing evidence for the safety of herbal products in the elderly is lacking, and the true magnitude of problems that herb-drug interactions pose to public health, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases, is not known. Since cardiovascular diseases themselves are life threatening, necessitate use of multiple medications and occur in a population with extensive comorbidities, the risk of herb-drug and herb-disease interactions is not minor and cannot be ignored. This review addresses these concerns in an effort to raise awareness about the use of herbal medicine by the elderly and its potential adverse impact on the efficacy of prescription medications that can increase predisposition to catastrophic events such as major bleeding, inadequate anticoagulation leading to undesired clotting, transplant organ rejection and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.

  7. Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1-1.11?mg·kg(-1) for cadmium, less than 1.0-23.52?mg·kg(-1) for lead, 1.44-156.24?mg·kg(-1) for copper, 12.65-146.67?mg·kg(-1) for zinc, and 81.25-1101.22?mg·kg(-1) for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  8. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method

  9. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. PMID:24097370

  10. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

    2013-11-01

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

  11. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  12. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the application of natural products against planned and unplanned radiation exposure. (author)

  13. Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested for the treatment of children diseased with diabetes mellitus. Received preliminary results show that the phytotherapy during the traditional treatment results into decrease of blood sugar level at children with diabetes mellitus, what in its turn will allow to reduce the dose of insulin injected from outside

  14. Molecular identification and cytotoxicity study of herbal medicinal materials that are confused by Aristolochia herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Au, Ka-Yee; Lam, Hilary; Cheng, Ling; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2014-03-15

    Herbal materials derived from Aristolochia species contain carcinogenic aristolochic acids (AAs) and have been used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) or adulterants of other TCMs. The purpose of this study is to identify the TCMs Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix, Akebiae Caulis, Aucklandia Radix and Aristolochiae Fructus by sequencing the matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF DNA regions. The cytotoxicities of AAs and these TCMs were also studied in COS-7 and HEK-293 cells. Diagnostic polymorphic sites were identified in all the four DNA loci for the differentiation of genuine herbs from their adulterants/substitute. The 48 h IC50 of AAI were 78 ?M (COS-7) and 70 ?M (HEK-293) while the IC50 of AAII were higher than 100 ?M in both cell lines. Except Aucklandia Radix, cytotoxicity study also showed that AA-containing herbs were more toxic than their corresponding genuine herbs and substitute. PMID:24206727

  15. Bromine and iodine in Chinese medical herbs determined via epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen natural herbs and two prescriptions prepared from mixed herbs were analyzed via epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) to evaluate their bromine and iodine concentration. Traditional medical doctors prescribed the samples presented in this work to most Taiwanese children for strengthening their immune systems. Empirical results indicated a wide diversity of bromine in the samples. Yet, the iodine concentration was only around one to tenth or twentieth of the bromine. The maximum daily intake (MDI) for various medical herbs was also widely diversified from one to tenfold on the basis of various criteria. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of bromine and iodine found was 0.42±0.14 ppm and 0.067±0.016 ppm, respectively. Compared to that from conventional thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) for a similar evaluation, the extremely low MDC obtained here was attributed to the large amount of thermal neutron absorption during sample irradiation. (author)

  16. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  17. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  18. Protection of mouse immune system by a preparation of herb mixture against whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preparation(P.P-I) of herb mixture was designed to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. The herb preparation was water extract of herb mixture(Agelica gagantis Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix) added with its polysaccharide fraction. In the present experiments, the ability of the preparation to protect hematopoietic and immune system was assessed in mice irradiated with 60Co ?-rays. The administration of P.P-I increased regeneration of blood cells and splenic lymphocytes in irradiated mice. In the administration mice, both B and T cells of lymphocytes were repopulated to normal level following irradiation, the response of repopulated lymphocytes to mitogen was recovered and the production of antibody against injected antigen was increased. These results indicated that the preparation protect hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage, and that enhanced immunity. Since the preparation is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful radioprotector

  19. Assessment of Base Line Concentrations for Trace Elements and Total Alpha, Beta Gross for Some Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five marked brands of drinking herbs, commonly consumed by Egyptian population were collected from local market. Concentration of essential and toxic elements have been measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Also, the total alpha and beta gross activities in all samples were measured using ultra low level liquid scintillation counting system (LSC). Cinnamon was found to contain relatively high amounts of essential as well as toxic elements but the measurement using LSC revealed no detection for both alpha and beta gross activity. The annual effective doses for different herbs were also calculated referring to the dose conversion factor (dose per unit intake) for both alpha and beta gross activity when dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides. The study also shows that these herbs are additional source of trace heavy elements intake

  20. Genotoxicological safety of the ?-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with ?-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity

  1. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  2. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer?s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer?s disease patients. An APP swe/PS1?E9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer?s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer?s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer?s disease.

  3. MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peši? Milan P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of new results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are achieved confirming that MCNP5 code could apply successfully to study on HERBE kinetics parameters after uncertainties in impurities in material compositions and positions of fuel elements in fast zone were removed.

  4. Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to the successful use of the {sup 15}N natural abundance technique. Acacia leiocalyx demonstrated greater N{sub 2} fixation as well as photosynthesis and instantaneous water use efficiency than Acacia disparimma. However, no strong relationship between plant photosynthesis and N{sub 2} fixation was observed in this study. A high within-treatment variation may have masked the relationships between plant BNF activities and photosynthesis. Conclusions: The {sup 15}N natural abundance technique is preferred to be used for future studies as it is simple and inexpensive compared with {sup 15}N enrichment method. The dependence of both species on BNF at site 2, where fuel reduction burning had not taken place for 8 years, suggests that the frequent burning impoverished the soil, and this has wider implications as higher fire frequencies are to be expected in other Australian ecosystems as a result of global climate change. (orig.)

  5. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce garlic mustard spread and restore woodland diversity.

  6. Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

  7. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  8. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. PMID:26771134

  9. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; KANG, S; P. Khejornsart; S. Wanapat

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LP...

  10. Verification of kinetic parameters of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1989 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the VINCA Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews experiments for kinetic parameters verification carried out at HERBE system. Their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results are included. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in the calculations is presented too. (author)

  11. Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fatima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present at ppb level, it is examined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with zeeman background correction. None of these species contain metals above the toxic limit. Fenugreek was found to be rich source of metal specially chromium.

  12. Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease.......About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease....

  13. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

  14. Determination of element contents in certain wild herbs of Uzbekistan by radioactivation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of activation methods for analysing the element composition in wild herbs is developed to exercise control from the viewpoint of pharmacology and the environment influence on the composition variation. The complex includes the neutron activation analysis method with a nuclear reactor application and charged particle activation analysis (proton and deuteron) with a cyclotron application. Concentrations of more than 20 elements in 5 herbs of Uzbekistan are determined. Methods for sample preparation for analysis are described. Analysis results are tabbulated. The detection limit is lower than 10-4%. It is shown, that toxic element concentration in the indicated plants is lower than maximum permissible one

  15. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. K. Bariyah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like antimicrobial, anticataleptic, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic and cardioprotective activities. The aim of the present review is to present an extensive survey on the phytochemistry and pharmacological applications of the herb.

  16. The effect of ionizing radiation on microbiological decontamination of medical herbs and biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the national program on the application of irradiation to the decontamination of medical herbs is in progress now. The purpose of the program is to elaborate, on the basis of research work, the facility standards and technological instructions indispensable for the practice of radiation technology

  17. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Mohammadirad; Fatemeh Aghamohammadali-Sarraf; Simin Badiei; Zakie Faraji; Reza Hajiaghaee; Maryam Baeeri; Mahdi Gholami; Mohammad Abdollahi

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice.   Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and ...

  18. Natural dairy cow health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, T., van; Hansman, H.

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide dairy farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products on offer. Herbs and other natural products can support healthy animals in stressful situations or enhance treatment with conventional medication. The greatest added value of the use of natural products is disease and problem prevention..

  19. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    paprika, but conversely a pronounced increase in susceptibility of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia now susceptible to 0.01-0.70 mg/ml of each herb, corresponding to 0.02-0.2 per cent of the recommended daily dose. The active ingredients of the herbs...

  20. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Hoi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging.

  1. Resprouting of herbs in disturbed habitats: is it adequately described by Bellingham-Sparrow s model?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 103, - (2003), s. 225-229. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/01/1039; GA ?R GA206/01/1037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : severe disturbance * sprouting * temperate herbs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2003

  2. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Patel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, m...

  3. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.

    1996-01-01

    Longo Vital® herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika, but conversely a pronounced increase in susceptibility of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia now susceptible to 0.01-0.70 mg/ml of each herb, corresponding to 0.02-0.2 per cent of the recommended daily dose. The active ingredients of the herbs, however, and the concentrations of these obtained in blood and periodontal tissues after ingestion of Longo Vital® are not known.

  4. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  5. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

  6. Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abahussain NA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5 years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo-Yong Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

  8. Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease.

  9. Determination of gamma spectrum in the centre of the HERBE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to know influence of neutron and gamma radiation on sample during irradiation in centre of the reactor system HERBE(at the RB reactor). It was the reason that gamma energy spectrum, was measured. In this paper results of the experiments are shown. (author)

  10. Natural poultry health : a guide to keeping your herd healthy with herbs and other natural products

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, M.J.; Asseldonk, T., van; Puls-van der Kamp, I.

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is intended to guide poultry farmers through the ever increasing supply of herbs and other natural products on offer. Which products have proven to be effective and which products might be effective, based on the knowledge that is currently available??

  11. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  12. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...

