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1

Silica nanoparticles aid in structural leaf coloration in the Malaysian tropical rainforest understorey herb Mapania caudata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background and Aims Blue-green iridescence in the tropical rainforest understorey sedge Mapania caudata creates structural coloration in its leaves through a novel photonic mechanism. Known structures in plants producing iridescent blues consist of altered cellulose layering within cell walls and in special bodies, and thylakoid membranes in specialized plastids. This study was undertaken in order to determine the origin of leaf iridescence in this plant with particular attention to nano-scale components contributing to this coloration. Methods Adaxial walls of leaf epidermal cells were characterized using high-pressure-frozen freeze-substituted specimens, which retain their native dimensions during observations using transmission and scanning microscopy, accompanied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to identify the role of biogenic silica in wall-based iridescence. Biogenic silica was experimentally removed using aqueous Na2CO3 and optical properties were compared using spectral reflectance. Key Results and Conclusions Blue iridescence is produced in the adaxial epidermal cell wall, which contains helicoid lamellae. The blue iridescence from cell surfaces is left-circularly polarized. The position of the silica granules is entrained by the helicoid microfibrillar layers, and granules accumulate at a uniform position within the helicoids, contributing to the structure that produces the blue iridescence, as part of the unit cell responsible for 2 ° Bragg scatter. Removal of silica from the walls eliminated the blue colour. Addition of silica nanoparticles on existing cellulosic lamellae is a novel mechanism for adding structural colour in organisms.

Strout G; Russell SD; Pulsifer DP; Erten S; Lakhtakia A; Lee DW

2013-10-01

2

[Optimize extraction process of polysaccharide in Trillium tschonoskii].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the extraction process of polysaccharide in Trillium tschonoskii. METHODS: The influence of temperature, time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction times on extraction yield of the polysaccharide in fleshy roots of Trillium tschonokii were discussed with orthogonal test method. RESULTS: The impact sequence of the factors on the extraction rate of polysaccharide in Trillium tschonoskii was as follows: extraction times > time > solid-liquid ratio > temperature; The optimal extraction condition was extraction temperature of 80 degrees C, extraction time of 4.5h, solid-liquid ratio of 1:40 and extracted three times. CONCLUSION: Under these optimal conditions, the extracting rates of polysaccharide in Trillium tschonoskii is 6.75%. The content of polysaccharide is high which can be exploited and utilized as another new ingredient.

Xu JJ; Ai XR; Li Q; Xiao H; Zheng XJ

2013-02-01

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Long-term population demography of Trillium recurvatum on loess bluffs in western Tennessee, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding the demography of long-lived clonal herbs, with their extreme modularity, requires knowledge of both their short- and long-term survival and ramet growth patterns. The primary objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of a clonal forest herb, Trillium recurvatum, by examining temporal and small-scale demographic patterns. We hypothesized: (i) there would be more variability in the juvenile age class compared with non-flowering adult and flowering adult classes due to year-to-year fluctuations in recruitment; (ii) rates of population growth (?) and increase (r) would be highest in non-flowering ramets due to a combination of transitions from the juvenile stage and reversions from flowering adults; and (iii) inter-ramet distances would be most variable between flowering and juvenile ramets due to a combination of clonal growth, seed dispersal by ants and ramet death over time. METHODOLOGY: Census data were collected on the total number of stems in the population from 1990 to 2007, and placed within one of three life stages (juvenile, three-leaf non-flowering and three-leaf flowering). Modified population viability equations were used to assess temporal population viability, and spatial structure was assessed using block krigging. Correlations were performed using current and prior season weather to current population demography. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The first hypothesis was rejected. The second hypothesis was supported: population increase (r) and growth rate (?) were highest in non-flowering ramets. Finally, the third hypothesis was rejected: there was no apparent density dependence within this population of Trillium and no apparent spatial structure among life stages. CONCLUSIONS: Overall population density fluctuated over time, possibly due to storms that move soil, and prior year's temperature and precipitation. However, density remained at some dynamic stable level. The juvenile age class had greater variability for the duration of this study and population growth rate was greatest for non-flowering ramets.

Moore JE; Franklin SB; Wein G; Collins BS

2012-01-01

4

Effect of nitrogen availability on forest understorey cover and its consequences for tree regeneration in the Austrian limestone Alps  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of airborne nitrogen on tree regeneration has attracted increasing interest as deposition loads are by far exceeding natural amounts. Eutrophication may have both direct and indirect effects on the regeneration of forest trees. Here, we focus on potential indirect effects, mediated by nitrogen-dependent patterns in forest understoreys. Using data from a long-term monitoring site in a montane forest ecosystem of the Northern Limestone Alps, we first evaluated correlations between understorey cover of herbs and graminoids and nitrogen availability, as indicated by soil C/N ratios. Then, recruitment and growth rates of the four major tree species of this system (Acer pseudplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies) were related to understorey cover by means of linear and generalized linear mixed models, taking covariates (soil pH value, radiation, microrelief properties) and spatially varied seed input into account. Nitrogen availability is positively related to graminoid and herb cover. Herb cover had a negative effect on A. pseudoplatanus recruitment, while graminoids had a positive effect on F. sylvatica. Browsing damage on juvenile trees was reduced when graminoid cover was higher We conclude that under specific abiotic and biotic conditions, like on steep, erosion prone slopes, or under high levels of herbivore pressure, understorey vegetation may facilitate tree seedlings rather than compete with them. This highlights the complexity of the factors controlling tree regeneration and the difficulty to predict the net effects of the excess deposition of airborne nitrogen.

Diwold Katharina; Dullinger Stefan; Dirnböck Thomas

2010-07-01

5

Fine-scale spatial genetic structure within continuous and fragmented populations of Trillium camschatcense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations was analyzed for the ling-lived understory perennial herb Trillium camschatcense using allozyme loci. We used Sp statistics to compare SGS between 2 life-history stages, juveniles (J) and reproductives (R), as well as between 2 populations, continuous and fragmented, with different habitat conditions. In the continuous population, significant SGS was detected in both stages but the extent was greatly reduced with the progress of the stage (J, Sp = 0.0475; R, Sp = 0.0053). We inferred that limited seed dispersal and subsequent random loss of individuals from the family patches are responsible for the J and R stage structures, respectively. The fragmented population differed in the patterns of SGS; significant structure was detected in the R stage, but not in the J stage (J, Sp = 0.0021; R, Sp = 0.0165) despite significant positive inbreeding coefficients (J, F(IS) = 0.251). The observed differences in the J-stage structures between populations may be explained by habitat fragmentation effects because reduced recruitment in the fragmented population prevents the development of maternal sibling cohort. Such comparative analysis between populations and life-history stages can be useful to understand the different underlying causes of SGS. PMID:17611258

Yamagishi, Hiroki; Tomimatsu, Hiroshi; Ohara, Masashi

2007-07-04

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A reevaluation of the use of rhizome scars to age plants of Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae)1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: • PREMISE OF STUDY: Herbaceous perennials are important long-lived plants in North American forests. Trillium has been used as a model organism to examine the effects of ecological processes on age structure in herbaceous forest perennials. Here, the methods of aging Trillium rhizomes are critically examined. • METHODS: Rhizomes of seedlings, single-bract plants, three-bract nonflowering plants, and flowering plants of Trillium erectum were examined. The patterns of cataphyll and scape scars on rhizomes were examined with respect to demographic category. • KEY RESULTS: Trillium rhizomes produce two cataphyll scars per year on single-bract, three-bract nonflowering, and flowering plants. Scape scars were only evident on rhizomes of three-leaved nonflowering and flowering plants. The percentage of intact rhizomes ranged from 10-67% for three-bract nonflowering plants, and 0-51% for flowering plants. Rhizomes in all demographic categories had evidence of recessing tissues from the oldest portion of the rhizome indicating that accurate age estimates are not possible on many plants. • CONCLUSIONS: Accepted methods of aging Trillium rhizomes have significant drawbacks. The primary problem is that rhizomes rot from the oldest portions in all demographic categories. A second problem is that plants producing multiple scape scars in a given year could mistakenly be counted as multiple years. Finally, confusing terminology and misrepresentations in Trillium literature suggests that many previous studies did not correctly determine age. Given the challenges of aging Trillium, we suggest that future studies use rhizome aging to study early demographic stages only and the ecological processes that influence their growth.

Broyles SB; Smith SM; Smith TR; Kindt JR

2013-06-01

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Structural organization of ribosomal DNA in four Trillium species and Paris verticillata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rDNA structure in Trillium and Paris was examined by Southern blot hybridizations of EcoRI- and Hind3-digests of nuclear DNA using /sup 32/P-rRNAs. Their rDNAs consist of repeating units of the largest lengths ever known for higher plants. Evidence for differentiation of the rDNA structure during evolution was obtained. Each Trillium species has rDNA consisting of a characteristic set of some members out of five rRNA genes of 13.7-, 14.7-, 15.6-, 17.1- and 18.5-kb repeating units. One species has a rDNA structure characterized by much higher relative frequencies of longer-sized rRNA genes, whereas another species has larger amounts of shorter-sized classes. Other two species examined have intermediate-sized genes. There is no direct correspondence of each size class to a certain member of several genomic sets, haploid chromosome complements, which have been denoted on the basis of the affinity in pairing between homologous chromosomes, homologies of chromosomal morphology and external morphology. Paris verticillata, a species in a genus most closely related to Trillium, has two size classes of 15.6 and 17.1 kb, both of which correspond to those found in Trillium. The results indicate that the rDNA structure was rather stable during evolution in these genera.

Yakura, Kimitaka (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education); Kato, Atsushi; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki

1983-10-01

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Structural organization of ribosomal DNA in four Trillium species and Paris verticillata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rDNA structure in Trillium and Paris was examined by Southern blot hybridizations of EcoRI- and Hind3-digests of nuclear DNA using 32P-rRNAs. Their rDNAs consist of repeating units of the largest lengths ever known for higher plants. Evidence for differentiation of the rDNA structure during evolution was obtained. Each Trillium species has rDNA consisting of a characteristic set of some members out of five rRNA genes of 13.7-, 14.7-, 15.6-, 17.1- and 18.5-kb repeating units. One species has a rDNA structure characterized by much higher relative frequencies of longer-sized rRNA genes, whereas another species has larger amounts of shorter-sized classes. Other two species examined have intermediatesized genes. There is no direct correspondence of each size class to a certain member of several genomic sets, haploid chromosome complements, which have been denoted on the basis of the affinity in pairing between homologous chromosomes, homologies of chromosomal morphology and external morphology. Paris verticillata, a species in a genus most closely related to Trillium, has two size classes of 15.6 and 17.1 kb, both of which correspond to those found in Trillium. The results indicate that the rDNA structure was rather stable during evolution in these genera. (author).

1983-01-01

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The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

2000-01-01

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Evaluation of a new rapid anti-HbF FITC assay, Trillium QuikQuant, for detection and quantitation of foetomaternal haemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated a new product for flow cytometric foetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) quantitation, Trillium QuikQuant anti-HbF FITC kit (Trillium Diagnostics, USA), in comparison with the Millipore anti-HbF FITC method. METHODS: Blood from 67 antenatal or postpartum RhD-negative women together with 108 samples spiked with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 2%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 8% and 10% of foetal red cells were analysed by both methods. RESULTS: Results for both methods were linear to 10% foetal red cells. Analysis using the Wilcoxon test found that there was no difference between the paired results of Trillium QuikQuant and the expected values of the spiked samples (P = 0.48). In contrast, Millipore anti-HbF FITC gave statistically higher results compared with both the expected values and Trillium QuikQuant anti-HbF FITC (P = 0.0003 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The Bland-Altman plot for Trillium QuikQuant showed a mean difference of only 0.06% below the expected values, whilst Millipore was 0.13% above. The analysis time with Trillium QuikQuant was approximately 40 min, requiring significantly less hands-on time than the Millipore method that required an additional four wash steps. CONCLUSION: Trillium QuikQuant is a new precise, accurate and rapid flow cytometric kit method for the quantitation of FMH in both the antenatal and postpartum period.

Fong EA; Finlayson J; Robins F; Davies J; Joseph J; Rossi E; Grey DE

2013-02-01

11

HERBS MIXTURE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The herbs mixture refers to a mixture of different compounds such as: aloe vera, NF-1000, mint, different fermented plants this mixture based on herbs is useful as a health adjuvant not only for being used in an external manner but also for being ingested orally for re-establishing the body balance. The invention is a solution for reducing inflammation, promoting granulation, epitelization, accelerating the wound repair and also as antimicrobial, this latter depending mainly on the selective action over the microbe, without health-harmful effects on host. The mixture is a natural origin product of great importance since it is intended to guide an effective therapy with which a body balance is obtained.

MENDOZA MIRIAM GOMEZ

12

Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999), according t...

Liu H-Y; Halvorsen R

13

Patterns of association between canopy-morphology and understorey assemblages across temperate Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Patterns of association between canopy and understorey vegetation have been described over 1000s of km according to the presence and absence of algal canopies and the different types of canopies. However, the degree to which morphological variation of the canopy is correlated with patterns in the understorey algal assemblage is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that variation in the morphology of Ecklonia radiata, growing in monospecific canopies, is associated with variation in the structure of understorey assemblages at regional scales across temperate Australia. We found that the morphology of kelp did correlate with the structure of understorey assemblages, over broad spatial scales, particularly that of surface area/volume ratio and measures of stipe width. These canopy-understorey associations revealed two ‘types’ of kelp forest; one characteristic of Western and South Australia and the other of Eastern Australia. We suggest that future research on causal relationships between morphology and understorey assemblages of algae consider the potential importance that morphology may have on mechanisms such as light penetration and physical abrasion by fronds. Whilst correlations between the understorey and morphology do not demonstrate causality, the realisation that these associations occur over broad spatial scales and that southern and eastern Australia differ in their ‘type’ of kelp forest, at the very least, contributes to a more broadly based understanding of a major ecological pattern across the world's most extensive west-east coastline.

Fowler-Walker, Meegan J.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Connell, Sean D.; Irving, Andrew D.

2005-04-01

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The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid m (more) arsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

Stallings, Jody R.

1990-01-01

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The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

Jody R. Stallings

1990-01-01

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Diversity of canopy and understorey spiders in north-temperate hardwood forests  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1 We characterized and compared diversity patterns of canopy and understorey spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) in hardwood forests of southern Québec, Canada. 2 We sampled canopies of 45 sugar maple and 45 American beech trees and associated understorey saplings in mature protected forests near Montréal. Samples were obtained by beating the crown foliage at various heights and by beating saplings around each tree. 3 Eighty-two species were identified from 13 669 individuals. Forty-eight species and 3860 individuals and 72 species and 9809 individuals were collected from the canopy and the understorey, respectively. 4 Multivariate analyses (NMDS ordination and NPMANOVA) showed the composition of canopy and understorey assemblages differed significantly, and canopy assemblages differed between tree species. Rank-abundance distribution models fitted to the canopy and understorey data indicated that different mechanisms structure the assemblages in both habitats. Three abundant spider species were significantly more common in the canopy; ten species were collected significantly more often in the understorey. 5 The forest canopy was shown to be an important reservoir for spider diversity in north-temperate forests.

Larrivée Maxim; Buddle ChristopherM

2009-05-01

17

Herbs in dentistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research.

Taheri JB; Azimi S; Rafieian N; Zanjani HA

2011-12-01

18

Avecor Trillium oxygenator versus noncoated Monolyth oxygenator: a prospective randomized controlled study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The surface coating of a synthetic surface is currently investigated to decrease the harmful effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to study the effects of the surface coating of a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator on coagulation, inflammation markers, and clinical outcomes. The biomaterials used to coat the membrane include heparin, polyethylene oxide chains (PEO), and sulfate/sulfonate groups. The coated membrane was compared to an uncoated oxygenator made of polypropylene. METHODS: Two hundred patients who were scheduled to undergo valve repair and/or replacement surgery with or without coronary surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized to undergo CPB with either the Avecor oxygenator with Trillium (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA), a biopassive surface, or the Monolyth (Sorin, Irvine, CA, USA) oxygenator without coating. The primary and secondary endpoints were the differences between these oxygenators in regard to patients' biochemistry, coagulation profiles, inflammatory mediators, and clinical outcomes, including blood loss and neurological events. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of biochemistry, coagulation profile, inflammatory mediator release, and blood loss. Five patients in the Avecor group showed clinical evidence of a stroke confirmed with computerized tomography (CT) scan imaging, and none in the noncoated oxygenator group. CONCLUSION: The oxygenator Avecor offers similar results in terms of inflammation and coagulation profiles and blood loss during valvular surgery compared to a standard uncoated control oxygenator. The rate of neurological events was unusually elevated in the former group of patients, with only speculative explanation at this point. Further studies are warranted to clarify this aspect.

Vanden Eynden F; Carrier M; Ouellet S; Demers P; Forcillo J; Perrault LP; Pellerin M; Bouchard D

2008-07-01

19

Radiolysis of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

1996-01-01

20

Herb fermenting machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A herb fermenting machine relates to a herb fermenting device and solves the problem that the temperature is hard to control due to the fact that a herb fermenting device in the prior art is heated by open fire. The herb fermenting machine comprises a tank, a feeding cover plate, a heater, a temperature controller, a power switch and a three-phase power source, the feeding cover plate is arranged on the top of the tank, the heater and the temperature controller are fixed in the tank, the power switch and the three-phase power source are fixed on the outer surface of the tank, one end of the heater is connected with a fixed contact of the power switch, the other end of the heater is connected with a fixed contact of a switch of the temperature controller, and an outer casing of the heater is grounded. A movable contact of the switch of the temperature controller is connected with a null line of the three-phase power source, a live line of the three-phase power source is connected with a movable contact of the power switch, and the null line of the three-phase power source is grounded. The herb fermenting machine is used for herb fermenting, and after the herb fermenting machine is powered on, the heater can heat automatically by setting the required optimum temperature of the temperature controller, and herbs can be fermented spontaneously.

LITAO SUI

 
 
 
 
21

Margarine formulation contg. herbs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Margarine formulation contains margarine and herbs. Pref. the formulation contains lemon juice as acidulating agent; garlic, flavouring sauce, potable spirits, bouillon powder, grated nutmeg, fresh cream and Na glutamate. The herbs are basil, artemisia, summer savory, borage, watercress, dill, tarragon, chervil, lovage, marjoram, mint, oregano, parsley, burnet, saxifrage, rosemary, sage, sorrel, shallots, chives, celery, thyme, rue, hyssop and/or lemon balm.

KUEHN ERHARD

22

Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

Morton DC; Le Page Y; DeFries R; Collatz GJ; Hurtt GC

2013-06-01

23

Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

2013-04-22

24

Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1-) total height; 2-) leaf number; 3-) leaf dry mass;4-) stem dry mass; 5-) root dry mass; 6-) stem length/mass; 7-)shoot/root mass; 8-) percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.

Válio Ivany Ferraz Marques

2003-01-01

25

Understorey vegetation in spruce-dominated forests in eastern Finland and Russian Karelia: successional patterns after anthropogenic and natural disturbances  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the succession of understorey vegetation at semi-natural and managed mesic sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The area concerned is situated in the middle boreal forest zone on both sides of the border between Finland and Russia. The data were collected at 39 sites representing open/burned, sapling, young, mature and over-mature/old-growth forests. The coverage and number of species representing ground lichens, mosses, liverworts, grasses, herbs, dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings were recorded and analysed separately. The vegetation represented different stages of the succession and management history (managed versus semi-natural).The vegetation was ordered along two multivariate (DCA) axes, the first related to successional stage and the second to human influence. The total number of plant species was dependent on the successional stage and the diversity pattern was similar both after semi-natural and man-made disturbance. The plant life-form groups exhibited specific patterns in their occurrence and in their responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The coverage of grasses and dwarf shrubs, in particular, followed quite different patterns after man-made and natural disturbances. Grasses were abundant in managed forests after clear-cutting, but almost absent from young natural forests, while dwarf shrubs occurred more commonly in the old managed forests than in the younger ones. The coverage of seedlings in semi-natural forests peaked in the sapling stage, decreased towards the mature stage and increased again in the old-growth stage, while tree recruitment was relatively low in the older managed successional stages. The results highlight especially the characteristic vegetation features of young natural forests, which differ considerably from the corresponding managed forests.

Uotila A; Kouki J

2005-08-01

26

Subtidal understorey algal community structure in kelp beds around the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape, South Africa)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subtidal understorey seaweed communities were studied along a coastal distance of 104 km around the Cape Peninsula, which is situated in an overlap region between two marine provinces and characterized by a considerable temperature gradient. Sampling was carried out at six sites (4 to 10 quadrat...

Leliaert, F.; Anderson, R. J.; Bolton, J. J.; Coppejans, E.

27

Methods for describing light capture by understorey weeds in temperate forests: consequences for tree regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light quantity and light quality are two of the main environmental factors controlling the success of seed germination, seedling establishment and growth of trees in the understorey of our temperate forests. Increasing light availability by the practice of thinning also promotes the development of t...

Balandier, P.; Marquier, A.; Gaudio, N.; Wehrlen, L.; Casella, E.; Coll, L.; Kiewitt, A.; Harmer, R.

28

HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout history, plants have been used for medicinal purposes and, during the last three decades, we have witnessed a most remarkable revival of herbal medicine. In today’s medicine, as many as one third to approximately half of all drugs available in the market are derived from plants. For example anticancer drugs such as vincristine, vinblastine and paclitaxel (Taxol) are derived from plants and the widely used cardioactive drug digoxin is extracted from the foxglove plant (Digitalis lantana). Herbal therapies are widely used but are not as safe as is being promoted because of lack of safety data. So many of these herbal therapies can interact with other medications, causing either potentially dangerous side effects and / or reduced benefits from the medication. Almost one third of current users of herbal drugs were at risks of herb drug interaction. Since only limited information are available in the literature concerning herb drug interaction.. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical careers.

N. Minaz

2011-01-01

29

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

Science.gov (United States)

... Care > Medication > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines Listen Today, more and more ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

30

Crown development in tropical rain forest trees in gaps and understorey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crown development was monitored for juvenile trees (4-18 m) of the canopy tree species Dicorynia guianensis and Vouacapoua americana in a tropical rain forest in French Guiana. A comparison was made between crown development in closed understorey forest sites (low light) and in canopy gaps (high light); development was expressed by plant traits at multiple levels or organisation. Dicorynia and Vouacapoua responded to gap creation at all organisation levels, but not for all traits. Both species increased their light interception efficiency in the understorey. Firstly, understorey trees produced relatively wide crowns because they did not favour the growth of shoots in the summit of the crown, as did gap trees. Secondly, they reduced self-shading (expressed by leaf area index) by lower sympodial unit production rates lower leaf production rates per growth unit (only Vouacapoua), and smaller leaf size (only Dicorynia). The reduction in self-shading was weakened by other traits that had the opposite effect on self shading (e.g. longer leaf life span in understorey), and cannot be considered an adaptive response in itself. (3) Understorey trees of Vouacapoua reduced leaf display costs by producing a higher specific leaf area, a shorter space among leaves, a smaller leaf spacing to leaf size ratio, and a longer leaf life span. Thus, all traits contributed to the more economical use of carbon in the understorey. Dicorynia showed the same trends, but not significantly. These result suggest that light availability plays a major role in the development and morphology of trees through its influences at multiple levels of organisation within the crown hierarchy. The two species studied were rather similar in their response at crown level, while they sometimes differed in their responses at the underlying lower organisational levels. The response directions of some individual plant traits were similar for the tall trees studied here and small saplings studied elsewhere. Some of traits investigated here may not be important in the crown level responses of smaller seedling and saplings, while they are important mechanisms for crown level responses in taller trees.

Sterck FJ

1999-07-01

31

Differences between understorey and canopy in herbivore community composition and leaf quality for two oak species in Missouri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From July 1994 to September 1995, at six censuses, the herbivore community associated with understorey (< 2.5 m height) and canopy (15-20 m) leaves of Quercus alba and Q. velutina was sampled in south-eastern Missouri, U.S.A. Across all censuses, herbivore densities were not significantly different between canopy and understorey for Q. alba and Q. velutina, except in August 1994 when herbivore densities were 60% higher in the canopy on Q. alba. Little significant spatial variation in herbivore densities or community composition was found during the study years. The herbivore community was diverse, consisting of 138 species of leafchewing insects. Species richness was significantly greater (by 5-20%) in the understorey than in the canopy for both tree species, and the relative abundance of the main families, different feeding guilds, and most common species differed significantly between understorey and canopy. To determine the extent to which leaf quality explained the observed patterns, percentage nitrogen and protein binding capacity were measured in canopy and understorey leaves of Q. alba and Q. velutina. Per cent nitrogen was higher in canopy leaves for Q. velutina while protein binding capacity was higher in canopy leaves for Q. alba. These results suggest that the herbivore community associated with these two species of Quercus comprises species tbat appear to respond individually to environmental and biological conditions encountered in the understorey and the canopy.

Le Corff J; Marquis RJ

1999-02-01

32

Herbs in exercise and sports.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

Chen CK; Muhamad AS; Ooi FK

2012-01-01

33

Germination of native understorey species for revegetation of New South Wales coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project investigates the suitability of a range of native understorey species for rehabilitation at several coal mines in New South Wales. The germination of seeds from 69 species representing 12 families was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Germination occurred in all but two of the species tested and 50% germination was exceeded by 29 species. Species of the Mimosaceae, Fabaceae and Proteaceae tended to have above average germination; however species representing other families had variable germination results. A pre-germination heat treatment applied to all of the Acacia species increased germination in some but not all species. Seeds of these understorey species which were used in this trial, are native to the New South Wales coal fields and available commercially or are relatively easy to collect. Glasshouse and field trials are now being undertaken to assess establishment and growth on mine soil, spoil and coal reject materials. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Gillespie, M.J.; Bellairs, S.M.; Mulligan, D.R. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Agriculture and Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

1997-06-01

34

Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerating seedlings growing in loading bays and forest understorey. Seedling density was highest when seed tree diameter at breast height (dbh) was 100 cm or more. A strong positive correlation was found between seed tree diameter dbh and crown size expressed as mean diameter of projected crown area, but crown size correlated much better with seedling density. Compared with their counterparts of the same height growing in loading bays in full sunlight but devoid of litter and topsoil, seedlings found in understorey exhibited lower root: shoot ratio, indicating that soil-derived resources were more limiting in loading bays than on undisturbed forest floor. Leaf weight per area (leaf dry weight/leaf area) (LWA) and leaf packing (leaf number/cm shoot height) were almost 2-fold greater in loading bays than in understorey. As seedlings seldom grew taller than 50 cm in the latter environment, it may be inferred that root: shoot ratio, LWA, and leaf packing can be used to assess the sustainability of growth and development of this pioneer species at the seedling stage.

Ngono, G.; Bongjoh, CA.

2005-01-01

35

Predicting understorey structure from the presence and composition of canopies: an assembly rule for marine algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assembly rules provide a useful framework for predicting patterns of community assembly under defined environmental conditions. Habitat created by canopy-forming algae (such as kelps) provides a promising system for identifying assembly rules because canopies typically have a large and predictable influence on understorey communities. Across >1,000 km of subtidal South Australian coastline, we identified natural associations between assemblages of understorey algae and (1) monospecific canopies of Ecklonia radiata, (2) canopies comprised of E. radiata mixed with Fucales (Cystophora spp. and Sargassum spp.), and (3) gaps among canopies of algae. We were able to recreate these associations with experimental tests that quantified the assembly of understorey algae among these three habitat types. We propose the assembly rule that understorey communities on subtidal rocky coast in South Australia will be (1) monopolised by encrusting coralline algae beneath monospecific canopies of E. radiata, (2) comprised of encrusting corallines, encrusting non-corallines, and sparse covers of articulated corallines, beneath mixed E. radiata-Fucales canopies, and (3) comprised of extensive covers of articulated corallines and filamentous turfs, as well as sparse covers of foliose algae and juvenile canopy-formers, within gaps. Consistencies between natural patterns and experimental effects demonstrate how algal canopies can act as a filter to limit the subsets of species from the locally available pool that are able to assemble beneath them. Moreover, the subsets of species that assemble to subtidal rocky substrata in South Australia appear to be predictable, given knowledge of the presence and composition of canopies incorporating E. radiata. PMID:16502000

Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D

2006-02-24

36

Predicting understorey structure from the presence and composition of canopies: an assembly rule for marine algae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assembly rules provide a useful framework for predicting patterns of community assembly under defined environmental conditions. Habitat created by canopy-forming algae (such as kelps) provides a promising system for identifying assembly rules because canopies typically have a large and predictable influence on understorey communities. Across >1,000 km of subtidal South Australian coastline, we identified natural associations between assemblages of understorey algae and (1) monospecific canopies of Ecklonia radiata, (2) canopies comprised of E. radiata mixed with Fucales (Cystophora spp. and Sargassum spp.), and (3) gaps among canopies of algae. We were able to recreate these associations with experimental tests that quantified the assembly of understorey algae among these three habitat types. We propose the assembly rule that understorey communities on subtidal rocky coast in South Australia will be (1) monopolised by encrusting coralline algae beneath monospecific canopies of E. radiata, (2) comprised of encrusting corallines, encrusting non-corallines, and sparse covers of articulated corallines, beneath mixed E. radiata-Fucales canopies, and (3) comprised of extensive covers of articulated corallines and filamentous turfs, as well as sparse covers of foliose algae and juvenile canopy-formers, within gaps. Consistencies between natural patterns and experimental effects demonstrate how algal canopies can act as a filter to limit the subsets of species from the locally available pool that are able to assemble beneath them. Moreover, the subsets of species that assemble to subtidal rocky substrata in South Australia appear to be predictable, given knowledge of the presence and composition of canopies incorporating E. radiata.