  13. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, El?bieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10 % of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6 % of all samples. PMID:26612566

  14. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  15. Study on tumor cells' multidrug resistance and its reversion by Chinese herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xin-Yi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR is an important biological behavior of tumor cells in chemotherapy. And it is also one of the major causes of clinical chemotherapy failure. According to the literature at home and abroad, and combining with the results of anthors' investigations, this paper mainly discusses the mechanism of tumor cells' MDR and its reversion by Chinese herbs.

  16. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  17. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  18. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Hun Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms.

  19. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  20. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Medicinal Herb Folium Eriobotryae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations.

  1. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Pakistani Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for Treatement of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Munir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years Pakistan will be the fourth largest country with respect to the diabetic individuals. For a developing country like Pakistan availability of modren medical facilities to every person is not possible. In addition to economic constrains, reported side effects of these modern drugs encouroged us to search for an economical and safe alternative that can cure this disease. Herbal plants (cheaper availability and with less or no side effects have emerged as a potential candidate. This review focuses the effectiveness of herbs and herbal drugs which are commonly used in Pakistan against diabetes. Different search engines were explored including Pubmed, Google and Asci database (up to 2nd June 2011 by using different keywords. Priority was given to research article and information given by authentic organizations and federations. Ninteen plants, which were used by local people as vegetable or herbal remedy, were analyzed for their antidiabetic potentials on the basis of previously published literature. Varying levels of antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, Insulin stimulating, nephroprotective and hepatoprotective activities of these plants have been reported in various studies. Out of the ninteen herbs O. sanctum, Z. officinale, T. foenum-graecum and P. amarus were found to be the most effective against diabetes. In future adaptive use of these herbs in daily life as food may help to slow down the pace of disease development in Pakistan. There are plenty of herbs for which the medicinal value is still to be inquired so that they can replace and used as an alternate of synthetic drugs.

  2. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical constitution of the herbs. The extracts, presented no change in the color increasing the irradiation doses (results are similar in other herbs extracts) as showed in the absorption peaks. The samples showed similar curves, presenting no changes in the chemical compounds. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after treatment by high doses radiation, Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to Quimer and IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

  3. Establishment of a comprehensive list of candidate antiaging medicinal herb used in korean medicine by text mining of the classical korean medical literature, "dongeuibogam," and preliminary evaluation of the antiaging effects of these herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. "Dongeuibogam," a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, "Dongeuibogam," we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in "Dongeuibogam." These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  4. Content of potentially toxic elements in herb species of spruce ecosystems affected by air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kukla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of Spodic Cambisols and selected herb species (Dryopteris dilatata, Luzula luzuloides, Prenanthes purpurea, Rubus idaeus, Senecio ovatus and Solidago virgaurea by potentially toxic elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr issuing from polluted atmosphere was studied in spruce stand and parallel clear-cut area on the locality Stolíky situated in the buffer zone of the NP Slovenský raj close city Spišská Nová Ves. The element contents determined in extracts of soil samples by 2 mol. dm-3 HNO3 were the following (mg kg -1 d.w.: Fe 3600--4300, Mn 1100--1300, Cu 81.1--100.6, Cr 1.16--2.00. The contents of elements in aboveground phytomass of dominant herb species ranged as follows (mg kg -1 d.w.: Cr 0.052--0.419, Cu 8.6--22.4, Fe 70.2--191.0 and Mn 1043--3457. Increased amounts of Cu and Mn (compared with the background values were ascertained in all herb species, whereas the contents of Fe were higher only in Luzula luzuloides (clear-cut area and Prenanthes purpurea (spruce stand species and Cr contents were lower than background value. The values of Fe:Mn ratio (0.03--0.12 were markedly lower, while the values of Fe:Cr (403--1867 and Cu:Fe (0.086--0.203 ratios were substantially higher compared with the normal values in herb species and they indicate disturbance in herb nutrition and nutrient cycling in the spruce ecosystems.

  5. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wódkiewicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Bia?owie?a Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

  6. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

  7. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  8. Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Qian; Li Chang-Sheng; Lu Yun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese h...

  9. Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat

    OpenAIRE

    P. Florou-Paneri; G. Palatos; A. Govaris; D. Botsoglou; I. Giannenas; I. Ambrosiadis

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4oC. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondiald...

  10. Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined in vivo by stable isotope erythrocyte incorporation technique. In parallel, the effect of the spice/herb on gastric emptying will be studied by stable isotope techniques using 13C-octanoicacid.Later,the effect of selected spices/herbs on iron absorption from popular northeast composite meal (mixture of spices and herbs) will be examined. Test meals will be served either with or without added spices/herbs.Data from this study can be used to effectively plan a food-based program to address iron deficiency problem in northeast Thailand. (author)

  11. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    OpenAIRE

    Rim, In-Sook; Jee, Cha-Ho

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these ess...

  12. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; SHIN, HWA KYOUNG; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific...

  13. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  14. Accumulation of some heavy metals in spice herbs in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of some heavy metals (HM), (Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Cr, Zr) accumulation have been studied in spice herbs (basil, dill, coriander, savory) grown in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat Valley. It turned out that the amount of HM content in spice herbs grown in open-air hydroponic conditions was less than in the ones grown in soil conditions. The content of Pb and Ni in spice herbs exceeded the allowed concentration limits (ACL), especially in soil plants. Practical recommendations on obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been prepared. The biotechnological hydroponics method of producing spice herbs in the Ararat Valley is ecologically more beneficial than the soil method. Practical proposals of obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been developed

  15. Choosing chemical markers for quality assurance of complex herbal medicines: Development and application of the herb MaRS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, A; Lee, S; Murray, C; Bourchier, S; van der Kooy, F; Pearson, J L; Liu, J; Chang, Dennis; Khoo, C S

    2015-06-01

    With increasing use of herbal medicines for chronic or serious illness, relevant quality assurance methods are essential for making claims of therapeutic benefit. Adequate demonstration of safety and efficacy based on chemical composition and ensuring consistency between manufactured batches is critical. To date, there has been no uniform standard approach or detailed framework provided to industry for selecting relevant chemical markers used to standardize herbal products. We developed the Herbal Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) providing guidance on prioritizing the selection of chemical markers for quality control of complex multi-herb mixtures, while also taking into account the bioactivity in relation to the symptoms of the disease and its concentration in the formula. We apply the Herb MaRS evaluation criteria to a seven-herb formulation for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Our ranking scale accommodates the clinical and pharmacological use of the formulation and its claimed indications. PMID:25704128

  16. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  17. Study on Herb-herb Interaction Potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on Mast Cell Stabilizing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh V. Malaviya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between the components of mixtures of herb are a vital part of their therapeutic efficacy. There is no real basis for better efficacy of a mixture of herb extract than an equivalent dose of an individual herbal extract. Speculation as to explain this, whether it involves synergy, enhanced bioavailability, cumulative effects or simply the additive properties of the constituents requires further research. Liquorice, Kantkari and Vasaka are present in number of herbal formulation available in market for asthma and respiratory disorders so, present study was undertaken to explore the interaction potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on mast cell stabilization compound 48/80 and egg albumin induced degranulation. Isobole method and Combination Index values were used to derive possible magnitude of interaction at various combinations. Compound 48/80 and egg albumin significantly disrupted mast cells (p Solanum xanthocarpum Extract (SXE and Adhatoda vasica Extract (AVE showed significant protection (pAdhatoda vasica extract and Liquorice extract (AVE+LE as well as Solanum xanthocarpum extract and Liquorice extract (SXE+LE, demonstrated significant (pin vitro study, a combination of Liquorice extract with Solanum xanthocarpum extract and Adhatoda vasica extract deserves further clinical investigation in properly designed clinical trials in patients with allergic conditions.

  18. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (σbmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  19. Determination of trace elements in commonly consumed medicinal herbs by ICP-MS and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokal?o?lu, ?erife

    2012-10-15

    The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb elements in thirty medicinal herb samples widely consumed in Kayseri, Turkey were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples were digested with concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave system. The decreasing sequence of the mean metal levels in medicinal herbs is as follows: Fe>Sr>Mn>Zn>Rb>Cu>Ni>Cr>Co>Pb. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the data matrix to evaluate analytical results. It was found that four principal components account for 80.6% of the total variance in the data. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, GBW07605 Tea Certified Reference Material was analysed. PMID:23442717

  20. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Yu, Shenjing; Ren, Chunsheng; Xiu, Zhilong

    2012-02-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (σbmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  1. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

  2. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Invasive alien plants often occur in monospecific stands with high density in the invaded range. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites in such stands could have allelopathic effects on germination of native species. We tested this component of the novel weapon hypothesis for Heracleum mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence for allelopathic effects of the invasive H. mantegazzianum on germination of co-occurring native herbs.

  3. Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:25210998

  4. Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

  5. Presence of Bacillus cereus in Packaged Some Spices and Herbs Sold in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Aksu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-three samples of packaged spices and herbs were collected from different retail shops in Istanbul, Turkey. They were examined for the presence and number of Bacillus cereus. It was determined that fifty-nine samples (63.44% contained more 100 cfu/g of B.cereus, with counts ranging from 102 to 3.2x103 cfu/g. In the 34 samples (36.56%, B.cereus were less 102 cfu/g. Only 5 samples (5.38% had counts between 103-104 cfu/g. The results suggest that incidence of B.cereus was very high in spices and herbs, and therefore should not be ignored in food industry, especially in the meat industry and mass catering establishments.

  6. Herbs for medicinal baths among the traditional Yao communities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Long, Chunlin; Liu, Fengyan; Lee, Sangwoo; Guo, Qi; Li, Rong; Liu, Yuheng

    2006-11-01

    Medicinal baths are an important traditional way to prevent and cure common diseases among the traditional Yao communities of Jinping County, Yunnan Province, SW China. Approaches of anthropology, ethnobotany, and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used to investigate the herbs used for medicinal baths; and 110 medicinal plant species were found to be used by local people to treat a variety of diseases, such as rheumatic diseases, skin diseases, injuries from falls and gynecopathia. Of these 110 species, 6 (5%) had not been previously identified as having medicinal properties, while 87 (79%) were newly recorded for their use in medicinal baths. These new ethnobotanical and medicinal records are a rich source of further phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on folk herbs in SW China. PMID:16735101

  7. Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria) occupied intermediate position. The Republican permissible level on Sr 90 for medicinal -technical raw material is absent in Belarus. Therefore we cannot give recommendations on using the specified kinds of the herbs mentioned above and collected during the spring period of their development. We only verify the results of the studies. In order to provide the answer to the question it's necessary to conduct further studies of the herbs growing in territories with lower level of soil contamination by Sr 90. It is required to develop the Republican allowable level of Sr 90 content in medicinal-technical raw material

  8. Monte Carlo 3D calculation of coupled fast-thermal system 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of Monte Carlo nuclear calculations of coupled fast-thermal system 'HERBE' on the reactor RB, obtained by using MCNP7M code, version 48. Detailed three-dimensional material-geometric benchmark model is developed and used in the calculations. Results of Monte Carlo calculations are compared to experimentally obtained data and earlier calculated values from different transport codes and satisfactory agreement is shown (author)

  9. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Zimowska; Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Ewa Dorota Król; Ewa Dorota Zalewska

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita) was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis) stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and...

  10. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs)

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Bariyah

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like ant...

  11. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Yui Kau Fong; Qiong Gao; Zhong Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food intera...

  12. Factors Associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Legedza Anna; Kemper Kathi J; Gardiner Paula; Phillips Russell S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle/behavior factors in young adults in the US. Methods Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results In our sample of 18 to 30 year olds (n = 6666), 26% were current smokers, 24% were moderate/he...

  13. Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanovi? Mirjana; Banjac Nebojša; Vuceli?-Radovi? Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium) and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser k...

  14. Negative evidence of local adaptation to the establishment conditions in a perennial herb

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, José L.; REY, PEDRO J.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Ramírez, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The differential adaptation of populations of the same species to their local environmental conditions through divergent selection, known as local adaptation, is a key step in the process of diversifica- tion of species. Here, we explore the local adaptation of the perennial mountain herb Helleborus foetidus to variable environmental conditions of seedling emer- gence and establishment at two different spatial scales (habitats and regions) with special attention to the role of physical and ch...

  15. Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Pérez, Ricardo; Alonso, Conchita

    2006-01-01

    Variation in nectar chemistry among plants, flowers, or individual nectaries of a given species has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect to our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper describes variation in nectar sugar composition in a population of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae) and dissects it into components due to variation among plants, flowers of the same plant, and nectaries of the same flowe...

  16. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenes...

  17. Modelling the effects of genetics and habitat on the demography of a grassland herb

    OpenAIRE

    Picó, F. Xavier; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Milden, Mikael; Enrlen, Johan; P?ngstenc, Ian

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that genetic and ecological factors interact in determining population persistence. The demographic effects of inbreeding depression can largely depend on the ecological milieu. We used demographic data of the perennial herb Succisa pratensis from six populations in grazed and ungrazed sites with different soil moisture. We built an individual-based model assessing the demographic consequences of inbreeding depression in populations with different man...

  18. Competitive Interactions Between the Perennial Shrub Ziziphus ummularia and an Annual Herb Rhynchosia minima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahid Shaukat

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation focuses on competitive interactions between individuals of the perennial shrub Ziziphus nummularia and the annual herb Rhychosia minima with the aid of nearest-neighbour analysis in a sub-tropical desert region. Both intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions were detected between nearest-neighbouring pairs. The cover as well as reproductive potential of R. minima were significantly reduced when it established in the close vicinity of Z. nummularia.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL HERBS AND STANDARD ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST POULTRY ASSOCIATED PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Affia Rafique; Saiqa Andleeb; Tahseen Ghous; Nosheen Shahzad; Irsa Shafique

    2012-01-01

    Present study aims to access the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants and antibiotics against poultry associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is the most widespread avian pathogen and it produces a range of toxins and enzymes that may contribute to pathogenicity. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the chicken liver and identified through biochemical methods. The antibacterial activity of extracts of medicinal herbs and various antibiotics were analyzed against P. aeruginosa throug...

  20. Variation of phenolic acids from herb and roots of Salsola kali L.

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Skalicka-Wo?niak; Anna Soko?owska-Krzaczek; Katarzyna Czubkowska

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic acids present as free and liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols after hydrolysis in Salsola kali L was done, together with comparison of their content in roots and herb. Analysis was conducted by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. Eleven phenolic acids were identified such as: protocatechuic, caffeic, gentisic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, syryngic, vanillic, ferulic, ?- and ß-resorcylic. Differences in compos...

  1. Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu-qi; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and resisting aging, the lack of which are believed to underlie dementia. The...

  2. Use of Chinese Herb Medicine in Cancer Patients: A Survey in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Guo Liu; Shao-Quan Xiong; Yan Yan; Hong Zhu; Cheng Yi

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is the most commonly reported traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) modality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of CHM use in cancer patients in southwestern China. Cancer patients from eleven comprehensive cancer centers were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. Of 587 available replies, 53.0% used CHM. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that educational level, stage of disease, duration of cancer since diagnosis, mar...

  3. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapreeyakul Natthida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P?=?0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7?±?12.3 ?g/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79?±?7.62 ?g/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

  4. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Wen Chang; Chin-Chen Chu; Heuy-Ling Chu; Horng-Cherng Wu; Pin-Der Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L., Mallotus repandus (Wild) Muell-Arg. (MRM), Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC), Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) Ohashi (TTLO), Clinacanthus nutans (Burm f.) Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB), Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM), against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from sev...

  5. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Wen Chang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L., Mallotus repandus (Wild Muell-Arg. (MRM, Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC, Tadehagi triquetrum (L. Ohashi (TTLO, Clinacanthus nutans (Burm f. Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB, Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM, against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from seven herbs, reducing ability, metal-chelating activity and radical-scavenging activity such as 2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were determined. In cellular systems, t-BHP was used as a model oxidant to induce oxidative stress. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate and chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate were used as fluorescence probe to determine reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione level in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells, respectively. In addition, total tannins, total anthocyanins, total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results: According to the data obtained from the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing ability determination, MRM, SPRB, and BMDC showed relatively high antioxidant properties while TTLO and ICM were in the middle and Solanum indicum and Clinacanthus nutans had relatively low activity. In cellular model systems, SPRB, BMDC, and TTLO showed higher protective effects against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. BMDC, ICM, and TTLO displayed higher inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species generation in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells. In addition, SPRB, MRM, and BMDC showed significantly positive modulated glutathione levels. Tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids and polyphenolics were present in the herbs, which may in part contribute to regulating the oxidative stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that the seven selected herbs may play a crucial role in regulating oxidative stress, especially BMDC.

  6. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    JeremyJohnson

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecul...

  7. A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; ZENG, XIN

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance li...

  8. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Svetla Angelova; Zlatina Gospodinova; Maria Krasteva; Georgi Antov; Valentin Lozanov; Tsanko Markov; Stefan Bozhanov; Elena Georgieva; Vanio Mitev

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction o...

  9. Content of potentially toxic elements in herb species of spruce ecosystems affected by air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Kukla; Margita Kuklová; O?ga Kontrišová; Jaroslav Kontriš; Ivica Ková?ová

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of Spodic Cambisols and selected herb species (Dryopteris dilatata, Luzula luzuloides, Prenanthes purpurea, Rubus idaeus, Senecio ovatus and Solidago virgaurea) by potentially toxic elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr) issuing from polluted atmosphere was studied in spruce stand and parallel clear-cut area on the locality Stolíky situated in the buffer zone of the NP Slovenský raj close city Spišská Nová Ves. The element contents determined in extracts of soil samples by 2 mol. dm-3 HN...

  10. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commercial herb and spice extracts against selected food-borne bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Anna M.; Dara K. Hickey; Mercedes Alonso-Gomez; Martin Wilkinson

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of extracts of thirty commercial herbs and spices commonly used in the production of ready meals. Various extracts of spices were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas fluorescens using a microdilution broth method. Ethanol and hexane extracts of oregano, clove, sage, rosemary and celery showed relatively strong antimicrobial a...

  11. Weeds and endangered herbs have unforeseen dispersal helpers in the agri-environment: gastropods and earthworms

    OpenAIRE

    Türke, Manfred; Blattmann, Tamara; Knop, Eva; Kindermann, Anne; Prestele, Julia; Marquez, Leonardo; Eisenhauer, Nico; Fischer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Agri-environmental schemes involving organic farming or set-aside management aim at promoting biodiversity and restoring ecosystem functioning in agrarian landscapes. Application of pesticides in these crop fields is strongly regulated facilitating the spread of weeds but also allowing for the establishment of endangered herbs and a variety of animals.Recent studies found gastropods and earthworms to be legitimate dispersers of seeds of wild plants. We assumed that both groups also playa sign...

  12. Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Eric B.; Thomas, Keenan; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from th...

  13. Induction of somatic embryogenesis and genetic fidelity of endangered medicinal herb Curculigo orchioides Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Patel; Jasrai, Yogesh T.; Roshni Adiyecha

    2011-01-01

    An efficient regeneration system, through somatic embryogenesis was developed forCurculigo orchioides Gaertn - an endangered medicinal herb. Somatic embryos weredeveloped on MS medium containing 8 - 15?M BA from leaf explants. The highest, 69 % leafexplants responded in terms of embryogenic calli with average 8 embryos on MS mediumcontaining 8?M BA. Regenerated plantlets were transferred to autoclaved mixture of soil:sand: compost (1:1:1; v/v/v) for hardening. Genetic fidelity of somatic embr...