Irving AD; Connell SD

2006-06-01

37

Direct and indirect effects of understorey bamboo shape tree regeneration niches in a mixed temperate forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant cover plays a major role in shaping the nature of recruitment microsites through direct (resource mediated) and indirect (consumer mediated) interactions. Understorey plants may differentially affect seedling establishment, thus contributing to regeneration-niche separation among canopy tree species. We examined patterns of early tree seedling survival resulting from interactive effects of understorey bamboo (Chusquea culeou) and resident consumers in a mixed temperate Patagonian forest, Argentina. Newly germinated seedlings of Nothofagus dombeyi and Austrocedrus chilensis were planted in bamboo thickets and non-bamboo patches, with or without small-vertebrate exclosures. We found species-specific patterns of seedling survival in relation to bamboo cover. Nothofagus survival was generally low but increased under bamboo, irrespective of cage treatment. Desiccation stress accounted for most Nothofagus mortality in open, non-bamboo areas. In contrast, Austrocedrus survival was highest in non-bamboo microsites, as most seedlings beneath bamboo were killed by small vertebrates through direct consumption or non-trophic physical damage. There was little evidence for a negative impact of bamboo on tree seedling survival attributable to resource competition. The balance of simultaneous positive and negative interactions implied that bamboo presence facilitated Nothofagus early establishment but inhibited Austrocedrus recruitment via apparent competition. These results illustrate the potential for dominant understorey plants to promote microsite segregation during early stages of recruitment between tree seedlings having different susceptibilities to water stress and herbivory. We recognise, however, that patterns of bamboo-seedling interactions may be conditional on moisture levels and consumer activity during establishment. Hence, both biotic and abiotic heterogeneity in understorey environments should be incorporated into conceptual models of regeneration dynamics and tree coexistence in forest communities.

Caccia FD; Chaneton EJ; Kitzberger T

2009-10-01

38

Direct and indirect effects of understorey bamboo shape tree regeneration niches in a mixed temperate forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cover plays a major role in shaping the nature of recruitment microsites through direct (resource mediated) and indirect (consumer mediated) interactions. Understorey plants may differentially affect seedling establishment, thus contributing to regeneration-niche separation among canopy tree species. We examined patterns of early tree seedling survival resulting from interactive effects of understorey bamboo (Chusquea culeou) and resident consumers in a mixed temperate Patagonian forest, Argentina. Newly germinated seedlings of Nothofagus dombeyi and Austrocedrus chilensis were planted in bamboo thickets and non-bamboo patches, with or without small-vertebrate exclosures. We found species-specific patterns of seedling survival in relation to bamboo cover. Nothofagus survival was generally low but increased under bamboo, irrespective of cage treatment. Desiccation stress accounted for most Nothofagus mortality in open, non-bamboo areas. In contrast, Austrocedrus survival was highest in non-bamboo microsites, as most seedlings beneath bamboo were killed by small vertebrates through direct consumption or non-trophic physical damage. There was little evidence for a negative impact of bamboo on tree seedling survival attributable to resource competition. The balance of simultaneous positive and negative interactions implied that bamboo presence facilitated Nothofagus early establishment but inhibited Austrocedrus recruitment via apparent competition. These results illustrate the potential for dominant understorey plants to promote microsite segregation during early stages of recruitment between tree seedlings having different susceptibilities to water stress and herbivory. We recognise, however, that patterns of bamboo-seedling interactions may be conditional on moisture levels and consumer activity during establishment. Hence, both biotic and abiotic heterogeneity in understorey environments should be incorporated into conceptual models of regeneration dynamics and tree coexistence in forest communities. PMID:19590896

Caccia, Fernando D; Chaneton, Enrique J; Kitzberger, Thomas

2009-07-10

39

Ginseng- Multipurpose Herb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ginseng is the most popular herb. Ginseng is often referred as the ultimate tonic; the herb boosts general well-being, immune function, libido, and athletic performance. Ginseng is popularly used for its adaptogenic, antineoplastic, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular, CNS, endocrine, and ergogenic effects, but these uses have not been confirmed by clinical trials. A number of ginseng species used in herbal products grow around the world. Some of these plants include American ginseng, Korean ginseng, Sanchi ginseng, Chikusetsu ginseng. Ginseng is also known as Siberian ginseng, devil's shrub, eleuthero, touch-me-not, and wild pepper. Ginseng has been used to improve the body's resistance to stress and to increase vitality. However, the mechanisms underlying ginseng's effects remain to be investigated. Biological effects of ginseng are due to its anti-inflammatory effects, antineurological effect, hypoglycemia effect. Research has shown that drinking a cup of hot ginseng tea has an anti-inflammatory effect.

Chhotaram Seervi; Rupali Kirtawade; Pandurang Dhabale; Pallavi salve.

2010-01-01

40

HERBE final safety report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Herb- Drug Interactions: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal drugs are exempt from Food and Drug Administration regulations regarding efficacy and safety. Their potential of interaction with conventional prescription drugs is a matter of great concern. This paper reviews the reported herb- drug interactions among the most commonly used and top selling herbs in the U.S.

Anusha S. Thomas; Prakash Varughese; Annie Shirwaikar, Arun Shirwaikar

2012-01-01

42

Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

2000-07-01

43

Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999), according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT). The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species) from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO) axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA), was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia). The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied subtropical forests.

Liu H-Y; Halvorsen R

2012-01-01

44

Herbs in exercise and sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

Chen Chee; Muhamad Ayu; Ooi Foong

2012-01-01

45

Sensitivity of understorey vegetation to nitrogen and sulphur deposition in a spruce stand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The response of understorey vegetation to addition of nitrogen and sulphur was examined in a 60-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand in southern Finland. The understorey vegetation was studied on experimental plots receiving nitrogen (25 kg N ha{sup -1}) and sulphur (30 kg S ha{sup -1}) as ammonium sulphate once a year for 4 years. The dominant moss species on the site were Pleurozium schreberi (Mitt.) and Dicranum polysetum (Sw.). The biomass of the dominant moss species was decreased significantly by sulphur and nitrogen deposition during the study period. Due to the addition of nitrogen and sulphur, the biomass of P. schreberi was decreased by 60% and the biomass of D. polysetum by 78%. Over a 4-year study period the responses of vascular plants to addition of nitrogen and sulphur were not significant. Forest-floor mosses seemed to be more sensitive to nitrogen and sulphur deposition than vascular plants. Since bryophytes lack a cuticle and absorb water very rapidly after rain, they are exposed more to the direct effects of acid deposition than other plants. Thus, mosses may indicate changes in forest vegetation due to acid deposition

Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

1998-02-01

46

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

Melo GL; Miotto B; Peres B; Cáceres NC

2013-04-01

47

Seasonal changes in temperature response of photosynthesis and its contribution to annual carbon gain in Daphniphyllum humile, an evergreen understorey shrub.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated seasonal variation in photosynthetic temperature dependence and its contribution to annual carbon gain in an evergreen understorey shrub, Daphniphyllum humile Maxim, growing at the forest border and in the understorey of a deciduous forest. Plants at both sites exhibited similar optimal temperatures for photosynthesis (Topt ). The activation energy for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation (HaV ) at both sites tended to be higher in summer than in spring or autumn, suggesting that HaV may be the controlling factor in the Topt shift in D. humile. In contrast to the seasonal changes in Topt , the maximum photosynthetic rate at the optimal temperature (Popt ) differed between the two sites: it was lower in autumn than in summer at the forest border, but was the same in summer and autumn in the understorey. In the understorey plants, nitrogen content (Narea ) increased in autumn, but this was not the case for forest border plants. In addition, Rubisco content increased significantly in autumn in the understorey leaves but decreased distinctly in forest border leaves. Increased Narea and Rubisco in understorey leaves resulted in increased in photosynthesis in autumn. Annual carbon gain was 30.8 mol·m(-2) in forest border leaves and 5.8 mol·m(-2) in understorey leaves. Carbon gain in understorey leaves during the short period after overstorey leaf fall and before snow accumulation was approximately 49% of annual carbon gain. Furthermore, autumn carbon gain calculated using activation energy of summer with autumn photosynthetic parameters underestimated the autumn carbon gain by as much as 31%. In conclusion, photosynthetic temperature acclimation may be a key factor in increasing annual carbon gain in understorey D. humile.

Katahata SI; Han Q; Naramoto M; Kakubari Y; Mukai Y

2013-06-01

48

Seasonal changes in temperature response of photosynthesis and its contribution to annual carbon gain in Daphniphyllum humile, an evergreen understorey shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated seasonal variation in photosynthetic temperature dependence and its contribution to annual carbon gain in an evergreen understorey shrub, Daphniphyllum humile Maxim, growing at the forest border and in the understorey of a deciduous forest. Plants at both sites exhibited similar optimal temperatures for photosynthesis (Topt ). The activation energy for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation (HaV ) at both sites tended to be higher in summer than in spring or autumn, suggesting that HaV may be the controlling factor in the Topt shift in D. humile. In contrast to the seasonal changes in Topt , the maximum photosynthetic rate at the optimal temperature (Popt ) differed between the two sites: it was lower in autumn than in summer at the forest border, but was the same in summer and autumn in the understorey. In the understorey plants, nitrogen content (Narea ) increased in autumn, but this was not the case for forest border plants. In addition, Rubisco content increased significantly in autumn in the understorey leaves but decreased distinctly in forest border leaves. Increased Narea and Rubisco in understorey leaves resulted in increased in photosynthesis in autumn. Annual carbon gain was 30.8 mol·m(-2) in forest border leaves and 5.8 mol·m(-2) in understorey leaves. Carbon gain in understorey leaves during the short period after overstorey leaf fall and before snow accumulation was approximately 49% of annual carbon gain. Furthermore, autumn carbon gain calculated using activation energy of summer with autumn photosynthetic parameters underestimated the autumn carbon gain by as much as 31%. In conclusion, photosynthetic temperature acclimation may be a key factor in increasing annual carbon gain in understorey D. humile. PMID:23731172

Katahata, S-I; Han, Q; Naramoto, M; Kakubari, Y; Mukai, Y

2013-06-01

49

Radioprotective effect of edible herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

1992-01-01

50

Asthma and Herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Man’s existence on this earth has been made possible only because of vitalrole played by the plant kingdom in sustaining his life. Herbs have been thehighly esteemed source of medicine throughout human history. They are widelyused today, is not a throwback to the Dark Ages but an indication that herbsare a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. About 25-30 percent of today'sprescription drugs contain chemicals derived from plants.Unlike synthetic substances the natural drugs do not give symptomatic relief rather provide complete cure of many diseases. Due to these salient features the importance of herbal drugs has been realized seriously and they are becoming a preferred way of therapy throughout the globe.World Health Organization has recognized the potential of traditional and folk medicines in the management and self-reliance of health care system and currently it is encouraging and promoting the traditional systems in “National Health Care Programmes” of various countries.Herbal therapy provides rational means for the treatment of many diseases such as respiratory problems, gastro-intestinal disorders, cardio-vascular illness, metabolic and degenerative diseases/disorders associated with the aging. Research carried out on herbals in recent past has helped the society in the cure of certain cancers and search is continuing for finding remedies for AIDS and other diseases which so far are considered to be stubborn and incurable from any synthetic molecule.

H.N. Shiva Prasad; M. Suresh Gupta; Dr. S.Mohan; Dr. M.D.Kharya

2005-01-01

51

Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a communicable acute respiratory infection which, during epidemics, can cause high morbidity and mortality rates. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, often administered following a particular Chinese medical theory, may be a potential treatment of choice. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of Chinese medicinal herbs used to prevent and treat influenza and to estimate the frequency of adverse effects. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (January 1966 to November week 2, 2012), EMBASE (January 1988 to November 2012) and CNKI (January 1988 to 29 March 2012). We also searched reference lists of articles and the WHO ICTRP search portal (November 2012). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing traditional Chinese medicinal herbs with placebo, no treatment or conventional medicine normally used in preventing and treating uncomplicated influenza. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 studies involving 2521 participants. The methodological quality of 17 included studies was poor. Included RCTs separately compared medicinal herbs with different antiviral drugs, precluding any pooling of results. Only three indicated that compared with antiviral drugs, Chinese medicinal herbs may be effective in preventing influenza and alleviating influenza symptoms. 'Ganmao' capsules were found to be more effective than amantadine in decreasing influenza symptoms and speeding recovery in one study (in which adverse reactions were mentioned in the amantadine group although no data were reported). There were no significant differences between 'E Shu You' and ribavirin in treating influenza, nor in the occurrence of adverse reactions. Ten studies reported mild adverse reactions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Most Chinese medical herbs in the included studies showed similar effects to antiviral drugs in preventing or treating influenza. Few were shown to be superior to antiviral drugs. No obvious adverse events were reported in the included studies. However, current evidence remains weak due to methodological limitations of the trials. More high-quality RCTs with larger numbers of participants and clear reporting are needed.

Jiang L; Deng L; Wu T

2013-01-01

52

HERBS AGAINST CANCER: AN UPDAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal herbs have been on the forefront whenever we talk about anticancer remedies, Herbal medicines have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. With advanced knowledge of molecular science and refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, various anticancer herbs has been identified, which execute their therapeutic effect by inhibiting cancer-activating enzymes and hormones, stimulating DNA repair mechanism, promoting production of protective enzymes, inducing antioxidant action and enhancing immunity of the body. Here we Covered the plants used previously and recently identified for treatment of cancer and to reduce the pains during the treatment of cancer.

Sanjita Das; A Parvez; S P Basu; Saumya Das

2012-01-01

53

HERBS AGAINST CANCER: AN UPDATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal herbs have been on the forefront whenever we talk about anticancer remedies, Herbal medicines have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. With advanced knowledge of molecular science and refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, various anticancer herbs has been identified, which execute their therapeutic effect by inhibiting cancer-activating enzymes and hormones, stimulating DNA repair mechanism, promoting production of protective enzymes, inducing antioxidant action and enhancing immunity of the body. Here we covered the plants used previously and recently identified for treatment of cancer and to reduce the pains during the treatment of cancer.

Parvez A; Das Sanjita; Basu SP; Das Saumya

2012-01-01

54

Chervil: A Multifunctional Miraculous Nutritional Herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use of herbs to remedy many ailments is known since ages. Indeed, the use of herbs is not only natural way to remedy diseases but also without harmful side effects. Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is a delicate annual herb, full of nutritional value. It is a common plant genus of the famil...

A. Vyas; S.S. Shukla; R. Pandey; V. Jain; V. Joshi; B. Gidwani

55

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes mi (more) crohabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus) e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus) foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003), particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação. Abstract in english Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Pipe (more) r sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

MELO, GERUZA L.; MIOTTO, BARBARA; PERES, BRISA; CACERES, NILTON C.

2013-06-01

56

Ontogeny, understorey light interception and simulated carbon gain of juvenile rainforest evergreens differing in shade tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A long-running debate centres on whether shade tolerance of tree seedlings is mainly a function of traits maximizing net carbon gain in low light, or of traits minimizing carbon loss. To test these alternatives, leaf display, light-interception efficiency, and simulated net daily carbon gain of juvenile temperate evergreens of differing shade tolerance were measured, and how these variables are influenced by ontogeny was queried. METHODS: The biomass distribution of juveniles (17-740 mm tall) of seven temperate rainforest evergreens growing in low (approx. 4 %) light in the understorey of a second-growth stand was quantified. Daytime and night-time gas exchange rates of leaves were also determined, and crown architecture was recorded digitally. YPLANT was used to model light interception and carbon gain. RESULTS: An index of species shade tolerance correlated closely with photosynthetic capacities and respiration rates per unit mass of leaves, but only weakly with respiration per unit area. Accumulation of many leaf cohorts by shade-tolerant species meant that their ratios of foliage area to biomass (LAR) decreased more gradually with ontogeny than those of light-demanders, but also increased self-shading; this depressed the foliage silhouette-to-area ratio (STAR), which was used as an index of light-interception efficiency. As a result, displayed leaf area ratio (LAR(d) = LAR × STAR) of large seedlings was not related to species shade tolerance. Self-shading also caused simulated net daily carbon assimilation rates of shade-tolerant species to decrease with ontogeny, leading to a negative correlation of shade tolerance with net daily carbon gain of large (500 mm tall) seedlings in the understorey. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that efficiency of energy capture is not an important correlate of shade tolerance in temperate rainforest evergreens. Ontogenetic increases in self-shading largely nullify the potential carbon gain advantages expected to result from low respiration rates and long leaf lifespans in shade-tolerant evergreens. The main advantage of their long-lived leaves is probably in reducing the costs of crown maintenance.

Lusk CH; Pérez-Millaqueo MM; Piper FI; Saldaña A

2011-09-01

57

Chinese medicinal herbs for cholelithiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cholelithiasis is a common disease of the biliary tract. Chinese medicinal herbs are being used widely as an alternative treatment in people with cholelithiasis, but their beneficial or harmful effects have not been assessed systematically. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of Chinese medicinal herbs in people with cholelithiasis. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted searches in the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese Medicine Conference Disc, and Chinese Bio-Medicine Disc to January 2013. We handsearched four Chinese journals. No language or year of publication restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials studying Chinese medicinal herbs for treatment of cholelithiasis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (SJ, TG) independently extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR), and for continuous data, we calculated the mean difference. We also calculated 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Eleven randomised trials with 1205 participants with asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate cholelithiasis were included. None of the randomised clinical trials compared a single Chinese medicinal herb with a Western medicine or with surgery. No placebo-controlled trials were identified. In the trials comparing one Chinese herbal medicine (Gandanxiaoshi tablet) versus another (Aihuodantong tablet), there was no significant difference in the improvement of upper abdominal pain after the end of treatment (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.71 to 2.05), and the heterogeneity among trials was not substantial. No other outcomes could be assessed. The remaining trials of Chinese medicinal herbs (Qingdan capsule, Danshu capsule, Paishi capsule, Rongdanpaishi capsule), did not offer specific data on symptoms, signs, or change in gallstones that would permit assessment of significant differences in curative effects between the treatment and control groups. No serious adverse events were reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review reveals no strong evidence that the analysed Chinese medicinal herbs have any beneficial effects on asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate cholelithiasis. Definitive conclusions will require much better designed randomised trials to reduce risk of bias and allow detailed assessment of clinical outcomes.

Gan T; Chen J; Jin SJ; Wang Y

2013-01-01

58

Phyllanthus Niruri: A magic Herb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal herbs are significant source of pharmaceutical drugs. Latest trends haveshown increasing demand of phytodrugs and some medicinal herbs have provenhepatotprotective potential. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular,cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseasesInflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherentlydetrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair,and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and ispartially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated MolecularPatterns; DAMP’s). DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of proinflammatorycytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Paithankar V. V.; Raut K. S; Charde R. M; Vyas J. V

2011-01-01

59

Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4-13.2 stems m(-2)), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration--primarily of seedlings--led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred--almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes.

Balch JK; Massad TJ; Brando PM; Nepstad DC; Curran LM

2013-06-01

60

SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER HERBS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal of pharmaceutical research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs used against various types of cancer. With the advanced knowledge of molecular science and the refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, we are in a much better position now to identify various anticancer herbs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on the use of herbs to boost immune system of the body against cancer. Scientists have contributed for a number of years to identify hundreds of anticancer herbs, and developed various herbal formulations from their active principles that inhibit growth and spread of cancer without any side effect. Such herbs possess anticancer, immunoenhancing, antiangiogenesis, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. They inhibit growth and spread of cancer by modulating the activity of hormones, enzymes and other biological factors. The therapeutic effect of these herbs is executed by the complex synergistic interaction among their various active principles. Some important anticancer herbs have been discussed here.

Pandey Govind

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Herb sifting tea and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses herb sifting tea and a preparation method thereof. The herb sifting tea mainly consists of the following substances by weight parts: 5 to 11 parts of lotus leaves, 8 to 14 parts of chrysanthemum flowers, 17 to 23 parts of selfheal and 2.1 to 2.3 parts of honey. The herb sifting tea of the invention has the unique recipe, remains the color, the smell and the taste of the herb sifting tea, is convenient for eating, and is suitable for storage. In addition, the herb sifting tea also has the effects of clearing away heat and toxic materials, clearing summer-heat and damp, promoting the production of body fluid to quench thirst and soothing the liver to dispel melancholy, and in addition, the honey is added into the herb sifting tea for replacing sweetening agents such as saccharin, cane sugar and the like, so diabetes patients with the specific symptoms can also eat the herb sifting tea, the mouth feeling of the herb sifting tea is good, and in addition, the process for manufacturing the herb sifting tea of the invention is simple.

BAILIN LIU; XU LUO

62

Nuclear receptors in herb-drug interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Widespread usage of herbs as supplements or medicines raises the potential of herb-drug interactions (HDIs). Basically, HDIs occur by pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic pathways. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a class of transcription factors whose role in drug interactions has been defined. A large number of herbs activate NRs, resulting in HDIs. NR-mediated HDIs are similar to drug-drug interactions, but are more complicated because of the presence of multiple compounds in herbs. Dosage and therapeutic sequence as well as various other factors, including the patient's gender, age, and genetic makeup, may affect outcomes of NR-mediated HDIs.

Sachar M; Ma X

2013-02-01

63

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma alta taxa de destruição e pouca informação disponível de alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna neotropical. Alterações do ambiente são fatores importantes que influenciam nos recursos disponíveis para as aves. Nós comparamos o nível de sensibilidade das espécies de aves do sub-bosque de dois trechos em diferentes estágios sucessionais (trechos de floresta primária e secundária). Dois trechos de 100 ha cada de Floresta Atlântica de baixada foram analisados entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Entre as 25 espécies de aves analisadas, treze tiveram menor abundância no trecho de floresta secundária, duas na floresta primária, e dez não mostraram qualquer tendência. De acordo com os critérios adotados, as porcentagens de espécies que apresentaram sensibilidades baixa, e média e alta às alterações de habitat foram de 44% e 56%, respectivamente. O número de espécies afetadas não esteve associado ao grau de endemismo ou estrato de forrageamento. Os resultados indicam a importância do conhecimento do grau de sensibilidade das espécies de aves quanto à modificação dos habitats e não apenas aos efeitos da fragmentação florestal.

Alan Loures-Ribeiro; Marco A. Manhães; Manoel M. Dias

2011-01-01

64

Effects of high-frequency understorey fires on woody plant regeneration in southeastern Amazonian forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic understorey fires affect large areas of tropical forest, yet their effects on woody plant regeneration post-fire remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of repeated experimental fires on woody stem (less than 1 cm at base) mortality, recruitment, species diversity, community similarity and regeneration mode (seed versus sprout) in Mato Grosso, Brazil. From 2004 to 2010, forest plots (50 ha) were burned twice (B2) or five times (B5), and compared with an unburned control (B0). Stem density recovered within a year after the first burn (initial density: 12.4-13.2 stems m(-2)), but after 6 years, increased mortality and decreased regeneration--primarily of seedlings--led to a 63 per cent and 85 per cent reduction in stem density in B2 and B5, respectively. Seedlings and sprouts across plots in 2010 displayed remarkable community similarity owing to shared abundant species. Although the dominant surviving species were similar across plots, a major increase in sprouting occurred--almost three- and fourfold greater in B2 and B5 than in B0. In B5, 29 species disappeared and were replaced by 11 new species often present along fragmented forest edges. By 2010, the annual burn regime created substantial divergence between the seedling community and the initial adult tree community (greater than or equal to 20 cm dbh). Increased droughts and continued anthropogenic ignitions associated with frontier land uses may promote high-frequency fire regimes that may substantially alter regeneration and therefore successional processes. PMID:23610167

Balch, Jennifer K; Massad, Tara J; Brando, Paulo M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Curran, Lisa M

2013-04-22

65

Invasion by the leguminous tree Acacia dealbata (Mimosaceae) reduces the native understorey plant species in different communities  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acacia dealbata Link (Mimosaceae) is a woody leguminous tree introduced to Europe from Australia that has become a serious environmental problem in north-western Spain, where it forms dense monospecific patches threatening native-plant biodiversity. We describe the effects of invasion by A. dealbata on understorey plant composition in shrubland, oak- and pine-forest communities in north-western Spain. Plant species richness and composition, plant density and total plant cover were measured and compared among patches with different invasion status (invaded, transition and non-invaded patches) in each studied community. A clear effect of the community type and invasion on the understorey vegetation was observed. In general, composition of shrubland was different from that of oak and pine forests. We found significant effects of invasion status on species richness, plant density and total plant cover; values were significantly lower in invaded than non-invaded patches. Invasion by A. dealbata also was associated with changes in species composition. In total, eight native species, including the endemic Daboecia cantabrica (thuds) K. Koch, were confined to non-invaded patches and were replaced by other natives in invaded and transition patches. Our results suggest that although A. dealbata represented a serious threat to all of the study communities, the severity of the impact depended on the community type.

Lorenzo P; Pazos-Malvido E; Rubido-Bará M; Reigosa MJ; González L

2012-01-01

66

Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma alta taxa de destruição e pouca informação disponível de alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna neotropical. Alterações do ambiente são fatores importantes que influenciam nos recursos disponíveis para as aves. Nós comparamos o nível de sensibilidade das espécies de aves do sub-bosque de dois trechos em diferentes estágios sucessionais (trechos de floresta primária e secundária). Dois trechos de 100 ha cada de Floresta A (more) tlântica de baixada foram analisados entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Entre as 25 espécies de aves analisadas, treze tiveram menor abundância no trecho de floresta secundária, duas na floresta primária, e dez não mostraram qualquer tendência. De acordo com os critérios adotados, as porcentagens de espécies que apresentaram sensibilidades baixa, e média e alta às alterações de habitat foram de 44% e 56%, respectivamente. O número de espécies afetadas não esteve associado ao grau de endemismo ou estrato de forrageamento. Os resultados indicam a importância do conhecimento do grau de sensibilidade das espécies de aves quanto à modificação dos habitats e não apenas aos efeitos da fragmentação florestal. Abstract in english The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections). Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bir (more) d species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.

Loures-Ribeiro, Alan; Manhães, Marco A.; Dias, Manoel M.

2011-09-01

67

Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility?  

Science.gov (United States)

... the fertility herbs and supplements studied include: L-carnitine. For male infertility, some studies show increased sperm ... men who took a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine. But the resulting number of ...

68

Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions reviewed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: the global increase in the popularity of alternative medicines has raised renewed concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices and may either be pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic in nature. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: pharmacokinetic interactions which may exist between herbs and drugs, and the mechanisms of these interactions with appropriate examples based on primary and secondary data in publications are discussed. The mechanisms covered include those that affect oral drug absorption (e.g., modulation of efflux and uptake transporters, complex formation, gastrointestinal motility and pH) and drug biotransformation (e.g., inhibition or induction of enzymes). WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: knowledge on the mechanisms of herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions supported by an extended list of these types of interactions for quick reference. A critical evaluation of certain herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions reported in the scientific literature. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: as the incidence and severity of herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions increase due to a worldwide rise in the use of herbal preparations, more clinical data regarding herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are needed to make informed decisions regarding patient safety.

Tarirai C; Viljoen AM; Hamman JH

2010-12-01

69

POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

Jain Amit; Dubey Subodh; Gupta Alka; Kannojia Pushpendra; Tomar Vivek

2010-01-01

70

Hydraulic redistribution by Protea 'Sylvia' (Proteaceae) facilitates soil water replenishment and water acquisition by an understorey grass and shrub  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteaceae of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, transpire throughout the summer drought, implying access to deep water. Hydraulic redistribution by Protea 'Sylvia' [P. susannae E. PhillipsxP. exima (Salisb. Ex Knight) Fource; Proteaceae] was investigated in overnight pot and field experiments, where it was hypothesised that (1) Proteaceae replenish water in upper soil layers, (2) hydraulic redistribution facilitates nutrient uptake and (3) shallow-rooted understorey plants 'parasitise' water from proteas. Potted Sylvias redistributed ~17% of the tritiated water supplied, equating to 34±1.2mL plant?¹. Shallow-rooted Cyanodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae), plants growing in the same pots as Sylvia contained amounts of labelled water similar to those found in Sylvia, indicting water parasitism. In the field, Sylvia plants growing in aeolian sands took up the deuterated water applied at 1.2m depth as indicated by increased ?²H of plant xylem water from -38±0.8 to 334±157[per mille sign]. This deuterated water was then redistributed to the upper soil layer (0.2 and 0.4m), as indicated by increased ?²H of soil water from -24.5±0.7 to -8.0±3.0[per mille sign] and soil moisture from 0.48 to 0.89%. Lithium, as a K-analogue, was taken up equally by plants watered with deep water and those not watered, probably since both had access to naturally-occurring deep water. Water in stems of the shallow-rooted understorey shrub, Leysera gnaphalodes (L.) L. (Asteraceae) had similar ?²H values to stems of Sylvia (P=0.939), again indicating water parasitism was tightly coupled to the protea. We conclude that hydraulic redistribution by Proteaceae plays an important role in soil water replenishment, water supply to shallow-rooted plants, and, thus, ecosystem structure and function during the summer drought of the Cape Floristic Region.