  14. Use of medicinal herbs by patients with severe asthma managed at a Referral Center

    OpenAIRE

    Tacila Pires Mega; Pablo de Moura Santos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Lúcia de Araújo Beisl Costa Noblat; Álvaro Augusto Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that may lead to limitations in regular activities, to hospitalizations and a decrease in quality of life. Adherence to drug treatment is crucial for control of the disease. The use of medicinal herbs can reduce adherence to prescriptions, as the medication may be replaced by infusions or herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of use of traditional herbal medicine among severe asthmatics in Salvador. I...

  15. Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; de Jong, J.; Nielen, M. W. F.; Tserendorj, E.; Sodnomdarjaa, R.; Cannavan, A.; Elloitt, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis...

  16. Microsatellite markers in Rhodiola (Crassulaceae), a medicinal herb genus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine1

    OpenAIRE

    Jianling You; Wensheng Liu; Yao Zhao; Yongqing Zhu; Wenju Zhang; Yuguo Wang; Fan Lu; Zhiping Song

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci are described for Rhodiola, a medicinal herb genus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods and Results: A total of 17 polymorphic microsatellite primer pairs were developed using the combined biotin-capture method. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12 across 192 individuals from R. bupleuroides, R. crenulata, R. fastigiata, and R. sacra, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.177 to 0.412 an...

  17. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Bensoussan Alan; Sung Joseph JY; Tsai Sam-Hip; Tjong Yung-Wui; Zong Yuying; Chen Mengli; Xian Yanfang; Zhao Ming; Ip Siu-Po; Berman Brian; Fong Harry HS; Che Chun-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP) production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Method...

  18. Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, G. de; Vázquez, E.; García-Risco, Mónica R.; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO 2 is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a compre...

  19. Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of the Traditional Chinese Herb, Phyllanthus amarus

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobact...

  20. Evaluation of Synergistic Antibacterial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Essential Oils of Spices and Herbs in Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible synergistic interactions on antibacterial and antioxidant efficacy of essential oils of some selected spices and herbs [bay leaf, black pepper, coriander (seed and leaf), cumin, garlic, ginger, mustard, onion and turmeric] in combination. Antibacterial combination effect was evaluated against six important food-borne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salm...

  1. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti; Gisela Pizarro de Mattos Barreto; Neura Bragagnolo; Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), and Trolox as reference (TEAC) for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs) was calculated. For a...

  2. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Barikmo Ingrid; Sanada Chiho; Umezono Yuko; Senoo Haruki; Willey Carol; Sampson Laura; Dragland Steinar; Bøhn Siv K; Holte Kari; Halvorsen Bente L; Carlsen Monica H; Berhe Nega; Willett Walter C.; Phillips Katherine M; Jacobs David R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spice...

  3. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R.R.B.

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene–linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPP...

  4. Vesicovaginal fistula due to vaginal herb for primary infertility: could it be devastating?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Sagorika; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Kumar, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very commonly encountered urogynaecological entity in developing countries such as India. The most common cause of VVF in developing counties is secondary to obstructive labour. We report a very unusual case of VVF in a young woman that developed due to insertion of an unknown vaginal herb for treatment of primary infertility. Cystoscopy showed a single trigonal fistula measuring 3×2?cm just near the bladder neck. Vaginoscopy revealed cicatrised less capacious...

  5. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    OpenAIRE

    RAVINDRA ADE; SHIVAJI DESHMUKH

    2012-01-01

    Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combinat...

  6. Divergence between phenotypic and genetic variation within populations of a common herb across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Villellas, Jesús; Berjano, Enrique Regina; Terrab, Anass; García González, María Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the pattern and causes of phenotypic and genetic variation within and among populations might help to understand life history variability in plants, and to predict their responses to changing environmental conditions. Here we compare phenotypic variation and genetic diversity of the widespread herb Plantago coronopus across Europe, and evaluate their relationship with environmental and geographical factors. Genetic diversity was estimated in 18 populations from molecular markers wit...

  7. Curcuminoid Biosynthesis by Two Type III Polyketide Synthases in the Herb Curcuma longa*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Funa, Nobutaka; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-01-01

    Curcuminoids found in the rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa, possess various biological activities. Despite much attention regarding the biosynthesis of curcuminoids because of their pharmaceutically important properties and biosynthetically intriguing structures, no enzyme systems have been elucidated. Here we propose a pathway for curcuminoid biosynthesis in the herb C. longa, which includes two novel type III polyketide synthases. One of the type III polyketide syn...

  8. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby; Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects of extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs in gentamicin (GM)-nephrotoxic rats. Material and Methods: Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into six equal groups. Group 1 was given sterile saline solution by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (negative control). Group 2 (nephrotoxic) was injected with GM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days during the last week of th...

  9. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Wódkiewicz; Anna Justyna Kwiatkowska-Fali?ska

    2010-01-01

    Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Bia?owie?a Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and ...

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine herbs — are they safe for psoriatic patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Gra?yna Chodorowska; Ryszard Maciejewski; Jacob Dreiher; Jacek Szepietowski; Aldona Pietrzak; Joanna Patrycja Bartosi?ska

    2011-01-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) relies on remedies of natural origin, its use is not always safe as it can have not only beneficial but also deleterious effects. Psoriatic patients, disappointed by conventional treatment and unaware of the potential side effects of TCM preparations, are increasingly reaching for non-traditional therapeutic methods. This review presents brief characteristics of selected Chinese herbs self-prescribed by psoriatic patients. It is important that derma...

  11. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Agudo; F. Xavier Picó; Inés Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian...

  12. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    OpenAIRE

    GeLin

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigat...

  13. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  14. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-xia Ma; Xing-yue Yang; Gang Guo; Dong-qing Du; Yan-pu Yu; Shu-zhong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles' treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results....

  15. Repellent Effect of Herb Extracts on the Population of Wingless Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromi Ikeura; Fumiyuki Kobayashi; Yasuyoshi Hayata

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of the repellent and insecticidal effects of 8 kinds of herb extracts (chives, dokudami, eucalyptus, lavender, peppermint, cherry sage, sweet pepper and tansy) against wingless green peach aphids were conducted in laboratory and field test. In laboratory repellent tests, 20 aphids were placed between a radish leaf and filter paper for 16 h and aphids on radish leaf were calculated. In laboratory insecticide tests, 20 aphids were placed on a radish leaf treated with herb extract,...

  16. Hepatoprotective Effect of Herb Formula KIOM2012H against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayong Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. KIOM2012H dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation and gene expressions involved in lipogenesis and related regulators. Experimental animals also showed a decrease in body weight changes and lipid-associated physiological parameters. This study shows that KIOM2012H has an alleviating effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation, and therefore can be applied for development of new therapeutic pharmaceuticals for treatment of NAFLD using natural products and herbs.

  17. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; g?n jú hu?), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; sh?n zh?), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  18. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products. PMID:26305257

  19. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Tsao, Sai-Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Yibin, E-mail: yfeng@hku.hk [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-24

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.

  20. Biosorption and preconcentration of lead and cadmium on waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption behavior of the solid waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai (seeds of Sterculia lychnophera Hance) was studied as a sorbent for trace lead and cadmium. The solid waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai has good sorption and desorption properties for Pb and Cd. The sorbed waste Chinese herb Pang Da Hai was both easily eluted with 0.1 mol l-1 HNO3 and easily digested with concentrated HNO3.The extent of adsorption depends on pH, metal concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of interfering ions. The adsorption capacities were found to be 27.1 and 17.5 mg g-1 for Pb and Cd. The relative standard deviation of the metal uptake experiment was found to be less than 10% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) using 100 ?g l-1 of metal ions and 20 mg substrate. Based on above, an ecofriend and low cost method for Cd and Pb preconcentration and determination with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was developed. The method was validated by the analysis of a standard reference material (GBW 08301). The results agree with those quoted by manufactures. It was used for 90-fold preconcentration of Cd and Pb from tap water and river water samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopic (FAAS) determination with satisfactory results

  1. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products

  2. EFFECTS OF INDIAN HERBS ON THE MODULATION OF STRESS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE IN TILAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mustafa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are now able to understand the negative effects of chemicals and are shifting to natural products. Natural products such as plant products are now being used to reduce stress, promote growth, and increase immune response in fish and shellfish. Some of these products are alkaloids, flavonoids, pigments, phenolics, terpenoids, steroids, and essential oils. In this experiment, we wanted to examine few Indian herbs such as, turmeric, garlic, and chili in-vivo to modulate stress and immune response in fish, tilapia. Fish were fed with these herbs as additives and treated in two different conditions: controlled and stressed. In the stressed group the fish were crowded in tanks so that their optimal density for space is exceeded. Different physiological and biochemical parameters such as, condition factor, blood glucose, spleen somatic index (SSI, plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV and macrophage respiratory burst activity were measured. The data indicate that these herbs have positive effects on the reduction of stress. These neutraceuticals can be used in aquaculture industry to reduce stress related complexities such as, low growth rate, disease susceptibility, and high mortality.

  3. Review: Treatment of toxicity caused by anti-tubercular drugs by use of different herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a familiar ailment in India and worldwide and is chief cause of mortality among all the infectious diseases. In present scenario therapy of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol are commonly recommended against TB. These drugs lead to many adverse reactions which are one of the major reasons for non adherence of patients to these drugs that may lead to development of MDR. With the current scenario of MDR cases rising, this problem of adverse drug reactions cannot be taken lightly. Due to lack of successful drugs for treatment of toxicity caused by anti-TB drugs we have to turn towards traditional medicine. Ayurveda is an ancient system of natural and holistic medicine. Ayurvedic herbs have still being used as a part of treatment regimen in many parts of world. Local people still use these herbs as they are full of curative properties. Because anti-tubercular drugs induced toxicity leads to oxidative enzymes imbalance also leads to necrosis in liver tissue and many other degenerative changes, herbal extracts were experimented upon to test their ability to ameliorate toxicity by activating protective pathways. In this review we have summarized few of such herbs whose extracts were tested for their curative properties against anti-tubercular drugs induced toxicity.The main constituents in extracts that were responsible for protective effects have also been summarized along with their mechanisms of action.

  4. Radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of commonly used herbs and spices in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mira; Goo, Tae-Hwa; Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2012-08-01

    Herbs and spices not only variety and racy flavour to Korean foods, they also are the richest source for antioxidant power. The present study evaluates the radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from commonly used herbs and spices in Korea. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of bay extract were 39.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was in order of dill (50.0%) > bay (31.3%) > garlic (27.9%) > white pepper and black pepper (15.1-15.3%) > onion (10.1%) extracts. Bay extract had the highest total phenolic content (17.86 ?g CE/g). High correlation coefficients were found between the total phenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R = 0.9162). These results indicate that herbs and spices had high antioxidant activity that is partly due to the phenolic compounds and provide basic data for further development of processed food products. PMID:22149899

  5. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

  6. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  7. Analysis of the Detection Characteristics of Irradiated Dried Spices and Herbs by Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to determine whether Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL) is applicable for the detection of post-irradiated foods by measuring the PSL photon counts of unirradiated and irradiated dried spices and herbs. A total of 19 dried spices and herbs was irradiated with a ?60Co ?-ray source at 1, 5 and 10 kGy followed by measurement of PSL photon. The photon counts of unirradiated samples below 700 correspond to negative. Fifteen samples irradiated over 1 kGy showed photon counts of more than 5,000, indicating irradiation treatment. Intermediate counts (photon count 700-5,000) were observed in irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark at 10 kGy. These results suggest that it is possible to detect whether dried spices and herbs were irradiated by analyzing PSL, with the exception of white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark. Irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark containing low levels of minerals were not sensitive to PSL. Therefore, further investigation is suggested to be performed by Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis or another validated or standardized method

  8. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  9. Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R.H. Whittaker revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2011-01-01

    In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.

  10. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs. - Highlights: ? The PSL and TL properties of polyminerals from foodstuffs irradiated are analyzed. ? Quartz and feldspars were identified by XRD in the powder samples. ? The first TL peak (96–102 °C) has a clear influence on PSL and TL fading decay. ? The glow curves show complex structure and six TL peaks were deconvoluted. ? The PSL and TL results are very appropriate for analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  11. Antioxidant potential of herbs extracts and impact on HepG2 cells viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury poisoning is responsible for inducing serious adverse effects in living organisms. One of protection factors could be substances proven to possess high antioxidant and metal chelating activity – plant polyphenols. There are many sources of polyphenols in plant kingdom but the most interesting for food industry could be widely consumed herbs. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative potential of selected plant extracts and its influence on HepG2 cells in different conditions. Ethanolic herbs extracts were characterised by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH• and ABTS+• radicals scavenging methods and FRAP. Research included cells viability estimation by the MTT assay and cells exposition to HgCl2, chemical agent inducing cell death. Analysis of herbs extracts antioxidative activity showed best potential represented thyme and marjoram, highest FRAP was evaluated in samples with mint and marjoram extracts. On the basis of received results it was found that examined plant extracts showed weak protection against Hg presence in examined cells environment.

  12. Sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated edible herbs: The fewer, the safer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Su-Min; Xu, Jun; Bai, Ying-Jia; Ding, Yan; Kong, Ming; Liu, Huan-Huan; Li, Xiu-Yang; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Chen, Hu-Biao; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The residual content of sulfur dioxide is frequently regarded as the exclusive indicator in the safety evaluation of sulfur-fumigated edible herbs. To examine the feasibility of such assessment criteria, here the variations in residual sulfur dioxide content during sulfur-fumigation and the potential mechanisms involved were investigated, using Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) as a model herb. The residual sulfur dioxide content and ten major bioactive components in sulfur-fumigated ASR samples were dynamically examined at 13 successive time points within 72 h sulfur-fumigation. The relationship between the content variation tendency of sulfur dioxide and the ten chemicals was discussed. The results suggested that sulfur dioxide-involved chemical transformation of the original components in ASR might cause large consumption of residual sulfur dioxide during sulfur-fumigation. It implies that without considering the induced chemical transformation of bioactive components, the residual sulfur dioxide content alone might be inadequate to comprehensively evaluate the safety of sulfur-fumigated herbs. PMID:26304328

  13. Phenotypic recurrent selection on herb growth yield of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus grown in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED M. IBRAHIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim MM,Khalid KA. 2013. Phenotypic recurrent selection on herb growth yield of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus grown in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 68-72. This investigation was conducted in four generations: base population (G0, G1, G2 and G3 (clone selection generation to evaluate the genetic variability of citronella clones. Thirteen clones were selected from base population to study the herb growth yield characters and oil production as well as genetic parameters, correlation and regression. Results were recorded for herb growth characters (i.e. plant high (PH, no. of tillers (NOT, dry yield (DY, viability percentage (VP and oil production. Significant variation was observed among citronella clones in base population for most studied traits. Wide range of mean values was observed among the characters for generations and cuts in most of traits. High heritability values (0.95, 0.93, 0.89 and 0.72 were estimated in NOT, LG, HY and VP., respectively. Clone code no. 39/3, 17/4 and 8/1 gave highest values of dry weight, oil yield and viability percentage. Selected clones showed significant positive regression and correlation between dry weight and each of number of tillers and linear growth. On contrary, viability percentage had significant negative correlation and regression with other characters. These results raveled high yielding selected citronella clones will be utilized in medicinal plant breeding program.

  14. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  15. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Moser, C; Høiby, N

    1996-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs, Isatis tinctoria L (ITL) and Daphne giraldii Nitsche (DGN), on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF). Compared to the control group, both drugs were able to reduce the incidence of lung abscess (p < 0.05) and to decrease the severity of the macroscopic pathology in lungs (p < 0.05). In the great majority of the rats, the herbs altered the inflammatory response in the lungs from an acute type inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), to a chronic type inflammation, dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (MN). DGN also improved the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs (p < 0.03) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the two herbal groups with regard to serum IgG and IgA anti-P. aeruginosa sonicate antibodies. However, the IgM concentration in the ITL group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.03). These results suggest that the two medicinal herbs might be helpful to CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection, DGN being the most favorable. PMID:8703440

  16. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  17. Mechanisms underlying mechanical responses to Ephedra herb of isolated rabbit urinary bladder and urethra, a possible stress urinary incontinence therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayajiki, Kazuhide; Kimura, Toshio; Yamamizu, Kohei; Okamura, Tomio

    2008-06-01

    To compare the mechanisms underlying mechanical responses to ephedrine and Ephedra herb, a main component of Kakkon-to, in isolated male and female rabbit urinary bladder and urethral strips, responses of isolated strips to the agents were recorded in organ bath systems. Ephedrine and Ephedra herb relaxed the female urinary bladder to the similar extent. These relaxations are reversed to contractions by timolol. In the presence of timolol, ephedrine produced less contraction of urethral strips in the female than those in the male; this contraction was abolished by prazosin. Ephedra herb contracted the female urethra less than that of the male, and the contraction was stronger than that by ephedrine. The contraction caused by Ephedra herb in strips treated with timolol was significantly inhibited by prazosin. The prazosin-resistant contraction of the female urethra was greater than that of the male. Quinacrine, a phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, indomethacin, and AA861, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, inhibited the contraction. The contraction was inhibited by ZK 158252, a leukotriene (LT) B(4)-receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that Ephedra herb contracts the urethra via arachidonic acid metabolites together with alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation. The metabolites produced by 5-lipoxygenase may stimulate LTB(4), but not CysLt(1), receptors. These contractile components induced by Ephedra herb and Kakkon-to might be effective for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. PMID:18544894

  18. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 102 to l.4 x 108 per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 102 to 4.3 x 106 per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 101 to 1.9 x 105 per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  19. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  20. Hepatotoxicity or Hepatoprotection? Pattern Recognition for the Paradoxical Effect of the Chinese Herb Rheum palmatum L. in Treating Rat Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Dao-jian; Kong, Wei-jun; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hong-Juan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract(RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-treated rats for 12...

  1. Antioxidant activities of cold-nature Tibetan herbs are signifcantly greater than hot-nature ones and are associated with their levels of total phenolic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine. PMID:26253494

  2. Effects of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupuncture on the Carrageenan induced arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Bok Yu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to check of Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture on effect of anti-inflammtory function, anti-febrile function and analgestic function in carrageenan-induced arthritic rat. Each of 8 rat were classified into control, sample group. Control group were inject by normal saline and Sample group were injected by Scolopendra subspinipes multilans. Herb-Acupuncture. After elicitating edema and inflammation of Sprgue Dawely(SD rats by injection of 1% Carrageenan 0.1ml, then the rate of increase of paw edema, CRP, ESR, WBC were checked and rectal-temperature, topical temperature was checked about anti-febrile. writhing syndrome was checked about analgesic. The results were as follows 1. In the sample group, the rate of increase of paw edema was significantly decreased as compared with thatof control group(P<0.05 2. In the sample group, the rectal-temperature was non-significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 3. In the sample group, CRP and WBC was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group, but ESR was not.(P<0.05 4. In the sample group, opical-temperature was significantly decreased as compared with that of control group (P<0.05 5. In the sample group, analgestic function was not sigiflcntly effected as compared with that of control group(P<0.05 According to the above result, it can be concluded Scolopendra subspinipes multilans Herb-Acupucture showed the treatment effects on the artifical arthritis resulted from carrageenan in rat and it is suggested that more interest and study in the mechanism and clinical use were needed.