Hawkins Heidi-J; Hettasch Hans; West AdamG; Cramer MichaelD

2009-01-01

71

Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B infection. SEARCH STRATEGY: Searches were applied to the following electronic databases: the CHBG Trials Register, the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and BIOSIS. Five Chinese journals and conference proceedings were handsearched. No language restriction was used. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials with at least three months follow-up. Trials of Chinese medicinal herbs (single or compound) compared with placebo, no intervention, general non-specific treatment or interferon treatment were included. Trials of Chinese medicinal herbs plus interferon versus interferon alone were also included. Trials could be double-blind, single-blind or not blinded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. The methodological quality of trials was evaluated using the Jadad-scale plus allocation concealment. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed. MAIN RESULTS: Nine randomised trials, including 936 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was considered adequate in only one trial. There was a significant funnel plot asymmetry (regression coefficient=3.37, standard error 1.40, P=0.047). Ten different medicinal herbs were tested in the nine trials. Compared to non-specific treatment or placebo, Fuzheng Jiedu Tang (compound of herbs) showed significantly positive effects on clearance of serum HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA; Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide on serum HBeAg and HBV DNA; Phyllanthus amarus on serum HBeAg. Phyllanthus compound and kurorinone showed no significant effect on clearance of serum HBeAg and HBV DNA and on alanine aminotransferase normalisation compared to interferon treatment. There were no significant effects of the other examined herbs. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Some Chinese medicinal herbs may work in chronic hepatitis B. However, the evidence is too weak to recommend any single herb. Rigorously designed, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are required.

Liu JP; McIntosh H; Lin H

2001-01-01

72

Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases.

Choi HR; Choi JS; Han YN; Bae SJ; Chung HY

2002-06-01

73

Hair loss and herbs for treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BALDNESS: or androgenetic alopecia directly distresses self-confidence affecting the individual's quality of life. Hair loss is therefore a significant psychosocial manifestation that worth much expense on treatment. Androgenetic alopecia is noticed as a slow transformation of large scalp terminal hair follicles to shorter, thinner, and less deep vellus hair with a much shorter anagen. Although minoxidil, finasteride, and dutasteride including other synthetic therapeutic agents are mostly used for alopecia treatment, their adverse effects encourage sorting of alternative efficient treatment agent with a limited side effect particularly herbs. Thus, this review briefly summarized causes of hair loss and emphasized on active ingredients for treatment in particular currently used herbs and the potential candidates. Treatment choices will be further wider and conclusively select herbs that fitting the consumers' preference.

Lourith N; Kanlayavattanakul M

2013-09-01

74

Method for breeding Chinese medicinal herb chicken  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for breeding Chinese medicinal herb chicken, which comprises the following steps: adding 80 grams of semen coicis, 80 grams of marsilea quadrifolia, 60 grams of agrimony, 50 grams of honeysuckle flower and 100 grams of plantain herb into water, boiling the mixture to form a Chinese medicinal herb composite preparation for chickens, then adding paddy into the composite preparation, boiling the mixture by intense fire, then keeping the mixture warm for 2 to 4 hours by soft fire, cooling the mixture, and directly feeding the chickens of 5 to 18 weeks with the mixture and adding 50 grams of radix ophiopogonis, 150 grams of cherokee rose fruit, 120 grams of lousewort root, 50 grams of black sesame and ginseng and 120 grams of Chinese wolfberry into water, boiling the mixture to form a Chinese medicinal herb composite preparation for chickens, then adding paddy into the composite preparation, boiling the mixture by intense fire, then keeping the mixture warm for 2 to 4 hours by soft fire, cooling the mixture, and directly feeding the adult chickens of 19 to 39 weeks with the mixture. The method for breeding the Chinese medicinal herb chicken is free from using antibiotics during the whole breeding process, can improve the trust feeling of customers on Chinese medicinal herb chicken products, has the advantages of environmental protection, no pollution and pure ecology, can reduce the saturated fatty acid content in chicken fat components, and can improve the anti-oxidizing function of the body after people eat the chicken.

FENGQIU LIU

75

Report on analysis of HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is the choice of HERBE system configuration and detailed analysis of neutronic characteristics of the chosen configuration. The system is planned to be built at the RB reactor. Neutronic parameters were calculated by computer code VESNA based on transmission probability method using 44 group nuclear data for 28 nuclides. In the first phase, it has been proposed to achieve HERBE system by using fuel elements existing at the RB reactor. It is suggested to build new hybrid system in the RB reactor using new fuel elements that would be produced

1989-01-01

76

Health drink of edible wild herbs juice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health beverage of edible wild herb juice is prepared through the following steps: mixing wild chrysanthemum flower in 9-11 weight portions, purslane in 95-105 weight portions and water 900-1100 weight portions, boiling in blazing fire and decocting in slow fire to obtain serum adding proper amount of honey, and sterilizing. The health beverage of edible wild herb juice has the nutritive components of purslane and wild chrysanthemum flower maintained and honey to sweeten, so that it is fragrant, sweet and sourish and rich in nutrients.

ZHOU CHUNTANG

77

HERBE- Analysis of test operation results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding

1991-01-01

78

Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

1996-01-01

79

Effects of medicinal herb salvia miltiorrhiza on bone cell activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal herbs have always been considered a healthy source of life, and their therapeutic properties are used to treat various diseases with the advantage that the medicinal herbs are being 100% natural. Active ingredients from some commonly used medicinal herbs have been found to be osteoinductiv...

Yang, Y; Chai, L; Zhang, D; Rabie, ABM

80

Concentrations of radionuclides in mushrooms and herbs from Latvia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A concentration of 134-Cs and 137-Cs in mushrooms and herbs from Latvia was determined using the method of gamma spectrometry. 585 samples of mushrooms and 107 of herbs were analysed. The total cocentration of cesium radionuclides in different samples of mushrooms was in the range from 5 to 1560 Bk/kg, in herbs from 5 to 230 Bk/kg. (orig.)

Berzins, J. [Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga (Latvia). Nuclear Research Centre; Leja, M. [Latvian Medical Academy, Riga (Latvia). Human Ecology Inst.; Ziedins, U. [Latvian Medical Academy, Riga (Latvia). Human Ecology Inst.; Romane, E. [Latvian Medical Academy, Riga (Latvia). Human Ecology Inst.; Reinholds, E. [Latvian Medical Academy, Riga (Latvia). Human Ecology Inst.

1993-12-31

 
 
 
 
81

The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of ?-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p

2001-01-01

82

Vibriocidal activities of some local herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four of the seven tested medicinal plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against Vibrio cholerae. These 7 plants are: Ficus capensis, Mitragyna stipulosa, Entada africana, Piliostigma reticulatum, Terminalia avicennoides, Mimosa pudica, and Lannea acida. Of them Terminalia avicennoides showed higher antimocrobial activity than others. Potentials of these herbs in the control of cholera need to be determined.

Akinsinde KA; Olukoya DK

1995-06-01

83

A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may spread through the blood stream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The search for anticancer agents from the plant sources alkaloids in earnest in the 1950s such as Vincristine, Vinblastine and the isolation of cytotoxic Podophyllotoxins will reduce white blood cell count and caused bone marrow depression in rats. Roots, leaves, stem, root, bark and fruity of the plant herbs are used in the treatment of cancer. The dietary antioxidants having anti carcinogenic property are in demand. Identification and characterization of these anti-carcinogens in the diet can be used for reducing the risk of human cancer. Tea (Camellia thea) an evergreen plant contains antioxidants which prevent and repair cellular damage caused by reactive free radicals. Supervitamin drinks containing a combination of Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa and Spirulina enhances the activity of immune cells against cancer. Mentha species containing antioxidants prevent reocurrence of cancer.

Badri Nagarani; Subal debnath; Santhosh Kumar C; Chiranjib Bhattacharjee; G. Ganesh Kumar

2011-01-01

84

Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustif...

85

Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.), common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), horsemint (Mentha longifolia L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.). The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total) were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing), Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

Maria Kowalik

2013-01-01

86

Chinese medicinal herb for treating cancer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a Chinese medicinal herb for treating cancer, which is characterized in that: the Chinese medicinal herb is prepared from the following raw materials in part by weight: 20 to 30 parts of cordyceps sinensis, 20 to 30 parts of saffron, 5 to 10 parts of musk, 10 to 20 parts of lime flower, 10 to 20 parts of medlar, 10 to 20 parts of motherwort herb, 20 to 30 parts of snow lotus, 10 to 20 parts of dried rhizome of rehmannia and linseed, 10 to 20 parts of rhizoma phragmitis, 10 to 20 parts of marsdenia longipes, 10 to 20 parts of peach skin, 5 to 10 parts of American ginseng, 10 to 20 parts of ginkgo leaf, 5 to 10 parts of Indian buead, 5 to 10 parts of colophony, 10 to 20 parts of donkey-hide gelatin, 5 to 10 parts of royal jelly, 10 to 20 parts of fritillaria, 2 to 10 parts of fennel, 5 to 10 parts of hops, 10 to 20 parts of honeysuckle flower, 5 to 10 parts of stigma, and 5 to 10 parts of lotus seed. The invention aims to provide the Chinese medicinal herb which has the effects of eliminating carcinogen in the body, limiting cancer cell growth, and quickly eliminating a great amount of vivotoxin, and has the effects of obviously treating symptoms such as pleural effusion, ascites and the like at the same time. Years of clinical application shows that the Chinese medicinal herb has ideal effect and cures patients under the condition of safety, no pain and no relapse and 97 percent of patients are obviously improved and 40 percent of patients are cured.

LEI XU

87

Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9 spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) high forest, reclaimed bogs, ?100 m from Bronze Age burial mounds, or former conifer plantation, and stand age. The PCA results showed that the main gradients in species composition were strongly related to the explanatory variables. Forward variable selection and variation partitioning using RDA showed that although modern environment was the dominant driver of species composition, anthropogenic historical factors were also important. The pure historical variation fraction constituted 13% of the variation explained. TheRDA results showed that ancient-forest status and, secondarily, reclaimed bog status were the only significant historical variables. Many typical forest interior species, with poor dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still present in the reclaimed bog areas. Our results emphasize the importance of historical factors for understanding modern vegetation patterns in forested landscapes.

Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.

2009-01-01

88

Experimental testing of a volume index as a fast method for estimating carbon stock in the understorey vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biomass of understory vegetation has an important role in several forest ecosystem processes, though it is not frequently included in forest inventory programs, which are commonly focused on the tree component. The objective of the study is to test a fast procedure for obtaining an accurate estimation of three components of the aboveground understory vegetation: herbaceous, bush, regeneration. For such a purpose a Volume Index has been calculated on the basis of the product between the percent coverage of vegetation and the average height of the three different components of understory vegetation. The index has been quantified in twenty clusters of four squared plots 1 m2 wide; clusters were located in two study areas in the northern part of Molise Region (southeastern Italy). For each plot, the dry biomass has been collected and weighted, and then transformed in carbon stock. This study presents the field protocol and the achieved results in terms of measured aboveground understorey carbon stock in six different forest and pre-forest types (the average carbon stock was 1.19 t C ha-1) and correlation between Volume Index and carbon stock (the Pearson’s correlation index was 0.8 on 309 field observations).

Chirici G; Oriani A; Tognetti R; Garfì V; Chiavetta U; Lasserre B; Marchetti M

2009-01-01

89

Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We determined whether nine common herbs (basil, chili, cilantro, dill, garlic, ginger, lemongrass, oregano, and parsley) and one herb mixture (Italian Herbs) retain the antioxidant capacity (AC) and content of phenolics and characteristic marker compounds during processing to dry and paste forms. Oregano exhibited the highest AC among the herbs tested in dry and fresh forms. Compared with fresh herbs, the AC in dry form was decreased in garlic, chili, dill, oregano and parsley and paste form of oregano and basil. With the exception of dried garlic and lemongrass in fresh and paste form, all herbs in dry, paste, and fresh form contained significant AC. The AC was correlated significantly to the total phenolic content in both dry and fresh form. However, there was no significant correlation between the AC and the concentration of chemical marker compounds. In summary, processed herbs contribute significant amounts of AC to the diet.

Henning SM; Zhang Y; Seeram NP; Lee RP; Wang P; Bowerman S; Heber D

2011-05-01

90

Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined whether nine common herbs (basil, chili, cilantro, dill, garlic, ginger, lemongrass, oregano, and parsley) and one herb mixture (Italian Herbs) retain the antioxidant capacity (AC) and content of phenolics and characteristic marker compounds during processing to dry and paste forms. Oregano exhibited the highest AC among the herbs tested in dry and fresh forms. Compared with fresh herbs, the AC in dry form was decreased in garlic, chili, dill, oregano and parsley and paste form of oregano and basil. With the exception of dried garlic and lemongrass in fresh and paste form, all herbs in dry, paste, and fresh form contained significant AC. The AC was correlated significantly to the total phenolic content in both dry and fresh form. However, there was no significant correlation between the AC and the concentration of chemical marker compounds. In summary, processed herbs contribute significant amounts of AC to the diet. PMID:21118053

Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Lee, Ru-Po; Wang, Piwen; Bowerman, Susan; Heber, David

2010-12-01

91

Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed. PMID:11237173

Nakatani, N

2000-01-01

92

Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed.

Nakatani N

2000-01-01

93

SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling haemorrhage from cuts and bruises. In vitro clotting time of blood in presence and  absence  of various plant extracts was used as a guide to study haemostatic activityof the herbs under study. Of the ten plants evaluated, aqueous extracts of Quercus pubescens, Thevetia peruviana proved to have  significant  haemostatic activity at PZingiber officinale, Zanthoxylum rhetsa and petroleum ether extracts of Psidum guajava, Terminalia chebula, Zanthoxylum rhetsa confirmed the same results.

Shital Tanaji Jadhav

2013-01-01

94

[Herbicide residues in some herbs (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Residue occurrence is discussed with use of 14 herbicides (Alachlor, Chloridazone, Chlorpropham, Chloroxuron, Chlorthal-methyl, Desmetryne, Lenacil, Linuron, Methabenzthiazuron, Monolinuron, Na-propamide, Pendimethalin, Phenmedipham and Terbutryne) on 6 herbs (borage, dill, garden-chervil, garden cress, anise and sorrel) in the light of residue analyses (from field trials over two seasons with analyses carried out in two laboratories). The methods are outlined; limits of the determinations and recoveries are given.

Pestemer W; Mann W

1980-10-01

95

[Herbicide residues in some herbs (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Residue occurrence is discussed with use of 14 herbicides (Alachlor, Chloridazone, Chlorpropham, Chloroxuron, Chlorthal-methyl, Desmetryne, Lenacil, Linuron, Methabenzthiazuron, Monolinuron, Na-propamide, Pendimethalin, Phenmedipham and Terbutryne) on 6 herbs (borage, dill, garden-chervil, garden cress, anise and sorrel) in the light of residue analyses (from field trials over two seasons with analyses carried out in two laboratories). The methods are outlined; limits of the determinations and recoveries are given. PMID:7445754

Pestemer, W; Mann, W

1980-10-01

96

Microbiological and toxicological quality of dried herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The microbiological and toxicological quality of 51 samples of dried herbs (Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Malva sylvestris, Matricaria chamomilla, Alchemilla vulgaris and Centaurea cyanus) cultivated in family-managed farms in Molise Region (Italy) was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the samples were analysed by using conventional methods, and for samples preparation, an alternative Washing and Shaking (WaS) protocol was developed to reduce release of antimicrobial compounds. None of the samples were of unsatisfactory quality with respect to aflatoxin B1, and only three samples from Malva sylvestris exceeded the limit of total aflatoxins according to Recommendation 2004/24/EC. The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods limits for mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms were exceeded in the 29.4 and 3.9% of samples, respectively: 7.8% of samples also exceeded the limit for Escherichia coli established by European Spice Association. When the 'WaS' method was used, higher microbial counts were obtained, especially for A. vulgaris, S. officinalis and M. officinalis. CONCLUSIONS: Herbs cultivated in family-managed small agricultural areas showed a good microbiological and toxicological quality, irrespectively of preliminary washing or selection procedures. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Herb matrices may contain antimicrobial activity which should be considered when applying the conventional microbiological methods for sample preparation. Alternative preparation protocols may have advantages to reduce antimicrobial effects and should be further evaluated.

Vitullo M; Ripabelli G; Fanelli I; Tamburro M; Delfine S; Sammarco ML

2011-06-01

97

Mutagenicity testing of some medicinal herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracts of four brands of a Pakistani local medicine called naswar and six indigenous herbs commonly used as medicine in children were tested for their ability to induce mutations to prototrophy in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537. Petroleum ether extracts of one brand of naswar, namely green naswar of Peshawar, exhibited mutagenicity in all of the four tester strains. Organic extracts of three herbs, Saussurea lappa, Swertia chiraita, and Skimmia laureola, exhibited mutagenic activity in tester strain TA98. Green naswar of Bannu, grey naswar, red naswar, and the remaining three herbs, namely, Acorous calamus, Azadarachta indica, and Zanthozylum alatum, exhibited no mutagenic activity under the present experimental conditions. The abilities of green naswar of Peshawar and Saussurea lappa to induce mutations was shown to be related to the presence of cyclic aromatic compounds with molecular formulas C34 H44 O9 and C15 H18 O2, respectively. The experimental data are discussed as they relate to the potential hazards of such naturally occurring compounds and to synthetic compounds in excessive and uncontrolled use by the general public in villages in Pakistan.

Riazuddin S; Malik MM; Nasim A

1987-01-01

98

DRINK CONTAINING HERB FLAVOR EXTRACT AND METHOD FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A preservative-free herb drink and a preparation method thereof are provided to show both specific flavor and medicinal effects of natural herbs without any preservatives by mixing herbs, fruits and flower extracts. A method for preparing a preservative-free herb drink comprises the following steps of: mixing 0.1-1.0% of herbs and a blending material with 100 DEG C of water in order to obtain extracts mixing 0.1-10% of sucrose, 0.1-10% of liquid fructose and 0.1-3% of birch sugar to the extracts and cooling the mixture down to the room temperature and adding 0.1-15% of organic acid. The blending material represents one or more mixed materials selected from the fruit group consisting of dried apple, apple, vanilla, citrus and raspberry and from the herb group consisting of rose hip, hibiscus, Melissa, chamomile, lotus leaf, peppermint, cinnamon and Rooibos.

PARK SANG HOON; YOU HONG JAE

99

Herbs-are they safe enough? an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many compounds in common use not only have a significant effect on the body but may also interact with pharmaceuticals and also with other alternative products. Concurrent use of herbs with drugs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs leading to herb-drug interactions. Currently, there is very little information published on herb-herb or herb-drug interactions as compared to the use of herbs which is progressively growing across the world. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. The article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies including the most widely sold herbal medicinal products, like liquorice, garlic, ginger, green tea, and turmeric, etc., and reinforce the safety aspect of herbal products, which are considered to be relatively safe by common people.

Singh D; Gupta R; Saraf SA

2012-01-01

100

Wucao-five Chinese herb medicines cleaning products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Five-herb detergent has in each 1000 g pipewort extract 0.001-248 g, common sage extract 0.001-248 g, Suchow mosla herb extract 0.001-248 g, wolfs milk extract 0.001-248 g, and aweto extract 0.001-248 g, except the matrix. The Five-herb detergent has excellent skin cleaning and moistening effect, certain germ and virus, especially infectious disease germ and virus, inhibiting and killing effect. The Five-herb detergent may be added into detergent, cosmetics, wet towel, toothpaste and other daily used articles to generate skin cleaning, sterilizing and moistening effects.

WANG HAOGUI

 
 
 
 
101

Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

2009-01-01

102

Sobrevivência diferencial de pupas de Euselasia apisaon Dahman (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) em plantas de sub-bosque nos plantios de Eucalyptus de Belo Oriente, MG Differential survival of Euselasia apisaon Dahman (lepidoptera: riodinidae) pupae at understorey plants in the Eucalyptus plantations of Belo Oriente, MG, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbivorous insects may attack eucalyptus causing economic losses. One of these pests is the moth Euselasia apisaon Dahman, a key pest in the basin of middle Rio Doce. Here we studied the survival of pupae of this moth in Eucalypts and in understorey plants and tested the hypotheses: i) live pupae are more abundant in plants of the understorey than in eucalyptus, ii) there is no difference between the abundance of pupae in different plants of the understorey. We sampled three areas cultivated with eucalyptus in Belo Oriente, MG, and samples were taken in five plots each area, getting five branches of each plant and of five eucalyptus trees that bordered the plot. The proportion of live and dead pupae and the mortality rate were estimated. The abundance of live pupae was higher in the understorey and the mortality rate of pupae was the same among different families of plants of the understorey. It is possible the larger available leaf area of understorey plants justify the greater abundance of live pupae in this habitat, however, avoidance of feeding habitat to finish the life cycle is also a possible explanation. Mortality rate in plants of the understorey points to an equal pressure of natural enemies on the pupae. These appointments help us to understand the dynamics of pests in eucalyptus plantations, providing important information to support actions against pests in natural environments.

Suelen M Sousa; Maurício L de Faria; Anderson O Latini

2010-01-01

103

The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of {gamma}-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

Kim, Sung Ho [Chonam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Deog [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-15

104

Radioprotective activity in some medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs of the Araliaceae and other families were tested for their radioprotective activity by either measuring 30 days survival rates (a commonly applied method) or counting the thrombocytes 14 days after irradiation (an improved method) in mice. The extracts were i.p. injected once within 4 min after the whole body X-ray irradiation. Of 12 materials examined, Aralia elata, Angelica acutiloba and Morus bombysis seemed to be good starting materials for preparing radioprotective substance(s) because of their relatively high specific activity and high yields of the extracts. (author)

1993-01-01

105

HERB LOTION TO ACTIVATE HAIR ROOTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The object of Herb lotion to activate hair roots is a dermatologically approved cosmetic product, included in the field of cosmetic industry; prepared from a mixture of various plants to remove dead hair cells; from then, a procedure of deep cleaning of hair roots starts, followed by a scalp hydration process; the lotion is produced from natural compounds of various botanic species, from which their active components are extracted, such as leaves of Aloe vera, Korlanchoe brasiliensis, Cympobogon citrates, Pilocarpus jaborandi, Tanacetum vulgare, husk of Calycophyllium spruceanum, pulp of Theobroma grandiflorum and oil from Copaifera sp; constituents are conveniently mixed, following production steps as defined.

PEREIRA OVANDE ESTACIO; BENTO ANTONIO DONIZETE

106

The impact of changes in the timing of precipitation on the herbaceous understorey of Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change scenarios for the Iberian Peninsula predict increasing temperatures and increasingly variable precipitation regimes, which will challenge the sustainability and biodiversity of Mediterranean ecosystems such as the semi-natural evergreen oak woodlands. To assess the effects of precipitation variability on productivity, species composition and vegetation gas exchange of the understorey vegetation in a typical managed cork oak woodland, a large-scale rainfall manipulation experiment was established. We studied the impacts of a change in the timing of precipitation events on this ecosystem, without altering total annual precipitation inputs. The two water manipulation treatments were: ‘weekly watering treatment’, where natural conditions were simulated with a normal dry period of 7 days, and ‘3-weekly watering treatment’, with the normal dry period increased three-fold to 21 days. Our experimental precipitation patterns resulted in significant differences in temporal soil moisture dynamics between the two treatments. Average soil water content (SWC) at 3cm depth during the growing season was 16.1±0.17% and 15.8±0.18% in the weekly and 3-weekly watering treatments, respectively, with a mere 5% increase in the variability of SWC when extending the dry period from one to three weeks. Water infiltration into deeper soil layers (>50cm) was significantly higher in the 3-weekly watering treatment as compared to the weekly watering treatment. This might be beneficial to Quercus suber, the tree component in this ecosystem, as its extensive tree root system enables water acquisition from deeper soil layers. However, manipulation of the within-season precipitation variability, with a shift to fewer, but larger rain events, without change in total precipitation amount, had no significant effect on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), belowground net primary productivity (BNPP) and species composition, with average values of peak biomass of 385gm?² and 222gm?² for ANPP and BNPP, respectively. The experimental precipitation patterns did not result in significant differences in the vegetation gas exchange between the two watering treatments. The CO? and H?O exchange parameters correlated well with air temperature. In addition, evapotranspiration showed a good correlation with SWC. Incorporating the data of SWC in the conceptual ‘bucket model’ showed that, independently of the watering regime, soil water availability during the life-cycle of these annual plants did not reach severe water stress conditions, which can explain the lack of a significant treatment effect in our study. In addition, our results showed that the annual plant community in these Mediterranean ecosystems is well adapted to short-term drought, through their phenological patterns and physiological adaptations.

Jongen M; Lecomte X; Unger S; Pintó-Marijuan M; Pereira JS

2013-04-01

107

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This artic...

Niu, Linhai; Mantri, Nitin; Li , Chun Guang; Xue , Charlie; Pang , Edwin

108

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal...

Niu Linhai; Mantri Nitin; Li Chun; Xue Charlie; Pang Edwin

109

Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional groups (grasses, legumes and herbs). Herb species included chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor L.). We also investigated the effect of slurry application on the macro- and micromineral concentration of grasses, legumes and herbs. In general, herbs had greater concentrations of the macrominerals P, Mg, K and S and the microminerals Zn and B than grasses and legumes. Slurry application indirectly decreased Ca, S, Cu and B concentrations of total herbage because of an increase in the proportion of mineral-poor grasses. Our study indicates that including herbs in forage mixtures is an effective way of increasing mineral concentrations in herbage.

Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; SØegaard, Karen

2011-01-01

110

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. (CHIRCHIRA): A MAGIC HERB IN FOLK MEDICINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prickly chaff (achyranthes aspera linn) herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian system of medicine.Achyranthes aspera linn known as chirchira in hindi is an indigenous herb found in India, It has been used in almost all the traditional system...

A. Shukla; V Bukhariya; J. Bajaj; R Charde

111

THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF PHELLINUS LINTEUS TEA BAG CONTAINING HERB  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of manufacturing paper-bagged tea containing herb powder and Phellinus linteus powder is provided to improve efficacy of Phellinus linteus and characteristic flavor, color and taste of herb. Phellinus linteus is dried, cut to 1 to 2mm in size, dried and ground to less than 200 meshes. Then, 20 to 80% by weight of Phellinus linteus powder is mixed with herb powder and the powders are put into a tea bag. The herb is selected from the group consisting of rosemary, Thymus vulgaris, Menthae piperitae, chamomile, Salvia officinalis and Jasmine. For an example, Phellinus linteus fruit bodies are dried for 2 to 3 days in the shade and ground. Then 20 to 80% by weight of Phellinus linteus powder is mixed with 20 to 80% by weight of herb powder and put into a tea bag.

UM HEUNG SU

112

Pharmacokinetic comparisons of single herb extract of Fufang Danshen preparation with different combinations of its constituent herbs in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salvianolic acid B (SAB), tanshinone IIA (TS), ginsenoside Rb? (Rb?), ginsenoside Rg? (Rg?) and notoginsenoside R? (R?) are major active ingredients of Fufang Danshen preparation (FDP) for its protective effects on myocardial ischemia. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of marker compounds after oral administration of single herb extract and different combinations of constitutional herbs in FDP, and explored potential herb-herb interactions among the ingredients in the multi-herb medicine. The pharmacokinetics study on the target compounds in rat plasma was performed using an optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) coupled with protein precipitation method. There were no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of SAB, TS, Rb?, Rg? and R? between single Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza) or Radix Panax notoginsen (P. notoginseng) extract and combination treatment. While, in comparison with oral administration of P. notoginseng extract alone, the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), AUC(0-72 h), AUC(0-?), Cl, V), particularly for Rb? and Rg?, were significantly different after oral administration P. notoginseng extract with addition of borneol (pborneol. The results showed that herb-herb interactions may be accounting for the different pharmacokinetic behaviors of active constituents administered in compound prescriptions versus in single-herb extracts, however, which were not significant in most cases. PMID:22579600

Yang, Shenshen; Zhang, Keru; Lin, Xia; Miao, Yuqiang; Meng, Lingkuo; Chen, Wei; Tang, Xing

2012-04-10

113

PPAR? activation by culinary herbs and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyper- and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the primary cause of death in industrialized countries. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation is involved in various mechanisms that improve the lipid profile. We tested various plant extracts and their compounds to determine whether they stimulated PPAR? activity in vitro. Out of 34 tested plant extracts, nine exhibited low to moderate PPAR? transactivation, including caraway, chili pepper, nutmeg, licorice, black and white pepper, paprika, coriander, saffron, and stevia tea. The active components of black pepper and chili pepper, piperine, and capsaicin exerted the highest transactivational activities with EC?? values of 84 µM and 49 µM, respectively. The chalcones, including 2-hydroxychalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, and 4-methoxychalcone, moderately transactivated PPAR?. Resveratrol and apigenin only slightly transactivated PPAR?. These results suggest that a diet rich in fruit, herbs, and spices provides a number of PPAR? agonists that might contribute to an improved lipid profile. PMID:20957597

Mueller, Monika; Beck, Verena; Jungbauer, Alois

2010-10-18

114

PPAR? activation by culinary herbs and spices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyper- and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the primary cause of death in industrialized countries. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation is involved in various mechanisms that improve the lipid profile. We tested various plant extracts and their compounds to determine whether they stimulated PPAR? activity in vitro. Out of 34 tested plant extracts, nine exhibited low to moderate PPAR? transactivation, including caraway, chili pepper, nutmeg, licorice, black and white pepper, paprika, coriander, saffron, and stevia tea. The active components of black pepper and chili pepper, piperine, and capsaicin exerted the highest transactivational activities with EC?? values of 84 µM and 49 µM, respectively. The chalcones, including 2-hydroxychalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, and 4-methoxychalcone, moderately transactivated PPAR?. Resveratrol and apigenin only slightly transactivated PPAR?. These results suggest that a diet rich in fruit, herbs, and spices provides a number of PPAR? agonists that might contribute to an improved lipid profile.