  3. Pyrolysis kinetics of biomass (herb residue) under isothermal condition in a micro fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Herb residual pyrolysis kinetics was studied under isothermal condition. • A micro fluidized bed was used as the reactor. • Pyrolysis reaction in the fluidized bed can be finished in around 10 s. • The values of activation energy for generating H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 were achieved. - Abstract: Herb residue is one of the most important industrial biomass in China in terms of availability and potential for use as a bioenergy resource. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of this fuel in an inert atmosphere was evaluated using a micro fluidized bed. The isothermal differential analysis was applied for determination of kinetic parameters for the major gas components formation including reaction order, activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The temperature inside the micro fluidized bed was steady and the pyrolysis reaction of herb residue finished in around 10 s at 600–800 °C. The reaction time for complete releasing of individual gas components was shorter at higher temperature. Experimental results showed that under the conditions studied, the values of activation energy for generating H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 were 18.90, 12.05, 10.48 and 11.31 kJ/mol respectively, corresponding to the values of pre-exponential factor in the range of 0.88–1.38 s−1. The results indicated that H2 was the most difficult to form due to the highest activation energy, while generating CO was the easiest corresponding to the lowest activation energy. Compared with TGA and other analysis approaches, the kinetic parameters obtain by the micro fluidized bed were significantly lower benefiting from its quick reaction features

  4. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Angelova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by ??? cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 ?g/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

  5. Preservation of alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil by herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, C G; Jagait, C; Kelly, M J

    2000-09-01

    The ability of some commercially available herb and spice extracts to preserve alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil during heating at 85-105 degrees C was assessed using sunflower oil as a model system. The Rancimat was evaluated for the heating stage and was used throughout as it was shown to be viable: alpha-tocopherol did not evaporate under the test conditions. The delay in the onset of rancidity was found to be directly related to the initial alpha-tocopherol concentration (P clove extract but coriander and cardamom extracts were pro-oxidants. With thyme extract, the log of the induction time (as an indicator of the delay in rancidity) was directly proportional to the temperature (85-100 degrees C). The ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of fresh sage were effective for preserving alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.01). With thyme, rosemary and sage extracts, the increase in the preservation of alpha-tocopherol was directly related to the concentration of the herb extract (P < 0.01) and was quite effective even at 100 mg.kg-1. The increased delay in the onset of rancidity was due directly to the improved preservation of alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.01). In further experiments, the preservative effect of turmeric was shown not to be due to its reported major antioxidant, curcumin, even though it delayed rancidity. When herb/spice extracts were examined mixed with thyme, bay and turmeric showed synergism (P < 0.01) whereas bay alone was slightly inhibitory. The mode of action appeared to be due to free radical activity rather than through singlet oxygen generation. PMID:11103298

  6. Determination of selenium in herb plants by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium in herb plants was determined by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method with a correlation of 75Se gamma-rays energies between a NaI(Tl) detector and a Ge(Li) detector. Each freeze-dried herb plants sample (c.a. 250 mg) was irradiated for 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor in a thermal flux, 3.2 x 1012 n cm-2sec-1. After about (2 -- 6) weeks from the irradiation, gamma-rays were counted by means of the coincidence counting method with a Ge(Li) detector and a NaI(Tl) detector. In this counting method, the background around the photopeak of 75Se-265 keV could be reduced to one twentieth: accordingly the detection limit of selenium could be improved by a factor of four when compared with that by the conventional counting method. For examing the accuracy and the reproducibility of this method, selenium contained in Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaves (NBS) were determined, and the content of selenium was in good agreement with the certified value. The selenium contents of five kinds of galic and onion samples were found to be in range of (0.02 -- 0.31) ?g/g dry weight and in range of (0.02 -- 0.05) ?g/g dry weight, respectively. These values were also in good agreement with fluorometry results. The selenium contents of other herb plants were less than 0.1 ?g/g. (author)

  7. Identification of dehydrated spices and herbs subjected to the irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research shows the possibility of determining through a combination of analytical methods whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated. The methods used were the following: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Viscosimetry was applied in suspensions of dehydrated and irradiated spices and herbs which had been gellified by heat. It was observed that the viscosity of the samples decreases when the radiation dose increases. It was also observed that the temperature of the gelification is linked to the viscosity. The variation of the capability of gelification of the samples in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) does not have any consequence on the viscosity. Thermoluminescence is based on the transference of electrons to an excited state by ionizing radiation with emission of light when the electrons thermally stimulated. The thermoluminescent signals of the spices can be explained by the presence of mineral grains adhering to the surface of the samples. The thermoluminescent signal increased in intensity with the amplification of the radiation dose. The study of the signal in relation to the storage time (30 and 60 days) showed that it weakened and decreased. Free radicals produced by irradiation of spices were analyzed by the electron spin resonance method (ESR). It was checked that increasing the radiation dose meant an intensification of the ESR signal. Within a 30 day storage time, a fading of the signal was observed. The results of this study lead us to the following conclusion: viscosimetry, thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance are methods of analysis which are proper to detect whether dehydrated spices and herbs were irradiated, especially when these different methods were used in combination. (author)

  8. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  9. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  10. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  11. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zimowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and bark breaking. Phoma nepeticolawas obtained from the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca leaves and stems with symptoms of small necrotic spots. Phyllosticta plantaginiswas isolated from leaves of ribwort (Plantago lanceolata showing symptoms of small, regular, necrotic spots.

  12. Pharmacists' attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nada A., Abahussain; Eman A., Abahussain; Fawaz M., Al-Oumi.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio fue investigar el conocimiento y actitudes entre los farmacéuticos en Kuwait hacia el uso de plantas medicinales. Métodos: Se diseñó un cuestionario auto-administrado como instrumento para el estudio y se distribuyó entre 100 farmacéuticos cualificados que tra [...] bajan en farmacias privadas y gubernamentales de Kuwait. Resultados: La edad media fue de 34,2 (DE=7,5) años. Alrededor del 51% de los farmacéuticos comunicaron que habían usado plantas medicinale sen su vida. La mayoría estaban interesados en la información sobre plantas medicinales, y su información sobre ellas venía principalmente de la enseñanza en la Universidad. Aunque el conocimiento de los farmacéuticos sobre los usos de las plantas seleccionadas era bueno, su conciencia sobre los efectos adversos era modesta. Alrededor del 31% de los farmacéuticos no tenía suficiente información sobre las posibles interacciones entre las plantas medicinales y los medicamentos convencionales. Conclusión: Se necesita información de plantas medicinales para los estudiantes de farmacia como parte del currículo de la facultad de Farmacia. Deberían establecerse en Kuwait programas de formación continuada para farmacéuticos en ejercicio sobre la seguridad de las diferentes plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private p [...] harmacies in Kuwait. Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists' knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

  13. Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

  14. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Devi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

  15. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Patel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

  16. Preliminary design characteristics of the RB fast-thermal core 'HERBE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'RB' is zero power heavy water critical assembly designed in 1958 in Yugoslavia. The reactor operated using natural metal uranium, 2% enriched metal uranium, and 80% enriched UO2 fuel of Soviet origin. A study of design of fast neutron fields began in 1976 and three fast neutron fields were designed up to 1983: the external neutron converter, the experimental fuel channel and the internal neutron converter, as the first step to fast-thermal coupled system. The preliminary design characteristics of the HERBE - a new fast - thermal core at the RB reactor are shown in this paper. (author)

  17. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, resp...

  18. Induction of somatic embryogenesis and genetic fidelity of endangered medicinal herb Curculigo orchioides Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Patel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient regeneration system, through somatic embryogenesis was developed forCurculigo orchioides Gaertn - an endangered medicinal herb. Somatic embryos weredeveloped on MS medium containing 8 - 15?M BA from leaf explants. The highest, 69 % leafexplants responded in terms of embryogenic calli with average 8 embryos on MS mediumcontaining 8?M BA. Regenerated plantlets were transferred to autoclaved mixture of soil:sand: compost (1:1:1; v/v/v for hardening. Genetic fidelity of somatic embryogenesis derivedregenerant was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD.

  19. Purification of a lectin-like antifungal protein from the medicinal herb, Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Modhumita

    2009-03-01

    A 30 KDa monomeric acidic lectin-like protein was purified from the leaves of an important medicinal herb, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), by a series of gel filtration and affinity chromatography methods. The inhibitory concentration of the protein ranged from 7 microg to 11 microg against major phytopathogens under in vitro conditions. The peptide sequence showed similarity to concanavalin A like lectin from Canavalia ensiformis and caused distinct cell wall adhesion of the protein treated hyphae under SEM. Further, the antifungal activity of the protein was compared with standard lectins like concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin. PMID:18977281

  20. Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Roopashree

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In view of increasing resistance to existing antimicrobial agents, herbal drugs are being looked as very importance source for discovery of new agents for treating various ailments related to bacterial infections. Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Momordica charantia are well known plants in Asia including India which posses wide range of pharmacological activities. These drugs have been used in India as  folk remedy in the form of decoctions and infusions to treat bacterial infections and also claimed to be an effective against variety of skin conditions like psoriasis, acne, wounds etc. The present investigation was carried out to study the unexplored area of these drugs towards their antibacterial activity with respect to their traditional use as antipsoriatic agents. The herbs were subjected to successive extraction using different solvents and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial evaluation against both gram positive and gram negative organisms by cup plate technique. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts were found to be more effective against all the bacteria. Staphyllococcus aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts among the tested organisms.   Industrial relevance: The selected herbs have been used traditionally for treating skin diseases like psoriasis, for which there is no complete cure till date. Though exact mechanism of these herbs for their effectiveness in psoriasis is not understood, according to American academy of dermatology antibacterial therapy could also be used for treating psoriasis. In view of this study of antibacterial activity was carried out. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts exhibited highest activity especially against S. aureus which has been one of the organisms which aggravate conditions like psoriasis. As the aqueous extracts have shown excellent activity, these extracts could be formulated individually or in combination as external or internal dosage forms. In this regard there is great scope for developing new herbal formulation for treating psoriasis using the above said herbal combination.  Further scope exists for research with formulation and development, pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy in patients (clinical trial. This kind of study could generate more such ideas for re-inventing and using herbs in combination to treat many more diseases.

  1. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  2. Influence of void effects on reactivity of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at the experimental zero power heavy water reactor RB is a system with the significant effects of the neutron leakage and neutron absorption. Presence of a coolant void introduces a new structure in an extremely heterogeneous core. In those conditions satisfactory results of the calculation are acquired only using specified space-energy homogenization procedure. In order to analyze transient appearances and accidental cases of the reactor systems, a procedure for modeling of influence of moderator and coolant loss on reactivity ('void effect') is developed. Reduction of the moderator volume fraction in some fuel channels due to air gaps or steam generation during the accidental moderator boiling, restricts validity of the diffusion approximation in the reactor calculations. In cases of high neutron flux gradients, which are consequence of high neutron absorption, application of diffusion approximation is questionable too. The problem may be solved using transport or Monte Carlo methods, but they are not acceptable in the routine applications. Applying new techniques based on space-energy core homogenization, such as the SPH method or the discontinuity factor method, diffusion calculations become acceptable. Calculations based on the described model show that loss of part of moderator medium introduce negative reactivity in the HERBE system. Calculated local void reactivity coefficients are used in safety analysis of hypothetical accidents

  3. Sale of medicinal herbs in pharmacies and herbal stores in Hurlingham district, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán G. Bach

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedicine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: "malva" (Malva sp., 18%; "manzanilla" (Matricaria recutita, 13%; "tilo" (Tiliasp., 12%; "cuasia" (Picrasma crenata, 8%; and "boldo" (Peumus boldus, 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.

  4. Sale of medicinal herbs in pharmacies and herbal stores in Hurlingham district, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán G., Bach; Marcelo L., Wagner; Rafael A., Ricco; Renée H., Fortunato.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedic [...] ine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: "malva" (Malva sp.), 18%; "manzanilla" (Matricaria recutita), 13%; "tilo" (Tilia sp.), 12%; "cuasia" (Picrasma crenata), 8%; and "boldo" (Peumus boldus), 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.

  5. Availability of essential trace elements in medicinal herbs used for diabetes mellitus and their possible correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further, Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material (RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1-2 ?g/g), Rb (10-40 ?g/g), Cs (80-300 ng/g), Se (?100 ng/g) and Zn (25-60 ?g/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2±1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 ?g/g whereas Cd and Pb were in ?5 ?g/g and <10 ?g/g, respectively. (author)

  6. Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  7. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Promkhatkaew, Duanthanorm; Bunjob, Malee; Chueyprom, Asawachai; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2010-02-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. PMID:20140802

  8. A system for screening agonists targeting beta2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

    2009-04-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human beta(2)-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d(2)EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC(1/2 max)) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 microg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of beta(2)-adrenoceptor. PMID:19353741

  9. Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Bian, Difei; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Tan, Qian; Chen, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside) and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid). To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-?(1) levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P = 0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P = 0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P = 0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly). PMID:23346217

  10. The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401

  11. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-08-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  12. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, A. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Corda, U. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuochi, P. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.it; Bortolin, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Calicchia, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  13. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (?²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21339129

  14. Study of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigment from Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Xia; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Li, Gong-Ke

    2008-07-11

    Vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), in which microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was performed in vacuum, was specially designed and applied for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigments from Chinese herbs. The extraction conditions including solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and degree of vacuum were optimized. Subsequently, VMAE, MAE, and conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE) were evaluated with resveratrol and emodin extraction from Rhizma Polygoni Cuspidati, myricetin and quercetin extraction from Myrica rubra leaves, and safflomin A extraction from Flos Carthami. In addition, the different microstructures of those rhizome, leaf, and flower samples were investigated before and after extraction. It was obvious that the extraction yields of resveratrol, myricetin and safflomin A (thermosensitive compounds) with VMAE were higher than that with MAE or HRE by increments of 6.4-9.4% and 7.9-29.5%, respectively. In contrast, there was no obvious difference among the extraction yields for emodin and quercetin (thermo-stable compounds) with VMAE, MAE and HRE, except that the solvent consumption in VMAE was decreased. The results suggest that VMAE is a good alternative for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigments, especially thermosensitive compounds, from Chinese herbs. PMID:18534606

  15. Determination of elemental composition of some aphrodisiac herbs by Nuclear Analytical Technique (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties were collected in the form of leaves, stem bark, nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots, between 25th September 2009 and 15 October 2009. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of thirteen aphrodisiac herbs used to treat the problem of Sexual dysfunction. Concentrations of twenty two elements AI, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, and Zn have been determined by short and long irradiation times with a thermal neutron flux of 5* 1011ncm-2s-1. Quality control and quality assurance of the method was tested by analyzing IAEA-359 and SRM-1573 together with the samples. The INAA spectra were analyzed using WINSPAN 2004 software package. Our result shows that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn (669±34gg-1) which is more than the amount (95.0gg-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The level of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, is 599gg-1 and 702gg-1 respectively. These values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng and Radix codonopsis. For all the species of the same family the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. The present study can be use to some extent to assess the safety intake of aphrodisiac herbs in the final formulation.

  16. Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  17. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications

  18. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paullinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some comparisons about the influence of high doses of irradiation and biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids and flavonoids. Since raw materials are often contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, they can also result in serious human illness. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of microorganisms. Whether the essential oils, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation will be analyzed. The powdered and dehydrated herbs for and medical uses will be irradiated with electron bean applying doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated will be Paullinia cupana Kunth (popular name Guarana) is largely cultivated in Brazil and to very used as energetic drink, and Rhamus purshiana D.C. despite the nutritional value, this vegetable has important medicinal proprieties as depurate and diuretic. The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation will be analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography. (author)

  19. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  20. The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Herbs as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Alimon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplements in animal production. Garlic (Allium sativum, turmeric (Curcuma Longa and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum have been widely used as medicinal and growth promoter purposes in animals. However, the information of the effect of these herbs on broiler production, especially under tropical environmental condition is still inadequate. About 240 days old chicks were randomly allocated to 10 treatment groups consisting of 3 replications of 8 chicks in each pen. The experimental groups were formulated consisting of non-supplemented (control and supplemented diets. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diet as follows; garlic, turmeric and cinnamon were incorporated at three concentrations; 0.25, 0.5 and 1% into the basal diet (mash form. The overall body weight gain of broiler chickens fed with 0.25% turmeric, 0.5% garlic and 0.5% cinnamon found to be significant different compared with the control group. From the result of present study, it could be suggested that the use of powdered garlic (Allium sativum as feed additive at level of 0.5% as it proved be significantly different in body weight gain and FCR compared with the control group.

  1. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation; Zbadanie mozliwosci wykorzystania wiazki elektronow w procesie wyjalawiania wybranych fitoterapeutykow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. The effect of sodium reduction and the use of herbs and spices on the quality and safety of bologna sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ivone Carraro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the replacement of 50% NaCl by KCl in Bologna sausage with the addition of herbs and spice blends (coriander, onion, white pepper, cardamom, and Jamaican pepper was evaluated. The formulations tested showed a significant reduction in the sodium content with no major alterations in the emulsion stability, texture, and microbiological characteristics. The use of 50% KCl caused a reduction in the sensory quality leading to a significant decrease in the consumers' purchase intention. The formulations with the addition of herbs and spice blends presented better results in the sensory evaluation indicating that this strategy can reduce the negative effects resulting from the use of KCl.

  3. Evidence chain-based causality identification in herb-induced liver injury: exemplification of a well-known liver-restorative herb Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabo; Ma, Zhijie; Niu, Ming; Zhu, Yun; Liang, Qingsheng; Zhao, Yanling; Song, Jingyuan; Bai, Zhaofang; Zhang, Yaming; Zhang, Ping; Li, Na; Meng, Yakun; Li, Qi; Qin, Lushan; Teng, Guangju; Cao, Junling; Li, Baosen; Chen, Shilin; Li, Yonggang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhou, Honghao; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2015-12-01

    Herbal medicines have recently been recognized as the second most common cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in the United States. However, reliable methods to identify the DILI causality of some herbs, such as Heshouwu (dried root of Polygonum multiflorum), remain lacking. In this study, a total of 12 307 inpatients with liver dysfunction and 147 literature-reported cases of Heshouwu DILI were screened. A general algorithm indicated that only 22.5% (9/40) and 30.6% (45/147) of all hospitalization and literature case reports, respectively, demonstrate the high probability of DILI causality of Heshouwu. By contrast, 95% (19/20) of all cases prospectively investigated by pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, and metabolomic tests exhibited highly probable causality, including a patient who was previously incorrectly attributed and a case that was excluded from Heshouwu causality by pharmacognostic evidence. Toxin (heavy metals, pesticides, and mycotoxins) contamination was also excluded from Heshouwu DILI causality. The objectivity of these screening methods for Heshouwu DILI diagnosis addresses safety concerns regarding stilbene-containing herbal medicines and dietary supplements. PMID:26459430

  4. Karg S., D.E. Robinson (2002): Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices. In: K. Viklund, R. Engelmark (eds.) Nordic Archaeobotany-NAG 2000 in Umeå.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices.......Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices....