Mueller M; Beck V; Jungbauer A

2011-03-01

115

DRINK CONTAINING HERB FLAVOR EXTRACT AND METHOD FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a drink containing herb flavor extract, which comprises herbs, natural additives, and organic acids as a natural antiseptic substance, and provides a drink containing herb flavor extract and a method for production thereof which comprises mixing 0.1-1% of an extract of blended materials, including herbs, fruits and flowers, with 0.1-10% sucrose, 0.1-10% liquid fructose, and 0.1-3% Betula Platy Phylla sugar, and adding 0.1-15% organic acids at room temperature. Particularly, the present invention achieves a sweet taste by the added blending material, while the utility of the drink is enhanced by adding sucrose and liquid fructose to supplement energy and the sweet taste, Betula Platy Phylla sugar for freshness, and vinegar components for embodying natural antiseptic effects. According to the present invention, a healthy drink can be achieved that embodies a unique flavor through natural herbs and their extract, a simple quenching effect of thirst, and various pharmacological effects of herbs, by adding sucrose and liquid fructose to compensate energy and the sweet taste, Betula Platy Phylla sugar for embodying freshness, and vinegar components as natural preservatives for providing a sour taste and maintaining low PH for the drink containing extracts from various flowers and herbs.

PARK SANG-HOON; YOU HONG-JAE

116

Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P 1) whereas Fe was the predominance one in herb leaves (326-1755 ?g g?1). Fortunately, toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, had the lowest contents in both tea and herb leaves. Among tested tea brands, Chinese green tea possesses the highest contents of heavy metals. Concentrations of tested heavy metals in tea and herb beverage were markedly lower than their total contents. The concentrations of toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd were too low to be detected in beverage using the available analytical techniques. The solubility of studied heavy metals in both brew and infusion extracts varied widely and ranged from 0.0-48%. The lowest rates of solubility were listed for toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd. The amounts of heavy metals that one may take up through consumption of tea and herb beverages were found to match the acceptable daily intake that takes into account exposure from air, food and drinking water.

Saud S. AL-Oud

2003-01-01

117

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but also of 137Cs and 239+240Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of 137Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h-1 for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of 137Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of 137Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

1999-01-01

118

Radiation decontamination of herbal row materials and medical herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique can effectively replaced them. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the National programme on the application of irradiation on the decontamination medical herbs is in progress now. The first aim of the programme is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on microbial purity herbal raw materials and medical herbs. (author)

1998-01-01

119

Method of immersing storing edible wild herbs without salt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A salt-free pickling method for storing edible herbs includes such steps as washing, scaling, and immersing in the acidic antistaling liquid containing Ca,Cu and Zn ions, which are contained in a vacuum plastic bag.

WANG WENYAN

120

Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy) and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy). Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

Wannipa Phianphak; Sirirat Rengpipat; Wichai Cherdshewasart

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Study on generation cause of genuine medical herbs].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chinese herbal medicine are the main means to prevent and treat diseases in traditional Chinese medicine, thus the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs decides the clinical efficacy. Though the producing areas of genuine medical herbs had been recorded in the Qing and Han Dynasties, genuine medical herbs had not been finally established and thrived until the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Their development in more than 1 000 years was affected by many factors. Thepractice examination and theoretical direction of TCM were the theoretical basis for the generation of genuine medical herbs, while the differences in the ecological environment and herbal germplasm indicated their essential causes. The social development in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was also an intangible impetus driving force that could not be neglected.

Liang F; Li J; Zhang W; Zhang RX

2013-02-01

122

[Study on generation cause of genuine medical herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese herbal medicine are the main means to prevent and treat diseases in traditional Chinese medicine, thus the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs decides the clinical efficacy. Though the producing areas of genuine medical herbs had been recorded in the Qing and Han Dynasties, genuine medical herbs had not been finally established and thrived until the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Their development in more than 1 000 years was affected by many factors. Thepractice examination and theoretical direction of TCM were the theoretical basis for the generation of genuine medical herbs, while the differences in the ecological environment and herbal germplasm indicated their essential causes. The social development in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was also an intangible impetus driving force that could not be neglected. PMID:23668031

Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

2013-02-01

123

Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant.

Jana S; Shekhawat GS

2010-07-01

124

Erectile Dysfunction Herbs: A Natural Treatment for ED?  

Science.gov (United States)

Erectile dysfunction Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Erectile dysfunction herbs: A natural treatment for ED? By Mayo ...

125

RECENT UPDATE ON PROFICIENT BONE FRACTURE REVIVIFYING HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fracture healing phenomenon is a complex process which involves cell and tissue differentiation and proliferation . Herbs influence rate of fracture healing by influencing the regeneration of connective tissue of mesenchymal origin viz. chondroblast, fibroblast and osteoblast that are involved in healing and quicker mineralization of callus. The present review highlights some of the potential herbs along with their application in healing bone fracture.

Singla Chhavi; Drabu Sushma; Verma Ravinder; Dhiman Anju; Sharma Asha

2011-01-01

126

Chinese medicinal herb with special efficiency in invigorating stomach and helping digestion  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a Chinese medicinal herb with special efficiency in invigorating stomach and helping digestion. The herb can be effective within 1 or a plurality of hours after administration.Compared with other drugs for invigorating stomach and helping digestion, the herb has quick and prominent effect, indicates obvious advantage and consists of aquilaria sinensis, saruma henryi, magnolia delavayi, eriosema chinense vog, polygonatum canaliculatum, remote lemongrass herb, gentiana scabra bge, aristolochia austroyunnanensis and other Chinese medicinal herbs.

TIANXI FU

127

COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS) – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq.) is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol) used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

SharmaYashaswini; Vasundhara M

2011-01-01

128

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value. The acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care and the development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics has led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants. Wild plants have been reported to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for centuries, and indigenous plants have been used in herbal medicine for curing various diseases. The development of bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents. In lieu of the above justification, present study aimed at evaluating the In vitro antibacterial studies on the extracts of three herbs namely Punica Granatum, Ricinus communis and Zingiber officinalis carried out on five medically important bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris). Based on the present investigation results, extracts has great potential against different microorganisms tested and has inhibitory effect. It can be concluded that these plants can be used as therapeutic natural agents that may serve as lead for the development of new pharmaceuticals addressing the major therapeutic needs.

Pesaramelli Karteek; Vellanki Jahnavi; D.V. Keerthi; K. Chaitanya Sravanthi

2012-01-01

129

Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and the food industry. As plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress caused by photons and oxygen, they represent a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant activity. Traditional herbal medicines form an important part of the healthcare system of India. Ayurveda, supposed to be the oldest medical system in the world, provides potential leads to find active and therapeutically useful compounds from plants. Considering the growing interest in assessing the antioxidant capacity of herbal medicine in this review we discuss about rarely reviewed 24 plants reported to have antioxidant properties. Some of the plants reviewed are part of multi-herbal preparations while others are used singly. Certain herbs like Amaranthus paniculatus, Aerva lanata, Coccinia indica and Coriandrum sativum are used as vegetables indicating that these plants could be source of dietary antioxidant supplies, which is another emerging area of research.

Ali SS; Kasoju N; Luthra A; Singh A; Sharanabasava H; Sahu A; Bora U

2008-01-01

130

PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS: AN AMPLE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL HERB  

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Full Text Available Herbal drugs have been one of the primarily used drugs since olden times for the treatment of a range of diseases. In addition, the medicinal plants have played a vital role in world health as the herbal plants still make an important contribution to health care. Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, has been used since ages because of its rich medicinal values and ethnomedical importance. Phyllanthus amarus is a small, erect, annual herb which is a rich source of phytochemicals that are attributed to biologically active lignans, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins and phenylpropanoids that are present in the leaf, stem and root of the plant. It is a little wonder that the plant is used for so many purposes in herbal medicine systems and in clinical research over the years. Numerous studies have reported that Phyllanthus amarus have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Moreover, studies have demonstrated hepatoprotective, antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antiallodynic, antioedematogenic, antispasmodial, chemoprotective, antihypercalciuric, antiviral, antispasmodic, antinociceptive and diuretic properties associated with Phyllanthus amarus. The present review article summarizes the potent pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant.

Kiran Divya; Rohilla Ankur; Rohilla Seema; Khan M.U.

2011-01-01

131

Pharmacokinetic comparisons of single herb extract of Fufang Danshen preparation with different combinations of its constituent herbs in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salvianolic acid B (SAB), tanshinone IIA (TS), ginsenoside Rb? (Rb?), ginsenoside Rg? (Rg?) and notoginsenoside R? (R?) are major active ingredients of Fufang Danshen preparation (FDP) for its protective effects on myocardial ischemia. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of marker compounds after oral administration of single herb extract and different combinations of constitutional herbs in FDP, and explored potential herb-herb interactions among the ingredients in the multi-herb medicine. The pharmacokinetics study on the target compounds in rat plasma was performed using an optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) coupled with protein precipitation method. There were no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of SAB, TS, Rb?, Rg? and R? between single Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza) or Radix Panax notoginsen (P. notoginseng) extract and combination treatment. While, in comparison with oral administration of P. notoginseng extract alone, the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), AUC(0-72 h), AUC(0-?), Cl, V), particularly for Rb? and Rg?, were significantly different after oral administration P. notoginseng extract with addition of borneol (p<0.05). The AUC(0-72 h) values of Rb? and Rg? were significantly increased 1.3-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, after P. Notoginsen extract co-administered with borneol. The results showed that herb-herb interactions may be accounting for the different pharmacokinetic behaviors of active constituents administered in compound prescriptions versus in single-herb extracts, however, which were not significant in most cases.

Yang S; Zhang K; Lin X; Miao Y; Meng L; Chen W; Tang X

2012-08-01

132

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas), em clareiras pequenas e médias (11), e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae). Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia.

RAF. Lima; S. Gandolfi

2009-01-01

133

Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the mainpollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg{sup -1} at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg{sup -1} at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for {sup 239+240}Pu and least for {sup 90}Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of {sup 90}Sr, but also of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu became considerably shorter when approaching the most polluted sites. Again, this effect was related to the thickness of the layer, which was significantly smaller at the most polluted site than at the other sites. Aggregated transfer factors: for two plant species, the aggregated transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr decreased with increasing chemical pollution, for one species it increased. Obviously, the soil-to-plant transfer of all three radionuclides can be significantly modified by the industrial pollution of the ecosystem, and these modifications are plant specific. The studies of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the catchment soil to streamwater by runoff showed that the concentrations of these radionuclides depend more on the fraction of bogs in the catchment area than on the amount of pollution. The external dose rate of {sup 137}Cs as calculated from the depth profiles of its activity in the soil was approximately 1.5 nGy h{sup -1} for all sites and did not depend on the chemical pollution. Related to the total activity per squaremeter, the dose rate of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was about 1.6 times higher than that of {sup 137}Cs from global fallout, because the activity of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs was concentrated closer to the soil surface than that of {sup 137}Cs from the global fallout. Summarising it can be concluded, that most of the radioecological quantities studied depended on the amount of pollution load at the various sites, even though the effects were related to the type of soil/plant ecosystem or soil/runoff water system. The methodology applied can also be used when investigating other polluted areas or evaluating the efficiency of restoration procedures applied to polluted areas. (orig.)

Suomela, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden); Bunzl, K. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Radiochemical Lab.; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

1999-08-01

134

Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives, coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify the presence of flavonoids in the hydrolysed extracts of herbs. Some traditional Danish dishes contain herbs, particularly parsley. dill, cross and chives, and the contribution to the flavonoid intake by consumption of these dishes was calculated. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

2001-01-01

135

Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 0.2-2681.0 microg/m3 (median 16.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.1 microg/m3. In conclusion, the workers of herb processing plants could be exposed to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease.

Dutkiewicz J; Krysi?ska-Traczyk E; Skórska C; Sitkowska J; Prazmo Z; Golec M

2001-01-01

136

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

Allard T; Wenner T; Greten HJ; Efferth T

2013-01-01

137

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

2013-01-01

138

Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we report on the content and bioactivity of plant (phyto) estrogens and progestins in various foods, herbs, and spices, before and after human consumption. Over 150 herbs traditionally used by herbalists for treating a variety of health problems were extracted and tested for their relative capacity to compete with estradiol and progesterone binding to intracellular receptors for progesterone (PR) and estradiol (ER) in intact human breast cancer cells. The six highest ER-binding herbs that are commonly consumed were soy, licorice, red clover, thyme, tumeric, hops, and verbena. The six highest PR-binding herbs and spices commonly consumed were oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover and damiana. Some of the herbs and spices found to contain high phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancer cell lines and to induce or inhibit the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase, an end product of progesterone action, in PR (+) cells. In general, we found that ER-binding herbal extracts were agonists, much like estradiol, whereas PR-binding extracts, were neutral or antagonists. The bioavailability of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins in vivo were studied by quantitating the ER-binding and PR-binding capacity of saliva following consumption of soy milk, exogenous progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or wild mexican yam products containing diosgenin. Soy milk caused a dramatic increase in saliva ER-binding components without a concomitant rise in estradiol. Consumption of PR-binding herbs increased the progestin activity of saliva, but there were marked differences in bioactivity. In summary, we have demonstrated that many of the commonly consumed foods, herbs, and spices contain phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins that act as agonists and antagonists in vivo.

Zava DT; Dollbaum CM; Blen M

1998-03-01

139

Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we report on the content and bioactivity of plant (phyto) estrogens and progestins in various foods, herbs, and spices, before and after human consumption. Over 150 herbs traditionally used by herbalists for treating a variety of health problems were extracted and tested for their relative capacity to compete with estradiol and progesterone binding to intracellular receptors for progesterone (PR) and estradiol (ER) in intact human breast cancer cells. The six highest ER-binding herbs that are commonly consumed were soy, licorice, red clover, thyme, tumeric, hops, and verbena. The six highest PR-binding herbs and spices commonly consumed were oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover and damiana. Some of the herbs and spices found to contain high phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancer cell lines and to induce or inhibit the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase, an end product of progesterone action, in PR (+) cells. In general, we found that ER-binding herbal extracts were agonists, much like estradiol, whereas PR-binding extracts, were neutral or antagonists. The bioavailability of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins in vivo were studied by quantitating the ER-binding and PR-binding capacity of saliva following consumption of soy milk, exogenous progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or wild mexican yam products containing diosgenin. Soy milk caused a dramatic increase in saliva ER-binding components without a concomitant rise in estradiol. Consumption of PR-binding herbs increased the progestin activity of saliva, but there were marked differences in bioactivity. In summary, we have demonstrated that many of the commonly consumed foods, herbs, and spices contain phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins that act as agonists and antagonists in vivo. PMID:9492350

Zava, D T; Dollbaum, C M; Blen, M

1998-03-01

140

Herb extract influence on the oxidative stability of selected lipids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of ethanol herb extract in different lipid systems was determined. For the purpose of this study, five representatives of spices were selected: garlic (Allium sativum L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Lipid analyses showed different antioxidant potential of herbs extracts depending on the system used. Rancimat and Oxidograph tests showed that extract antioxidant potential in lard was higher than in sunflower oil. Thyme and marjoram extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity but the lowest was recorded for garlic and mint one. Statistical Analysis showed a high correlation between total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Lipid oxidative stability in the Schaal oven test showed different trends, however, highest activity was observed in the samples of thyme and rosemary extract. Mint extract in sunflower oil and lard on cellulose matrix exhibited prooxidative activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Herbs are known for their medicinal properties, resulting from a wide range of bioactive compounds. Polyphenols are the potential antioxidants that would slow down or terminate oxidation processes. Lipids are very susceptible to oxidation that is why the present investigations aimed at finding herbs source of as strong antioxidant compounds to be used in lipids stabilization. Use of herb extracts efficiently increases the oxidative stability of examined lipids. Hence, their addition could enhance the nutritional value of the lipid products.

GRAMZA?MICHALOWSKA A; SIDOR A; HES M

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Combining herbs with medication--risks vs. chances].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world.

Amir N

2013-07-01

142

Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30oC, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the testers acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the testers accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

2006-02-02

143

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by oxidation. These results showed that some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. It has been demonstrated that high total polyphenol content in the herb teas provides high antioxidant activities.

Shizuo Toda

2011-01-01

144

SPECIAL ALCOHOLIC DRINK ENRICHED WITH HONEY, SUGAR AND SMELLING HERBS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

t is disclosed herein a special alcoholic drink derived from distilled marc (e.g. Greek tsipoyro drink), honey, sugar and smelling herbs. It has the whisky- and brandy-like colour (golden brown colour) and contains alcohol, 30% in volume the flavour and odour of the honey and smelling herbs endow said drink with an exquisite taste satisfying women and men of any age. It must be noted that the drink is free of conservatives and its colour is due to the colour of honey and smelling herbs. It isdrinkable all through day and night in a natural or iced form, with dried fruits or fresh fruit, and as aperitif or dessert offering agreeable taste and having beneficial effects to the physical condition. It is packaged in glass bottles of 50,200,300,500 and 700 ml.

VEKRIS ANTONIOS PANTELI

145

Determination of two intact glucosinolates in vegetables and Chinese herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for analyzing sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in six vegetable and two Chinese herb samples. A gradient program and mobile phases using methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid containing 20 mM ammonium acetate allowed sufficient retention and separation of the glucosinolates in the sample extracts. Quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion electrospray ionization was used to analyze the fractions collected from the HPLC elution to confirm the identification of the glucosinolates. The levels of sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in the vegetables and Chinese herbs were determined by using an external calibration method. Concentrations of gluconasturtiin in the Chinese herbs were more than 15 times higher than those of sinigrin. Detection limits were 18 nmol g(-1) for sinigrin and 4 nmol g(-1) for gluconasturtiin when 50 g of fresh vegetable was analyzed.

Cai Z; Cheung CY; Ma WT; Au WM; Zhang XY; Lee A

2004-02-01

146

Determination of two intact glucosinolates in vegetables and Chinese herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for analyzing sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in six vegetable and two Chinese herb samples. A gradient program and mobile phases using methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid containing 20 mM ammonium acetate allowed sufficient retention and separation of the glucosinolates in the sample extracts. Quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion electrospray ionization was used to analyze the fractions collected from the HPLC elution to confirm the identification of the glucosinolates. The levels of sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in the vegetables and Chinese herbs were determined by using an external calibration method. Concentrations of gluconasturtiin in the Chinese herbs were more than 15 times higher than those of sinigrin. Detection limits were 18 nmol g(-1) for sinigrin and 4 nmol g(-1) for gluconasturtiin when 50 g of fresh vegetable was analyzed. PMID:14647944

Cai, Zongwei; Cheung, Ching-Yan; Ma, Wai-Tang; Au, Wai-Man; Zhang, Xiang You; Lee, Albert

2003-11-28

147

Several viewpoints about the pharmacological research on Chinese herb recipe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chinese herb recipe is widely applied and plays a key role in traditional Chinese medicine. However, it involves complicated aspects, and the mechanism researches of Chinese herb recipe had few breakthroughs. The author discussed the questions in the scopes as follows: drug mechanism and chemical components, old typical and current experimental recipes, drug action and its pathological mechanisms. The author believed that the recipe with solid clinical effect should be investigated combining the single herb with its chemical components, and combining the pharmacological mechanism of the recipe with the pathological mechanism of the diseases. More attention should be paid to effect of the research on the improvement of the traditional Chinese medical theory, and efforts should be made to investigate the recipe mechanism relating to molecular signal transduction and the key chemical components.

LIU Cheng-Hai

2003-01-01

148

Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People’s Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines.

Bin Xiao; Yun Wang

2011-01-01

149

Herb use, vitamin use, and diet in low-income, postpartum women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about herb use among underserved postpartum women and their patterns of communication about herb use with prenatal providers. METHODS: We interviewed women from the postpartum unit at an urban hospital about herb use during pregnancy, socioeconomic factors, prenatal vitamin use, and diet. We asked women if they discussed use of herbs and vitamins with their prenatal care providers and asked about their satisfaction with these discussions. We reviewed inpatient chart medication lists for herb use. RESULTS: Of 160 women surveyed, 39% reported using herbs during pregnancy. Sixty-five percent of participants took a prenatal vitamin. Fifty-seven percent of herb users (n = 40) reported taking prenatal vitamins. Herb users were significantly more likely to report making any dietary change during their pregnancies than non-herb users (P = .03). Only 38% of herb users discussed it with their prenatal providers, and 82% were satisfied with the conversation. Of all 160 participants, 125 had prenatal vitamin use documented, and no women had herbal medicine use documented in the medical record during their birth hospitalization. DISCUSSION: We report a higher frequency of herb use during pregnancy than other studies. The fact that women of all backgrounds and economic statuses report using herbs during pregnancy makes it even more important for all women to be asked about their use of herbs.

Gardiner P; Jarrett K; Filippelli A; Pecci C; Mauch M; Jack B

2013-03-01

150

Respiratory effects of exposure to dust from herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A group of 150 people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs were examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. People were subjected to routine physical examination and to lung function examinations with the LUNGTEST 500 spirometer (MES, Kraków, Poland). The spirometric values of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)), vital capacity (VC) and FEV(1)/VC were recorded before and after work. Physical chest examination revealed pathological crepitations in 10 people (6.7 %). The mean baseline spirometric values in the study and reference groups did not show significant differences compared to the normal values. In the herb workers exposed to organic dust the post-shift decrease of all analysed spirometric values was noted. The post-shift decrease of some spirometric values (VC, VC % of normal values) was highly significant (p < 0.01). There was evidenced of a significant positive correlation between the age of examined people and decrease of VC and FEV(1) values. In 12 exposed workers the decrease of FEV(1) or FEV(1) % of normal values higher than 15 % was noted. 50 % of these workers cultivated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This may suggest that dust from herbs, especially thyme dust, may cause acute airway obstruction. In the group showing significant decrease of FEV(1)/FEV(1) % of normal values ( > 15 %) the frequency of reported respiratory work-related symptoms (83.3 %) was higher than in the rest of exposed group (61.5 %). In conclusion, occupational exposure to dust from herbs may cause harmful effects on the respiratory system among herb processing workers. This indicates the need for use of prophylactic measures in this professional group, the more so as number of people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs is growing.

Golec M; Skórska C; Mackiewicz B; Góra A; Dutkiewicz J

2005-01-01

151

Herb-drug interactions and mechanistic and clinical considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal medicines are often used in combination with conventional drugs, and this may give rise to the potential of harmful herb-drug interactions. This paper updates our knowledge on clinical herb-drug interactions with an emphasis of the mechanistic and clinical consideration. In silico, in vitro, animal and human studies are often used to predict and/or identify drug interactions with herbal remedies. To date, a number of clinically important herb-drug interactions have been reported, but many of them are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Common herbal medicines that interact with drugs include St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginger (Zingiber officinale), ginseng (Panax ginseng), and garlic (Allium sativum). For example, St John's wort significantly reduced the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and blood concentrations of cyclosporine, midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline. The common drugs that interact with herbal medicines include warfarin, midazolam, digoxin, amitriptyline, indinavir, cyclosporine, tacrolimus and irinotecan. Herbal medicines may interact with drugs at the intestine, liver, kidneys, and targets of action. Importantly, many of these drugs have very narrow therapeutic indices. Most of them are substrates for cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The underlying mechanisms for most reported herb-drug interactions are not fully understood, and pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms are implicated in many of these interactions. In particular, enzyme induction and inhibition may play an important role in the occurrence of some herbdrug interactions. Because herb-drug interactions can significantly affect circulating levels of drug and, hence, alter the clinical outcome, the identification of herb-drug interactions has important implications. PMID:22292789

Chen, Xiao-Wu; Sneed, Kevin B; Pan, Si-Yuan; Cao, Chuanhai; Kanwar, Jagat R; Chew, Helen; Zhou, Shu-Feng

2012-06-01

152

Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

6-8 kGy ?-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by ?-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

2010-01-01

153

A REVIEW ON BENEFITS AND TOXICITIES OF SOME POPULAR HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal medicines are being used by about 80 per cent of the world population, mainly in the developing countries for primary healthcare. It is assumed that all the herbs and the products made thereof are safe and free from undesirable side effects. But this assumption is wrong and there are many scientific evidences which prove that herbs may possess toxicity or can produce undesirable side effects. The present communication reports benefits and toxicities of some well-known medicinal plants which are used more frequently in traditional system of medicine.

Pawar Harshal Ashok; Pawar Sandip; Pawar Prashant A

2011-01-01

154

Anthelminthic efficacy of traditional herbs on Ascaris lumbricoides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ascaricidal efficacy of six commonly used traditional herbs. Artemesia santonica, Inula helenium, Cassia abutnsifolla, Albizzia lebbek, Acacia auriculoformis and oil of Apium graveolens, was tested in vitro against the eggs and larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides. Aqueous extracts of 1% Artemesia and 5% of Albizzia and Inula were effective in killing both the infective larvae ill less than 40 days and eggs in 20 days. The results showed that Artemesia, Albizzia and to less extent Inula were promising antihelmintics against Ascaris lumbricoides. Extracts of the other tested herbs were less or no value.

El Garhy MF; Mahmoud LH

2002-12-01

155

Anthelminthic efficacy of traditional herbs on Ascaris lumbricoides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ascaricidal efficacy of six commonly used traditional herbs. Artemesia santonica, Inula helenium, Cassia abutnsifolla, Albizzia lebbek, Acacia auriculoformis and oil of Apium graveolens, was tested in vitro against the eggs and larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides. Aqueous extracts of 1% Artemesia and 5% of Albizzia and Inula were effective in killing both the infective larvae ill less than 40 days and eggs in 20 days. The results showed that Artemesia, Albizzia and to less extent Inula were promising antihelmintics against Ascaris lumbricoides. Extracts of the other tested herbs were less or no value. PMID:12512821

El Garhy, Manal F; Mahmoud, Lily H

2002-12-01

156

Chinese medicinal herb for curing foot-and-mouth diseases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a medicament for curing foot-and-mouth diseases, which is a Chinese medicinal herb suitable for curing virus infection of various kinds of foot-and-mouth diseases. The medicament comprises the following components in part by weight: 6 to 8 parts of desmodium, 4 to 7 parts of mexican tea herb, 1 to 2 parts of eomecon chionantha hance and 0.4 to 0.8 part of sophora vicifolia. The medicament is suitable for curing livestock infected with various viruses of the foot-and-mouth diseases, and has the advantages of low medicament cost, quick response and thorough treatment effect.

ZHIAN CEN

157

Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia Fangchi)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Chinese-herb nephropathy is a progressive form of renal fibrosis that develops in some patients who take weight-reducing pills containing Chinese herbs. Because of a manufacturing error, one of the herbs in these pills (Stephania tetrandra) was inadvertently replaced by Aristolochia fang...

Nortier, Joëlle; Muniz Martinez, M.-C.; Schmeiser, H.-H.; Arlt, V.-M.; Bieler, C.-A.; Petein, Michel; Depierreux, M.

158

Composition Comprising the Extract of Combined Herbs for Preventing and Treating Liver Disease  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is related to a combined herb composition comprising herbs of Coriolus versicolor, Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, and additionally comprising at least one herb selected from group consisting of Schisandra chinensis, and Artemisia capillaris, according to the need for the prevention and treatment of liver disease and methods of using the above crude drug composition and pharmaceutical composition as hepato-protective agent.

LEE JUNG SIK

159

A composition comprising the extract of combined herbs for preventing and treating liver disease  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is related to a combined herb composition comprising herbs of Coriolus versicolor, Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, and additionally comprising at least one herb selected from group consisting of Schisandra chinensis, and Artemisia capillaris, according to the need for the prevention and treatment of liver disease and methods of using the above crude drug composition and pharmaceutical composition as hepato-protective agent.

SIK LEE JUNG

160

Determination of trace elements in edible wild herbs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the paper the 11 trace elements (Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn,Ba,Sr,Cr,Mo,Co,Ni,Cd)in edible wild herbs had been simultaneously determined by means of ICP-AES. Chinese national standard material of poplar leaf was used for the quality control over analysis. Element recoveries of 90.1-107.3% were achieved.

Xie Sujing; Zhou Jikan; Xie Baomei; Yu Xiangyun; Wang Lin

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Alien terrestrial herbs in China: diversity and ecological insights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A database of alien flora is important for better understanding the patterns of plant invasions, as well as explicating the mechanisms promoting plant invasion at local, regional and global scales. However, little attention has been paid to the construction of such a database of terrestrial alien herbs in China. Here, we attempt to summarize literature and reveal chronological and biogeographical patterns of alien herbaceous plant invasions. In total, 800 herbaceous alien species were identified, belonging to 37 orders and 72 families, ten families which account for 60% of the total flora. The families containing large numbers of species include Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Cactaceae, Poaceae and Brassicaceae. Species originating from the Americas made up 47% of total species. In relation to life forms, most species are perennial herbs (293 species, 40%) and annuals (272 species, 37%). About 46% of species are often found in highly disturbed habitats with rich resources. Our results suggest that, in China, terrestrial alien herbs are distributed throughout the entire country, with particularly high species richness in the Southeast (23% of total richness, 4 species per 10,000 km2). Eighty percent of alien plants were introduced into China intentionally, and there has been a steady increase in the number of neophyte species over the last two centuries, of which about 90% were introduced after 1800s and 60% post-1950s. The information on diversity and ecological characteristics of terrestrial alien herbs provided in this paper can be used for designing national management strategies for alien plants in China.

Bo Yang; Yangjin Zhuoga; Xiaoyun Pan; Haigen Xu; Bo Li

2010-01-01

162

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these a...

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

163

Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM

2004-01-01

164

Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented. (author)

2007-01-01

165

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances...

Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao

166

Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L.), which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characteri...

Yoshiaki Amakura; Ayako Yoshimura; Morio Yoshimura; Takashi Yoshida

167

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total /?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastia~o, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

2002-03-01

168

Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

1996-01-01

169

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

2002-01-01

170

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

2002-03-01

171

Flavonoid aglycones and phytosterols from the Erigeron acris L. herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin) were isolated from methanolic extract from the herb of Erigemn acris L. (Asteraceae). In this extract five phytosterols (campesterol, chondrillasterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol(5alpha,3alpha), stigmasterol and spinasterone) were also identified. PMID:17203871

Nazaruk, Jolanta

172

Flavonoid aglycones and phytosterols from the Erigeron acris L. herb.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin) were isolated from methanolic extract from the herb of Erigemn acris L. (Asteraceae). In this extract five phytosterols (campesterol, chondrillasterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol(5alpha,3alpha), stigmasterol and spinasterone) were also identified.

Nazaruk J

2006-07-01

173

Pharmaceutical composition containing glabrous sarcandra herb extract and its uses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a medicinal composition containing active ingredients extracted from glabrous sarcandra herb, including flavones, and/or saponin, and/or polysaccharides, or one or more of the following flavone active ingredients: isofraxidin-7-O-glucopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxyl flavanone, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyl chalcone, pinostrobin, dihydromyricetin, Astilbin, naringenin 4',7-dimethyl ether.

LIAN XIAOYUAN ZHANG

174

ALOE- AND SENNA-CONTAINING HERB LAXATIVE PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The medicinal herb product is applied as tonic foodstuff and as a means of prophylactic for the regulation of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract. It is ecologically clean having clearly expressed laxative or purgative effect. The product contains Aloe vera L. and Cassia angustifolia Vahl., included in a food base.

LAZAROVA KARMEN

175

Application of chervil lankspur herb in treating livestock breeding wastewater  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses application of chervil lankspur herb in treating livestock breeding wastewater, which is to grow the chervil lankspur herb in an environment polluted by the livestock breeding wastewater. The invention completely utilizes the characteristics of adsorption and removal of the chervil landkspur herb on pollutants in the livestock breeding wastewater, such as ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, CODCr and the like, and implants the chervil landkspur herb into the livestock breeding wastewater pollution environment to absorb and accumulate the ammonia nitrogen, the total phosphorus, the total nitrogen, the CODCr and other pollutants in the wastewater, thereby reducing the content of the pollutants in the wastewater, and purifying the livestock breeding wastewater. The application has the characteristics of low cost, low operation cost, good effect, strong operability and the like, develops new plant resource varieties for treatment of livestock breeding wastewater pollution, provides new progress and development space for further development of the livestock breeding wastewater pollution of artificial marsh plant treatment, and can sufficiently and reasonably utilize resources to realize multiple purposes of one object.

SHIHUAI DENG; XIAOLI WU; YUANWEI LI; YANZONG ZHANG; HONG XIAO; HONG PENG; XIAOHONG ZHANG; LUFANG YANG; YINGJUN WANG; BAIYE SUN

176

Seed structure in Crocus sativus L. ×, C. cartwrightianus Herb., C. thomasii Ten., and C. hadriaticus Herb. at SEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) is a sterile triploid geophyte widely cultivated for the production of the spice saffron and only reproduced by means of corms. Extensive research has identified Crocus cartwrightianus Herb. as being a probable progenitor of C. sativus. However, other diploid Crocus species of the same C. sativus group, such as C. thomasii Ten. and C. hadriaticus Herb., have been considered as possible progenitors of saffron. Of the characteristics for distinguishing critical genera, species and intraspecific taxa of angiosperms, the most widely adopted have been seed organisation and patterns of spermoderma microstructure detected at SEM. The aim of this study is to use SEM to analyse the seeds of C. sativus ×, a cross obtained by C. sativus with pollen of C. cartwrightianus Herb. and the seeds of allopollinated C. cartwrightianus, C. thomasii Ten., and C. hadriaticus Herb. Results indicate that the seed surface microstructure of C. sativus × is very similar to that of C. cartwrightianus while being different from those of C. thomasii and C. hadriaticus.

Grilli Caiola Maria; Leonardi Donatella; Canini Antonella

2010-03-01

177

Tree litter and forest understorey vegetation: a conceptual framework to understand the effects of tree litter on a perennial geophyte, Anemone nemorosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Litter is a key factor in structuring plant populations, through positive or negative interactions. The litter layer forms a mechanical barrier that is often strongly selective against individuals lacking hypocotyle plasticity. Litter composition also interacts with plant growth by providing beneficial nutrients or, inversely, by allowing harmful allelopathic leaching. As conspicuous litter fall accumulation is often observed under deciduous forests, interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations are worthy of study. METHODS: In a 1-year ex-situ experiment, the effects of tree litter on the growth of Anemone nemorosa, a small perennial forest geophyte, were investigated. Three 'litter quantity' treatments were defined, representative of forest floor litter (199, 356·5 and 514 g m(-2)), which were crossed with five 'litter composition' treatments (Quercus petraea, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Q. petraea + F. sylvatica and Q. petraea + C. betulus), plus a no-litter control. Path analysis was then used to investigate the pathways linking litter characteristics and components of adult plant growth. KEY RESULTS: As expected, the heavier the litter, the longer the petiole; rhizome growth, however, was not depreciated by the litter-induced petiole lengthening. Both rhizome mass increment and number of initiated buds marginally increased with the amount of litter. Rhizome mass increment was in fact determined primarily by leaf area and leaf life span, neither of which was unequivocally correlated with any litter characteristics. However, the presence of litter significantly increased leafing success: following a late frost event, control rhizomes growing in the absence of litter experienced higher leaf mortality before leaf unfolding. CONCLUSIONS: The study questions the role of litter as a physical or chemical barrier to ground vegetation; to better understand this role, there is a need for ex-situ, longer-term experiments coupled with in-situ observations in the forest.

Baltzinger M; Archaux F; Dumas Y

2012-05-01

178

[Causes for change in producing areas of geo-authentic herbs].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Geo-authentic herbs lay stress on their producing areas. The producing areas of most geo-authentic herbs have never changed since the ancient times. However, many other geo-authentic herbs have experienced significant changes in the long history. There are two main causes for the change in producing areas of herbs-change of natural environment and development of human society, which are restricted by each other and play a great role throughout the development process of geo-authentic herbs.

Liang F; Li J; Zhang W; Zhang RX

2013-05-01

179

Edible wild herbs processing method and product thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a processing method of a vegetable and the product, especially relates to the processing method and product with potherb such as Herb of Sowthistleleaf Ixeris, perennial sowthistle and lettuce. It solves the problem that the potherb can not be eaten because of the bitter taste and rare delicacy. The technology is: the character lies in: the potherb is one of the Herb of Sowthistleleaf Ixeris, perennial sowthistle and lettuce. The processing steps are: the potherb is put into the salt water with density of 5-15% for 3-20 days, changes the salt water every 2-4 days, thus the bitter taste in potherb can be eliminated. The potherb is accelerated for 3-60 days under temperature of 0deg.C-18deg.C in the seafood sauce the rare delicacy can be eliminated.

HOU JIE

180

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA). We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

Niu Linhai; Mantri Nitin; Li Chun; Xue Charlie; Pang Edwin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

HPLC analysis of methanolic extract of herbs for quercetin content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are rich source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized according to their chemical structure, into flavones, isoflavonoes and flavon-3-ol, anthocyanidins. They have aroused considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effect on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti allergic, anti platelet, anti inflammatory, antitumor, anti carcinogenic and anti ageing properties. HPLC analysis can be used for classification of herbs based upon secondary metabolites. Extract yield at optimum condition was then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantifying bioactive flavonoid compounds. It was observed that mint contains the highest concentration of quercetin i.e. about 10.8mg/g.

Nitu Trehan; Nitu Trehan

2013-01-01

182

COMPOSITION CONTAINING HERB MEDICINE FOR TREATING ATOPIC DERMATITIS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An atopic dermatitis treating composition is provided to safely treat atopic dermatitis by comprising an herb medicine capable of promoting secretion of Th1 cytokine relatively compared to secretion of Th2 cytokine. The atopic dermatitis treating composition comprises at least one herb medicine selected from the group consisting of Cassia tora L., Angelica tenuissima, Teucrium veronicoides, Platycodon grandiflorum, Phragmitis Rhizoma, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Liriope platyphylla, malt, Inula helenium, Ledebouriella seseloides, dictamnus root, Angelica dahurica, Atractylodes lancea, Loranthi Ramulus, Anethum graveolens, Minium, Cimicifugae Rhizoma, Massa medicata fermentata, Cistanche deserticola Y.C.MA, Coicis Semen, Poria cocos Wolf, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Cnidium officinale, Gastrodia elata, Asparagus cochinchinensis, dried roots of Trichosantes kirilowii maxim, celosia semen, Alisma canaliculatum, Cyperus rotundus, Corydalis turtschaninovii, Sesamum indicum Linne and Scutellariae radix.

KIM JEONG JIN; AHN KYOO SEOK; KANG HEE

183

HERB TEA HAVING EXCELLENT ANTIOXIDANT AND PALATABILITY AND PRODUCTION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A method of making herb tea by freeze drying or hot air drying Lavandula spica, Rosmarinus officinalis, Menthae piperitae, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis is provided. The product has excellent antioxidant properties and palatability and maintains a fresh taste and flavor for a long period of time. CONSTITUTION: Rosmarinus officinalis L., Menthae piperitae L. and Thymus vulgaris L. are freeze-dried at -35 to -45deg.C and 0.01 to 0.05mmHg. and Lavandula spica L. and Salvia officinalis L. are dried with hot air. The herb tea comprises 18 to 28% by weight of Lavandula spica, 15 to 25% by weight of Salvia officinalis, 14 to 24% by weight of Rosmarinus officinalis 17 to 27% by weight of Menthae piperitae and 11 to 21% by weight of Thymus vulgaris. The Lavandula spica and Salvia officinalis exhibit the highest fragrance component concentration when heated with hot air at 50 to 60deg.C.

JU SEON JONG; KIM GI SIK; KIM TAE SU; PARK SEONG GYU; YOON HYANG SIK

184

An update on Murraya koenigii Spreng: a multifunctional Ayurvedic herb  

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Full Text Available Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae), a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Leaves, fruits, roots and bark of this plant are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. These alkaloids have been reported for their various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic and antioxidant activities. Apart from these activities, the plant is reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant make a demand of an exhaustive review of its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of various ailments frequently affecting humans. The present review gives a detailed description of the phytochemical, pharmacological, clinical and pre-clinical works carried out on this medicinal herb and also throws light on its therapeutic potential.

Priyanka Gupta

2011-01-01

185

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

Tan W; Lu J; Huang M; Li Y; Chen M; Wu G; Gong J; Zhong Z; Xu Z; Dang Y; Guo J; Chen X; Wang Y

2011-01-01

186

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Dang, Yuanye; Guo, Jiajie; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Yitao

2011-07-22

187

Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Antioxidants from Plantago Herb  

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Full Text Available Seven phenolic compounds, including a new phenylethanoid glycoside, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of an aqueous ethanol extract of Plantago Herb (whole part of Plantago asiatica L.), which showed significant antioxidative activity. The new compound was characterized as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 3-O-?-D-allopyranosyl-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of tea catechins.

Yoshiaki Amakura; Ayako Yoshimura; Morio Yoshimura; Takashi Yoshida

2012-01-01

188

Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS/BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese medicinal herbs versus placebo, no intervention, nonspecific treatment, or interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis B with > or = 3 months follow-up were included. No language and blinding limitations were applied. The electronic databases were searched, combined with handsearches on Chinese literature. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. The methodological quality of trials was assessed by the Jadad-scale plus allocation concealment. RESULTS: Nine randomised trials (n=936) were included, with only one being of high quality. There was a funnel plot asymmetry (intercept 3.37, p=0.047). Compared to nonspecific treatment or placebo, the herbal compound Fuzheng Jiedu Tang showed an effect on clearance of serum HBsAg (relative risk 5.19, 95% CI 1.24-21.79), HBeAg (10.85, 3.56-33.06), and HBV DNA (8.50, 1.23-58.85). Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide showed an effect on serum HBeAg (3.06, 1.13-8.29) and HBV DNA (4.14, 1.0-17.19); Phyllanthus amarus showed an effect on serum HBeAg (3.35, 1.49-7.56). Phyllanthus compound and kurorinone showed no significant difference on clearance of serum HBeAg and HBV DNA and on alanine aminotransferase normalisation compared to interferon. No serious adverse event was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese medicinal herbs are not recommended for chronic hepatitis B because of the publication bias and low quality of the trials. Rigorously designed, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed.

Liu J; McIntosh H; Lin H

2001-08-01

189

COSMETIC COMPOSITION CONTAINING ORIENTAL HERB EXTRACT AND NANO CERAMIDE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cosmetic composition comprising an oriental herb extract and nano ceramide is provided to show improved moisture retaining property and antibacterial effect on pathogenic bacteria causing skin trouble and be applied to skin with almost no irritation. A cosmetic composition comprising an oriental herb extract and nano ceramide is characterized in that it is prepared by heat-dissolving 30-88.9 wt.% of an aqueous ingredient including 1-20 wt.% of the oriental herb extract selected from the group consisting of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, Portulaca oleracea, Althaea rosea, Pleuropterus multflorus, and Asparagus cochinchinensis, 0.1-10.0 wt.% of the nano ceramide, and 1.0-80 wt.% of purified water, and 10-40 wt.% of an oil phase ingredient at a temperature of 60-80 deg.C and then emulsifying the dissolved material, wherein the nano ceramide is prepared by nano-sizing a mixture consisting of 0.1-10 wt.% of ceramide, 0.1-70 wt.% of polyhydric alcohol, 0.1-10 wt.% of lecithin, 0.1-10 wt.% of alcohol and 0.1-80 wt.% of purified water using a microfluidizer. Further, the ceramide is one selected from ceramides 1 to 6, yeast ceramide and pseudo ceramide.

CHIN SANG GOO; KIM HYUNG JIN; YUN WON SIK; BAK HYEON MI

190

Hypoglycemic activities of commonly-used traditional Chinese herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition activity of 92 Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) herbs, which are permitted to be used as food ingredients, were evaluated using the high throughput assay developed in our laboratory. Among these herbs, twenty-seven of them possessed significant ?-amylase inhibition activities ranging from 2.4 to 349.2 ?mol AE/g (AE = acarbose equivalent) with inhibition concentrations at 50% inhibition (IC??) from 16.0 to 2342.2 ?g/mL, respectively. In addition, they showed ?-glucosidase inhibition activities ranging from 0.5 to 31.6 ?molAE/g (IC?? from 49.0 to 3385.5 ?g/mL). The extracts of Rhizoma fagopyri dibotryis (J?nqiáomài), Rosa rugosa (Méigu?hu?), Caulis polygoni multiflori (Sh?uw?téng), Fructus amomi (Sh?rén), Rhizoma alpiniae officinarum (G?oliángji?ng), Folium ginkgo (Yínxìngyè) and Cortex cinnamomi (Ròuguì) showed the better inhibitory activities against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Our results illustrated that these food grade herbs are potent natural hypoglycemic agents and can be used as active ingredients for low glycemic index food production or TCM herbal formulations for controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:23895156

Feng, Shengbao; Song, Lixia; Liu, Yuancai; Lai, Fuli; Zuo, Gang; He, Guangyuan; Chen, Mingjie; Huang, Dejian

2013-01-01

191

Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant.

Liu Z; He X; Chen W; Zhao M

2013-08-01

192

Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively.

1997-01-01

193

Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others). Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

Škrinjar Marija M.; Nemet Nevena T.

2009-01-01

194

Use of Herbs by the Patients with Diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey  

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Full Text Available Herbal medicines, products and therapies are a subject of great public interest both nationally and worldwide. Use of herbal therapy is common among patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the consumption rate, duration and methods of herbs and alternative therapies used by the patients with diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed with 400 volunteer patients with diabetes. A face to face interview was conducted between January-May, 2003. The ratio of the herb used, herb species used, pattern of use, demographic characteristics of users and nonusers were determined. 25 % of the 400 respondent with diabetes reported herb use. There was a significant difference for Body Mass Index (BMI) of users and nonusers (X2=13.01, p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between herb use and educational levels (r=0.106, p<0.05). The herbs mostly used by the patients were nettle (28%), thyme (27%), parsley (12%) and jujuba (12%), respectively. The most common pattern of herb consumption was boiling the herbs and drinking the hot water extract (74%), this was followed by adding to foods (12%). Of 39% of the users self-reported that the herb decreased their blood glucose levels. Patients with diabetes tended to use herbs. They need to be educated by the health professionals.

Neriman Inanc; Betul Cicek; Habibe Sahin; Meral Bayat; Sultan Tasci

2007-01-01

195

Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

2013-01-01

196

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum), Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica) and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum) were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method) after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol). An antibacterial activity was observed in all herbs used. Most effective an antibacterial activity were observed in Tulsi, Neem and Wheat. In all herbs maximum removal of E.coli was found at 30 minutes contact time onwards. The percentage removal of E.coli were found 82.05% , 71.79% , 64.1% , 41.03% & 28.20% by using Tulsi, Neem , Wheatgrass , Amla and Katakphala herbs extract respectively, at 30 minute optimum contact time. The optimum removal of E.coli was observed at 1% concentration of extract of different herbs used.

SUNIL B. SOMANI; NITIN W. INGOLE; SHRIKANT S. PATIL

2011-01-01

197

Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

2013-05-26

198

Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

Tosun H; Arslan R

2013-01-01

199

‘Yang-Invigorating’ Chinese Tonic Herbs Enhance Mitochondrial ATP Generation in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes  

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Full Text Available ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs have been shown to enhance the myocardial mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in mice ex vivo. In the present study, we examined the effect of treatment with the methanol extract of ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardio-myocytes. The effect of ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs was also investigated for comparison. The results indicated that all ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs dose-dependently enhanced the mitochondrial ATP genera-tion capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Three out of nine ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs produced a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on ATP generation, but to lesser extents than those of Yang herbs. Results obtained from activity-directed fractionation of the three most potent ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs suggested that the ATP-stimulating ingredients were rather water insoluble and largely resided in the butanol fraction. In con-clusion, ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs invariably stimulated mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cell-based assay of ATP generation capacity may be used as pharmacological test for ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs.

Hoi Shan Wong; Hoi Yan Leung; Kam Ming Ko

2011-01-01

200

[Increased resistance to hypoxia under the effect of the mixture of herbs from the Altai].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the antihypoxic effect of herb mixture <> from the Altai in an experiment with rats. This mixture of herbs contains bioflavonoids. Also, it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, angioprotective and antiplatelet properties. The animals received decoction of herbs into the stomach through a tube. Courses lasted 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Resistance to acute hypobaric hypoxia evaluated by time of animal life in modeling rise to a height of 11,500 meters above sea level. In result, a significant antihypoxic effect was observed in rats treated with decoction of herbs for 21 days. Shorter courses of treatment were not effective.

Kulikov VP; Chupikova IA; Sanarov EM; Voloboy NL

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Studies on the chemical constituents from herb of Rhodobryum roseum].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents from herb of Rhodobryum roseum. METHOD: The compounds were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by IR, NMR data. RESULT: 8 compounds were isolated and identified. They are piperine (1), caffeic acid methyl ester (2), uracil glucoside (3), ursolic acid (4), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-methylcholesta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (5), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-methylcholesta-6,9(11), 22-trien-3beta-ol (6), beta-sitosterol (7), daucosterol (8). CONCLUSION: 7 compounds (1-6,8) were isolated from this plant for the first time.

Wang B; Liu P; Shen YM; Dai C

2005-06-01

202

Compositon containing medicinal herbs and young antlers of cornu cervi  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition is provided for use in health foods for promoting the circulation of blood, prepared from medicinal herbs, including Lycium chinense Miller, Agastache rugosa (Fischer et Meyer) O. Kuntze, Pueraria lobat Ohwi, Macrocarpium officinale Sieb. et Zucc., Gastrodia elata blume, Amomum xanthioides Wallich, Cratagegus pinnatifida Bge., Aquillaria Agallocha Roxburgh, Inula Helenium L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Rubus sachalinensis Lev., and young antlers of Cornu cervi. In addition to being safe to the body, the composition exhibits excellent pharmaceutical effects of treating arteriosclerosis and alleviating the headache attributed to the disturbance of blood circulation.

HAN WAN-SEOK

203

Characterization of Phenolic Constituents from Ephedra Herb Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine known compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, and pollenitin B and a new flavonoid glycoside, characterized as herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside (1) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, were isolated from a traditional crude drug, “Ephedra herb extract”. Compound 1 had no effects on HGF-induced motility, whereas herbacetin, which is an aglycone of 1, significantly inhibited it.

Yoshiaki Amakura; Morio Yoshimura; Saori Yamakami; Takashi Yoshida; Daigo Wakana; Masashi Hyuga; Sumiko Hyuga; Toshihiko Hanawa; Yukihiro Goda

2013-01-01

204

Characterization of phenolic constituents from ephedra herb extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine known compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, and pollenitin B and a new flavonoid glycoside, characterized as herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside (1) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, were isolated from a traditional crude drug, "Ephedra herb extract". Compound 1 had no effects on HGF-induced motility, whereas herbacetin, which is an aglycone of 1, significantly inhibited it. PMID:23666001

Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Yamakami, Saori; Yoshida, Takashi; Wakana, Daigo; Hyuga, Masashi; Hyuga, Sumiko; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Goda, Yukihiro

2013-05-10

205

Biochemical Changes in Goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes in goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs. The analysis of data was done in 18 goats, irrespective of age, sex and breed. The experimental goats were randomly divided in six groups. The effect of crude powder and cold aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, Swertia chirata and Piper longum was studied on various biochemical parameters, i.e., Blood glucose, Total protein, Albumin and Globumin. Significant increase was noticed in the level of blood glucose, serum total protein and albumin. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000): 315-317

Sachin Jain and Y.P. Sahni

2010-01-01

206

Characterization of phenolic constituents from ephedra herb extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nine known compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, and pollenitin B and a new flavonoid glycoside, characterized as herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside (1) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, were isolated from a traditional crude drug, "Ephedra herb extract". Compound 1 had no effects on HGF-induced motility, whereas herbacetin, which is an aglycone of 1, significantly inhibited it.

Amakura Y; Yoshimura M; Yamakami S; Yoshida T; Wakana D; Hyuga M; Hyuga S; Hanawa T; Goda Y

2013-01-01

207

Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs.

1999-01-01

208

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

1999-01-01

209

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

1999-08-01

210

In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous extracts of 12 Chinese medicinal herbs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Artemisia argyi, Commiphora myrrha, Duchesnea indica, Gleditsia sinensis, Ligustrum lucidum, Rheum palmatum, Rubia cordifolia, Salvia chinensis, Scutellaria barbata, Uncaria rhychophylla and Vaccaria segetalis were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on eight cancer cell lines as well as on normal human mammary epithelial cells. Five human and three murine cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung, pancreas and prostate) were used. All the crude aqueous extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity on some or all of the cancer cell lines, but only two showed activity against the normal mammary epithelial cells. Overall, the murine cell lines tended to be more sensitive to most of the extracts compared with the human cell lines. Among the human cell lines, cell type specificity was observed for two extracts. These results indicate the potential use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as antineoplastic agents and suggest that further studies evaluating their mechanism(s) of action and the isolation of active antitumor compounds are warranted. PMID:16161030

Shoemaker, Mark; Hamilton, Bobbi; Dairkee, Schanaz H; Cohen, Isaac; Campbell, Michael J

2005-07-01

211

Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

1999-07-01

212

HERBS IN PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: A REVIEW APPRAISAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnancy can be the most paranormal and exciting time for expectant mother. Nature provides us with many tools for supporting both the mother and baby through this time of growth and renewal, to strengthen the spirits and body to promote a healthy pregnancy and birthing process. Pregnant and lacting mother need to be educated on the need for caution when using herbs during pregnancy and lactation particularly in view of lack of complete information. The women self administer herbal medicines both before and after pregnancy often without any recognition of their potential hazards. The use of herbal supplements in pregnancy and lactation is likely to be relatively high and its importance ascertains what supplements women are taking. Pregnancy and lactation care providers should be aware of common herbal supplements used by women and of evidence regarding potential benefits or harm. Midwives and obstetricians have an obligation to facilitate women’s wishes without condemnation, but this must be tempered with accurate information to ensure that use of herbal remedies in pregnancy and breastfeeding is not only appropriate but also safe if use with proper caution. The herbs listed in this review are recommended by experienced herbalist and have been used safely by women for centuries.

Poonam Shinde*, Pankaj Patil and Vinod Bairagi

2012-01-01

213

Herb-drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to evaluate critically the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant SRs. RESULTS: Forty-six SRs of 46 different HMPs met our inclusion criteria. The vast majority of SRs were of poor methodological quality. The majority of these HMPs were not associated with severe herb-drug interactions. Serious herb-drug interactions were noted for Hypericum perforatum and Viscum album. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolaemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Piper methysticum, Serenoa repens and Camellia sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. CONCLUSION: The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions.

Posadzki P; Watson L; Ernst E

2013-03-01

214

Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral culturing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), whereas HuNoV survival was determined only by quantitative RT-PCR. While freeze-drying barely reduced (<1.3 log(10) units) the amount of HAV RNA detected in frozen produce, a greater decline in HAV infectivity was observed. The resistance of HuNoV genogroup I (GI) to freeze-drying was significantly higher than that of HuNoV GII on berries. Addition of a terminal dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C after freeze-drying enhanced virus inactivation by at least 2 log(10) units, except for HuNoV GII. The results suggest that steam blanching at 95 degrees C for 2.5 min effectively inactivated infectious enteric viruses if they were present in herbs. Our results provide data for adjusting food processing technologies if viral contamination of raw materials is suspected.

Butot S; Putallaz T; Amoroso R; Sánchez G

2009-06-01

215

Inactivation of Enteric Viruses in Minimally Processed Berries and Herbs?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral culturing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), whereas HuNoV survival was determined only by quantitative RT-PCR. While freeze-drying barely reduced (dry heat treatment at 120°C after freeze-drying enhanced virus inactivation by at least 2 log10 units, except for HuNoV GII. The results suggest that steam blanching at 95°C for 2.5 min effectively inactivated infectious enteric viruses if they were present in herbs. Our results provide data for adjusting food processing technologies if viral contamination of raw materials is suspected.

Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Amoroso, R.; Sanchez, G.

2009-01-01

216

Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral culturing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), whereas HuNoV survival was determined only by quantitative RT-PCR. While freeze-drying barely reduced (dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C after freeze-drying enhanced virus inactivation by at least 2 log(10) units, except for HuNoV GII. The results suggest that steam blanching at 95 degrees C for 2.5 min effectively inactivated infectious enteric viruses if they were present in herbs. Our results provide data for adjusting food processing technologies if viral contamination of raw materials is suspected. PMID:19395576

Butot, S; Putallaz, T; Amoroso, R; Sánchez, G

2009-04-24

217

Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópodes coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera. Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat.

MA. Manhães; MM. Dias

2011-01-01

218

Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot/ Dinâmica espacial de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e artrópodes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese De janeiro a dezembro de 2004, distribuições espaciais e correlações entre taxas de capturas de aves insetívoras de sub-bosque e densidade de artrópodes foram investigadas em uma mancha de floresta ombrófila altomontana no Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. A composição da fauna de artrópodes coletados no ambiente foi semelhante às registradas em outras florestas tropicais, com predomínio de Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera e Hemiptera não Heteroptera (more) . Foram capturadas 26 espécies de aves, com maior representatividade para Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus e Sclerurus scansor. As taxas de captura das aves entre pontos de amostragens não esteve correlacionada com a densidade de artrópodes, e análises de algumas espécies individualmente sugerem que a distribuição espacial dos insetívoros de sub-bosque é mais bem explicada pelo tipo de hábitat. Abstract in english Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species (more) were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

Manhães, MA.; Dias, MM.

2011-02-01

219

Cultivation and utilization of edible wild herbs in Taihang Mountain area  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The characteristics, the value and current status of cultivation and utilization, and future development trend of edible wild herbs production are introduced. The main kinds and their nutrition constitution of edible wild herbs in Taihang Mountain are also given. Finally, the research possibility of their industrial production is put forward.

Cai Hong; Liu Jintong

2002-01-01

220

Resources of edible wild herbs and its utilizations in Sihu area of Hubei Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There exists 79 species edible wild herbs which are contained in 34 families and 59 geniuses by means of two - unit classification in Sihu Area. Main varieties, storage quantities, exploration values of edible wild herbs are presented. Finally, utilization countermeasures such as investigating resources, working out preservation measures, establishing commodities bases and carrying on aritifcial or semi - altficial cultivation etc. are presented.

Chen Zhengfa; Liang Chengfu

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

‘Yang-Invigorating’ Chinese Tonic Herbs Enhance Mitochondrial ATP Generation in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs have been shown to enhance the myocardial mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in mice ex vivo. In the present study, we examined the effect of treatment with the methanol extract of ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 c...

Hoi Shan Wong; Hoi Yan Leung; Kam Ming Ko

222

[Consumption of medicinal herbs in patients attending a gastroenterology outpatient clinic].  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption of medicinal herbs is one of the most important topics in alternative and complementary medicine. The widespread use of these substances among the general population gives rise to the possibility of therapeutic or toxic effects in patients seeking conventional medical assistance. To determine the frequency of medicinal herb use, the species consumed and the profile of medicinal herb consumers among patients with gastrointestinal disorders, patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of the Francesc de Borja district hospital (Gandía, Spain) over a 5-month period were interviewed and 539 valid questionnaires were obtained. A total of 34.7% of the interviewees had taken medicinal herbs at some time and 26.9% had used them in the last year. Self-prescription was reported by 67.1%. Medicinal herbs were mainly obtained in the pharmacy or herbalist's (74.7%). The results of medicinal herb therapy were considered good or excellent by 80.3% of the interviewees, average by 18.6% and poor by 1.1%. In the univariate analysis, medicinal herb consumption was positively associated with female sex (p Mentha pulegium (4.4%) and Valeriana officinalis (4.4%). The results show that consumption of medicinal herbs is frequent among patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a district hospital. The probable profile of those showing maximum consumption is: female sex, university education, lower gastrointestinal disorder, functional gastrointestinal disorder, psychotropic drug consumption and use of TE. PMID:15056410

Devesa Jordà, F; Pellicer Bataller, J; Ferrando Ginestar, J; Borghol Hariri, A; Bustamante Balén, M; Ortuño Cortés, J; Ferrando Marrades, I; Llobera Bertran, C; Sala Lajo, A; Miñana Morell, M; Nolasco Bonmatí, A; Fresquet Febrer, J L

2004-04-01

223

Metal Concentration in Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs and Infusion by Lebanese Population: Health Impact  

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The levels of K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Pb in commonly used medicinal herbs and their infusions by Lebanese were analyzed by EDXRF and ASS techniques, respectively. The order of metal contents in the herbs was found to be: K (6990-19850 ug/g) > Ca(1630-14450 ug/g) > Fe(80-3650 ug...

Samira I. Korfali; Mohamad Mroueh; Mohammad Al-Zein; Rosin Salem

224

Lymphocyte Transformation Test for Medicinal Herbs Yields False-Positive Results for First-Visit Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed lymphocyte transformation tests (LTTs) for toki (angelicae radix) and ogon (scutellariae radix) on first-visit patients who had never taken Kampo medicines. LTTs for both herbs were positive in 12 of 14 patients, suggesting that LTTs for these herbs are unreliable for the diagnosis of K...

Mantani, Naoki; Kogure, Toshiaki; Tamura, Jun'ichi; Shimada, Yutaka; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

225

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

Kim, M.-J.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

2000-01-01

226

Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control.

Byun, M.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Kim, K.-S.; Chung, C.-K.

1999-03-01

227

Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

228

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy. (author)

2000-01-01

229

Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy. (author)

Kim, Mi-Jung; Yook, Hong-Sun; Byun, Myung-Woo

2000-01-01

230

Effects of gamma irradiation on physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control

1999-03-01

231

Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin ...

Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.

232

COSMETIC COMPOSITION CONTAINING EXTRACTS OF ADENOPHORA TRIPHYLLA VAR. JAPONICA HARA, ANGELICA TENUISSIMA AND MEDICINAL HERBS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed herein is a cosmetic composition containing, as an active ingredient, a mixture of extracts of honey-roasted Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Hara and honey-roasted Angelica tenuissima Nakai, processed using a medicinal herb processing technique, and of extracts of medicinal herbs such as Lycium chinense Mill or Paeonia suffruticosa, and thus shows excellent antioxidant and skin-moisturizing effects.

PARK JUN SEONG; KIM DONG HYUN; PARK NOK HYUN; PARK HYE YOON; LEE JAE KYOUNG; KIM DUCK HEE; KIM HAN KON

233

[Studies on the anti-hemorrhagic substances in herbs classified as hemostatics in Chinese medicine. X. On hemostatic activities of the parched herbs for hemostatics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of heat treatment on the anti-hemorrhagic action of seven hemostatic herbs employed especially after parching in order to work effectively as an anti-hemorrhagic agent in traditional Chinese medicine, was examined. It was found that the anti-hemorrhagic activities of the following 5 herbs are apparently increased by parching: Kaika (Sophorae immaturus Flos), Renbo.(Nelumnbins Receptaculum), Gusetsu (Nelumnbins Rhizomatis Nodus), Chiyu (Sanguisorbae Radix) and Gaiyou (Artemisiae argyi Folium).

Ishida H; Umino T; Tsuji K; Kosuge T

1989-03-01

234

Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 104 to 10-3 ?g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

2002-01-01

235

Sizing and Design of the PV-WIND Energy Dryer for Medical Herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical herbs are located in Egypt in different areas and they are very important to increase the national income of Egypt. It is necessary to dry the herbs in their growing locations. As the growing locations are located far from the natural supply grid of Egypt, renewable energy sources such as PV&WIND are preferably utilized to achieve the drying process. Moreover, since the drying process is actually used to remove water from the herbs, thus it can preserve the herbs in storage drastically by preventing the attack of microorganisms during the moist conditions of herbs and also reduce their weight and bulk (for cheaper transport). Where, this paper selects, at first, the suitable drying site, and then it suggests. The suggested drying system is completely designed, and includes the following three systems: the solar thermal system, the dryer, and the renewable energy system.

Emad Ahmed Sweelem; Abdel-Shafy A. Nafeh; Faten Hosny Fahmy

2013-01-01

236

Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

Haugaard P; Hansen F; Jensen M; Grunert KG

2013-06-01

237

Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming

2013-01-01

238

Antibacterial immune double-effect compound Chinese herb for skin ulcerative syndrome of apostichopus japonicus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an antibacterial immune double-effect compound Chinese herb for skin ulcerative syndrome of apostichopus japonicus. The herb comprises the following components: common andrographis herb, dyer woad leaf, honeysuckle and szechuan lovage rhizome the weight ratio of the components is 2:1:3:2 and the herb is powered, wherein granularity is 200 mesh. The herb is orally taken to prevent and cure the skin ulcerative syndrome of apostichopus japonicus, wherein each kilogram feed is added with 20g of herb powder for the mild sea cucumber and each kilogram feed is added with 30g of herb powder for the critical sea cucumber. When in use, the herb is weighed according to required dosage and is fed after being evenly stirred with stichopus japonicus feed one time per day, wherein continues 20 days are a period of treatment. The Chinese herb is special for the skin ulcerative syndrome of apostichopus japonicus, which can be used for the young sea cucumbers and the adult sea cucumbers, has good protection effect during the peak period of the skin ulcerative syndrome, and has cure rate high to 80-90% and survival rate high to more than 85% for the apostichopus japonicus having the skin ulcerative syndrome within 2-3 weeks. The compound herb has a double effect for immunity and disease resistance, has no poison and side effect, convenient use, can reduce or replace the use of antibiotics, and is suitable for breeding the young sea cucumbers and controlling diseases during breeding and producing.

YINGENG WANG; XIAOJUN RONG; MIN LENG; MEIJIE LIAO; XIA CHEN; JIANGBO QU

239

Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs ...

Harris, MS; Pannell, JR

240

Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

SOME EXPERIMENTALLY PROVED HERBS IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is a worldwide health problem because of its high morbidity, mortality and enormous financial implication. An estimated 15,000 deaths per year occur as a consequence of complicated PUD. A large number of drugs for peptic ulcer disease are available in mainstream medicine but they are associated with numerous side effects like arrhythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia and haematopoietic changes and the recurrence is also very common. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Here, an attempt is made to summarise experimentally proved herbs used in PUD during last decade.

Javed Ahmad Khan et al

2012-01-01

242

Information Resource: About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."

2001-01-01

243

Antimicrobial activity of traditionally used herbs against human pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are effective in curing diseases because of their selective toxicity against pathogenic microbes without causing any harm to the cells of the host. Antimicrobial activity of three herbs Amaranthus spinosus, Solanum nigrum and Orchis muscula were tested using methanol, hexane, chloroform and acetone extracts against six human pathogenic microbes. Agar well diffusion method was used for preliminary screening of extracts against microbes. The micro-dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). Phytochemical screening of plant extracts was done for the presence of various secondary metabolites. The results were analysed by using zone of inhibition and it was observed that methanol extracts of Orchis muscula and Amarnathus spinosus were effective against all the human pathogens tested.

Shweta Sen Thalwal; Amit Gupta; Niyati Saini; Shailender Kumar Patel; Lalit Kapoor

2013-01-01

244

Nutritional composition of selected green leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six green leafy vegetables and herbs - spinach, amaranth, bengal gram, cauliflower, mint, coriander and carrots - were analyzed for moisture, protein, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron, ionizable iron (as % of total iron) in vitro iron (% of total iron), copper, manganese and zinc. Moisture content of the leaves and carrots varied from 75.1 percent (bengal gram) to 95.4 percent (carrot) and protein from 9.83 percent (carrots) to 30.9 (mint) percent. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, total iron and ionizable iron contents were at a maximum in case of bengal gram leaves whereas level of ionizable iron and in vitro iron as a percent of total iron was highest in carrots. Copper, manganese and zinc contents were maximum in spinach.

Singh G; Kawatra A; Sehgal S

2001-01-01

245

Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq; Muhammad Riaz; Vincenzo De Feo

2012-01-01

246

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was (more) significantly (p=0.001) higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p

Devkota, Anjana; Jha, Pramod Kumar

2010-01-01

247

Determination of antioxidant activity of herbs by ESR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water extracts of 32 herbs that are constituents of curry and curry powder were screened for superoxide anion radical (O2.-) scavenging activity. Among the screened samples, only clove, allspice, and basil were shown to decrease DMPO-O2.- adduct yields by more than 50% at 0.25 mg/mL as measured by an ESR spin trapping technique based on the HPX-XOD reaction. To study the mechanism of the O2.- scavenging activity, Km values were obtained from a Lineweaver-Burk plot for XOD in the presence of different concentrations of HPX, and the IC50 values at different DMPO concentrations were compared. Clove and basil directly eliminated O2.- like superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas allspice reduced the amount of O2.- by inhibition of formation of O2.-. PMID:12749199

Yun, Young Sook; Nakajima, Yuki; Iseda, Etsuko; Kunugi, Akira

2003-02-01

248

Reproductive Biology of Evolvulus alsinoides L. (Medicinal Herb)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reproductive biology provides information on life forms, rate of flowering, type of breeding system, plant-pollinators interaction, fruit and seed output, overall fitness and survival of the species. The present study was carried out to reproductive biology of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is a medicinal herb of semi arid zone of Agra in North India. The study was carried out for a period of twenty four months to observe the reproductive parameters of the E. alsinoides in the different places of Agra. The flowers appear from February to June and attracted the vide variety of insects for the pollination. The fruiting nature indicates that maximum number of flowers set into fruit by xenogamy as compared to geitonogamy.

K.P. Singh; Bhavana; G. Dhakre

2010-01-01

249

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC). The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC) and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

Madiha Bichra; Cherkaoui El-Modafar; Abdelilah El-Abbassi; Hafida Bouamama; Fatiha Benkhalti

2013-01-01

250

Neuroprotective Herbs and Foods from Different Traditional Medicines and Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.

Marcello Iriti; Sara Vitalini; Gelsomina Fico; Franco Faoro

2010-01-01

251

NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ) SEEDLINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1) of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a) suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b) critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques; Janice Guedes de Carvalho; Mariluza Pinto Coelho Lacerda; Paulo Emílio Ferreira da Mota

2004-01-01

252

Development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using herb loaded nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were screened for their anti-microbial activity by using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also measured. The methanol extracts O. sanctum proved to have the maximum antimicrobial effect were loaded inside the sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles by cation induced controlled gelification method and finished on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated using dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of the fabrics was assessed by using the standard AATCC technique (AATCC 100). The quantitative tests proved that cotton fabrics finished with the methanol extract of O. sanctum loaded nanoparticles possessed remarkable antibacterial activities with excellent wash durability. The study revealed that the herb encapsulated nanoparticle could act as a biocontrol agent against bacteria in fabrics.

Rajendran R; Radhai R; Kotresh TM; Csiszar E

2013-01-01

253

SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmbovi?a County, and Secuieni, Neam? County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

Mihaela Lungu; Radu Lacatusu; Mariana Constantinovici; V. Plugaru; Adina Catalina Drutu; D. Varban; Venera Mihaela Stroe; Rodica Lazar; Mihaela Monica Stanciu Burileanu; Nineta Rizea

2012-01-01

254

Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE).

1993-01-01

255

Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all herbs, except lucerne, was higher at a 6-cut than at a 4-cut strategy, and application of cattle slurry also affected the competitiveness of the herbs. In general, lucerne, chicory, caraway and plantain were the strongest competitors; salad burnet and birdsfoot trefoil were intermediate; and melilot, fenugreek, and chervil were very weak competitors.

Mortensen, Tine Bloch; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

256

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to (more) disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens) or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa). For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Verissimo, Luiz Fernando; Bacchi, Andre D.; Zaminelli, Tiago; Paula, Gustavo Henrique O. de; Moreira, Estefania G.

2011-12-01

257

Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) herb depending on the development stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase) and 65 (vegetative phase) compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

Renata Nurzy?ska-Wierdak

2013-01-01

258

Depigmentation of melanocytes by the treatment of extracts from traditional Chinese herbs: a cell culture assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To obtain potential skin whitening agents from traditional Chinese herbs, we tested changes of melanin content in melanocyte cell lines after treatment with extracts of 90 traditional Chinese herbs. METHODS: Mouse melanocyte cell lines were used. Depigmentation activity of the herb extracts were first screened in Mel-Ab cells, and then re-evaluated in melan-a cells and co-culture of melan-a and SP-1 cells. Melanin content and cell viability were the two indications for evaluation. Tyrosinase activity and the expression of melanin synthesis related enzymes in cells treated with the herb extracts were also tested. RESULTS: Nine herb extracts were proved to have depigmentation activity similar to or better than that of arbutin and low cytotoxicity to melanocytes. Two of them were more effective in co-cultured melan-a cells. Most of the effective herb extracts inhibited tyrosinase activity and the expression of tyrosinase. Some of them also inhibited tyrosinase related protein-1 and/or tyrosinase related protein-2 in cultured cells. CONCLUSIONS: We have found 9 herb extracts to be promising skin whitening agents. Among them, water extract of Galla Chinensis and ethanol extract of Radix Clematidis exhibited higher depigmentation activity and caused lower tyrosinase activity in cell culture assays and are worthy to be further studied.

Zhong S; Wu Y; Soo-Mi A; Zhao J; Wang K; Yang S; Jae-Ho Y; Zhu X

2006-09-01

259

Granule of wild herb, vegetable and fruit, and manufacturing method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a kind of granules made up by using various edible wild herbs/vegetables or fruits and its production method. Said invention is aimed at making edible wild herbs/vegetables or fruits into various granules and making their colours, flavours and nutrient components obtain long-term storage, when these granules are used, only the water can be added, these granules made of edible wild herbs/vegetables or fruits can be quickly made into various paste-like foods. Its production method includes the following steps: cleaning raw material, sterilizing, cutting, pulverizing, regulating water content, granulating and freeze-drying.

TAKAYUKI ARAI

260

Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Rapid identification of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To establish the method for rapid identification of the quality of Cortex moutan radicis and similar aromatic Chinese herbs by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC). Methods: The constituents of headspace gas from Chinese herbs, such as Cortex moutan radicis, Radix cynanchi paniculati and root-bark of Paeonia lactiflora. were analyzed by HSGC. Results: The characteristic finger-print headspace chromatograms of these three drugs were different from one another. Cortex moutan radicis stored for 4 years under common conditions contained only traces of paeonol. Conclusion: HSGC was simple, quick and accurate in identifying and controlling the quality of aromatic Chinese herbs.

CHEN Jian-Wei

2003-01-01

262

The potential of Sutherlandia frutescens for herb-drug interaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Africa, Sutherlandia frutescens is a popular medicinal herb widely consumed by people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Concomitant use with antiretroviral drugs has generated concerns of herb-drug interaction (HDI). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of the crude extracts of S. frutescens on the major cytochrome P450 isozymes with the use of pooled human liver microsomes. Its effect on the metabolic clearance of midazolam using cryopreserved hepatocytes was also monitored. The potential of S. frutescens to inhibit human ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-gp and BCRP) and the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) activity was assessed using cell lines overexpressing the transporter proteins. S. frutescens showed inhibitory potency for CYP1A2 (IC(50) = 41.0 µg/ml), CYP2A6 (IC(50) = 160 µg/ml), CYP2B6 (IC(50) = 20.0 µg/ml), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 22.4 µg/ml), CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 23.0 µg/ml), CYP2C19 (IC(50) = 35.9 µg/ml), and CYP3A4/5 (IC(50) = 17.5 µg/ml [with midazolam1'-hydroxylation]; IC(50) = 28.3 µg/ml [with testosterone 6?-hydroxylation]). Time-dependent (irreversible) inhibition by S. frutescens was observed for CYP3A4/5 (K(I) = 296 µg/ml, k(inact) = 0.063 min(-1)) under the conditions of this study. S. frutescens also delays the production of midazolam metabolites in the hepatocytes, decreasing its clearance by 40%. Furthermore, S. frutescens inhibited P-gp (IC(50) = 324.8 µg/ml), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 10.4 µg/ml), and OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 6.6 µg/ml). The result indicates the potential for HDI between S. frutescens and the substrates of the affected enzymes, if sufficient in vivo concentration of the extract is attained.

Fasinu PS; Gutmann H; Schiller H; James AD; Bouic PJ; Rosenkranz B

2013-02-01

263

The potential of Sutherlandia frutescens for herb-drug interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Africa, Sutherlandia frutescens is a popular medicinal herb widely consumed by people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Concomitant use with antiretroviral drugs has generated concerns of herb-drug interaction (HDI). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of the crude extracts of S. frutescens on the major cytochrome P450 isozymes with the use of pooled human liver microsomes. Its effect on the metabolic clearance of midazolam using cryopreserved hepatocytes was also monitored. The potential of S. frutescens to inhibit human ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-gp and BCRP) and the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) activity was assessed using cell lines overexpressing the transporter proteins. S. frutescens showed inhibitory potency for CYP1A2 (IC(50) = 41.0 µg/ml), CYP2A6 (IC(50) = 160 µg/ml), CYP2B6 (IC(50) = 20.0 µg/ml), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 22.4 µg/ml), CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 23.0 µg/ml), CYP2C19 (IC(50) = 35.9 µg/ml), and CYP3A4/5 (IC(50) = 17.5 µg/ml [with midazolam1'-hydroxylation]; IC(50) = 28.3 µg/ml [with testosterone 6?-hydroxylation]). Time-dependent (irreversible) inhibition by S. frutescens was observed for CYP3A4/5 (K(I) = 296 µg/ml, k(inact) = 0.063 min(-1)) under the conditions of this study. S. frutescens also delays the production of midazolam metabolites in the hepatocytes, decreasing its clearance by 40%. Furthermore, S. frutescens inhibited P-gp (IC(50) = 324.8 µg/ml), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 10.4 µg/ml), and OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 6.6 µg/ml). The result indicates the potential for HDI between S. frutescens and the substrates of the affected enzymes, if sufficient in vivo concentration of the extract is attained. PMID:23209194

Fasinu, Pius S; Gutmann, Heike; Schiller, Hilmar; James, Alexander-David; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

2012-12-03

264

A study of the effective delayed neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used for calculation in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system 'HERBE'. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs.

1994-01-01

265

Analysis of the effective delayed neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of measurements ?eff and ?eff/? and calculation results based on various sets of evaluated six-group delayed neutron parameters for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE are shown in this paper

1994-01-01

266

[Discrimination of eleven genera of Chinese herbs in geraniaceae by FTIR spectroscopy and clustering analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fast identification method of eleven genera of Chinese herbs in geraniaceae was developed by the combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with clustering analysis. FTIR spectroscopy was employed to identify and analyze eleven genera of Chinese herbs in geraniaceae. On the basis of a principal component analysis (PCA) model, three genera of Chinese herbs were rapidly classified by using the method of SIMCA clustering analysis. These samples could be successfully classified by SIMCA. Recognition rate and rejection rate reached up to 98%. The accuracy of clustering reached up to 91% during blind sample testing. It is concluded that in combination with clustering analysis, FTIR method provides an effective way to rapidly evaluate Chinese herbs in Geraniaceae.

Sun RS; Jin ZX; Zhang ZP; Xu CH; Zhou Q; Sun SQ

2013-02-01

267

Characterization of trace elements in medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Medicinal herbs are often used as alternative medicines for healing and controlling some diseases in the world. This study focuses on the content of heavy and trace elements of some widely consumed herbs in Libya. Nine most popular herbs were analyzed by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. All the samples, SRM and flux monitors were irradiated for 7 and 10 hours under thermal neutron flux of 1.3 x 1013 cm-2 x s-1 at Tajoura nuclear reactor. In total, 33 elements were analyzed in different herbs. The variations in the concentration of the elements are attributed to soil composition and the climate in which the plant grows. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing the reference materials Pine Needles SRM 1575 and Citrus Leaves SRM1572. (author)

2008-01-01

268

Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants: Potential use for cancer prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds...

Huang, WY; Cai, YZ; Zhang, Y

269

MERITS OF USING HERBS IN WHOLE STATE (AYURVEDA’s CONCEPT) OVER ISOLATED FRACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are precursors of animals and human beings. The plants growing around his vicinity fulfill all the basic needs of human life like food, water and shelter. Similarly plants act like natural tools to treat the ailments. Ayurveda i.e. the total science of human living has identified this natural truth and perfected it. At the outset, two schools of thought prevail regarding the use of herbs as drugs. The ancient school advocated and practiced by Ayurveda prefers using the herbs in the whole state, without disturbing naturally designed integrity of them. The second school insists on isolation of pharmacologically active chemicals present in the herbs preparing synthetic equivalents if possible and using them for therapeutic applications. This paper discusses the logic, eco-friendly design and merits of whole drug application against the isolated fractions with apt examples.

Madupu Paramkusha Rao

2011-01-01

270

Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determin...

Marina Sokovi?; Jasmina Glamo?lija; Petar D. Marin; Dejan Brki?; Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

271

Radioactive pollution of medicinal herb of the Vetka district, the Gomel region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 27 species of medicinal herb of the Vetka district have been studied for the contents of Cs 137. There has been determined a possibility of their safe use for curing and preventive measures. (authors)

2008-01-01

272

Measurement of ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of ?eff measurement are described. The measured and calculated quantities and estimated uncertainties are presented. Agreement between the computation and measurement suggests the validity of the calculation method

1994-01-01

273

HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident

1989-12-15

274

Herbal cosmetic compsns. - contg. herbs in mixt. of surfactants, essential oils, etc.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cosmetic compsns. comprise herbs immersed in a mixt. of a lauryl ether sulphate, coco amide, 21.4-29.8% essential oils, propylene glycol, up to 2.7% of neutral mineral salts, and opt. collagen. Pref. herbs are selected from camomile, rosemary, mint, sage, lavender, citron, bergamot, juniper, rose, lime (linden), stinging nettle and witch-hazel. USE - The compsns. may be used as shampoos (including antidandruff shampoo) or foam baths.

MENGOLI FRANCO

275

Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, d?/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

1992-01-01

276

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

2004-01-01

277

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

Science.gov (United States)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

2004-09-01

278

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

2004-10-01

279

Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John’s wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 – bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20–55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman’s test.

Pytlakowska K; Kita A; Janoska P; Po?owniak M; Kozik V

2012-11-01

280

Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test.

Pytlakowska K; Kita A; Janoska P; Po?owniak M; Kozik V

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V

2012-05-15

282

Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

2011-01-01

283

Essential oil from herb and rhizome of Peucedanum ostruthium (L. Koch.) ex DC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Essential oil from herb and rhizome of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.Koch.) ex DC underwent qualitative and quantitative analyses. The content of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.95% in the herb and 1.25% in the rhizome (per dry weight basis). Gas chromatography (GC) with MS detection and flame ionisation detection showed that the oil from the rhizome contains 39 compounds, of which 29 were identified. Gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection in chiral columns against standard compounds showed the presence of enantiomers of some of the components of the oil. Compounds present in largest quantities are: sabinene (35.2%) of which (+) sabinene accounts for (96.54%) and 4-terpineol (26.6%) of which (+) 4-terpineol accounts for (65.8%). 44 components were found in the herb essential oil, of which 39 compounds were identified. Compounds present in largest quantities were beta-caryophyllene (16.1%) and alpha-humulene (15.8%). The content of sabinene in the herb oil was 4.7%. The following compounds were present in the herb oil only as enantiomers: (+) sabinene (4.7%), (-) limonene (4.4%), (-) beta-pinene (0.4%). A coumarin (osthole) was detected in both essential oils (5.5% in herb oil and 5.1% in rhizome oil).

Cisowski W; Sawicka U; Mardarowicz M; Asztemborska M; Luczkiewicz M

2001-11-01

284

Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the contribution of culinary and medicinal herbs to the total intake of dietary antioxidants. Our results demonstrate that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among antioxidant concentrations of various herbs. Of the dried culinary herbs tested, oregano, sage, peppermint, garden thyme, lemon balm, clove, allspice and cinnamon as well as the Chinese medicinal herbs Cinnamomi cortex and Scutellariae radix all contained very high concentrations of antioxidants (i.e., >75 mmol/100 g). In a normal diet, intake of herbs may therefore contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants, and be an even better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups such as fruits, berries, cereals and vegetables. In addition, the herbal drug, Stronger Neo-Minophagen C, a glycyrrhizin preparation used as an intravenous injection for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, boosts total antioxidant intake. It is tempting to speculate that several of the effects due to these herbs are mediated by their antioxidant activities. PMID:12730411

Dragland, Steinar; Senoo, Haruki; Wake, Kenjiro; Holte, Kari; Blomhoff, Rune

2003-05-01

285

A systematic review of single chinese herbs for Alzheimer's disease treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease. PMID:19737808

Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu

2011-02-13

286

A systematic review of single chinese herbs for Alzheimer's disease treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease.

Fu LM; Li JT

2011-01-01

287

Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

Aguiar S; Borowski T

2013-08-01

288

Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out.

1989-01-01

289

Method for preparing cultivation fertilizer for cultivating purslane herb  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for preparing a cultivation fertilizer for cultivating purslane herb. The cultivation fertilizer comprises the following components in percentage by weight: 10 to 14 percent of dried chicken manure, 12 to 16 percent of dried feces, 10 to 12 percent of dried pig manure, 12 to 16 percent of bean cake, 10 to 14 percent of peanut cake, 2 to 6 percent of phosphate fertilizer, 1 to 3 percent of potash fertilizer, 1 to 3 percent of zinc fertilizer, 2 to 6 percent of pine needle, 4 to 8 percent of garlic, 2 to 4 percent of wintergreen barberry root, 4 to 6 percent of fruit of Chinese magnoliavine, 3 to 5 percent of asparagus, 1 to 3 percent of rhizoma cyperi, and 4 to 6 percent of suberect spatholobus stem. The method comprises the following steps: putting the substances into a stirrer together according to the proportion and stirring the mixture for 60 minutes, taking out the mixture and then crushing the mixture into powder in a crusher, then taking out the powder and pouring the powder into a fermentation tank to pile in stacks, covering the powder closely by plastic cloth and compacting the powder, closely fermenting the powder for 72 hours and then carrying out primary pile turning, adding feces water while pouring according to a ratio of 1:0.6, pile-turning the powder once every 72 hours, and continuously pile-turning the powder for seven times to form the qualified cultivation fertilizer.

ZHAOKUI ZHONG

290

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001) higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p<0.001) on seed germination. These data contribute for the establishing of an efficient protocol for C. asiatica cultivation.

Anjana Devkota; Pramod Kumar Jha

2010-01-01

291

Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention and Treatment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 180 spice-derived compounds have been identified and explored for their health benefits (Aggarwal et al. 2008). It is beyond the scope of this chapter to deal with all herbs and spices that may influence the risk of cancer and tumor behavior. Therefore, a decision was made to review those with some of the more impressive biological responses reported in the literature, and a conscious effort was made to provide information about the amount of spices needed to bring about a response and thus their physiological relevance. When possible, recent reviews are included to provide readers with additional insights into the biological response(s) to specific spices and to prevent duplication of the scientific literature. Because there is a separate chapter devoted to curcumin (a bioactive component in turmeric) in this book and there are also several excellent reviews published about curcumin (Patel and Majumdar 2009; Aggarwal 2010; Bar-Sela, Epelbaum, and Schaffer 2010; Epstein, Sanderson, and Macdonald 2010), turmeric is not discussed in this chapter.

Kaefer CM; Milner JA

292

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities.

Jing-Dong Yang; Liang-Bin Hu; Wei Zhou; Yu-Fen Yin; Jian Chen; Zhi-Qi Shi

2009-01-01

293

Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis. RESULTS: The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.

Zhang XJ; Huang LL; Cai XJ; Li P; Wang YT; Wan JB

2013-01-01

294

METHOD FOR EXTRACTING AROMATIC SUBSTANCE FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERB MEDICINES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a method for extracting aromatic substance from traditional Chinese herb medicines, the method comprising: a first step, in which licorice, platycodon grandiflorum, rheum genus, mint, atractylodis rhizome alba, cnidium officinale and schizonepeta tenuifolia briquette are dried respectively, and then mixed and crushed a second step, in which the mixture is placed in a supercritical extraction tank and a supercritical fluid is fed thereto a third step, in which the pressure and temperature inside the extraction tank are increased to a range of 200 to 500 atm and a range of 30 to 50?, respectively, and then the supercritical extraction tank is maintained in a steady state for 5-7 hours and a fourth step, in which the internal pressure of the supercritical extraction tank is reduced after 5-7 hours and an extract is obtained from the mixture kept in the tank. As compared with conventional methods for extracting essential oil, the present invention method features a simple process and shorter extraction time, and a composition prepared according to the present invention presents a stable aroma to users. Such herbal aromas offer a composition beneficial to human health, and once the herbal aromas are inhaled into the body they suppress appetite, thereby generating a weight-loss effect.

LEEM KANG HYUN; KIM JEUNG BEAM; KIM EE HWA; SONG HYO NAM; AN CHUL HYUN

295

Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

2013-08-01

296

Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen.

Vaquero C; Rodríguez-Torres A; Rojo J; Pérez-Badia R

2013-01-01

297

Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed. The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6 as the dominating FA.

Petersen, M B; SØegaard, Karen

2012-01-01

298

Traditional Indian Herbs Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Its Medicinal Importance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, as a rasayanawhich is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Convolvulus pluricaulisis a prostrate, spreading, perennial, wild herb commonly found on sandy or rocky ground under xerophytic conditions in northern India. The drug is used as antiepileptic. It is used alone or is administered along with modern antiepileptic drugs. Little human research has been published in the Western medical literature regarding this plant. One study shows convolvulus pluricaulis to have anti-ulcer effects due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion and glycoproteins. Another study showed that convolvulus pluricaulis may be helpful in improving symptoms of hyperthyroidism by reducing the activity of a liver enzyme. Convolvulus pluricaulis is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported toreduce mental tension.

Debjit Bhowmik; K.P.Sampath Kumar; Shravan Paswan; Shweta Srivatava; Akhilesh pd. Yadav; Amitsankar Dutta

2012-01-01

299

Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens. PMID:22700791

Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ali, Lizna; Jabeen, Ayesha; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rizvi, Tahir A; Ashraf, S Salman

2012-06-14

300

Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens.

Saeed IA; Ali L; Jabeen A; Khasawneh M; Rizvi TA; Ashraf SS

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Heavy metals in chinese therapeutic foods and herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the present study 15 samples of Chin ese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed, for the content of cadmium, mercury, lead, arsenic, cuprum and zinc, by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd(0.49 mg kg/sup -1/), Hg(0.34 mg kg/sup -1/), Pb(9.01 mg kg/sup -1/), As(3.26 mg kg/sup -1/), Cu(33.56 mg kg/sup -1) and Zn(38.32 mg kg/sup -1/) were found in Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Puerariae, Radix Salviae Miltitorrhizae, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Fructus Crataegi, Herba andrographis, respectively.The Cd levels of two samples and Cu levels of one sample were found to be higher than the recommended values of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. Mercury, lead, and arsenic levels of one sample were higher than the recommended limit of China Pharmacopoeia, but it were below the WHO and FDA. All other heavy metals in other medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

2012-01-01

302

Replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of traditional chinese medicine formulae based on attribute similarities and pathway enrichment analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called "formula pair," to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb "Forsythia suspensa" in the formula "the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)" with a common herb "Thunberg Fritillary Bulb" and simplifying two formulae, "the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)" and "Fang Feng Tang" (FFT) to a new formula "Fang Feng Du Huo Tang" (FFDHT).

Fang Z; Zhang M; Yi Z; Wen C; Qian M; Shi T

2013-01-01

303

Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. RESULTS: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. CONCLUSION: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.

Vattem DA; Lester C; Deleon R; Jamison B; Maitin V

2013-01-01

304

Inhibition of the interactions between eosinophil cationic protein and airway epithelial cells by traditional Chinese herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is cytotoxic to bacteria, viruses, parasites and mammalian cells. Cells are damaged via processes of pore formation, permeability alteration and membrane leaking. Some clinical studies indicate that ECP gathers in the bronchial tract of asthma sufferers, damages bronchial and airway epithelial cells, and leads to in breathing tract inflammation; therefore, prevention of the cytotoxicity caused by ECP may serve as an approach to treat airway inflammation. To achieve the purpose, reduction of the ECP-cell interactions is rational. In this work, the Chinese herbal combinative network was generated to predict and identify the functional herbs from the pools of prescriptions. It was useful to select the node herbs and to demonstrate the relative binding ability between ECP and Beas-2B cells with or withour herb treatments. Results Eighty three Chinese herbs and prescriptions were tested and five effective herbs and six prescription candidates were selected. On the basis of effective single-herbal drugs and prescriptions, a combinative network was generated. We found that a single herb, Gan-cao, served as a node connecting five prescriptions. In addition, Sheng-di-huang, Dang-guei and Mu-tong also appeared in five, four and three kinds of prescriptions, respectively. The extracts of these three herbs indeed effectively inhibited the interactions between ECP and Beas-2B cells. According to the Chinese herbal combinative network, eight of the effective herbal extracts showed inhibitory effects for ECP internalizing into Beas-2B cells. The major components of Gang-cao and Sheng-di-huang, glycyrrhizic acid and verbascose, respectively, reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells effectively. Conclusions Since these Chinese herbs reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells and inhibited subsequent ECP entrance into cells, they were potential for mitigating the airway inflammation symptoms. Additionally, we mentioned a new concept to study the Chinese herbs using combinative network in the field of systems biology. The functional single herbs could be identified from the set of prescriptions.

Chang Hao-Teng; Tseng Louis J; Hung Ta-Jen; Kao Blacky T; Lin Wei-Yong; Fan Tan-chi; Chang Margaret; Pai Tun-Wen

2010-01-01

305

Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

Carlsen Monica H; Blomhoff Rune; Andersen Lene F

2011-01-01

306

Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbs on squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: histopathologic analysis of 240 cases.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three types of traditional Chinese herb medicine were used to treat 98 patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prior to surgical treatment. Forty-two patients with the same diagnosis were treated with these herbs plus cyclophosphamide (endoxan). One hundred similar patients received surgical treatment without herbs or endoxan treatment as controls. Histologic examinations of surgical specimens were made on all of these patients. Stromal lymphoid-cell infiltration and cancer tissue degeneration were more prominent in Menispernum dehuricum DC- or Chelidonium majus L-treated patients, and were less clear in patients treated with herbs plus endoxan and the controls. The antitumor action of herbs is thought to be brought about by the activation of an immunological rejection mechanism. Herbs plus endoxan may result in the masking of the immunological response of hosts without obviously damaging cancer tissues.

Xian,Mei-Sheng; Hayashi,Keiki; Lu,Jian-Ping; Awai,Michiyasu

1989-01-01

307

TRADITIONAL INDIAN HERBS CINNAMON ZEYLANICUM AND ITS HEALTH BENEFITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cinnamon has been used to alleviate indigestion, stomach cramps, intestinal spasms, nausea, and flatulence, and to improve the appetite, and treat diarrhea. A number of additional medicinal properties have been reported for cinnamon. In folk medicine it was used for treating rheumatism and other inflammations. Its mild anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, and anti-clotting properties are believed to be due to its content of cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamon extracts are active against Candida albicans, the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infection, and also Helicobacter pylori, the bacterium responsible for stomach ulcers. The antimicrobial properties of cinnamon are thought to be due to eugenol and a derivative of cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamon extracts have also inhibited the growth of cultured tumor cells. This effect may be due to the presence of procyanidins and eugenol in the bark extract. Cinnamon is also useful as a food preservative to inhibit the growth of common food-borne bacteria such as Salmonella and E coli.Cinnamon is highly beneficial in the treatment of several other ailments, including spasmodic afflictions, asthma, paralysis, excessive menstruation, uterus disorders and gonnorhoea. It is sometimes used as a prophylactic agent, to control German measles. The cinnamaldehyde component is hypotensive and spasmolytic, and increases peripheral blood flow. The essential oil of this herb is a potent antibacterial, anti-fungal, and uterine stimulant. The various terpenoids found in the volatile oil are believed to account for Cinnamon’s medicinal effects. Test tube studies also show that Cinnamon can augment the action of insulin. However, use of Cinnamon to improve the action of insulin in people with diabetes has yet to be proven in clinical trials.

Lokesh Deb; K.P.Sampath kumar; Debjit Bhowmik

2011-01-01

308

THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.)  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.) submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

Sebastião Ferreira de Lima; Rodrigo Luz da Cunha; Janice Guedes de Carvalho; Carlos Alberto Spaggiari Souza; Fernando Luiz de Oliveira Corrêa

2003-01-01

309

Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 ?l CD3OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

2010-01-01

310

Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

Clement Yuri N; Williams Arlene F; Aranda Derick; Chase Ronald; Watson Nadya; Mohammed Rochelle; Stubbs Odia; Williamson Deneil

2005-01-01

311

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O) hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O). La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O) a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O) en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O), Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género.

Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

2008-01-01

312

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective/ Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13? S, 70º09? O) hasta la Patagonia (53º10? S, 70º54? O). La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59? S, 71º14? O) a Cautín (38º45? S, 72º34? O) en Chile y en la Prov (more) incia de Neuquén (36º50? S, 71º05? O), Argentina. Se hizo un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de A. presliana subsp. presliana con A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Las dos poblaciones presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, pero con cromosomas diferentes: A. presliana subsp. presliana presenta una fórmula haploide 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, esto es, cuatro pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par submetacéntrico con el satélite, un par subtelocéntrico con el satélite y dos pares telocéntricos. En cambio, A. presliana subsp. australis tiene una fórmula haploide constituida por 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t, esto es, dos pares de cromosomas metacéntricos, un par metacéntrico con satélite, un par submetacéntrico y cuatro pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Estos resultados evidencian que el cariotipo entre las subespecies es muy diferente, lo que podría estar indicando que la subespecie australis correspondería a una nueva especie dentro del género. Abstract in english Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13? S, 70º09? W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10? S, 70º54? W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59? S, 71º14? W) to Cautín (38º45? S, 72º34? W) in Chile and Neuq (more) uén (36º50? S, 71º05? W), Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.

Baeza, Carlos M; Schrader, Otto; Ruiz, Eduardo; Negritto, M

2008-12-01

313

Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup -3} {mu}g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

Chen, Chien-Yi [Chung Shan Medical Univ., Inst. of Biochemistry, Taiwan (China); Chang Lai, Sheng-Pin [Chung Shan Medical Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Chief, Taiwan (China)

2002-04-01

314

Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

2006-01-01

315

[Study on enhancing bioavailability of paeoniflorin by combined use with Chinese herbs for inner-warming].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of Chinese herbs for inner-warming on the bioavailability of paeoniflorin (PF) and its mechanism. METHODS: Chinese herbs (pepper fruit, evodia fruit, cassia bark, fennel fruit and prickly-ash peel) were separately used in combination with PF for gastrogavage to mice. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the plasma concentration of PF in mice after medication. The bioavailability of PF was calculated and compared, taking single use of red peony root for control. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of PF in mice was conformed to the one-compartment model, as combined use with Chinese herbs for inner-warming, the relative bioavailability of PF was 137.22% for pepper fruit, 123.62% for evodia fruit, 108.39% for cassia bark, 226.02% for fennel fruit and 116.73% for prickly-ash peel, there were difference of Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) in comparison of these data with the control group (P < 0.05), but with no difference of tmax (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The Chinese herbs used in this experiment in combination with red peony root could enhance the bioavailability of PF, which illustrated the scientific meaning of the recipe combination of Chinese herbs for activating blood circulation and inner-warming viewing from pharmacodynamics.

Yang ZY; Pei J; Liu RM; Cheng J; Wan D; Hu R

2005-09-01

316

Fiveleaf gynostemma herb and lophatherum gracile SOD anti-cancer heath drink and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a fiveleaf gynostemma herb and lophatherum gracile SOD anti-cancer heath drink and a preparation method thereof. The drink comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 0.01 to 1.0 percent of fiveleaf gynostemma herb extract, 0.05 to 1.0 percent of lophatherum gracile extract, 0.08 to 0.1 percent of SOD tea polyphenol substance, 0.03 to 0.1 percent of potassium sorbate, 10 to 15 percent of sucrose and/or xylitol, and the balance of healthy water. The preparation method comprises the following steps: 1) preparing the raw materials according to above percentage 2) dosing a little water, the fiveleaf gynostemma herb extract and the lophatherum gracile extract into a dosing tank in sequence to be stirred evenly, dosing the SOD tea polyhenol into the dosing tank to be diluted with water, adding sweetening agent, antiseptic agent and acidity regulation into the dosing tank, and adjusting the pH to be between 6 and 7.0. The health drink combines biotechnology with Chinese medicinal herb, and sufficiently takes the advantages of the Chinese medicinal herb the gypenoside, bamboo-leaves flavones, the tea polyphenol and ultra-intense antioxidant free radical scavenger oxide dismutase have the function of synergistic anticancer the health drink also has multiple effects of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus preventing and treating, beautifying, body fitting and the like.

TAIWEN ZHOU

317

Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices. PMID:18598169

Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L

2008-06-01

318

Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned.

Seddigi ZS; Kandhro GA; Shah F; Danish E; Soylak M

2013-10-01

319

Drug-herb interaction: database of medicinal plants of the Caribbean, their indications, toxicities and possible interactions with conventional medication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare professionals in the Caribbean today know very little about these drug-herb interactions of the popular West Indian medicinal herb practices linked to the immigrants from West Africa and India, and to the indigenous Amerindians. It is the intent of this project to produce a database which comprehensively summarizes indications and possible drug-herb interactions of these plants. METHOD: Using the database programme Epi Info 3.5.1, one hundred and eighty-three herbs used in the Caribbean as medicine by locals have been entered into the West Indian Drug Herb Interaction Database version 0.06 (WIDHID 0.06). RESULTS: A range of one to three common names have been entered with the family and scientific name of each herb, in addition to a range of one to six conditions/illnesses for which a particular plant was to be used as a medicinal herb. One to four bioactive compounds have been made to correlate with the typical herbal preparation methods and toxicity. Thirty of the most common and popular herbs have been researched for their drug herb interactions. CONCLUSION: West Indian Drug Herb Interaction Database version 0.06 for the first time allows easy access to Caribbean ethno-medicinal plant cures with their possible drug-herb interactions reference sources, a feature often absent although so important. In addition, WIDHID 0.06 will support pharmaco-epidemiological studies in the field. It will also ensure future public access to ethno-medicinal information through developed web pages or programmes.

Cohall DH; Griffiths A; Scantlebury-Manning T; Fraser HS; Carrington CM

2010-10-01

320

Protection of mouse immune system by a preparation of herb mixture against whole body irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preparation(P.P-I) of herb mixture was designed to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. The herb preparation was water extract of herb mixture(Agelica gagantis Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix) added with its polysaccharide fraction. In the present experiments, the ability of the preparation to protect hematopoietic and immune system was assessed in mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The administration of P.P-I increased regeneration of blood cells and splenic lymphocytes in irradiated mice. In the administration mice, both B and T cells of lymphocytes were repopulated to normal level following irradiation, the response of repopulated lymphocytes to mitogen was recovered and the production of antibody against injected antigen was increased. These results indicated that the preparation protect hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage, and that enhanced immunity. Since the preparation is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful radioprotector.

Park, H. R.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. T. [Sunchon National Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

2006-01-01

322

Genotoxicological safety of the ?-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with ?-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity

2001-01-01

323

Genotoxicological safety of the {gamma}-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with {gamma}-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with {gamma}-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with {gamma}-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity.

Ham, Y. H.; Oh, H.; Park, H. R.; Beon, M. W.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-01

324

Identification and characterisation of the chinese herb Langdu by LC-MS/MS analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the identification of three species of herb used as the traditional Chinese medicine Langdu, namely Stellera chamaejasme L., Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata and E. fischeriana Steud. As these herbs contain different mixtures of marker compounds, they could be unambiguously differentiated from each other by comparing their respective characteristic segmental multiple reaction monitoring profiles. The profiles indicated that S. chamaejasme contained daphnetin, skimmetine, stellerin, chamaechromone and neochamaejasmin, E. fischeriana contained ebracteolata compound B, ingenol, jolkinolide B and fischeriana A, whilst E. ebracteolata contained ebracteolata compounds B and C along with ingenol. These results were confirmed from the respective MS/MS spectra. The method has been successfully applied to differentiate these herbs from the related species Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott and E. kansui Liou. PMID:12597254

Su, Xiao-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao; Wong, Siu-Kay; Tsui, Shu-Ki; Kwan, Sik-Yiu

325

[Identification of originality of constituents of the tablets containing medical herbs].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the article are shown the results of development of methods for identification of originality of aqueous extract s obtained from herbs with medical properties ingressed in multicomponent phyto preparations. During provided research were developed different methods of evaluation of identity of herbal aqueous extracts with poorly known structure in complex tablets. These methods could be introduced in practice for reliable evaluation of qualitative composition of multicomponent phyto preparations, containing aqueous extract s of herbs studded in this work. Monitoring of qualitative composition of phyto preparations during production and in the phase of marketing will promote further rise of efficacy and safety of remedy. We demonstrate the results of the work aimed to develop the methods for identification of originality of aqueous extracts obtained from herbs with medical properties ingressed in multicomponent phyto preparations.

2013-04-01

326

[Edaphic FTIR finger print and the area choice of Chinese herb culture].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to search for the difference of the soil of Chinese herb growth, and provide useful information for the area choice of Chinese herb culture, 53 soil samples were detected by FTIR. The results showed that all the samples have 8 peaks at 3,621, 3,425, 1,642, 1,435, 1,029, 878, 760 and 690 cm(-1), respectively, but the relative intensity is different. In addition, the peaks at 1,796, 2,982 and 2,874 cm(-1) show difference too. This can be used to distinguish soil in different area. The study also showed that soil in Tianshui and Dingxi of Gansu province are similar to that in Shanxi province. Conclusions: FTIR finger print of soil can provide useful information for the area choice of Chinese herb culture and transplantation and can be used in the study of soil.

Zhao HH; Wang W; Chen JX; Hou N; Zhao P; Kuang ZJ; Liu YQ

2010-07-01

327

THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa) with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01) milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

E. Nurdin; T. Amelia; M. Makin

2011-01-01

328

[Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

Kobayashi M; Ohtsuka K; Tamura Y; Tomizawa S; Kinoshita T; Kamijo K; Iwakoshi K; Sato C; Nagayama T; Takano I

2013-01-01

329

Centuries-old logging legacy on spatial and temporal patterns in understory herb communities  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understory herb communities in the Southern Appalachians are among the highest biodiversity plant communities in North America. In the mid-1990s, a debate began over whether understory herb communities recover to their pre-disturbance states following logging. Studies showing reduced herb-layer diversity in previously logged forests were criticized for not accounting for intersite environmental heterogeneity. More recent studies have addressed environmental heterogeneity, but have neglected long-term recovery by using “mature forests” as young as 80 years old as the benchmark for diversity comparison, even though old growth stands have disturbance return intervals exceeding 500 years. Here we address concerns clouding previous studies of high-diversity Appalachian herb communities and investigate their long-term recovery by comparing paired sites of old growth forest and forest logged 100-150 years ago. We found that species richness and individual abundance is greater in old growth forests than mature forests and that species composition differed significantly between the two. Turnover in species among old growth and mature forests accounted for 11% of the total species richness and was significantly greater than expected. Species turnover at intermediate (5-50m) and landscape-scales (>10km) contributed the most towards total species richness. Herb communities in rich cove forests have successional trajectories that exceed 150 years, with important community changes still occurring long after the forest returns to what has been previously termed a “mature” state. To conserve the diverse herb layer, we conclude that mature forest stands are too young to serve as baselines for recovery, landscape-scale preservation of multiple forest stands is needed to maximize species richness, and maintaining 100-150-year logging rotations will likely lead to loss of biodiversity.

Wyatt JulieL; Silman MilesR

2010-06-01

330

Measurement of {beta}{sub eff} in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used for calculation in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed-neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. It consists of the fast core loaded with the natural uranium fuel elements. The thermal core is composed of the 80% enriched UO{sub 2} moderated and reflected by heavy water. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of {beta}{sub eff} measurement are described in this paper.

Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.; Avdic, S.; Nikolic, D.

1994-12-31

331

Verification of kinetic parameters of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1989 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the VINCA Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews experiments for kinetic parameters verification carried out at HERBE system. Their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results are included. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in the calculations is presented too. (author)

1997-01-01

332

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Kedzia, B

2000-03-01

333

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

2000-01-01

334

[Consumption of medicinal herbs in patients attending a gastroenterology outpatient clinic  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption of medicinal herbs is one of the most important topics in alternative and complementary medicine. The widespread use of these substances among the general population gives rise to the possibility of therapeutic or toxic effects in patients seeking conventional medical assistance. To determine the frequency of medicinal herb use, the species consumed and the profile of medicinal herb consumers among patients with gastrointestinal disorders, patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of the Francesc de Borja district hospital (Gandía, Spain) over a 5-month period were interviewed and 539 valid questionnaires were obtained. A total of 34.7% of the interviewees had taken medicinal herbs at some time and 26.9% had used them in the last year. Self-prescription was reported by 67.1%. Medicinal herbs were mainly obtained in the pharmacy or herbalist's (74.7%). The results of medicinal herb therapy were considered good or excellent by 80.3% of the interviewees, average by 18.6% and poor by 1.1%. In the univariate analysis, medicinal herb consumption was positively associated with female sex (p < 0.001), a university education (p < 0.05), consumption of psychotropic drugs (p < 0.005), use of trencar l'enfit (TE, a common practice of magic medicine in Valencia) (p < 0.001), functional gastrointestinal disorders (p < 0.005) and a diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal disorder (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, the variables that remained statistically significant were female sex (p < 0.005), university education (p < 0.01), use of TE and a diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal disorder. Fifty-seven botanical varieties were used. The most frequent varieties were Santolina chamaecyparissus (18.8%), Tilia platyphyllos (6.5%), Thymus vulgaris (6%), Equisetum ramosissimum (4.7%), Mentha pulegium (4.4%) and Valeriana officinalis (4.4%). The results show that consumption of medicinal herbs is frequent among patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a district hospital. The probable profile of those showing maximum consumption is: female sex, university education, lower gastrointestinal disorder, functional gastrointestinal disorder, psychotropic drug consumption and use of TE.

Devesa Jordà F; Pellicer Bataller J; Ferrando Ginestar J; Borghol Hariri A; Bustamante Balén M; Ortuño Cortés J; Ferrando Marrades I; Llobera Bertran C; Sala Lajo A; Miñana Morell M; Nolasco Bonmatí A; Fresquet Febrer JL

2004-04-01

335

Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Subhani, M.S. [Dept. of Chemistry, Quaid-e Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

2004-07-01

336

Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

2004-01-01

337

Chinese medicinal herb preparation for treating gingivitis and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a medicinal preparation, in particular to a Chinese medicinal herb preparation for treating gingivitis and a preparation method thereof. The Chinese medicinal herb preparationis characterized by comprising the following components in portion by weight: 30 portions of urine sediment, 30 portions of coptis root, 30 portions of mint, 5 portions of borax, 60 portions of catechu, 60 portions of phellodendron, 60 portions of natural indigo and 60 portions of borneol. The pure Chinese medicinal preparation has the advantages of no toxic or side effect, short treatment course, high healing rate, relapse prevention, simple preparation method and low treatment expense.

DIANMING ZHANG; YOUWEI CONG

338

Screening of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen expression inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs and plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ether extracts of 1693 Chinese medicinal herbs and plants from 268 families were studied for the induction of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) early antigen (EA) expression in the Raji cell line. Fifty-two from 18 families were found to have inducing activity. Twenty-five and seven of them were from Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaeeae, respectively. Some of them, such as Croton tiglium, Euphorbia kansui, Daphne genkwa, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Wikstroemia indica, Prunus mandshurica Koehne and Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used drugs. The significance of these herbs in the activation of EBV in vivo and their relation to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were discussed. PMID:8024719

Zeng, Y; Zhong, J M; Ye, S Q; Ni, Z Y; Miao, X Q; Mo, Y K; Li, Z L

1994-03-01

339

Differentiation of rhizoma et radix polygoni cuspidati from closely related herbs by HPLC fingerprinting.  

Science.gov (United States)

An HPLC-DAD fingerprinting profile of Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati was established basing on the consistent chromatographic features of 24 authentic herb samples. The major types of chemical constituents, stilbenes and anthraquinones, were analyzed and included in the fingerprint. Eight common peaks of Polygonum Cuspidatum were identified by using HPLC-MS. The developed fingerprint was applied to differentiate Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati from Radix Polygoni Multiflori and Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei. Although the three herbs belong to the family of Polygonaceae, the results indicated that these could be differentiated by using the established method. PMID:16880665

Qian, Guangsheng; Leung, Sik-Yuen; Lu, GuangHua; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

2006-08-01

340

9-Hydroxypiperitone beta-D-glucopyranoside and other polar constituents from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A methanolic extract from dill (Anethum graveolens) herb was subjected to XAD-2 adsorption chromatography. The methanolic eluate was fractionated with the all liquid chromatographic technique of multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC). After acetylation of MLCCC subfractions and flash chromatography, final purification of dill herb constituents was achieved by preparative and/or analytical HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained in pure form, including the beta-D-glucopyranosides of 9-hydroxypiperitone, p-menth-2-ene-1,6-diol, and 8-hydroxygeraniol. Structure elucidation is based on electrospray ionization ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Bonnländer B; Winterhalter P

2000-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medicationcenturies back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modernmedical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins,minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like antimicrobial,anticataleptic, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic and cardioprotective activities. The aim of the present reviewis to present an extensive survey on the phytochemistry and pharmacological applications of the herb.

S. K. Bariyah

2013-01-01

342

Measurement of spectrum and gamma radiation absorption dose rate in the center of HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this task was measurement of spectrum and absorption dose rate of gamma radiation in the center of vertical experimental channel of the HERBE system. This paper contains theoretical description of gamma radiation sources in reactors, methods and instruments for measuring gamma spectrum and absorption dose rate in the center of HERBE system. Influence of NAI (TI) detector efficiency and (n,?) activation was determined and the reactor gamma spectrum was measured. Absorption gamma dose rate was measured dependent on the reactor power

1995-01-01

343

Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present at ppb level, it is examined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with zeeman background correction. None of these species contain metals above the toxic limit. Fenugreek was found to be rich source of metal specially chromium.

N. Fatima; Ishrat-Ullah Siddiqui; Fahmida Perveen; Z.T. Maqsood

2004-01-01

344

Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

2009-01-01

345

Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

Boniglia, C. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: concetta.boniglia@iss.it; Aureli, P. [Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, E.; Onori, S. [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

2009-07-15

346

Study on the networks of "nature-family-component" of Chinese medicinal herbs based on association rules mining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore appropriate methods for the research of the theory of Chinese medicine nature property and find the relationship between Nature-Family-Component of Chinese herbs. METHODS: From perspective of systems biology, we used Associate Network to identify useful relationships among "Nature-Family-Component" of Herbs. In this work, Associate Network combines association rules mining method and network construction method to evaluate the complicate relationship among "Nature-Family-Component" of herbs screened. RESULTS: The results of association rules mining showed that the families had a close relationship with nature properties of herbs. For example, the families of Magnoliaceae, Araceae had a close relationship with hot nature with confidence of 100%, the families of Cucurbitaceae has a close relationship to cold nature with confidence of 90.91%. Moreover, the results of constructed Associate Network implied that herbs belonging to the same families generally had the same natures. In addition, some herbs belonging to different families may also have same natures when they contain the same main components. CONCLUSION: These results implied that the main components of herbs might affect their natures; the relationships between families and natures were based on the main compounds of herbs.

Fu XJ; Wang ZG; Qu Y; Wang P; Zhou Y; Yu HY

2013-09-01

347

Studies on active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. I. Effects of herb extracts on hair growth and isolation of an active substance from Polyporus umbellatus F.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of methanol extracts of 80 herbs on hair growth were investigated, using normal C3H/He mice from which telogen hair on the back had been removed. Eighteen of the extracts apparently promoted hair regrowth on the mice. As one of active principles in Polyporus umbellatus F., 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was isolated by column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel.

Inaoka Y; Shakuya A; Fukazawa H; Ishida H; Nukaya H; Tsuji K; Kuroda H; Okada M; Fukushima M; Kosuge T

1994-03-01

348

Studies on active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. I. Effects of herb extracts on hair growth and isolation of an active substance from Polyporus umbellatus F.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of methanol extracts of 80 herbs on hair growth were investigated, using normal C3H/He mice from which telogen hair on the back had been removed. Eighteen of the extracts apparently promoted hair regrowth on the mice. As one of active principles in Polyporus umbellatus F., 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was isolated by column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. PMID:8004697

Inaoka, Y; Shakuya, A; Fukazawa, H; Ishida, H; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kuroda, H; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Kosuge, T

1994-03-01

349

Effects of Polysaccharide Extracted from Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs on Lymphocyte Transformation Rate and AI-HI Antibody Titer in Chicks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Object]: Detect whether different concentrations of Chinese herbs compound polysaccharides (CPS), astragalus
polysaccharides (APS) and angeulica polysaccharides (ASP), epimedium herb polysaccharides (EPS) have effects on
the immunity function of healthy Roman chicken. [Method]...

Xingyan Li; Xinli Gu

350

A systematic review of the prevalence of herb usage among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical studies display a wide range of herb use prevalence among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. We searched databases indexing the literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, and Medline. We included studies that reported herbal medicine prevalence among ethnic minorities, African American, Hispanic, or Asian adults living in the United States. Data from 108 included studies found the prevalence of herb use by African Americans was 17 % (range 1-46 %); for Hispanics, 30 % (4-100 %); and for Asians, 30 % (2-73 %). Smaller studies were associated with higher reported herb use (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference (p = 0.01) between regional and national studies with regional studies reporting higher use. While herb usage surveys in racial/ethnic minorities show great variability, indications suggest high prevalence. More research is needed to understand herb use among ethnic/racial minorities, reasons for use, and barriers to disclosure of use to clinicians.

Gardiner P; Whelan J; White LF; Filippelli AC; Bharmal N; Kaptchuk TJ

2013-08-01

351

Fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs during refrigerated storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs were evaluated at a refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). Fresh herbs, including cilantro, oregano, basil, chive, parsley, and rosemary, were inoculated with six-strain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, and the microbial populations were monitored at 1, 5, 11, 16, 19, and 24 days. For both pathogens, a significant decrease in the population (P cilantro and the lowest on rosemary (P cilantro, basil, and chive was terminated after 19 days because of deteriorated quality, significant numbers of both pathogens were recovered from the remaining fresh herbs after 24 days of storage. The results showed that both bacteria were extremely persistent on all test herbs under the test conditions. The results also reinforce the concept that, once contaminated, bacterial pathogens can persist on fresh herbs throughout a normal distribution time. PMID:16924931

Hsu, Wei-Yea; Simonne, Amarat; Jitareerat, Pongphen

2006-08-01

352

Effects of tree sapling diversity and nutrient addition on herb-layer invasibility in communities of subtropical species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exotic species are assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However, little is known of the relationships within vertically structured plant communities such as forests, where tree saplings interact with herbaceous species, especially in the early phases of succession. This relationship was tested in a common garden experiment which assessed the impacts on tree saplings and herbaceous species following nutrient addition and the introduction of exotic herb species. The experiment was established in South- East China using four broad-leaved tree species (Elaeocarpus decipiens, Schima superba, Castanea henryi and Quercus serrata) to study the relationships between tree sapling diversity, herb-layer productivity and invasibility. Tree saplings were planted in monoculture and in mixtures of two and four species. A full factorial design was applied, within which species composition was crossed with nutrient and exotic seed-addition treatments. The seed-addition treatment included mixtures of seeds from eight exotic herb species, and herb community attributes were assessed after a four month growing season. Results indicate that certain tree species negatively affect native as well as exotic herbs; however, the high productivity of native herbs had a stronger negative impact on exotic species than tree saplings. Nutrient addition increased the productivity of exotic herbs but had no effect on native herbs. Remarkably, exotic species introduction had a negative feedback effect on the growth of tree saplings, which highlights the potential of exotic herbs to diminish tree recruitment. Although tree saplings reduced invasive effects on the herb-layer during the earliest phase of forest succession, nutrient addition had a more profound and opposite effect on these invaders.

Sabine Both; Teng Fang; Martin Baruffol; Bernhard Schmid; Helge Bruelheide; Alexandra Erfmeier

2012-01-01

353

Analysis of the effective delayed neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of measurements {beta}{sub eff} and {beta}{sub eff}/{Lambda} and calculation results based on various sets of evaluated six-group delayed neutron parameters for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE are shown in this paper.

Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.; Avdic, S.; Nikolic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

1994-12-31

354

Verification of temperature coefficients of reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Space and fuel geometry dependent temperature coefficients of the reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core HERBE were calculated by suitable computer codes. For verification of the results, the isothermal temperature coefficient of the reactivity of the thermal core was determined by experiment. The deviation between measured and calculated value was less than 5%. (orig.)

1992-01-01

355

Verification of temperature coefficients of reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Space and fuel geometry dependent temperature coefficients of the reactivity in the coupled fast-thermal core HERBE were calculated by suitable computer codes. For verification of the results, the isothermal temperature coefficient of the reactivity of the thermal core was determined by experiment. The deviation between measured and calculated value was less than 5%. (author)

1992-01-01

356

Effect of packaging materials and storage on major volatile aroma compounds in three Australian native herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lemon myrtle, Anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf are commercial Australian native herbs with a high volatile or essential oil content. Packaging of the herbs in high or low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) has proven to be ineffective in preventing a significant loss of volatile components on storage. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of alternate high barrier property packaging materials namely: polyvinylidene chloride coated polyethylene terephthalate / casted polypropylene (PVDC coated PET/CPP); and polyethylene terephthalate / polyethylene terephthalate / Aluminum foil / linear low-density polyethylene (PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE), in prevention of volatile compound loss from the three native herbs, stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Concentrations of major volatiles were monitored using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. After 6 months storage the greatest loss of volatiles from lemon myrtle was observed in traditional LDPE packaging (87% loss) followed by storage in PVDC coated PET/CPP (58% loss) and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE a loss of 23%. The volatile loss from anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf stored in PVDC coated PET/CPP and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE packaging was less than 30%. This study clearly indicates the importance of selecting the correct packaging material to retain the quality of herbs with high volatile content.

Chaliha M; Cusack A; Currie M; Sultanbawa Y; Smyth HE

2013-05-01

357

The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The in vitro antibacterial activities of a total of 46 extracts from dietary spices and medicinal herbs were investigated by agar-well diffusion method against five foodborne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Their tot...

Shan, B; Cai, YZ; Brooks, JD; Corke, H

358

Investigation of Elemental Concentrations of Some Medicinal Herbs Collected from Kachin State  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Five medicinal herbs, which are traditionally used in the Kachin State for the treatment of tuberculosis, different types of cancers, malaria and indigestion problem, were analyzed by the EDXRF techinque to determine the relative concentrations of elements contained in them. The major elements and the trace elements were thoroughly investigated for a comparison purpose

2006-01-01

359

A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter ...

Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

360

YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

 
 
 
 
361

Decorporation of strontium and cesium radioisotope mixture with extract of Bulgarian medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The decorporation efficiency of an extract of Bulgarian medicinal herbs was investigated for a case of acute intoxication with mixture of cesium and strontium radioisotopes. A slight effect of decorporation (1-2 times versus the controls) was found only with respect to the radioactive strontium. 1 tab., 3 refs

1990-01-01

362

Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigatio...

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

363

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offe...

R.I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju -Obodo; J.K. Mensah

364

Aspects regarding the processing of the medicinal herbs in a microwave field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper contains the main results obtainedin the field of the processing of medicinal herbs in amicrowave field. It has an applicative research character,the obtained results being of practical use, with the mainpurpose of optimizing the functioning of some heatingdevices in a microwave field.

Livia Bandici

2009-01-01

365

Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts contain...

Rozanova (Torshina), Nadejda; Zhang, Jin Z.; Heck, Diane E.

366

Chinese medicinal herbs for childhood pneumonia: a systematic review of effectiveness and safety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective. To assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for Childhood Pneumonia. Methods. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The searched electronic databases included PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. All studies included were assessed for quality and risk bias. Review Manager 5.1.6 software was used for data analyses, and the GRADEprofiler software was applied to classify the systematic review results. Results. Fourteen studies were identified (n = 1.824). Chinese herbs may increase total effective rate (risk ratio (RR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.26) and improve cough (total mean difference (MD), -2.18; 95% CI, (-2.66)-(-1.71)), fever (total MD, -1.85; 95% CI, (-2.29)-(-1.40)), rales (total MD, -1.53; 95% CI, (-1.84)-(-1.23)), and chest films (total MD, -3.10; 95% CI, (-4.11)-(-2.08)) in Childhood Pneumonia. Chinese herbs may shorten the length of hospital stay (total MD, -3.00; 95% CI, (-3.52)-(-2.48)), but no significant difference for adverse effects (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.09-1.72) was identified. Conclusion. Chinese herbs may increase total effective rate and improve symptoms and signs. However, large, properly randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are required.

Yang Q; Wu D; Mao W; Liu X; Bao K; Lin Q; Lu F; Zou C; Li C

2013-01-01

367

Knowledge Acquisition from Textual Documents for the Construction of Medicinal Herbs Domain Ontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study a semi automatic acquisition of domain relevant terms from digital documents in e-newspaper related to Malaysian medicinal herbs is presented. This study proposes (1) TFIDF-based term classification method for acquiring single word terms, (2) recognition of multi-word using TerMine...

I. Zaharudin; S.A. Noah; M.M. Noor

368

Combination of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Treating Model Rats With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explored the effects of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore whether acupuncture has positive effects on the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of a Chinese medicine formula when treating...

Ma, Rui-Jie; Zhou, Jue; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Yang, Dan-Hong; Qu, Fan

369

Superoxide dismutase polymorphisms in wild populations of herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymorphism of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was investigated in leaves of herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae). The plants were collected during the summer and autumn of 2001 from different natural locations in Lithuania and Norway. Crude extracts from leaves were analyzed using electrophor...

Jogait?, Vaida; Kleizait?, Violeta; Stapulionyt?, Asta; Bjerketvedt, Dag Kjartan

370

Antioxidant activities of herbs, fruit and medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum extracts produced by microfiltration process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents kinds of extraction and cross-flow filtration of composition of 46 healthful and aromatic herbs, 8 fruits and fungi Ganoderma lucidum. Those extracts are part of Bitter 55, which have significant antioxidant capacity. Antioxidative activities of plant extracts have been determine...

Vukosavljevi? Predrag; Novakovi? Miroslav; Bukvi? Branka; Niksi? Miomir; Stanisavljevi? Ivana; Klaus Anita

371

Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could supplement total antioxidants intake. Amongst the tested herbal extracts, extracts of Canarium album Raeusch., Flos caryophylli and Fructus amomi were found to have the highest antioxidative activities in both DPPH and FRAP assays. Their antioxidative activities were comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Thus, these herbs are safe and inexpensive sources of natural antioxidants. A significant relationship between the antioxidative effects and total phenolic contents were found, indicating phenolic compounds are the major contributor of antioxidative capacities of these herbs. In addition, a strong correlation between DPPH assay and FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these herbs were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants.

Guo DJ; Cheng HL; Chan SW; Yu PH

2008-10-01

372

Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could supplement total antioxidants intake. Amongst the tested herbal extracts, extracts of Canarium album Raeusch., Flos caryophylli and Fructus amomi were found to have the highest antioxidative activities in both DPPH and FRAP assays. Their antioxidative activities were comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Thus, these herbs are safe and inexpensive sources of natural antioxidants. A significant relationship between the antioxidative effects and total phenolic contents were found, indicating phenolic compounds are the major contributor of antioxidative capacities of these herbs. In addition, a strong correlation between DPPH assay and FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these herbs were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants. PMID:18815744

Guo, D-J; Cheng, H-L; Chan, S-W; Yu, P H-F

2008-10-01

373

A critical view on spike recovery for accuracy evaluation of analytical method for medicinal herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papers published in the last two years concerning quantitative analysis of medicinal herbs were searched from Scopus database and viewed to critically discuss reliability of spike recovery for evaluating the accuracy of analytical methods for medicinal herbs without testing extraction efficiencies of analytes. This issue was raised regarding different strategies of analytical method development, i.e., with or without testing extraction efficiencies, employed in these papers, and experimentally verified on an example of determining three major bioactive components aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin of rhubarb by high performance liquid chromatography. The simple experiment was particularly designed to compare the difference between the recoveries of spiked analytes and the extraction efficiencies of native analytes in the sample with the same extraction durations. The results showed that the overall extraction efficiencies of three native analytes with extraction duration of 3, 5, 10 and 20 min was unacceptable from about 73% to 94%, whereas the spike recovery values with the same extraction durations found to be acceptable from nearly 97% to 103%, indicating that spike recovery may not always reflect the true value of the analytical accuracy, and that the spike recovery may be unreliable for accuracy evaluation of analytical methods for medicinal herbs when the extraction efficiencies of analytes were not properly tested. Extraction efficiencies of analytes should always be tested in method development, so that spike recovery can really represent the accuracy of analytical methods for medicinal herbs.

Xu J; Zhu LY; Shen H; Zhang HM; Jia XB; Yan R; Li SL; Xu HX

2012-03-01

374

Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis), and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2): 69-73 (2010)Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

P Mahyuddin; Y Widiawati

2010-01-01

375

[The effect of medicinal herbs on lymphocyte rosette-forming function  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The blood samples from ENT patients with immunodeficiency were used in an in vitro trial of some herbs effect on T-lymphocyte rosette formation. Out of 10% infusions made of Hypericum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Chelidonium L., Salvia officinalis L., Mentha L., stimulation of rosette formation was recorded only after introduction of Matricaria chamomilla L. and Chelidonium L. infusions.

Kliachko LL; Ankhimova ES; Svitina NN; Iaremenko KV

1994-03-01

376

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

Young-Jun Lee; Dan-Bi Kim; Jong Seok Lee; Ju-Hyun Cho; Bong Kyun Kim; Hyeon-Son Choi; Boo-Yong Lee; Ok-Hwan Lee

2013-01-01

377

Scavenging free radical with thirty-one species of Antimicrobial Chinese herb medicines in aquiculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxygenic activities of the ethanol extractions of 31 kinds of antimicrobial Chinese herb medicines were measured by DPPH method. The results show that three species in them (Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel and Rhus chinensis Mill) possess high antioxygenic activities, compared with the Tea polyphenols.

Li Zheng; Wang Guoliang; Jin Shan; Chen Yiner; Xu Guohui

2005-01-01

378

Contraceptive efficacy and safety of HerbOshield™ vaginal gel in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Spermicides represent one of the methods of contraception. The synthetic agents available as spermicides produce severe side effects. Hence, there is a need to replace these agents with safe and effective agents such as plant-based contraceptive agents. STUDY DESIGN: The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a stable, safe, effective and easily acceptable contraceptive delivery system containing herbal drug. Efforts were made to evaluate the contraceptive potential of the hydroalcoholic extract from the seeds of Annona squamosa Linn. and the vaginal gel HerbOshield™ containing the extract. RESULTS: Spermicidal effect was evaluated in vitro using healthy human spermatozoa and in vivo in rats. The in vitro results demonstrated that HerbOshield™ vaginal gel is an effective spermicide. At a 100-mg/mL dose, complete immobilization of human spermatozoa was observed within 20 s. None of the treated animals conceived, indicating 100% contraceptive effect as compared to Gynol II, a nonoxynol-9-containing marketed formulation, which showed only 67% contraceptive effect in vivo. HerbOshield™ vaginal gel was found to be safe in animals during a 14-day toxicity study. CONCLUSIONS: HerbOshield™ vaginal gel was found to be safe and effective in rats and could be developed as a potential vaginal contraceptive for future use in humans.

Singh KK; Parmar S; Tatke PA

2012-01-01

379

Identification of cortex herbs using the DNA barcode nrITS2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To discriminate the cortex herbs of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA of 51 samples belonging to 19 kinds of cortex herbs were analyzed in this paper. Sequence assembly was performed using the CodonCode Aligner. Phylogenetic study was performed using the molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) 4.0 software in accordance with the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) model. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. We found that the ITS2 sequences of the studied samples ranged from 207 to 256 bp in length and easy to be amplified. The intraspecific genetic distance of the cortex herbs was between 0 and 0.073, which was lower than their interspecific genetic distance (mean, 0.868; minimum, 0.101). In the cluster dendrogram, all the studied medicinal materials with several samples, were monophyletic. It is concluded that ITS2 barcode is suitable for the identification of cortex herbs of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and it will play an important role in the field of identification of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Sun Z; Chen S

2013-04-01

380

Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black peppe...

Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

 
 
 
 
381

The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Herbs as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplem...

R. Suriya; I. Zulkifli; A.R. Alimon

382

Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

Abahussain NA; Abahussain EA; Al-Oumi FM

2007-01-01

383

Cytological Studies in Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees-A Medicinal Herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was accentuated upon karyotype analysis and meiotic chromosome behavior in Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees. The chromosome number of Astercantha longifolia (L.) Nees-a medicinal herb-found to be 2n = 2x = 32 through mitotic and meiotic analysis. Karyotype analysis r...

M. Behera; R.R. Mishra; B.K. Bindhani; J. Panigrahi

384

Factors Associated with Herb and Dietary Supplement Use by Young Adults in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle/behavior factors in young adults in the US. Methods: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins/minerals) use among ...

Gardiner, Paula; Kemper, Kathi J; Legedza, Anna; Phillips, Russell Scott

385

Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical constitution of the herbs. The extracts, presented no change in the color increasing the irradiation doses (results are similar in other herbs extracts) as showed in the absorption peaks. The samples showed similar curves, presenting no changes in the chemical compounds. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after treatment by high doses radiation, Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to Quimer and IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

2001-01-01

386

Effect of Chinese herbs on CYP3A4 activity and expression in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has become more popular among cancer patients in the Western world, who often use Chinese herbs as adjuvant therapy to reduce the adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between Chinese herbs and anticancer drugs can occur and have dramatic consequences for these patients. Currently, only a few possible PK interactions between Chinese herbs and conventional Western drugs have been documented. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to most of the PK interactions with (anticancer) drugs, the effect of four Chinese herbs (Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus) on the activity and expression of CYP3A4 was investigated in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol and water-ethanol extracts of the four Chinese herbs were prepared from raw material. CYP3A4 inhibition was assessed by the use of Supersomes(™) in a fluorescence assay. Furthermore, CYP3A4 induction was evaluated in a human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 reporter gene assay and a quantitative real time PCR assay, both in human colon adenocarcinoma-derived LS180 cells (LS180). RESULTS: Extracts of Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus inhibited CYP3A4 in human CYP3A4 Supersomes(™) (IC50 values: 17-83µg/mL). Oldenlandia diffusa and Rehmannia glutinosa significantly induced PXR-mediated CYP3A4 (p<0.001). Oldenlandia diffusa also significantly induced CYP3A4 mRNA levels (p<0.001 at 250µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of Oldenlandia diffusa and Rehmannia glutinosa could result in induction of CYP3A4, leading to a reduced efficacy of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates and have a narrow therapeutic window. Because of the possible enhanced toxicity caused by CYP3A4 inhibition, clinical effects of CYP3A4 inhibition by Astragalus propinquus and Codonopsis tangshen must also be taken into account. In conclusion, herb-drug interactions between Chinese herbs and various CYP3A4 substrates can occur. Further research to investigate the clinical relevance of the interactions caused by Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus is required.

Lau C; Mooiman KD; Maas-Bakker RF; Beijnen JH; Schellens JH; Meijerman I

2013-09-01

387

Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Bia?owie?a Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

Maciej Wódkiewicz; Anna Justyna Kwiatkowska-Fali?ska

2010-01-01

388

Provisional biopharmaceutical classification of some common herbs used in Western medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to classify some markers of common herbs used in Western medicine according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). The BCS is a scientific approach to classify drug substances based upon their intestinal permeability and their solubility, at the highest single dose used, within the physiologically relevant pH ranges. Known marker components of twelve herbs were chosen from the USP Dietary Supplement Compendium Monographs. Different BCS parameters such as intestinal permeability (P(eff)) and solubility (C(s)) were predicted using the ADMET Predictor, which is a software program to estimate biopharmaceutical relevant molecular descriptors. The dose number (D?) was calculated when information from the literature was available to identify an upper dose for individual markers. In these cases the herbs were classified according to the traditional BCS parameters using P(eff) and D?. When no upper dose could be determined, then the amount of a marker that is just soluble in 250 mL of water was calculated. This value, M(x), defines when a marker is changing from highly soluble to poorly soluble according to BCS criteria. This biopharmaceutically relevant value can be a useful tool for marker selection. The present study showed that a provisional BCS classification of herbs is possible but some special considerations need to be included into the classification strategy. The BCS classification can be used to choose appropriate quality control tests for products containing these markers. A provisional BCS classification of twelve common herbs and their 35 marker compounds is presented.

Waldmann S; Almukainzi M; Bou-Chacra NA; Amidon GL; Lee BJ; Feng J; Kanfer I; Zuo JZ; Wei H; Bolger MB; Löbenberg R

2012-04-01

389

Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

1993-01-01

390

Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined in vivo by stable isotope erythrocyte incorporation technique. In parallel, the effect of the spice/herb on gastric emptying will be studied by stable isotope techniques using 13C-octanoicacid.Later,the effect of selected spices/herbs on iron absorption from popular northeast composite meal (mixture of spices and herbs) will be examined. Test meals will be served either with or without added spices/herbs.Data from this study can be used to effectively plan a food-based program to address iron deficiency problem in northeast Thailand. (author)

2002-01-01

391

Microbiological study of fresh herbs from retail premises uncovers an international outbreak of salmonellosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Local Authorities Co-ordinators of Regulatory Services/Health Protection Agency study was prompted by the increasing concern regarding the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat salad vegetable products, particularly fresh herbs. During May to October 2007, 3760 ready-to-eat fresh herbs, of different varieties, were sampled across the UK to assess their microbiological safety in relation to salmonella contamination and levels of Escherichia coli. Sixty (1.6%) herb samples were found to be of unsatisfactory quality according to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria of foodstuffs, i.e. contaminated with Salmonella spp. and/or containing E. coli at >10(3) cfu/g. When criteria in the PHLS Microbiological Guidelines for some ready-to-eat foods (2000) were used, 117 (3.9%) of herb samples were of unsatisfactory quality due to the presence of salmonella and/or E. coli at > or = 10(2) cfu/g. Eighteen (0.5%) samples of six different herb types were contaminated with Salmonella spp.: identified as serotypes Senftenberg (8), Agona (2), Anatum (1), Durban (1), Javiana (1), Mgulani (1), Montevideo (1), Unnamed (I 16:g, t: z42) (1), Virchow (1) and mixed Newport & Virchow (1). In each case the retailer and the UK Food Standards Agency were immediately informed and remedial action taken. Samples contaminated with S. Senftenberg were specifically associated with basil grown in Israel. Thirty-two human cases of S. Senftenberg infection were subsequently identified throughout England and Wales and a further 19 in Scotland, Denmark, The Netherlands and the USA. The strain of S. Senftenberg identified from the basil and that from cases had an indistinguishable molecular profile, suggesting a likely connection between consumption of basil and human infection. The presence of Salmonella spp. is unacceptable in ready-to-foods such as fresh herbs. This study highlights the necessity of applying good agricultural and hygiene practices pre-, during and post-harvest, at processing, retail and use. These practices help to prevent cross-contamination and/or bacterial growth occurring in these products. Best practice is to store and display such products at, or below, 8 degrees C as this inhibits bacterial growth.

Elviss NC; Little CL; Hucklesby L; Sagoo S; Surman-Lee S; de Pinna E; Threlfall EJ

2009-08-01

392

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifyi...

Ko Kam; Leung Hoi

393

Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18)?spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed. PMID:23487576

Paw?owska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa

2013-01-29

394

Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18)?spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed.

Paw?owska-Góral K; Ramos P; Pilawa B; Kurzeja E

2013-03-01

395

Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determin...

Sokovi?, M.; Glamo?lija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brki?, D.; Griensven, L.J.L.D., van

396

Validation of the fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of the measurements of the fast neutron spectrum in the HERBE coupled fast-thermal system are validated in this paper. When advantages and disadvantages of a He-filled semi-conductor-sandwich detector are compared to other neutron detectors, the former is found more appropriate. The neutron detection is based on the reaction 3He(n,p)T + 0.764 MeV and simultaneous detection of the reaction products in the silicon diodes. The pulses from the diodes are amplified and shaped in separate open-quotes energy close quotes channels and summed to produce a single pulse with height proportional to the energy of the incident neutron plus the Q value of the reaction. A well-known measuring system of the He neutron spectrometer is used for the HERBE fast neutron spectrum measurement and calibration in a thermal neutron field

1995-01-01

397

The extraction of pharmacological agents from medicinal herbs using subcritical water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for preparing an extract containing pharmacologically active constituents from certain traditionally used medicinal herbs comprises extracting the botanical raw material with subcritical water and then removing the water to give a pharmaceutically acceptable extract. The extraction may be conducted at 150-180 DEG C and/or 70-85 bar. The medicinal herb maybe Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Salvia officinalis (sage), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Calendula officinalis (marigold) or Hypericum perforatum (St Johns Wort). These sub-critical water extracts may be similar in composition to those extracts obtained by means of methanolic extraction. The extract may be formulated as a self emulsifying drug delivery system in order to improve the bioavailability of the active constituents: a formulation may comprise the extract, lauroyl macrogolglyc elide and surfactant.

DAVISON KENNETH; WHEATLEY GARY WILLIAM

398

Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include inhibiting the activation of microglia, decreasing levels of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, attenuating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species, and regulating transcription factors such as nuclear factor-?B.

Su Shan-Yu; Hsieh Ching-Liang

2011-01-01

399

Study on the cold and hot properties of medicinal herbs by thermotropism in mice behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is a common sense that chewing a mint leaf causes a cold feeling, while masticating a piece of ginger root is associated with a hot sensation. The Traditional Chinese Medicine has termed this phenomenon as cold and hot properties of herbs and applied them in treating certain human diseases successfully for thousands of years. Here, we have developed an Animal Thermotropism Behavior Surveillance System, and by using this device and other approaches, we not only verified the existence of, but also characterized and quantitated the cold and hot properties of medicinal herbs in animal behavioral experiments. The results suggested that the hot and cold properties of herbal drugs indeed correlated with the alteration of animal behavior in search for residence temperature.

Zhao YL; Wang JB; Xiao XH; Zhao HP; Zhou CP; Zhang XR; Ren YS; Jia L

2011-02-01

400

LONG PILL PROCESSING MACHINE FOR MEDICAL HERB WITH SCATTER POWDER MEANS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A long pill processing machine for medical herb with a powder scattering unit is provided to spray powder on the surface of long pills extruded by the long pill processing machine to prevent the long pills from being stuck to each other. A long pill processing machine for medical herb with a powder scattering unit includes a body(110), an extruding pipe body(120), a cylinder(130), and a powder scattering unit having a powder storing vessel(140) and a sealing pipe body(150). The powder storing vessel(140) is formed in a lower direction of the extruding pipe body(120) to be separated therefrom, and has a compressed air supply nozzle(141) on a lower part thereof. The sealing pipe body(150) is formed on the outer circumference of the extruding pipe body(120) in a longitudinal direction, and comprises a bracket(151) on which an ascending/descending cylinder(152) is installed.

KIM JONG OK; JUNG WOON KI; LEE JOUNG MIN; LEE HYUN JU

 
 
 
 
401

Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Invasive alien plants often occur in monospecific stands with high density in the invaded range. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites in such stands could have allelopathic effects on germination of native species. We tested this component of the novel weapon hypothesis for Heracleum mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence for allelopathic effects of the invasive H. mantegazzianum on germination of co-occurring native herbs.

Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan

2013-01-01

402

Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.