  5. Chromosome localisation of nucleolar organizer region in Rhodophiala bagnoldii (Herb.) Traub (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae) determined by silver nitrate staining Localización cromosómica de la región organizadora nucleolar en Rhodophiala bagnoldii (Herb.) Traub (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae) determinada por tinción con nitrato de plata

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Jara-Seguel; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Javier Contreras; Elisabeth von Brand

    2012-01-01

    Estudios cariotípicos en Rhodophiala bagnoldii (Herb.) Traub (2n = 18) han descrito constricciones secundarias subteloméricas localizadas en el brazo largo del par cromosómico 7. En este trabajo, una señal Ag-NOR positiva fue observada en la constricción secundaria de ambos cromosomas homólogos. Nucléolos fusionados y no fusionados fueron también observados en núcleos interfásicos de células meristemáticas.

  6. Lipid A-based affinity biosensor for screening anti-sepsis components from herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LPS (lipopolysaccharide, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl β-D-glucopyranoside was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC–HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3 from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs.

  7. Caracterização do dossel e do estrato de regeneração natural no sub-bosque e em clareiras de uma florestal estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa, MG Canopy and natural regeneration stratum characterization in the understorey and gaps of a seasonal semideciduous forest in the county of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Reserva Mata do Paraíso, pertencente à Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram selecionadas 10 clareiras naturais com diferentes tamanhos. No centro das clareiras e numa faixa de 5 m de sub-bosque (entorno ao redor destas foram obtidas fotografias hemisféricas digitais. Através dessas fotografias, foram calculadas as áreas das clareiras e a sua correspondente abertura de dossel e dos seus entornos. No interior das clareiras e nos seus entornos foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com altura > 1,00 m e diâmetro na altura de 1,30 m do solo (DAP inferior a 5,00 cm. Constatou-se a predominância de pequenas clareiras com áreas inferiores a 100 m² e com pequena abertura do dossel nas quais predominam as mesmas espécies típicas dos estádios finais de sucessão tolerantes à sombra e abundantes no sub-bosque ao redor dessas clareiras. No conjunto das clareiras foram amostrados 759 indivíduos, distribuídos em 69 espécies pertencentes a 28 famílias botânicas. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' das clareiras variou de 1,026 a 3,011. Coffea arabica e Picramnia regnelli foram as espécies mais abundantes tanto no conjunto das clareiras quanto no conjunto dos entornos (sub-bosque. A similaridade florística entre o conjunto das clareiras e o conjunto dos entornos foi alta (Ij = 69%, indicando que as mesmas espécies que regeneram no sub-bosque estão conseguindo fazer o mesmo também no ambiente de clareira. A dominância ecológica de Coffea arabica nos dois ambientes pode, no longo prazo, comprometer a conservação das espécies autóctones desse trecho da floresta.This study was developed in the Mata do Paraíso Reserve from the Viçosa Federal University. Ten natural gaps of different sizes were selected. Digital hemispherical photographs were obtained from the middle of the gaps, in a 5 m understorey area (surroundings and neighboring areas. These hemispherical photographs allowed calculating areas corresponding to gaps and their respective canopy openness and surroundings. Inside the gaps and surroundings, all individuals with height > 1.00 m and diameter in height of 1.30 m from the soil (DAP below 5.00 m were sampled. The predominance of small gaps with areas below 100 m2 and with small canopy openness was verified, as well as the predominance of the same shade-tolerant species typical of the final succession stadiums, which are abundant in the understorey around these gaps. In the set of gaps, 759 individuals were sampled and distributed into 69 species belonging to 28 botanical families. The Shannon diversity index (H' of gaps ranged from 1.026 to 3.011. Coffea arabica and Picramnia regnelli were the most abundant species both in the set of gaps and in the set of surroundings (understorey. The floristic similarity between both sets was high (Ij = 69%, indicating that the same species that regenerate in the sub-wood also regenerate in the gaps environment. At long term, the ecological dominance of Coffea arabica in both environments may impair the conservation of autoctone species in this part of the forest.

  8. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs. PMID:26344383

  9. Finding health in folklore, herbs and supplements: the good, the bad & the ugly. Part I--The good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alan

    2002-01-01

    These are the major "good" alternative medications and supplements. They represent but a fraction of the known (or suspected) benefits of alternative therapies. Next issue, Part II of this series will deal with the dark "bad" side of this issue--when herbs become outlaws and toxic tumbleweeds. PMID:12462940

  10. Five minutes with Ulrich Herb on Open Science: “Open Science must be adapted to disciplinary specificities”

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In a recent interview conducted by OpenAire, open science veteran Ulrich Herb shares the main findings of his research on the extent of open research practices in the discipline of sociology, as well as his wider thoughts on the history and future of the Open Science movement. This interview originally appeared on the OpenAIRE portal here.

  11. Photosynthetic responses of four tropical tree species grown under gap and understorey conditions in a semi-deciduous forest / Respostas fotossintéticas de quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas crescidas sob condições de clareira e de sub-bosque em uma floresta semi-decídua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo M., Souza; Agnaldo M., Sato; Rafael V., Ribeiro; Carlos Henrique B. A., Prado.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A assimilação de CO2 (A) em função da densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossintéticos (Q) ou da concentração intercelular de CO2 (Ci), e medidas de fluorescência da clorofila foram realizadas em quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas em uma clareira e um sub-bosque (Bauhinia forficata Link. e Guazuma ulmif [...] olia Lam. como espécies pioneiras, e Hymenaea courbaril L. e Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. como espécies não pioneiras). Os dados de fluorescência da clorofila indicaram que ambos os grupos mostraram capacidade similar de aclimatação do aparato fotoquímico independente do ambiente luminoso. A assimilação máxima de CO2 e a eficiência quântica derivadas das curvas A/Q indicaram maior capacidade fotossintéticas das espécies pioneiras do que as não-pioneiras na clareira. Entretanto, sob condições de sub-bosque, as diferenças observadas em relação às curvas A/Q não mostraram uma relação direta com o grupo funcional das espécies. Ambos os grupos da sucessão foram capazes de manter um balanço de carbono positivo sob disponibilidades de luz contrastantes, modificando as características fotoquímicas e bioquímicas da fotossíntese com capacidade de plasticidade fenotípica similar. Abstract in english Leaf CO2 assimilation (A) as a function of photosynthetic photon flux density (Q) or intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out on four tropical woody species growing in forest gap and understorey (Bauhinia forficata Link. and Guazuma ulmifolia La [...] m. as pioneers, and Hymenaea courbaril L. and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. as non-pioneers). Chlorophyll fluorescence indicated similar acclimation capacities of photochemical apparatus to contrasting light environments irrespective to plant species. Maximum CO2 assimilation and quantum yield derived from A/Q curves indicated higher photosynthetic capacity in pioneer than in non-pioneer species in forest gap. However, the differences among species did not show a straightforward relation with their successional status regarding data derived from A/Q curves under understorey conditions. Both successional groups are able to sustain positive carbon balance under contrasting natural light availabilities, modifying photochemical and biochemical photosynthetic traits with similar phenotypic plasticity capacity.

  12. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVINDRA ADE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combination of phytoharmone. The maximum number of shoots (18.3±0.8 was obtained on M.S. medium supplemented with BAP + KIN (1.5 + 0.5 mg/L. The highest rooting percentage (95.25 was observed with (IAA 0.1 mg/L. The rooted plants were successfully established firstly in soil with coco peat (1:1 and then directly in ordinary soil.

  13. The effect of a Chinese herb (Saireito) therapy for edema and inflamation in early radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a course of radiotherapy, inflamation and edema in limbs and in the local skin, occures frequently due to acute radiation injury. Seventeen cases with radiation induced edema and relavant symptoms, are treated with four weeks of oral administration of Saireito, a Chinese herb of diuretic and antiinflamatory effects. Radiotherapies could be carried out without interruption. After four weeks, the edema decreased in 7 of 15 patients, circumference measure of swoolen limbs decreased than 2 cm in 3 of 11, local skin hardness relaxed in 3 of 9, local skin redness decreased in 2 of 11, disturbed limb mobility improved in 4 of 8. In all, at least one symptomatic improvement was obtained in relevant to the radiation induced edema in 11 of 17 patients (63%). No conspicuous side effect was recorded. (author)

  14. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Cha?kina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts. PMID:20143626

  15. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

    2010-05-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

  16. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM L -A FOLK UNANI MEDICINAL HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhogaonkar P Y

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. widely used in traditional as well as folk medicinal systems is locally known as Gokhru and in unani as Kutta Jhad. In Amravati district (Maharashtra, it was found that the whole plants as well as leaves are used by hakims as blood purifier and in scabies. Here pharmacognostic studies are made regarding whole plant and also only leaves. For standardization of drug material morphological and anatomical characterization is done. Phytochemical investigations were made to know the presence of various bioactive molecules, amino acid composition and minerals. The herb is characterized by unisexual capitula, scabrid surface with scales, trichomes and glands. Root with pith and multiseriate rays; stem with secondary growth restricted to fascicles and xylem with broad vessel elements; mesophyll with multilayered palisade and anomocytic stomata. Plant is rich in potassium and containing flavonoids, catechol, alkaloids, cardenoloids and many free amino acids.

  18. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate

  19. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

  20. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeremyJohnson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol are known to possess antioxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention.