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Sample records for understorey herb trillium

  1. Mobile Trillium Engine

    Ali, Muhammad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Mobile trillium engine development, integration and deployment in clustered environment“The air transport industry has a constantly growing mobile workforce and a complex, dynamic workflow that requires workers to access and act on the real time information. Rapid mobilization and automation of the key workflow process will allow air transport industry to reduce business cost, better management and improved customer services.” [1]The aim of this thesis is to develop a backend system that inte...

  2. Structural organization of ribosomal DNA in four Trillium species and Paris verticillata

    The rDNA structure in Trillium and Paris was examined by Southern blot hybridizations of EcoRI- and Hind3-digests of nuclear DNA using 32P-rRNAs. Their rDNAs consist of repeating units of the largest lengths ever known for higher plants. Evidence for differentiation of the rDNA structure during evolution was obtained. Each Trillium species has rDNA consisting of a characteristic set of some members out of five rRNA genes of 13.7-, 14.7-, 15.6-, 17.1- and 18.5-kb repeating units. One species has a rDNA structure characterized by much higher relative frequencies of longer-sized rRNA genes, whereas another species has larger amounts of shorter-sized classes. Other two species examined have intermediatesized genes. There is no direct correspondence of each size class to a certain member of several genomic sets, haploid chromosome complements, which have been denoted on the basis of the affinity in pairing between homologous chromosomes, homologies of chromosomal morphology and external morphology. Paris verticillata, a species in a genus most closely related to Trillium, has two size classes of 15.6 and 17.1 kb, both of which correspond to those found in Trillium. The results indicate that the rDNA structure was rather stable during evolution in these genera. (author)

  3. UNDERSTOREY OF PINE-PLANTATIONS ON DEGRADED SITES IN THE REGION OF DECIDUOUS FORESTS OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Franz H. Andrae

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State understoreys of 12 stands of Pinus sp. and one of Araucaria angustifolia O.Ktze were studied, all growing on soils, degraded by agriculture. One pine stand, 10 years old, originated from a natural renovation, the others had been planted 25 to 30 years ago, Araucaria was seeded directly. A total of 575 plots were sampled, 25 m² each, distributed systematically within the stands. Measurements included pines overstorey, and all understorey woody species, separeted into layers of more than 1,3 m high and 1,3 to 0,3 m; the layer lower than 0,3 m included only natural renovation of pines. Understoreys were composed by 121 species, ocurring common and high value timber species, ornamental trees, native and exotic fruit tree species. A higher number of species was present with a very few individuals only. The presence of non woody species like grasses, herbs, ferns and lians also was quantified. The number of tree species and the presence of non woody species did not correlat with density of overstorey pines. Abundance and frequency of species showed no significant diferences, when samples were grouped according to their location in the center or close to stands edge. Distribution pattern of understorey trees within stands was quantified, using Cox’ index, species diversity was compared by means of Shannon-index. Similarity of stands was compared by Sörensen-Index. It was concluded, that exotic species planted on poor agricultural soil may not only be of farmers interest because of their high potential for wood production. These plantations also may be considered from conservationist point of view, since they show an unexpected high diversity, so contributing in a longer run to landscape improvement, possibly due to the small extension of stands.

  4. The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps

    Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

  5. Steroid saponins and other constituents from the rhizome of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim and their cytotoxic activity

    Zhao, Wanshun; Gao, Wenyuan; Wei, Jinchao; Wang, Ying; Huang, Luqi; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen compounds were isolated from the rhizome of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. By spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were established as Gracillin (1), Paris saponins V (2), Paris saponins VI (3), Paris saponins H (4), Paris saponins VII (5), (25R)-17α-hydroxy-5-en-3-O-a-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-Dglucopyranoside (6), (25R)-26-[β-D-glucopyanosyl]-17α,22β-dihydroxy-5-en-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), Kaempferol-3-O-^...

  6. Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the understorey Amazonian herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Côrtes, M C; Gowda, V; Kress, W J; Bruna, E M; Uriarte, M

    2009-07-01

    We characterized 10 microsatellite loci for the plant Heliconia acuminata from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil). Markers were screened in 61 individuals from one population and were found to be polymorphic with an average of eight alleles per locus. We found moderate to high levels of polymorphic information content, and observed and expected heterozygosities. All 10 markers are suitable for spatial genetic structure and parentage analyses and will be used for understanding H. acuminata dynamics across a fragmented landscape. PMID:21564896

  7. Comparative dynamics of small mammal populations in treefall gaps and surrounding understorey within Amazonian rainforest

    Beck, H.; Gaines, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Variation in food resource availability can have profound effects on habitat selection and dynamics of populations. Previous studies reported higher food resource availability and fruit removal in treefall gaps than in the understorey. Therefore, gaps have been considered 'keystone habitat' for Neotropical frugivore birds. Here we test if this prediction would also hold for terrestrial small mammals. In the Amazon, we quantified food resource availability in eleven treefall gaps and paired understorey habitats and used feeding experiments to test if two common terrestrial rodents (Oryzomys megacephalus and Proechimys spp.) would perceive differences between habitats. We live-trapped small mammals in eleven gaps and understorey sites for two years, and compared abundance, fitness components (survival and per capita recruitment) and dispersal of these two rodent species across gaps and understorey and seasons (rainy and dry). Our data indicated no differences in resource availability and consumption rate between habitats. Treefall gaps may represent a sink habitat for Oryzomys where individuals had lower fitness, apparently because of habitat-specific ant predation on early life stages, than in the understorey, the source habitat. Conversely, gaps may be source habitat for Proechimys where individuals had higher fitness, than in the understorey, the sink habitat. Our results suggest the presence of source-sink dynamics in a tropical gap-understorey landscape, where two rodent species perceive habitats differently. This may be a mechanism for their coexistence in a heterogeneous and species-diverse system.

  8. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  9. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    D. C. Morton; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; G. J. Collatz; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater th...

  10. Counteracting gradients of light and soil nutrients in the understorey of Mediterranean oak forests.

    L. V. García; S. Maltez-Mouro; Pérez-Ramos, I. M.; H. Freitas; Marañón, T.

    2006-01-01

    The forest canopy modifies the availability of resources (light, water, and soil nutrients) in the understorey. In this paper we analyze the relationships between woody canopy density, litter accumulation, and topsoil N and P availability in the understorey of two oak forests: one in southern Portugal and the other in southern Spain. Both forests persist on low-nutrient soils, particularly poor in P. We hypothesize that direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey cause opposite grad...

  11. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  12. Radiolysis of medicinal herbs

    Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

  13. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929

  14. Effect of extract of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim on ciliary neurotropic factor and its receptor α in rats suffering from spinal cord injury

    Xian-bing CHEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of Trillium tschonoskiiMaxim extract on the expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and its receptor (CNTFRα after spinal cord injury in rats. Methods Forty-five rats were equally and randomly divided into control group (group A, model group (group B and Trillium tschonoskiiMaxim treated group (group C. Allen's weight drop method was used to reproduce acute spinal cord injury (SCI model in rats of the group B and C. In group C, the rats were gavaged with Trillium tschonoskiiMaxim extract 2 weeks before the injury, while rats in group A and B were fed a same quantity of distilled water. 1, 7 or 14 days after injury, the rats were sacrificed to observe the structure of nerve cells after HE and Nissl staining, and the expression of CNTF and CNTFRα with immunohistochemical method, RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results HE staining showed that the structure of spinal cord in the the rats group C was more discernible, with milder edema and necrosis of nerve cells, as compared with that of group B. Nissl staining showed that Nissl bodies were decreased or disappeared in anterior horn motor neurons in both group B and C, but it was significantly less marked in group C than that in group B. Immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and RT-PCR revealed that the protein and mRNA of CNTF and CNTFRα were positively expressed in rats of every group. The mRNA levels of CNTF and CNTFRα in group C were higher than those in group B. Conclusions Extract of Trillium tschonoskiiMaxim can up-regulate the expression of CNTF and CNTFRα, and plays a protective role against injury to spinal cord. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.08.04

  15. Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea L. in Tunisia as influenced by canopy cover, litter biomass and understorey vegetation

    Adili, B.; El Aouni, M.H.; Garchi, S.; Balandier, P.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Pinus pinea is one of the most valuable species used in Tunisia in the reforestation program. This species is shade-intolerant and hence needs light to correctly regenerate. It is also influenced by the understorey vegetation and the litter biomass, both also correlated to light availability. To quantify the importance of these different factors, the natural regeneration and evolution of the biomass of understorey vegetation and litter were studied in artificial fore...

  16. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot.

    Manhães, M A; Dias, M M

    2011-02-01

    Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type. PMID:21437393

  17. Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions

    Bongjoh, CA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerating seedlings growing in loading bays and forest understorey. Seedling density was highest when seed tree diameter at breast height (dbh was 100 cm or more. A strong positive correlation was found between seed tree diameter dbh and crown size expressed as mean diameter of projected crown area, but crown size correlated much better with seedling density. Compared with their counterparts of the same height growing in loading bays in full sunlight but devoid of litter and topsoil, seedlings found in understorey exhibited lower root: shoot ratio, indicating that soil-derived resources were more limiting in loading bays than on undisturbed forest floor. Leaf weight per area (leaf dry weight/leaf area (LWA and leaf packing (leaf number/cm shoot height were almost 2-fold greater in loading bays than in understorey. As seedlings seldom grew taller than 50 cm in the latter environment, it may be inferred that root: shoot ratio, LWA, and leaf packing can be used to assess the sustainability of growth and development of this pioneer species at the seedling stage.

  18. Disturbance in boreal spruce forest - immediate dynamics from stand to understorey level

    Hautala, Harri

    2008-01-01

    The immediate effects of two human-related vegetation disturbances, (1) green tree retention (GTR) patch felling and scarification by harrowing and (2) experimental understorey vegetation layer removal, were examined in boreal forest stands in Finland. Effects of GTR patch felling and scarification on tree uprootings, on coarse woody debris (CWD) and on epixylic plant community were followed in upland and in paludified forest types. Uprootings increased considerably during 2-3 years afte...

  19. Subtidal understorey algal community structure in kelp beds around the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Leliaert, F.; Anderson, R J; Bolton, J. J.; Coppejans, E.

    2001-01-01

    The subtidal understorey seaweed communities were studied along a coastal distance of 104 km around the Cape Peninsula, which is situated in an overlap region between two marine provinces and characterized by a considerable temperature gradient. Sampling was carried out at six sites (4 to 10 quadrats per site) around the Cape Peninsula. For each of the quadrats, biomass of each species, grazing, and environmental variables such as temperature, wave exposure and sand cover were determined. The...

  20. Assessing Metrics for Estimating Fire Induced Change in the Forest Understorey Structure Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Vaibhav Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying post-fire effects in a forested landscape is important to ascertain burn severity, ecosystem recovery and post-fire hazard assessments and mitigation planning. Reporting of such post-fire effects assumes significance in fire-prone countries such as USA, Australia, Spain, Greece and Portugal where prescribed burns are routinely carried out. This paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS to estimate and map change in the forest understorey following a prescribed burn. Eighteen descriptive metrics are derived from bi-temporal TLS which are used to analyse and visualise change in a control and fire-altered plot. Metrics derived are Above Ground Height-based (AGH percentiles and heights, point count and mean intensity. Metrics such as AGH50change, mean AGHchange and point countchange are sensitive enough to detect subtle fire-induced change (28%–52% whilst observing little or no change in the control plot (0–4%. A qualitative examination with field measurements of the spatial distribution of burnt areas and percentage area burnt also show similar patterns. This study is novel in that it examines the behaviour of TLS metrics for estimating and mapping fire induced change in understorey structure in a single-scan mode with a minimal fixed reference system. Further, the TLS-derived metrics can be used to produce high resolution maps of change in the understorey landscape.

  1. Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests

    Liu H-Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied

  2. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  3. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

  4. Sensitivity of understorey vegetation to nitrogen and sulphur deposition in a spruce stand

    Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The response of understorey vegetation to addition of nitrogen and sulphur was examined in a 60-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand in southern Finland. The understorey vegetation was studied on experimental plots receiving nitrogen (25 kg N ha{sup -1}) and sulphur (30 kg S ha{sup -1}) as ammonium sulphate once a year for 4 years. The dominant moss species on the site were Pleurozium schreberi (Mitt.) and Dicranum polysetum (Sw.). The biomass of the dominant moss species was decreased significantly by sulphur and nitrogen deposition during the study period. Due to the addition of nitrogen and sulphur, the biomass of P. schreberi was decreased by 60% and the biomass of D. polysetum by 78%. Over a 4-year study period the responses of vascular plants to addition of nitrogen and sulphur were not significant. Forest-floor mosses seemed to be more sensitive to nitrogen and sulphur deposition than vascular plants. Since bryophytes lack a cuticle and absorb water very rapidly after rain, they are exposed more to the direct effects of acid deposition than other plants. Thus, mosses may indicate changes in forest vegetation due to acid deposition

  5. HERBE final safety report

    The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

  6. Above-ground and below-ground competition between the willow Salix caprea L. and its understorey

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Hermová, M.; Tesnerová, C.; Rydlová, Jana; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2016), s. 156-164. ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10377S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mycorrhizae * Roots * Succession * Understorey * Willow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  7. Light-mediated influence of three understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum, Molinia caerulea) on growth and morphology of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Philippe, G.; Dumas, Y.; Jean, F.; Ginisty, C.

    2009-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris is a pioneer species and as such is relatively light-demanding. Therefore, its natural regeneration may be inhibited by some forest understorey species that develop with light and can then reduce light as well as soil resources (i.e. nutrients and water) availability for the pine seedlings. To better quantify these effects, we designed two experiments in a nursery. The first one aimed at studying the influence of density of three common understorey species in temperate forest...

  8. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  9. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  10. Outbreaks by canopy-feeding geometrid moth cause state-dependent shifts in understorey plant communities.

    Karlsen, Stein Rune; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Odland, Arvid; Ims, Rolf Anker; Elvebakk, Arve

    2013-11-01

    The increased spread of insect outbreaks is among the most severe impacts of climate warming predicted for northern boreal forest ecosystems. Compound disturbances by insect herbivores can cause sharp transitions between vegetation states with implications for ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks. By analysing vegetation plots prior to and immediately after a severe and widespread outbreak by geometrid moths in the birch forest-tundra ecotone, we document a shift in forest understorey community composition in response to the moth outbreak. Prior to the moth outbreak, the plots divided into two oligotrophic and one eutrophic plant community. The moth outbreak caused a vegetation state shift in the two oligotrophic communities, but only minor changes in the eutrophic community. In the spatially most widespread communities, oligotrophic dwarf shrub birch forest, dominance by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, was effectively broken and replaced by a community dominated by the graminoid Avenella flexuosa, in a manner qualitatively similar to the effect of wild fires in E. nigrum communities in coniferous boreal forest further south. As dominance by E. nigrum is associated with retrogressive succession the observed vegetation state shift has widespread implications for ecosystem productivity on a regional scale. Our findings reveal that the impact of moth outbreaks on the northern boreal birch forest system is highly initial-state dependent, and that the widespread oligotrophic communities have a low resistance to such disturbances. This provides a case for the notion that climate impacts on arctic and northern boreal vegetation may take place most abruptly when conveyed by changed dynamics of irruptive herbivores. PMID:23568711

  11. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies to learn ...

  12. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    Jain Amit; Dubey Subodh; Gupta Alka; Kannojia Pushpendra; Tomar Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity d...

  13. Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems

    Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

  14. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy,...

  15. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  16. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  17. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    Lenka Kouřimská; Kateřina Ešlerová; Ynus Khatri

    2016-01-01

    Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activ...

  18. Species-specific adaptations explain resilience of herbaceous understorey to increased precipitation variability in a Mediterranean oak woodland.

    Jongen, Marjan; Hellmann, Christine; Unger, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    To date, the implications of the predicted greater intra-annual variability and extremes in precipitation on ecosystem functioning have received little attention. This study presents results on leaf-level physiological responses of five species covering the functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes in the understorey of a Mediterranean oak woodland, with increasing precipitation variability, without altering total annual precipitation inputs. Although extending the dry period between precipitation events from 3 to 6 weeks led to increased soil moisture deficit, overall treatment effects on photosynthetic performance were not observed in the studied species. This resilience to prolonged water stress was explained by different physiological and morphological strategies to withstand periods below the wilting point, that is, isohydric behavior in Agrostis, Rumex, and Tuberaria, leaf succulence in Rumex, and taproots in Tolpis. In addition, quick recovery upon irrigation events and species-specific adaptations of water-use efficiency with longer dry periods and larger precipitation events contributed to the observed resilience in productivity of the annual plant community. Although none of the species exhibited a change in cover with increasing precipitation variability, leaf physiology of the legume Ornithopus exhibited signs of sensitivity to moisture deficit, which may have implications for the agricultural practice of seeding legume-rich mixtures in Mediterranean grassland-type systems. This highlights the need for long-term precipitation manipulation experiments to capture possible directional changes in species composition and seed bank development, which can subsequently affect ecosystem state and functioning. PMID:26664676

  19. Bailey Thinning Study - Herb and Shrub Data

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — These data sets are in the form of Quattro Pro spreadsheets describing herb an shrub cover collected at study plots. Data was collected from 1993-1995 primarily on...

  20. Herb-Herb Combination for Therapeutic Enhancement and Advancement: Theory, Practice and Future Perspectives

    Christopher Wai Kei Lam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Herb-herb combinations have been used in Chinese medicine practice for thousands of years, yet scientific evidence of their therapeutic benefits is lacking. With increasing interest in shifting from the one-drug-one-target paradigm to combination therapy or polypharmacy to achieve therapeutic benefits for a number of diseases, there is momentum to explore new knowledge by tapping the past empirical experiences of herb-herb combinations. This review presents an overview of the traditional concept and practice of herb-herb combination in Chinese medicine, and highlights the available scientific and clinical evidence to support the combined use of herbs. It is hoped that such information would provide a lead for developing new approaches for future therapeutic advancement and pharmaceutical product development. Very likely modern technologies combined with innovative research for the quality control of herbal products, identification of active components and understanding of the molecular mechanism, followed by well-designed animal and clinical studies would pave the way in advancing the wealth of empirical knowledge from herb-herb combination to new therapeutic modalities.

  1. POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS

    Jain Amit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

  2. SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL

    Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

  3. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Plants: Partners in Health?: Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You ... fresh herbs and spices? Growing your own edible plants—whether in a backyard garden or a few ...

  5. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. PMID:26786538

  6. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  7. A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS

    Badri Nagarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may spread through the blood stream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The search for anticancer agents from the plant sources alkaloids in earnest in the 1950s such as Vincristine, Vinblastine and the isolation of cytotoxic Podophyllotoxins will reduce white blood cell count and caused bone marrow depression in rats. Roots, leaves, stem, root, bark and fruity of the plant herbs are used in the treatment of cancer. The dietary antioxidants having anti carcinogenic property are in demand. Identification and characterization of these anti-carcinogens in the diet can be used for reducing the risk of human cancer. Tea (Camellia thea an evergreen plant contains antioxidants which prevent and repair cellular damage caused by reactive free radicals. Supervitamin drinks containing a combination of Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa and Spirulina enhances the activity of immune cells against cancer. Mentha species containing antioxidants prevent reocurrence of cancer.

  8. Using of the herb in space foods

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  9. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  10. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms

    Tang George

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation, Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to. The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES

    A. Santoro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

  12. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-01-01

    The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.), common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), horsemint (Mentha longifolia L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.). The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs fro...

  13. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems (EPORA). Final report

    The project EPORA 'Effects of Industrial Pollution on Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems' is a part of the Nuclear Fission Safety Research programme of the European Union. A suitable environment for the study was found in the surroundings of the Cu-Ni smelter in Monchegorsk, in NW Russia where the huge atmospheric emissions from the smelter have polluted the environment since the 1930's. Samples of soil, litter, plants and runoff water were taken. Total concentrations of the main pollutants, Ni and Cu, in the organic soil increased from about 10 mg kg-1 at the reference site in Finland to about 5000 mg kg-1 at the most polluted site in Russia. Similar trends were observed for exchangeable fractions and plant concentrations of the same elements. Concentrations of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg in the organic soil decreased strongly with increased input of chemical pollutants. The radionuclides studied were 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu, mainly originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The contribution of the Chernobyl derived 137Cs deposition was about 10% but insignificant for the other nuclides. The activity distribution of all three radionuclides in the soil, their corresponding residence half-times as well as their aggregated trencher factors for various plants depended on the degree of pollution: Activity distribution: in the litter layer, the activity of all three radionuclides increased continually from the reference site to the most polluted site. This effect was most pronounced for 239+240Pu and least for 90Sr and could, at least partly, be explained by the increase of the thickness of this layer. In the root zone, the opposite effect was observed: the largest fraction of all radionuclides was found at the reference site. In the organic layer, the exchangeable fractions of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu decreased with increasing pollution. Residence half-times: in the root zone, the residence half-times of 90Sr, but

  14. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    Rajani Chauhan; Km. Ruby; Jaya Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum,...

  15. Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs

    Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

  16. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  17. Triterpenoids from the Herbs of Salicornia bigelovii

    Yu Shan; Huan Li; Fuqin Guan; Yu Chen; Min Yin; Ming Wang; Xu Feng; Qizhi Wang

    2015-01-01

    A new nortriterpene saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-30-norolean-12,20(29)-dien-23- oxo-28-oic acid, namely bigelovii D (11), was isolated from the hydroalcoholic extract of herbs of Salicornia bigelovii along with 10 known saponins (1–10). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional NMR and a comparison with literature data. Some of these compounds showed potent antifungal activities in vitro. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 1...

  18. Plant-animal interactions in two forest herbs along a tree and herb diversity gradient

    Vockenhuber, E.; Kabouw, P.; Tscharntke, T.; Scherber, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plant diversity can influence numerous ecosystem processes, including plant–animal interactions, which, in turn, will affect plant growth and fitness. At present, little is known on how plant–animal interactions in forests respond to gradients in tree and herb-layer diversity. Aims: To q

  19. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh;

    2011-01-01

    groups (grasses, legumes and herbs). Herb species included chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor L.). We also investigated the effect of slurry application on the macro- and micromineral concentration of grasses...

  20. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    presence of flavonoids in the hydrolysed extracts of herbs. Some traditional Danish dishes contain herbs, particularly parsley. dill, cross and chives, and the contribution to the flavonoid intake by consumption of these dishes was calculated. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Les “meschantes herbes des jardins”

    Lorcin, Marie-Thérèse

    2014-01-01

    Les joyeuses commères parisiennes des Caquets de l’accouchée ont, au cours de la troisième journée, un docte échange de vues sur la phytothérapie. Quel dommage, disent-elles, que le commun des mortels ne sache se servir des “meschantes herbes” des jardins... Les apothicaires, eux, en tirent de beaux profits. “La femme d’un notaire qui estoit là dit : Pour mon regard, j’ai demeuré il y a ja quelque temps chez un apotiquaire ; mais je ne luy ay veu employer que des herbes que l’on racle souvent...

  2. Triterpenoids from the Herbs of Salicornia bigelovii

    Yu Shan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new nortriterpene saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-30-norolean-12,20(29-dien-23- oxo-28-oic acid, namely bigelovii D (11, was isolated from the hydroalcoholic extract of herbs of Salicornia bigelovii along with 10 known saponins (1–10. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional NMR and a comparison with literature data. Some of these compounds showed potent antifungal activities in vitro. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 demonstrated potent inhibitory activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and compound 11 displayed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Botrytis cinerea, C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, F. verticilloides, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, with EC50 values ranging from 13.6 to 36.3 μg/mL.

  3. Triterpenoids from the Herbs of Salicornia bigelovii.

    Shan, Yu; Li, Huan; Guan, Fuqin; Chen, Yu; Yin, Min; Wang, Ming; Feng, Xu; Wang, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    A new nortriterpene saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-30-norolean-12,20(29)-dien-23- oxo-28-oic acid, namely bigelovii D (11), was isolated from the hydroalcoholic extract of herbs of Salicornia bigelovii along with 10 known saponins (1-10). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional NMR and a comparison with literature data. Some of these compounds showed potent antifungal activities in vitro. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 demonstrated potent inhibitory activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and compound 11 displayed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Botrytis cinerea, C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, F. verticilloides, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, with EC50 values ranging from 13.6 to 36.3 μg/mL. PMID:26569214

  4. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activity is higher for fresh than that of frozen herbs. Lamiaceae family herbs: oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and Greek oregano (Origanum heracleoticum L. were planted and analyzed. Herb samples were extracted by hot demineralised water. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method was used for antioxidant activity assessment. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Steam distillation of essential oils was carried out via Clevenger Apparatus. The obtained essential oils were analysed by GC-MS technique. Results of tested fresh, dried and frozen herbs showed a considerable potential for quenching the free DPPH radical. Significantly higher antioxidant activity was found in dried herbs comparing to fresh and frozen, but only in case of values calculated per 100 g of the sample. However, the differences were not statistically significant after recalculation when expressed on dry matter content. There was no difference between fresh and frozen samples. The content of total phenols was significantly higher in dried than in frozen herbs in values recalculated per 100 g of sample. A strong correlation between the results of DPPH and TPC was found again only for values expressed per 100 g of the sample. Post-harvest treatment of herbs affects the composition of their essential oils. The dominant essential oil component of Greek oregano is carvacrol with a proportion of 60% or more. On the contrary

  5. Radiation decontamination of herbal row materials and medical herbs

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique can effectively replaced them. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the National programme on the application of irradiation on the decontamination medical herbs is in progress now. The first aim of the programme is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on microbial purity herbal raw materials and medical herbs. (author)

  6. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    Rajani Chauhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum, Allium cepa, Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia ciliata, Bergenia stracheyi, Hamamelis virginiana Ruscus aculeatus, Terminalia chebula Vaccinium myrtillus, Verbascum thapus etc.

  7. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana in Ayurveda: An update

    Reena Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs

  8. Aromatic herbs in Corsican blue tit nests: The 'Potpourri' hypothesis

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Dos Santos, Anabelle

    2000-05-01

    This study reports that Corsican blue tit ( Parus caeruleus ogliastrae) nests contain between one to five aromatic herb species between the onset of egg laying till the chicks' finished growth 13 d after hatching. An herb removal experiment during the chick stage shows that blue tits bring fresh aromatic material 1-5 d after herb removal. Nests with a series of distinct odour classes easily perceived by humans have never been reported in birds. A new 'Potpourri' hypothesis is proposed that may explain the functional significance of this behaviour.

  9. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  10. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts

    Denev, P.; Kratchanova, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Vašíček, Ondřej; Blazheva, D.; Nedelcheva, P.; Vojtek, L.; Hyršl, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2014), s. 359-367. ISSN 0001-527X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : herbs * polyphenols * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.153, year: 2014

  11. Tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC

    Maria Stela Bezerra da Silva; Cláudia Regina Chagas Pompeu; Francisca Simões Cavalcante; Afrânio Fernandes

    1990-01-01

    Com o presente trabalho pretende-se contribuir para a divulgação dos tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC. Um levantamento realizado no acervo do Herbário revelou o registro de dez tipos. Sete deles pertencentes à família Leguminosae distribuídas entre as subfamilias Caesalpinioideae: Peltogyne crenulata, Sentia dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata, Chamaecrista duckeana, Papilionoideae: Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis e Mimosoideae: Mimosa niomarlei; dois, pertencentes à família E...

  12. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxid...

  13. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a...

  14. Comparison of antioxidant activity of fresh and dried herbs

    Kadlecová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of antioxidant activity of fresh and dried herbs Summary Antioxidants, which are taken with food, participate in the elimination of free radicals. They eliminate oxidative stress, which has been associated with a number of lifestyle diseases. In today's hectic world, when the general public are interested in their health and a healthy lifestyle, antioxidants are very curret topic. This thesis is focused on comparing the antioxidant activity of fresh and dried herbs of th...

  15. Antitussive Medicinal Herbs - An Update Review

    G. R. Saraswathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles of the airways; it is inappropriately stimulated in various situations like inflammation of the respiratory tract or neoplasia. In these cases, cough has a pathological character and it is necessary sometimes to use cough-suppressant drugs. The most frequently used antitussive drugs in clinical conditions produce adverse effects like depression of the respiratory centre, decreased secretion in the bronchioles and inhibition of ciliary activity, increased sputum viscosity, decreased expectoration, hypotension and constipation acts as limitation to the therapy. Use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments including antitussive activity as they are safe and devoid of adverse effects. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive activity.

  16. Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes

    Justesen, U.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2001-01-01

    Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives......, coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and...... quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify the...

  17. An interlaboratory trial on the identification of irradiated spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures by thermoluminescence analysis

    Thermoluminescence analysis was used in an interlaboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of spices, herbs, and spice-herb mixtures in the dose range used for the reduction of microbial counts. About 3 and 9 months after irradiation, 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence of mineral contaminants that had been isolated from coded samples. A total of 18 different products (6 spices, 6 herbs, and 6 spice-herb mixtures) were examined. The method gave correct identifications as irradiated or nonirradiated in 99.1% of 317 samples. Only 3 irradiated samples were not correctly identified. This result was achieved by integration of whole glow curves. By glow curve analysis, a temperature range could be determined in which differentiation between irradiated and nonirradiated samples was even better than on the basis of the total integral values

  18. Species Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Rubber Plantations in Xishuangbanna%西双版纳橡胶林下植被多样性调查研究

    周会平; 岩香甩; 张海东; 张丽谦; 魏丽萍

    2012-01-01

    以西双版纳国营农场和民营胶园的多个不同林龄和高中低不同海拔的橡胶林为研究对象,对橡胶林下植被多样性现状进行调查研究.调查发现,橡胶林下约有87科242属的340余种植物,禾本科(Gramineae)、豆科(Leguminosae)、菊科(Asteraceae)、蕨类(Pteridophyta)、大戟科(Euphorbiaceae)以及茜草科(Rubiaceae)等为出现物种数量、个体数量最多及出现频率最高的植物类群.橡胶林下植被Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson优势度指数和Pielou均匀度指数的变化范围分别为1.224~3.517,0.558~0.948和0.360~0.778.分析结果表明:橡胶林下植被物种多样性随林龄增加而降低;雨季植被多样性显著高于旱季;植被多样性随海拔升高而降低;国营农场与民营橡胶林植被多样性水平无显著差异;土壤养分可能也与植被多样性水平相关.该研究有助于认清橡胶林下生物多样性以及生态功能现状,为科学管理橡胶林和创建新一代环境友好型生态胶园提供服务.%Species diversity of understorey vegetation of rubber plantations in different ages, at different elevations and with different management modes was studied. Field investigation found that: there were more than 340 plant species from 241 genus 87 families under rubber plantations, and among which, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Pteridophyta, Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae were the taxa often appeared with the richest species, largest individual number and highest frequencies. Biodiversity index analyses indicated that Shannon -Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou index of rubber plantations separately varied in range 1.224-3.517, 0.558-0.948 and 0.360 -0.778. The result showed that: the understorey species diversity was increased with the increase of plantation ages; the diversity in rainy season was greatly higher than that in dry season; the diversity increased with the elevation increase; and there was no obvious difference in

  19. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  20. [The research of revision on herb properties in Shaoxing Ben cao].

    Liu, Yue; Zheng, Jin-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Shaoxing Bencao, wrote by WANG Jixian in South Song dynasty (1159), is a classic Chinese medicine book which aims to revise herb properties described in former literature. There are 371 items in the book evaluating herb properties recorded in books about herbs. Keeping those the thought right, correcting those he thought wrong, complementing those missed and selecting better ones from those with disputes. He revised herb properties in 50.9% of all the items. Herb properties were evaluated mainly according to record and clinical practice with emphasis on property-effect (effect and adverse effect) relationship. Logical deduction was also used to deduce herb toxicity and quality according to herb flavor, nature, tastes and their growing environment. The book described in detail the influence of processing on the herb properties and toxicity. The evaluation methods in this book are of reference value for learning about the formation of knowledge of herb properties. PMID:21569699

  1. EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC

    M.Sumithra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds, Datura metel (leaves with fruits , Aloe Vera (flower ,Abutilon indicum (leaves, Solanum surattense (Leaves, Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves,Aloe vera (leaves, Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave, have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have beentested for its antimicrobial activity using standard test method ENISO 20645 and it is concluded that datura metel ( leaves with fruits have good antibacterial activity on theselected denim fabrics when compared to other herbs enhanced the wearing capacity of the denim fabric for an extended period without any skin/dermal irritations/infectionsand bad odor.

  2. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints. Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF on OpenCV library. This keypoints distance calculation using Brute-Force Hamming. Matching is done by calculating the shortest distance between test image and reference image. If the result is less than or equal to threshold then image is match. Experiment result show this application can achieve 79% of success rate by using keypoints. This result is influenced by glossy leaf surface, so there is many reflected light that become noise.

  3. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) herb depending on the development stage

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-01-01

    The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemica...

  4. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo; Andre D. Bacchi; Tiago Zaminelli; Gustavo Henrique O. de Paula; Moreira, Estefania G.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reprod...

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast

    Kiki Nurtjahja; Tata Bintara Kelana; Dwi Suryanto; Nunuk Priyani; Ginta Rio; Dedi Prima Putra; Dayar Arbain

    2013-01-01

    Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic mic...

  6. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  7. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  8. Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in antiretroviral therapy

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In t...

  9. [Mutual information-based correlation analysis of herbs against insomnia].

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Ren-quan

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to analyze Professor Guo Rongjuan's medication experience on insomnia therapy based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Inheritance Support Plat. First, TCM formulae prescribed by Professor Guo for insomnia therapy were collected from the TCM Inheritance Support Plat. Next, unsupervised data mining algorithms, including apriori, modified mutual-information, and entropy clustering of complex system were applied to obtain the frequencies for different herbs and identify the association rules among the herbs. Accordingly, we can gain new insights into Professor Guo's medication experience on insomnia therapy. Based on analysis of 3 084 formulae, we determined the frequencies for herbs in the formulae and identified the association rules among these herbs. At last, 41 core combinations and 7 new formulae were obtained. The identified medication experience conform with Professor Guo's views on the etiology and pathogenesis of insomnia: "pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of liver-QI (Gan Yu Hua Huo)" is the core pathogenesis of insomnia; "liver stagnation and spleen deficiency" and "chronic illness transferred to kidney" are the main features for insomnia. The TCM Inheritance Support Plat is of great practical value for mining clinical experience of famous TCM doctors. PMID:26975117

  10. Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

  11. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    Malm Anna; Glowniak-Lipa Anna; Korona-Glowniak Izabela; Baj Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC v...

  12. Drug discovery of neurodegenerative disease through network pharmacology approach in herbs.

    Ke, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Cao, Zeyu; Ding, Yue; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuanjie; Zhang, Chenfeng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, referring to as the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, constitute one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Traditional Chinese herbs have been used as a major preventive and therapeutic strategy against disease for thousands years. The numerous species of medicinal herbs and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) compound formulas in nervous system disease therapy make it a large chemical resource library for drug discovery. In this work, we collected 7362 kinds of herbs and 58,147 Traditional Chinese medicinal compounds (Tcmcs). The predicted active compounds in herbs have good oral bioavailability and central nervous system (CNS) permeability. The molecular docking and network analysis were employed to analyze the effects of herbs on neurodegenerative diseases. In order to evaluate the predicted efficacy of herbs, automated text mining was utilized to exhaustively search in PubMed by some related keywords. After that, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves was used to estimate the accuracy of predictions. Our study suggested that most herbs were distributed in family of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Apocynaceae. The predictive model yielded good sensitivity and specificity with the AUC values above 0.800. At last, 504 kinds of herbs were obtained by using the optimal cutoff values in ROC curves. These 504 herbs would be the most potential herb resources for neurodegenerative diseases treatment. This study would give us an opportunity to use these herbs as a chemical resource library for drug discovery of anti-neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26898452

  13. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides (137Cs,90Sr, 239,240Pu) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  14. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  15. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy

    Parul Agarwa; Bhawna Sharma; Amreen Fatima; Sanjay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and

  16. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  17. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  18. Des arbres et des herbes aux marges du Sahara

    Bernus, Edmond

    1992-01-01

    Le Sahara possède une végétation qui est d'autant plus précieuse pour ses habitants qu'elle est rare. Les herbes, prairies d'"éphémères" dans les zones aux pluies les plus aléatoires, ou vivaces et annuelles plus régulières, fournissent un fourrage très recherché. Dans les marges méridionales des herbes permettent des ramassages de graines qui donnent aux nomades des nourritures appréciées. Mil, sorgho et riz poussent à l'état spontané : les deux premiers ont été domestiqués dans cette région...

  19. HPLC analysis of methanolic extract of herbs for quercetin content

    Nitu Trehan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are rich source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized according to their chemical structure, into flavones, isoflavonoes and flavon-3-ol, anthocyanidins. They have aroused considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effect on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti allergic, anti platelet, anti inflammatory, antitumor, anti carcinogenic and anti ageing properties. HPLC analysis can be used for classification of herbs based upon secondary metabolites. Extract yield at optimum condition was then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantifying bioactive flavonoid compounds. It was observed that mint contains the highest concentration of quercetin i.e. about 10.8mg/g.

  20. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Radava R Korać

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  1. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.): noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Zvonko Pacanoski; Štefan Týr; Tomáš Vereš

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in a...

  2. Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin

    Iwona Adamska

    2013-01-01

    In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the ...

  3. Herbs and spices in traditional recipes of Alentejo (Portugal)

    A.S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    2006-01-01

    Alentejo, representing about 30% of the area and 5% of the population of Portugal, is a semi-arid region of undulated plains with a Mediterranean climate softened by the Atlantic, with mild winters but hot and dry summers. With an old history of scarcity and pauperism, it shows very particular cultural traits, including a unique culinary tradition, with a high use of wild plants, herbs, and bread-based dishes. An inventory of traditional recipes of Alentejo was built from various sources, ...

  4. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  5. Pharmacological significance of shatavari; The Queen of herbs.

    Akansha Singh; Sinha, B.

    2015-01-01

    Shatavari (A. racemosus) has been used since ages by the rural people as a galactagogue. The herb is a source of phytochemicals like steroidal saponins, sapogenins, flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin), and poly phenols (secondary metabolites that have high pharmacological importance). These active principals gives medicinal value to the plant as anti-ulcerogenic, anti-oxytocic, anti-tussive, anti-diabetic, immunostimulants, cardioprotective, anti-cancerous, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ba...

  6. Quality control of a herb extract using PTR-MS

    Jaksch, D.; Hartungen, E.; Mikoviny, T.; Abel, G.; Märk, T. D.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed an objective method for the determination of a herb extract's quality based on headspace measurements by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS); this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. This novel method enables the company [`]Bionorica' to ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. The method could be also used for controlling and optimising the production process.

  7. Microbiological hazards in fresh leafy vegetables and herbs

    2015-01-01

    Problems linked with pathogens in fresh produce, including the associated public health and trade implications, have been reported in a number of countries worldwide. Furthermore, from 1980 to 2004, the global production per annum of fruit and vegetables grew by 94% and they are a critical component of a healthy diet. Reported outbreaks associated with leafy vegetables and herbs have been notable for the wide geographical distribution of the contaminated products, the high numbers of consumer...

  8. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update

    Reena Kulkarni; Girish, K. J.; Abhimanyu Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacolo...

  9. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's n...

  10. On the record: a conversation with Herb Kelleher

    anonymous

    2007-01-01

    When asked about the secret to Southwest Airlines' success, Herb Kelleher jokingly replies, "Charismatic leadership." Beyond that, being the only major U.S. airline to make a profit every year since 1972 has come down to three factors: having a contrarian strategy and sticking to it, keeping costs down in good times so the company is prepared for the bad times and - perhaps most important - treating employees well and trusting them to do their jobs.

  11. HPLC analysis of methanolic extract of herbs for quercetin content

    Nitu Trehan

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are rich source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized according to their chemical structure, into flavones, isoflavonoes and flavon-3-ol, anthocyanidins. They have aroused considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effect on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti allergic, anti platelet, anti inflammatory, antitumor, anti carcinogenic and anti ageing properties. HPLC analysis can be ...

  12. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  13. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis

    Shuhu Du; Lina Chen; Kunfang Ma; Hongjian Ji

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish reliable methods for evaluating the quality of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis. Methods: Qualitative analysis by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) , reference substances were Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai and oleanolic acid, a ethanol solution. In the system of high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), a Prontosil Eurobond C18 column (250 mm×4.0 the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min with UV detected at 210 nm, the column temperature was maintained at room temperature. Results:In the system of TLC, oleanolic acid was separated successfully. In HPLC, the linear ranges of oleanotic acid and ursolic acid were 5.89-13.73 μg (R=0.9990)and 6.84~15.96 μg (R=0.9990), respectively. The average recoveries of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 97.52% (RSD=2.58% ), 98.21% (RSD=2.23%), respectively. Conclusion: The established TLC method can easily distinguish Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis from other commonly used crude drugs of the same family .The HPLC method for determining oleanolic acid and ursolic acid is simple, reproducible, accurate and feasible. The methods reported in this paper can be used scientifically and effectively to evaluate the quality of Chinese herb fructus chaenomelis.

  15. Biothermodynamic Assay of Coptis-Evodia Herb Couples

    Hongbo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To illustrate the difference in cold/hot natural properties and therapeutic effect of coptis-evodia herb couples by using cold/hot plate differentiating technology and microcalorimetry combined with material basis analysis in vivo and in vitro. It showed that animal retention ratio in hot pad significantly decreased along with the decrease in coptis proportion in coptis-evodia herb couples. In addition, Zuojin wan markedly reduced the retention ratio of gastritis mice in the hot pad, while Fanzuojin wan displayed an opposite result. Further, Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and T-AOC activity significantly weakened in coptis-treated group in the livers of the mice. In the gastric cells from the gastritis mice, Fanzuojin wan remarkably increased calorific value for growth and metabolism, while Zuojin wan significantly reduced the calorigenic effect. It suggested that the changes in the major chemical compositions (especially alkaloids were the material base-induced transformation between “cold” and “hot” syndromes. The material basis which affected the transformation between “cold” and “hot” syndromes might be X2, X3, X4, X8, epiberberine hydrochloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, coptisine sulphate, palmatine hydrochloride, and berberine hydrochloride. The CHPD combined with microcalorimetry technology is a good method to determine the differences in the “cold” and “hot” natural properties of coptis-evodia herb couples.

  16. Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils

    Nemet Nevena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

  17. [Combining herbs with medication--risks vs. chances].

    Amir, Nir

    2013-07-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world. PMID:23957086

  18. Identification of inflammatory factor TNFα inhibitor from medicinal herbs.

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Yali; Bennett Jenson, A; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The inflammatory response is one of the first defenses our body has to fight against potential endangerments. It plays a critical role in host defense, clearing and slowing the infection in the case of microbial invasion. During an inflammatory response, a variety of cytokines are produced by cells and trigger or enhance the specific inflammation response. TNFα, one of these factors, plays a crucial role in many immune and inflammatory processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell survival. It acts in orchestrating the cytokine cascade and the major regulator of inflammatory cytokine production. Abnormality of TNFα signaling leads to many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Due to the importance of TNFα, regulating TNFα activity is a key to treat the related diseases. There is a long history of using medicinal herbs to treat diseases related to inflammation. We searched for an ingredient that has the ability to inhibit TNFα, we examined AO herbal extract, containing 10 individual herbs and most of these herbs have anti-inflammatory activity within humans. We have tested the anti-inflammatory ability of AO herbal extract on mice. Furthermore, we used macrophage cell from young mice and found that AO extract has the ability to reduce the inflammation by inhibiting TNFα level. PMID:26778692

  19. Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.

    Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu

    2016-10-01

    Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs. PMID:25751729

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION

    SUNIL B. SOMANI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum, Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum, Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol. An antibacterial activity was observed in all herbs used. Most effective an antibacterial activity were observed in Tulsi, Neem and Wheat. In all herbs maximum removal of E.coli was found at 30 minutes contact time onwards. The percentage removal of E.coli were found 82.05% , 71.79% , 64.1% , 41.03% & 28.20% by using Tulsi, Neem , Wheatgrass , Amla and Katakphala herbs extract respectively, at 30 minute optimum contact time. The optimum removal of E.coli was observed at 1% concentration of extract of different herbs used.

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION

    Sunil B. Somani; NITIN W. INGOLE; SHRIKANT S. PATIL

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum), Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica) and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum) were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method) after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol). An antibacterial activity was observed in all herbs ...

  2. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are frequently used to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foen...

  3. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    Rania Dghaim; Safa Al Khatib; Husna Rasool; Munawwar Ali Khan

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchas...

  4. Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor

    Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system

  5. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhi...

  6. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    Weerapreeyakul Natthida; Nonpunya Apiyada; Barusrux Sahapat; Thitimetharoch Thaweesak; Sripanidkulchai Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prep...

  7. The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia

    Tayebeh Azam Saedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world’s population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body’s symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia.

  8. An Ancient Chinese Herb Berberine; New Research in Diabetes Mellitus

    Sha, Wenjun; Zhang, Weifei; Huang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingyue; Niu, Jingjing; Jiang, Haili; Junyan, Li; Li, Fu-Feng; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Xin; Shen, Yuandong; Zhou, Ligang

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have increased such that it is becoming a major worldwide public health problem. Berberine is a natural product from a Chinese herb, which has been used as anti-diabetic and anti-inflammation medication for centuries. More recently, berberine has also proven its long-term effect on improving patient and animal models with T2DM via several intracellular signal pathways. Here, we summarize its acute and chronic anti-diabe...

  9. Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs

    The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

  10. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  11. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components.

  12. Accelerated healing by composites containing herb epimedium for osteoinductive regeneration

    Porous composites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), herb epimedium (EP), and chitosan (CS) were used to improve the repair of rabbit bone defects. The in vivo implantation of the HA/CS-EP showed that homogeneous bone formation occurred after 12 weeks' implantation and possessed good osteogenesis. The osteogenic process of the HA/CS-EP group was different from that of the HA/CS group. Direct bone formation of osteoblasts with HA/CS-EP as the matrix could be observed. Compared with the group filled with HA/CS, the group filled with HA/CS-EP showed significant increases in the number of osteoblasts and the bone formation area, and the areas of new bone formation in the HA/CS-EP group after 4 or 12 weeks' implantation reached 33% and 87%, respectively. The novel repair system of HA/CS-EP can induce bone formation, increase osteoblast quantity and improve osteogenesis, for EP can significantly promote the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts in the early stage and accelerate bone remodeling in the later stage. Composites containing EP could be a promising material with multifunctions of osteoinduction, osteoconduction and medication for bone repair, and herb medicine EP could be used as an osteoinduction material for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  13. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

  14. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  15. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php.

  16. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  17. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection. Protokol for a Cochrane Review

    Liu, J P; Manheimer, E; Tsutani, K; Gluud, C

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem world-wide. Medicinal herbs are increasingly being used for hepatitis C....

  18. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    Azadeh Mohammadirad

    2013-11-01

    These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes.

  19. HerDing: herb recommendation system to treat diseases using genes and chemicals.

    Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Chan-Hun; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Seon-Jong; Na, Chang-Su; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, herbs have been researched for new drug candidates because they have a long empirical history of treating diseases and are relatively free from side effects. Studies to scientifically prove the medical efficacy of herbs for target diseases often spend a considerable amount of time and effort in choosing candidate herbs and in performing experiments to measure changes of marker genes when treating herbs. A computational approach to recommend herbs for treating diseases might be helpful to promote efficiency in the early stage of such studies. Although several databases related to traditional Chinese medicine have been already developed, there is no specialized Web tool yet recommending herbs to treat diseases based on disease-related genes. Therefore, we developed a novel search engine, HerDing, focused on retrieving candidate herb-related information with user search terms (a list of genes, a disease name, a chemical name or an herb name). HerDing was built by integrating public databases and by applying a text-mining method. The HerDing website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Database URL: http://combio.gist.ac.kr/herding. PMID:26980517

  20. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste......This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...

  1. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  2. Coupled fast-thermal core 'HERBE', as the benchmark experiment at the RB reactor

    Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNPTM against measured criticality data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE. System at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Experimental data are obtained for regular HERBE core and for the cases of controlled flooding of the neutron converter zone by heavy water. Earlier calculations of these criticality parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using 2D geometry model are also compared to new calculations carried out by the MCNP code in 3D geometry, applying new detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug, developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality calculation results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are obtained and confirmed that HERBE core could be used as a criticality benchmark for coupled fast-thermal core. (author)

  3. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  4. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    Jin-Jian Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.

  5. SOILS AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES VARIATION UNDER MEDICINAL HERBS ECOLOGICAL CROPS

    Mihaela Lungu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out with medicinal herbs in the frame of a National project financed by CNCSIS through the Partnership Program. Ecologic and conventional technologies were applied. The project aimed to implement a standardization system of the vegetal raw materials which can be used in the cosmetic industry. Sage, basilicum, and savory were subject of the experiments, at Jucu, Cluj County, Ungureni – Butimanu, Dâmboviţa County, and Secuieni, Neamţ County. The dominant soils in these areas are Fluvisols and Haplic Chernozems in the Jucu area, Chromic Luvisol in the Ungureni – Butimanu area, and Calcic Chernozem in the Secuieni area. The agrochemical analysis of the soils from the experimental fields highlighted soil fertility properties conservation both under ecologic and conventional growing technologies.

  6. Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin

    Iwona Adamska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the phylum Ascomycota (13 species, and least from the phylum Oomycota (3 species. The phylum Ascomycota was represented only by species of the order Erysiphales. Other relatively frequently found fungi also were members of the phylum Basidiomycota (11 species. Of the fungi recognized, 31 species were earlier frequently recorded in Poland, and three rarely. Erysiphe flexuosa parasitizing Aesculus hippocastanum was not recorded in Poland to date; in Europe this fungus was recognized only in Germany and Switzerland.

  7. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields

  8. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  9. Economic evaluation of herb extraction using supercritical fluid

    M. Shariaty-Niassar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the climate diversity in different parts of Iran, a variety of plants grow across the country, many of them having pharmaceutical applications. At present, only a few companies are producing herbal essence, all of them are technically based on conventional methods of extraction such as steam distillation and others. Because of the current serious concern with respect to the environmental conservation law the use of green technology seems imperative. The supercritical fluid extraction is considered as a practical and procedural method which has become under serious consideration in recent years. For this, an economical analysis is made of herb extractions using a supercritical fluid. The results of such a survey can clarify the new methods to be of great concern. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units used for producing a different plant extract and especially that of rosemary.

  10. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  11. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  12. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  13. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  14. Neuroprotective Herbs and Foods from Different Traditional Medicines and Diets

    Marcello Iriti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.

  15. SOME EXPERIMENTALLY PROVED HERBS IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE

    Javed Ahmad Khan et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is a worldwide health problem because of its high morbidity, mortality and enormous financial implication. An estimated 15,000 deaths per year occur as a consequence of complicated PUD. A large number of drugs for peptic ulcer disease are available in mainstream medicine but they are associated with numerous side effects like arrhythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia and haematopoietic changes and the recurrence is also very common. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Here, an attempt is made to summarise experimentally proved herbs used in PUD during last decade.

  16. Herb Hydraulics: Inter- and Intraspecific Variation in Three Ranunculus Species.

    Nolf, Markus; Rosani, Andrea; Ganthaler, Andrea; Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The requirements of the water transport system of small herbaceous species differ considerably from those of woody species. Despite their ecological importance for many biomes, knowledge regarding herb hydraulics remains very limited. We compared key hydraulic features (vulnerability to drought-induced hydraulic decline, pressure-volume relations, onset of cellular damage, in situ variation of water potential, and stomatal conductance) of three Ranunculus species differing in their soil humidity preferences and ecological amplitude. All species were very vulnerable to water stress (50% reduction in whole-leaf hydraulic conductance [kleaf] at -0.2 to -0.8 MPa). In species with narrow ecological amplitude, the drought-exposed Ranunculus bulbosus was less vulnerable to desiccation (analyzed via loss of kleaf and turgor loss point) than the humid-habitat Ranunculus lanuginosus Accordingly, water stress-exposed plants from the broad-amplitude Ranunculus acris revealed tendencies toward lower vulnerability to water stress (e.g. osmotic potential at full turgor, cell damage, and stomatal closure) than conspecific plants from the humid site. We show that small herbs can adjust to their habitat conditions on interspecific and intraspecific levels in various hydraulic parameters. The coordination of hydraulic thresholds (50% and 88% loss of kleaf, turgor loss point, and minimum in situ water potential) enabled the study species to avoid hydraulic failure and damage to living cells. Reversible recovery of hydraulic conductance, desiccation-tolerant seeds, or rhizomes may allow them to prioritize toward a more efficient but vulnerable water transport system while avoiding the severe effects that water stress poses on woody species. PMID:26896395

  17. Prophylactic measures of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    The application of radiation biology has gained greater relevance and significance in health and environmental issues. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures against nuclear biological and chemical weapons is of immense importance to the defense of all nations and especially to those threatened by international terrorism. Chemical radiation protection is an important strategy to protect living being against deleterious effects of radiation. Earlier the synthetic chemical substances, which could minimize the pathological changes in the living system after exposure to ionizing radiation, were looked into. Medicinal plants are the local heritage with global importance. World is enclosed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. Herbs have always been the principle form of medicine in India and presently they become popular. Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Syzygium cumini, Aegle marmelos, Panax ginseng, Linum usitatissimum, Delonix regia etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this laboratory by taking various biological end points for the possible use of natural products and phytochemicals to serve as radio protectors for medical countermeasures against radiation injuries, and the results obtained from such studies are highly encouraging and fruitful. It opens new avenues for the

  18. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update.

    Danan, Gaby; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI). Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality assessment as a common

  19. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update

    Gaby Danan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI and herb induced liver injury (HILI. Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality

  20. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  1. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  2. Thermoluminescence analysis to detect irradiated spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradiation the 14 participating laboratories determined the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral contaminations that were isolated from coded samples. 18 different products (six spices, six herbs and six spice-and-herb mixtures) were examined. By whole sample analysis results were obtained in the inter-laboratory test which are typical for this method: Only one non-irradiated sample was classified as irradiated. By contrast, from some spice or herb products (5) all irradiated samples were correctly identified. From other products (3) some irradiated samples could not be identified as irradiated. From the rest of products (4) the majority of the irradiated samples was not identified as irradiated. Therefore, it is not possible to state definitively whether the whole sample method can be recommended as a screening technique. The decision rests with the user. However, data analysis of whole sample measurements revealed that the TL intensities of non-irradiated samples were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, there is no further need for establishing product-specific threshold values. The results make it clear that irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures with commercially used doses can be clearly detected by determination of TL signals of contaminating minerals throughout the entire period in which the products are normally stored and that the methods described are suitable for routine analysis in food inspection laboratories. (orig./UHE)

  3. Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

  4. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  5. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  6. Effect of Mexican Tea Herb and Pilular Adina Herb on Concrescence of Gastric Mucosa in Experimental Gastric Ulcer Rats

    CAO Ming-bo; DONG Lei; CHANG Xin-ming; ZOU Bai-cang; QIN Bin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect and mechanism of mexican tea herb and pilular adina herb (abbreviated to MP) on concrescence of gastric mucosa in experimental gastric ulcer rats by observing the changes of epidermal growth factor (EGF), nitrogen monoxidum (NO) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods: The rat ulcer model was established by 100% glacial acetic injection into the subserosa. The ulcer index (UI) was measured by sliding caliper.The levels of NO and EGF in tissue and serum were measured by the nitrate reductase method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The expression of EGFR in the mucosa around the ulcer was detected by the immunohistochemical assay and microimage analysis system. Results:was lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the levels of NO and EGF in the tissue and serum were higher (P<0.05),the thickness of regenerated mucous membrane increased, and the width loss of lamina muscularis mucosa decreased (all P<0.05). (2) The expression of EGFR is weakly positive in gastric mucosa cells in the normal group, mainly in the cytoplasm and cytomembrane. In the model group, the expression of EGFR was mainly in epithelial cells in cervical part and basilar part of gastric gland around the ulcer margin, and the number of cells with EGFR weakly positive expression was more than that in the normal group. Compared with that in the normal and model groups, the number of cells with EGFR positive in MP groups and ranitidine group increased (all P<0.05), with weakly positive expression.Conclusion; MP can protect gastric mucosa, cure gastric ulcer, restrain the secretion of gastric acid,and boost multiplication, differentiation, migration and repair of the endothelial cell by promoting the secretion of NO and EGF, and increasing the expression of EGFR of gastric mucosa epithelial cells.

  7. Herb formula enhances treatment of impotent patients after penile venous stripping: a randomised clinical trials.

    Hsieh, C-H; Tsai, H-C; Hsu, G-L; Chen, C-C; Hsu, C-Y

    2016-09-01

    Herbs have been regarded as aphrodisiacs in treating impotence for many centuries despite little true scientific evidence. Our latest refined penile venous stripping (PVS) technique is effective in treating impotence, although this procedure remains controversial. A synergic effect of PVS and oral herbs was confirmed in our practice but lacked rigorous scientific proof. The objective of this report was to review our experience with this combination. From August 2010 to May 2014, 263 males underwent PVS. Among these, 67 unsatisfied men chose additional salvage therapy and were randomly assigned to oral herbs (n = 35) or placebo treatment (n = 32) which replaced herb eventually. All were evaluated with the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scoring and our dual pharmaco-cavernosography. The pre-op IIEF-5 score for the herb group was 9.7 ± 3.7, post-operative 13.9 ± 3.3 and post-herb 19.6 ± 3.4, while the control group scores were as follows: pre-op 9.3 ± 4.1, post-op 14.5 ± 3.6, post-placebo 15.1 ± 3.5 and post-herb 19.9 ± 3.2. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups pre-operatively, post-operatively and post-herb, a statistically significant difference was found post-salvage therapy (19.6 ± 3.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.6, P < 0.001). It appears that the combination of oral herbs and PVS treatment provides an enhanced outcome to impotent patients refractory to medicine and unsatisfied with PVS monotherapy alone. PMID:26688463

  8. The effect of drying on antioxidant activity of selected lamiaceae herbs

    Anna Adámková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of selected fresh and dried herbs from the Lamiaceae family were compared. The analysed herbs included Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, and Origanum heracleoticum from the 1st and the 2nd harvests. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method and the total content of phenols was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Ascorbic and gallic acids were used as reference standards. All the analysed herbs had the reasonable potential to reduce the DPPH radical. The dried herbs from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity. Oregano exhibited the highest antioxidant activity from the analyzed samples of both harvests together. The descending order of the samples was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. Marjoram from the 2nd harvest had the highest antioxidant activity from the fresh samples. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 2nd harvest. In case of dried samples, the highest antioxidant activity was measured in sample of Greek oregano from the 2nd harwest. The lowest activity was observed in thyme from the 1st and 2nd harvest again. The descending order of total phenolics content for both harvests together was oregano ˃ Greek oregano ˃ marjoram ˃ summer savory ˃ thyme. In case of fresh herbs the highest total phenolics content was measured in oregano from the 1st harvest, the lowest content was measured in summer savory from the 2nd harvest. Greek oregano from the 2nd harvest had the highest values from dried herbs. Dried thyme from the second harvest had the lowest total phenolics content. The correlation between the DPPH values and the total content of phenols was determined (for fresh herbs: 0.4917; for dried herbs: 0.8698. According to the total content of phenols a statistically significant difference between the fresh and dried herbs from the 2nd harvest (p = 0.0185 was found.

  9. Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2012-12-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

  10. Application of calibration standardization method to the analysis of diuretic pharmaceutical herbs

    Calibration standardization of X-ray fluorescence method was carried out for the determination of the anorganic contents in diuretic herbs as called Folia Betulae, Stylus Maydis, Flores Verbasci, Equisetum Arvense and Flos Helichrysi, growing in Turkey. These herbs are widely used in pharmacy and public health for kidney disease therapy. Herb samples were steeped in the water and mixed through the pure cellulose, then pelletized in the intermediate thickness. An annular source of 109Cd (3.7 MBq) was used for excitation of fluorescent K lines of elements lying between potassium and zirconium. Toxic elements in considerable amounts were not found. (author)

  11. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    Halil Tosun; Recep Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53  μ g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice sampl...

  12. Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes

    The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra- Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    Fang-hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 rats/group were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg, and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  14. Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to

  15. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be developed as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 19-23

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast

    Kiki Nurtjahja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic microorganisms are studied. The leaves extract of kembu-kembu (Callicarpa candicans, rintih bulung (Piper muricatum, cep-cepan (Castanopsis costata, and sereh kayu (Eugenia grandis, has antimicrobial to bacteria (Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast (Candida albicans. Toxicity assay of these plants by brine shrimp method using Artemia salina indicates that cep-cepan dan sereh kayu have lethal concentration higher than kembu-kembu and rintih bulung.

  17. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro of chamomile flowers, coneflower herbs, peppermint leaves and thyme herbs – a preliminary report

    Malm Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.

  18. Current Situation of Chinese-Herbs-Induced Renal Damage and Its Countermeasures

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent years, there are numerous reports about Chinese-Herbs-induced renal damage (CHIRD), and it has become a widely-discussed topic in medical field at home and abroad. In this article, some latest informations on CHIRD would be introduced and discussed, meanwhile aristolocholic acid (AA)-containing herbs is the focal point, then our idea of research on the topic would be shown.

  19. Proximal tubular injury in Chinese herbs nephropathy: monitoring by neutral endopeptidase enzymuria

    Nortier, Joëlle; Deschodt Lanckman, Monique; Simon, Stéphane; Thielemans, N.-O.; De Prez, Eric; Depierreux, Michel; Tielemans, Christian; Richard-Mendes da Costa, C.; Lauwerijs, R.; Bernard, Alfred; Vanherweghem, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a 94 kDa ectoenzyme of the proximal tubule brush border, physiologically released into the urine with apical membrane fragments. As proximal tubular atrophy was a histological hallmark of Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), this study firstly determined renal excretion of NEP in healthy control subjects (N = 31), in patients with CHN (N = 26) and in women having consumed Chinese herbs and whose renal function was normal but running the risk of developing CHN (N = 2...

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    Liu, J P; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy.......Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs have been widely used to treat chronic liver diseases, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy....

  1. Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs

    Nadejda Rozanova (Torshina); Jin Z. Zhang; Heck, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer ...

  2. Influence of Tarhana Herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) on Fermentation of Tarhana, Turkish Traditional Fermented Food

    Deghirmencioghlu, Nurcan; Göçmen, Duygu; Daghdelen, Ayhan; Daghdelen, Fatih

    2005-01-01

    Tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) (TH) is used as a spice in tarhana. It has a pleasant flavour and stimulates some microorganisms. In this study, the fermentation activity of tarhana was investigated by monitoring the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast populations when TH was used as additive. It can be said that tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) prevented the decrease in the counts of LAB and yeast below the initial number during tarhana fermentation.

  3. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Ming Hong; Ning Wang; Hor Yue Tan; Sai-Wah Tsao; Yibin Feng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of ne...

  4. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    Kee Hun Do; Tae Jin An; Sang-Keun Oh; Yuseok Moon

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influ...

  5. Herbs in grasslands - effect of slurry and grazing/cutting on species composition and nutritive value

    Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    Herbs are established in many organic grasslands due to their expected beneficial properties for nutritive value and biodiversity. However, knowledge about grassland herbs is limited. Three mixtures were therefore established at different grazing/cutting management and slurry applications. The competitiveness of the species varied greatly. Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) competed best under cutting; in contrast, chicory (Cichorium intybus) competed best under graz...

  6. The potential of fresh versus dried aromatic herbs as source of antioxidant compounds

    Oliveira, Sofia; Costa, H. S.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Carvalho Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Machado, Ana V.; Sanches-Silva, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aromatic herbs have been used over the centuries, ubiquitously, with culinary or medicinal purposes. Nowadays they attract the interest of the scientific community due to their potential health benefits namely regarding oxidative processes in the body, such as age-related degenerative disorders and metabolic diseases, because herbs are considered a source of antioxidants. The use of antioxidants in lipids and lipid-containing foods is one method to minimize rancidity, retard the...

  7. [Analysis on the part of local medicinal herbs in Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes)].

    Zhang, Jun-Ke

    2010-09-01

    Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes) are historical notes written by a scholar of the Qing dynasty: Liu Xian-ting. This book recorded much medical content of the people. Doing simple research and analysis on the name, physical nature and effectiveness of the Lobular Pyrolae, Kai Wood (Chinese pistache), Huanglian snakes (a snake habitat with Coptis grass) and other native herbs can contribute to understanding the evolution of the medicinal herbs. PMID:21163084

  8. Herb-drug interactions among commonly used psychoactive substances by healthcare students

    Coelho, André; Caetano, Liliana Aranha

    2014-01-01

    The concurrent use of herbs and/or nutritional supplements with psychoactive effect and prescription medications is common among college students. College students are a particularly vulnerable population, for they are under less social/familiar surveillance and seek greater independence, as well as under greater intellectual effort, stress, anxiety and depression, which predispose them to a higher consumption of psychoactive substances. Herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements may infl...

  9. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  10. HERBE- Report on test operation from 15 Dec 1989 to 15 May 1990

    This report describes the activities preformed during previous 6 months performed on the HERBE system at the RB reactor in order to fulfill the requirements of the safety Committee of the Institute with the aim to improve the operation safety and decrease of the total reactivity input during maximum hypothetical accident on the HERBE N system. The objective was to increase the possibility of RB reactor safety system timely and adequate response to the estimated accident

  11. Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence

    The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a β ray source, 90Sr/90Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10-4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

  12. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    Jingxiang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence.

    Pang, Jingxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; Yang, Meina; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  14. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    SharmaYashaswini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

  15. Traditional Indian Herbs Convolvulus Pluricaulis and Its Medicinal Importance

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus pluricaulisis an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, as a rasayanawhich is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy. Convolvulus pluricaulisis a prostrate, spreading, perennial, wild herb commonly found on sandy or rocky ground under xerophytic conditions in northern India. The drug is used as antiepileptic. It is used alone or is administered along with modern antiepileptic drugs. Little human research has been published in the Western medical literature regarding this plant. One study shows convolvulus pluricaulis to have anti-ulcer effects due to augmentation of mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion and glycoproteins. Another study showed that convolvulus pluricaulis may be helpful in improving symptoms of hyperthyroidism by reducing the activity of a liver enzyme. Convolvulus pluricaulis is used as a brain tonic. Is used as a tonic, alterative and febrifuge. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints especially dysentery. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug. It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported toreduce mental tension.

  16. Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy

    Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out

  17. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

    Asha Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 92-96

  18. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases.

    Ramesh, Asha; Varghese, Sheeja Saji; Doraiswamy, Jayakumar Nadathur; Malaiappan, Sankari

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. PMID:27069730

  19. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  20. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

  1. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  2. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049

  3. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  4. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations.

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks. PMID:27243577

  5. Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE

    In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, dρ/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

  6. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  7. Effect of herb drug medicine Treatment for Functional Dyspepsia:Controlled Trial

    Lee Jae-Jin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  8. [Impact of storage conditions and time on herb of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Ma, Peng; Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    To study the effect of different storage conditions and storage time on herb quality of Lonicera macranthoides, different packaging materials including vacuum plastic bags, plastic bags, woven bags, sealed with endometrial bags, paper bags, sack bags were selected for the study under different storage conditions including room temperature, 5 degrees C refrigerator, low temperature of - 20 degrees C refrigerator and desiccator. Twenty-four batches of samples were used for the study, and active ingredients were determined. The experimental results showed that the ingredients in each storage group changed with the storage time, storage conditions (storage environment, packaging). Under the same storage time, the storage environment (temperature, humidity) had effect on the stability of herb quality. Low temperature had less effect on herb quality. The effect of packaging on herb quality was as following: plastic vacuum packaging > woven with endometrial sealed packaging > plastic bag > woven bag > sack bags > paper bags. Under the same storage conditions, with the increase of storage time, caffeic acid content increased slowly, and other five ingredients content decreased gradually. Storage time affected significantly on the intrinsic quality (chemical composition) and appearance of herb. It is suggested that low temperature (5 degrees C), dark and sealed storage are suitable for storage of L. macranthoides herb, the storage time should be not more than 24 months. PMID:24956836

  9. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    Halil Tosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg. AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg. Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

  10. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbric us terrestris

    D A Vattem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v and 0.5% (w/v] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.

  11. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  12. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  13. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given

  14. THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

    Sebastião Ferreira de Lima

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

  15. Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.

    Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species. PMID:25230471

  16. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

    Mohammed Rochelle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4% reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6% obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1% obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%, and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

  17. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  18. Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs

    As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 μl CD3OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

  19. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    Bensoussan Alan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.

  20. BerryMeat - New market perspectives using herbs and berries in organic meat products. What has been achieved?

    Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grevsen, Kai; Fenger, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to increase the portfolio of organic meat products for the consumer, by supplying new products preserved by organic grown herbs and berries. The consumers will benefit from a growing range of new, attractive, organic meat products, the Danish producers of organic meat products will benefit form a growing market and the producers of organic herbs and berries will experience an increasing demand for organic grown herbs and berries. The project has bee...

  1. Are herb-pairs of traditional Chinese medicine distinguishable from others? Pattern analysis and artificial intelligence classification study of traditionally defined herbal properties.

    Ung, Choong Yong; Li, Hu; Cao, Zhi Wei; Li, Yi Xue; Chen, Yu Zong

    2007-05-01

    Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit features consistent with their claimed unique synergistic combinations. We analyzed distribution patterns of TCM-HPs of TCM herb-pairs to detect signs indicative of possible synergy and used artificial intelligence (AI) methods to examine whether combination of their TCM-HPs are distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs assembled by random combinations and by modification of known TCM herb-pairs. Patterns of the majority of 394 known TCM herb-pairs were found to exhibit signs of herb-pair correlation. Three AI systems, trained and tested by using 394 TCM herb-pairs and 2470 non-TCM herb-pairs, correctly classified 72.1-87.9% of TCM herb-pairs and 91.6-97.6% of the non-TCM herb-pairs. The best AI system predicted 96.3% of the 27 known non-TCM herb-pairs and 99.7% of the other 1,065,100 possible herb-pairs as non-TCM herb-pairs. Our studies suggest that TCM-HPs of known TCM herb-pairs contain features distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs consistent with their claimed synergistic or modulating combinations. PMID:17267151

  2. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. PMID:24097370

  3. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and Their Mechanisms of Action: Part II.

    Anwar, M Akhtar; Al Disi, Sara S; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), oxidative stress, and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s). This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living. PMID:27014064

  4. TREATMENT OF PRIMARY PALPEBRAL RETRACTION WITH ACUPOINT—INJECTION AND CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    朱新民; LiPeifang

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper,the therapeutic effect of combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was observed in 59cases of primary palpebral retraction patients.These 59patients were divided into treatment group(n=38,treated with acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs)and control group(n=21,treated with Chinese medicinal herbs alone).After3 courses of treatment.of the 38cases in treatment group,25(65.8%)were cured,8(21.1%)had marked improement and5(13.2%)had improement;of the 21cases in control group,8(38.1%)were cured,9(42.9%)had marked improement,2(9.5%)had improement6 and2(9.5%)were ineffective.Statistical analysis showed a si9gnificant difference between the two groups in the therapeu-tic effect.The cure rate of experimental group was apparently higher than athat of the control group,i.e.the therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was superior to that of Chinese medicinal herbs alone.

  5. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  6. Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirates.

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1-1.11 mg·kg(-1) for cadmium, less than 1.0-23.52 mg·kg(-1) for lead, 1.44-156.24 mg·kg(-1) for copper, 12.65-146.67 mg·kg(-1) for zinc, and 81.25-1101.22 mg·kg(-1) for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  7. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    Rania Dghaim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, basil (Ocimum basilicum, sage (Salvia officinalis, oregano (Origanum vulgare, mint (Mentha spicata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1–1.11 mg·kg−1 for cadmium, less than 1.0–23.52 mg·kg−1 for lead, 1.44–156.24 mg·kg−1 for copper, 12.65–146.67 mg·kg−1 for zinc, and 81.25–1101.22 mg·kg−1 for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO permissible limits (PL.

  8. Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array

    Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

  9. Essentials of Herb-Drug Interactions in the Elderly With Cardiovascular Disease

    Sulaiman Sultan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of individuals, particularly the elderly, using herbal products with prescription drugs continues to grow, the risk for adverse interactions increases but remains poorly recognized. The true incidence and nature of adverse herb reactions or herb-drug interactions remains unknown since no postmarketing surveillance mechanism exists. Adverse events are greatly underreported, and information regarding safety mainly comes from case reports and suboptimally conducted studies in a limited number of healthy young volunteers or patients with limited comorbidities. Therefore, convincing evidence for the safety of herbal products in the elderly is lacking, and the true magnitude of problems that herb-drug interactions pose to public health, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular diseases, is not known. Since cardiovascular diseases themselves are life threatening, necessitate use of multiple medications and occur in a population with extensive comorbidities, the risk of herb-drug and herb-disease interactions is not minor and cannot be ignored. This review addresses these concerns in an effort to raise awareness about the use of herbal medicine by the elderly and its potential adverse impact on the efficacy of prescription medications that can increase predisposition to catastrophic events such as major bleeding, inadequate anticoagulation leading to undesired clotting, transplant organ rejection and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  11. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  12. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis.

    Xia, Jia; He, Li-Qun; Su, Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a common development in chronic renal diseases that can lead to uremia and be life-threatening. The RIF pathology has complicated extracellular and intercellular mechanisms, involving many cells and cytokines, resulting in an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the disease. Finding effective herbs or herbal extracts for prevention and treatment of RIF is crucial because current medical approaches do not reliably slow or reverse RIF. In recent years, many experts have worked to identify herbs or herbal extracts to combat RIF both in vivo and in vitro, with some success. This review attempts to summarize the possible interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts involved in protecting and reversing RIF. The authors found some herbs and their extracts that may ameliorate renal impairments through anti-inflammation, anti-fibrogenesis and stabilization of extra cellular matrix. Among them, tetramethylpyrazine/ligustrazine, curcumin and polyglucoside of Tripterygium have experimentally shown good potential for improving RIF. However, conclusive evidence is still needed, especially in randomized controlled clinical trials. We expect that herbs or herbal extracts will play an important role in RIF treatment and reversal in the future. PMID:27181123

  13. Management of radiation injuries by natural herbs and neutraceuticals

    In the era of expanding nuclear energy program all over world, the role of radiation biology has acquired greater relevance and significance in addressing the health and environment issues. In view of constant human exposure to background radiation both naturally and man made e.g nuclear power plants and weapons testing, consumer products, medical X-ray, uranium mining and milling etc., the radiobiological research has been devoted to induction of cancer and evaluation of genetic effects. In the present time, nuclear terrorism and weapon related effects are raising much alarm and concern to public health. Obviously, radiation biology research has great potential in diagnosis, therapy and establishing standards for assessment risk from radiation exposure. The development of effective medical countermeasures to protect, mitigate, and treat normal tissue injury needs urgent investigation for basic molecular mechanisms and developing appropriate ready to-use kits using relevant cellular, animal model and clinical trails for practical purposes. Since the use of synthetic compounds is associated with the inherent toxicity, attention in recent years has been directed towards developing radiation countermeasure agents from the natural sources and/or nature-identical molecules. The rich biodiversity available in the Indian subcontinent has yielded several new drugs that find application in the modern medicine and there is a like hood of discovering many more, Over the last few years, interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phyto products for the use in anti-radiation strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for preventing the radiation induced lesions in many countries. Several Indian medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Alstonia scholaris, Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus niruri, Svzvgiumcumini, Aegle marmelos etc) and antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have been tested in this

  14. Microelement composition of the herbs with hypoglycemic and tonic actions

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus is a heavy disease with complex neuroendocrinal pathogenesis, which disturbs all stages of metabolism, including exchange of microelements. A significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is given to copper, zinc, chromium, manganese - microelements directly participating in carbohydrate exchange. Usage of microelements in medicine as inorganic salts has not found a wide application. It is known, that the majority of vitaminous-mineral complexes represent a mechanical mix of artificial vitamins and microelements. The available facts testify that such inorganic forms of minerals are poorly assimilated by an organism, and moreover can block the assimilation of organic forms, what results in a gradual increase of deficiency in these microelements in organism. Scientists know around 300 plants possessing hypoglycemising effect to a greater or lesser extent. Using the method of neutron-activation analysis we have investigated the microelement composition of some of herbs possessing hypoglycemising and tonic action. On the basis of these data our group has developed the structure of a phytocompound, which includes 15 components, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo containing the balanced amount of easily assimilated organically connected minerals. The analysis of received data shows, that the developed phytocompound contains significant amount of Mn, Cu, Zn and in smaller amounts Co. Calculations show, that the daily need of an organism for copper, manganese, zinc and iodine is completely satisfied by the phytocompound. The data on analysis of element structure of Spirulina platensis and mumiyo evidence the presence of a wide spectrum of the majority of microelements in these preparations, and the content of copper and manganese in Spirulina platensis exceeds their content in mumiyo 1,5-2 times, and the presence of chromium is almost 20 times higher. The complex of the developed phytocompound, Spirulina platensis and mumiyo is suggested

  15. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  16. Assessment of Base Line Concentrations for Trace Elements and Total Alpha, Beta Gross for Some Herbs

    Five marked brands of drinking herbs, commonly consumed by Egyptian population were collected from local market. Concentration of essential and toxic elements have been measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Also, the total alpha and beta gross activities in all samples were measured using ultra low level liquid scintillation counting system (LSC). Cinnamon was found to contain relatively high amounts of essential as well as toxic elements but the measurement using LSC revealed no detection for both alpha and beta gross activity. The annual effective doses for different herbs were also calculated referring to the dose conversion factor (dose per unit intake) for both alpha and beta gross activity when dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides. The study also shows that these herbs are additional source of trace heavy elements intake

  17. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  18. [Uses of fresh herbs with antioxidant effect and prospect for population ecology reconstruction in Macau].

    Cheng, Chun-song; Zhou, Liang-yun; Xu, Shi-qiang; Lang, Jian-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-feng

    2015-02-01

    The average life expectancy in Macau is ranking the second in the world, the consumption of fresh medicinal plants is a profound culture in Macau. The paper focus on the distribution of the antioxidant herbs, a comprehensive investigation and analysis the amount of the plant resources was carried out. The antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts was determined by using the DPPH method, and six kinds fresh herbs with high antioxidant free radical activity were screened out. Reference to adult daily dose of vitamin C, it is calculated that the daily dose amount of fresh herbs is less than 200 g. For the expected shortage of resources and the ecological status of Macau, we give some suggestions of herbal introduction in population ecology reconstruction. PMID:26084161

  19. Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: from bench to bedside.

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

    2014-10-21

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

  20. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Xian-hui Dong; Cong Liu; Jiang-tao Bai; Wei-na Kong; Xiao-ping He; Peng Yan; Tie-mei Shao; Wen-guo Yu; Xi-qing Chai; Yan-hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade ampliifcation in Alzheimer’s dis-ease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used. The intragas-tric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. These com-pounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    Pešić Milan P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of new results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are achieved confirming that MCNP5 code could apply successfully to study on HERBE kinetics parameters after uncertainties in impurities in material compositions and positions of fuel elements in fast zone were removed.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  3. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Xian-hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer′s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer′s disease patients. An APP swe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer′s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer′s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease.

  4. Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

  5. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  6. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  7. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. PMID:26771134

  8. Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection

    Liu, J P; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease.......About 350 million people are chronically infected carriers of hepatitis B virus and are at a higher risk of serious illness and death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Chinese medicinal herbs have been used widely for more than 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease....

  9. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  10. Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs

    Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan; Walker, Emer A.;

    2013-01-01

    Invasive alien plants often occur in monospecific stands with high density in the invaded range. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites in such stands could have allelopathic effects on germination of native species. We tested this component of the novel weapon hypothesis for Heracleum...... mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica...... for allelopathic effects of the invasive H. mantegazzianum on germination of co-occurring native herbs....

  11. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs

    *S. K. Bariyah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like antimicrobial, anticataleptic, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic and cardioprotective activities. The aim of the present review is to present an extensive survey on the phytochemistry and pharmacological applications of the herb.

  12. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    paprika, but conversely a pronounced increase in susceptibility of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia now susceptible to 0.01-0.70 mg/ml of each herb, corresponding to 0.02-0.2 per cent of the recommended daily dose. The active ingredients of the herbs...

  13. Enterobacteriaceae rsistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia

    Veldman, K.T.; Kant, A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Wit, B.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which

  14. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    Leung Hoi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging.

  15. Investigation of Elemental Concentrations of Some Medicinal Herbs Collected from Kachin State

    Five medicinal herbs, which are traditionally used in the Kachin State for the treatment of tuberculosis, different types of cancers, malaria and indigestion problem, were analyzed by the EDXRF techinque to determine the relative concentrations of elements contained in them. The major elements and the trace elements were thoroughly investigated for a comparison purpose

  16. Fingerprint of Herb Product by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Product authentication, quality assurance, and identification of adulterants/contamination are major issues facing the dietary supplement industry. Scutellaria lateriflora is an herb widely used as a remedy for many ailments ranging from rabies to epilepsy. It could be easily contaminated by similar...

  17. Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.

    Abahussain NA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5 years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

  18. Resprouting of herbs in disturbed habitats: is it adequately described by Bellingham-Sparrow s model?

    Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 103, - (2003), s. 225-229. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1039; GA ČR GA206/01/1037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : severe disturbance * sprouting * temperate herbs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2003

  19. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  20. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa produce nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects in GM - nephrotoxic rats. These herbs may be beneficial for patients who suffer from kidney diseases and those on GM therapy. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-8

  1. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway...

  2. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  3. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Medicinal Herb Folium Eriobotryae

    Jingxiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations.

  4. Systems pharmacology dissection of the anti-inflammatory mechanism for the medicinal herb Folium eriobotryae.

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Lilei; Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Shuwei; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations. PMID:25636035

  5. Effects of Chinese Herb component SSY-P3 on Animal Modelsof Alzheimer' s disease

    ZhangLan; XingYing; YeCui-fei; LiLin; Xuan-Wu

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: SSY-P3 is a monomer extracted from Chinese herb SSY (can not make public now because of the patent application) by phytochemistry under pharmacodynamics direction. In our previous study, this component is effective in several neuro-damage models both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of our present research is to investigate the effects of

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    Boo-Yong Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

  7. Classification of Chinese herbs based on the cluster analysis of delayed luminescence.

    Pang, Jingxiang; Yang, Meina; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Liu, Yanli; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese material medica are an important component of the Chinese pharmacopeia. According to the traditional Chinese medicinal concept, Chinese herbal medicines are classified into different categories based on their therapeutic effects, however, the bioactive principles cannot be solely explained by chemical analysis. The aim of this study is to classify different Chinese herbs based on their therapeutic effects by using delayed luminescence (DL). The DL of 56 Chinese herbs was measured using an ultra-sensitive luminescence detection system. The different DL parameters were used to classify Chinese herbs according to a hierarchical cluster analysis. The samples were divided into two groups based on their DL kinetic parameters. Interestingly, the DL classification results were quite consistent with classification according to the Chinese medicinal concepts of 'cold' and 'heat' properties. In this paper, we show for the first time that by using DL technology, it is possible to classify Chinese herbs according to the Chinese medicinal concept and it may even be possible to predict their therapeutic properties. PMID:26240033

  8. The species richness-productivity relationship in the herb layer of European deciduous forests

    Axmanová, I.; Chytrý, M.; Zelený, D.; Ching-Feng, L.; Vymazalová, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Horsák, M.; Kočí, M.; Kubešová, S.; Lososová, Z.; Otýpková, Z.; Tichý, L.; Martynenko, V. B.; Baisheva, E. Z.; Schuster, B.; Diekmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2012), s. 657-667. ISSN 1466-822X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : broad-leaved woodland * diversity - productivity relationship * herb-layer biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.223, year: 2012

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Romika Dhiman; Neeraj Aggarwal; Kamal Rai Aneja; Manpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penic...

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of herbs & spices and their phytochemical determination

    Manoj Kumar Singh; Namita Singh

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extracts of five spices and herbs viz. Cuminum Cyminum (Family: Apiaceae), Nigella sativa (Family: Ranunculaceae), Pimpinella anisum (Family: Apiaceae), Trachyspermum copticum (Family: Umbelliferae), and rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated by agar well diffusion method against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudo...

  11. Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.

    Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

    1998-07-01

    In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

  12. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  13. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  14. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical

  15. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    Moo Jin Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects.

  16. Provisional biopharmaceutical classification of some common herbs used in Western medicine.

    Waldmann, Sarah; Almukainzi, May; Bou-Chacra, Nadia Araci; Amidon, Gordon L; Lee, Beom-Jin; Feng, Jianfang; Kanfer, Isadore; Zuo, Joan Zhong; Wei, Hai; Bolger, Michael B; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to classify some markers of common herbs used in Western medicine according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). The BCS is a scientific approach to classify drug substances based upon their intestinal permeability and their solubility, at the highest single dose used, within the physiologically relevant pH ranges. Known marker components of twelve herbs were chosen from the USP Dietary Supplement Compendium Monographs. Different BCS parameters such as intestinal permeability (P(eff)) and solubility (C(s)) were predicted using the ADMET Predictor, which is a software program to estimate biopharmaceutical relevant molecular descriptors. The dose number (D₀) was calculated when information from the literature was available to identify an upper dose for individual markers. In these cases the herbs were classified according to the traditional BCS parameters using P(eff) and D₀. When no upper dose could be determined, then the amount of a marker that is just soluble in 250 mL of water was calculated. This value, M(x), defines when a marker is changing from highly soluble to poorly soluble according to BCS criteria. This biopharmaceutically relevant value can be a useful tool for marker selection. The present study showed that a provisional BCS classification of herbs is possible but some special considerations need to be included into the classification strategy. The BCS classification can be used to choose appropriate quality control tests for products containing these markers. A provisional BCS classification of twelve common herbs and their 35 marker compounds is presented. PMID:22352942

  17. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    Maciej Wódkiewicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Białowieża Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

  18. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

  19. SOLID participatory research from Denmark: Use of herbs in pastures for dairy cows: Farmers’ experience, pasture coverage analyses, and literature survey of Danish research results

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Karydi, Emmanouela; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Semi-structured qualitative research interviews were conducted with eight organic dairy farmers (producers and shareholders of Thise Dairy Company), in which they shared their experience with growing herbs on grass fields on long-term basis for both grazing and silage production. Growing herbs...... an increased mineral-uptake through the herbs, and that the herbs might have some medical effects on parasites. All in all, they trust that they are doing something good for their animals by offering them herbs in the feed. Plant coverage analyses were done at seven farms, two of which had...... milk composition, yield and content, and potential effects on animal health....

  20. Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in rural Northeast (NE) region is one of the highest in Thailand. The typical NE diets are plant-based. Non-heme iron is the major form in plant source. The bioavailability of non-heme iron depends largely on the presence of enhancers, e.g. ascorbic acid, animal protein, organic acid and inhibitors, e.g. polyphenolic compounds including tannin, phytate in the food matrix of composite meals. The habitual NE Thai dishes consist of a variety of chili dips usually consumed with substantial amount of vegetables and spices. High contents of iron inhibitors such as phytate and polyphenolic compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population. However, this inhibitory effect can partially be compensated in vivo by their effect on increasing gastric emptying time and enhancing gastric acid secretion. Although spices and herbs are used in abundance in the developing world and are likely to affect iron absorption in these regions, no systematic investigations in humans have been performed to date. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the most common herbs and spices in typical Northeast diets on human iron absorption by stable isotope techniques. A series of studies will be conducted beginning with the identification of relevant spices and herbs commonly used in Thai habitual diets by 24 hours recall together with food frequency of consumption of popular local dishes. Later, the amount of spices/herbs per serving in popular dishes will be quantified by weighing method followed by the selection of spices/herbs. Food specimens collected in dry and rainy season will be analyzed individually for ascorbic acid, phytate, polyphenol and tannin contents. The three most relevant spices/herbs in the diet will be studied individually. First, the iron absorption from a basic test meal (plain white rice) with and without added spice/herb will be determined

  1. Investigation on monarch, minister, adjuvant and dispatcher herbs of Herb Pairs%《药对》药物君臣佐使考略

    范颖; 梁茂新; 马骥

    2011-01-01

    "诸病通用药"转引中药物,明确君、臣、使地位者242种,即君药64种、臣药117种、使药61种,执行三品定君臣佐使之法者178种.药物君臣地位均预先明确,比较稳定;论列君、臣和使药,未及佐药,可能沿袭了和对佐使药相提并论的认识;未能全面信守"主病之谓君"的说法,诸药皆从主病确定君、臣、使地位,此间由主证确定药物地位的思维方法尚未形成.君臣使内容和义蕴与君臣佐使法则迥然不同.%Introduce the concept of 'interchangeable medicine for all illness' in Classified Materia Medica into Herb Pairs to define 242 monarch, minister, adjuvant and dispatcher drugs. That is, 64 monarch, 117 minister, 61 dispatcher. Among them, there are 178 based on three grades of medicines in Classic of Meteria Medica. In Herb Pairs, monarch and minister medicine is relative stabilization as a result of definitude in advance. Meanwhile, it doesn't mention adjuvant medicine, perhaps following the viewpoint in Plain Questions and Classic of Meteria Medica. Furthermore, Herb Pairs mentains an opinion that not 'monarch medicine responds main disease' in Plain Questions but all illness should be treated by monarch, minister and dispatcher medicine according to the main disease. During this period of time, the thinking method of choosing medicine by main symptoms doesn't shape. Certainly, the content and meaning of monarch, minister and dispatcher in Herb Pairs is absolutely different with the law of monarch, minister, adjuvant and dispatcher in Prescription.

  2. Microbiological study of fresh herbs from retail premises uncovers an international outbreak of salmonellosis.

    Elviss, N C; Little, C L; Hucklesby, L; Sagoo, S; Surman-Lee, S; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J

    2009-08-31

    This Local Authorities Co-ordinators of Regulatory Services/Health Protection Agency study was prompted by the increasing concern regarding the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat salad vegetable products, particularly fresh herbs. During May to October 2007, 3760 ready-to-eat fresh herbs, of different varieties, were sampled across the UK to assess their microbiological safety in relation to salmonella contamination and levels of Escherichia coli. Sixty (1.6%) herb samples were found to be of unsatisfactory quality according to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria of foodstuffs, i.e. contaminated with Salmonella spp. and/or containing E. coli at >10(3) cfu/g. When criteria in the PHLS Microbiological Guidelines for some ready-to-eat foods (2000) were used, 117 (3.9%) of herb samples were of unsatisfactory quality due to the presence of salmonella and/or E. coli at > or = 10(2) cfu/g. Eighteen (0.5%) samples of six different herb types were contaminated with Salmonella spp.: identified as serotypes Senftenberg (8), Agona (2), Anatum (1), Durban (1), Javiana (1), Mgulani (1), Montevideo (1), Unnamed (I 16:g, t: z42) (1), Virchow (1) and mixed Newport & Virchow (1). In each case the retailer and the UK Food Standards Agency were immediately informed and remedial action taken. Samples contaminated with S. Senftenberg were specifically associated with basil grown in Israel. Thirty-two human cases of S. Senftenberg infection were subsequently identified throughout England and Wales and a further 19 in Scotland, Denmark, The Netherlands and the USA. The strain of S. Senftenberg identified from the basil and that from cases had an indistinguishable molecular profile, suggesting a likely connection between consumption of basil and human infection. The presence of Salmonella spp. is unacceptable in ready-to-foods such as fresh herbs. This study highlights the necessity of applying good agricultural and hygiene practices pre-, during and post

  3. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    Moo Jin Choi; Byung Tae Choi; Hwa Kyoung Shin; Byung Cheul Shin; Yoo Kyoung Han; Jin Ung Baek

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific...

  4. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach.

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Elliott, Christopher T

    2016-11-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS were developed, with the latter detecting commonly used adulterants by biomarker identification. The two tier testing strategy was applied to 78 samples obtained from a variety of retail and on-line sources. There was 100% agreement between the two tests that over 24% of all samples tested had some form of adulterants present. The innovative strategy devised could potentially be used for testing the global supply chains for fraud in many different forms of herbs. PMID:27211681

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices.

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  6. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  7. The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet.

    Bower, Allyson; Marquez, Susan; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases. PMID:25749238

  8. The Main Anticancer Bullets of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Thunder God Vine

    Zi Liu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The thunder god vine or Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. is a representative Chinese medicinal herb which has been used widely and successfully for centuries in treating inflammatory diseases. More than 100 components have been isolated from this plant, and most of them have potent therapeutic efficacy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the past four decades, the anticancer activities of the extracts from this medicinal herb have attracted intensive attention by researchers worldwide. The diterpenoid epoxide triptolide and the quinone triterpene celastrol are two important bioactive ingredients that show a divergent therapeutic profile and can perturb multiple signal pathways. Both compounds promise to turn traditional medicines into modern drugs. In this review, we will mainly address the anticancer activities and mechanisms of action of these two agents and briefly describe some other antitumor components of the thunder god vine.

  9. The effect of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice

    2001-01-01

    @@Vascular dementia is one of the most familiar types of senile dementia. Over the past few years, the research on the damage of cerebral tissues after ischemia has become a focus. The factors and mechanism of cerebral tissue damage after ischemia are very complex. The handicap of energy metabolism is regarded as the beginning factor which leads to the damage of neurons, but its dynamic changes in ischemic area and its role during the process of neuronal damage are not very clear. There are few civil reports on using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance instrument to explore the changes of cerebral energy metabolism in intravital animals. After exploring the influence of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism in ischemia-reperfusion mice, we came to the conclusion that herbs can improve the cerebral energy metabolism in ischemia-reperfusion mice.

  10. Isolation of two new bioactive proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius herb extract.

    Qa'dan, F; Nahrstedt, A; Schmidt, M

    2011-06-01

    Two new proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin (1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) in addition to the known compound epigallocatechin-(4beta-->6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from the air-dried herb of Cistus salvifolius. The chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR-spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-3 and the water extract of C. salvifolius herb were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 2 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 followed by compound 3, compound 1 and the water extract, while compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate in vitro inhibition against COX-1. PMID:21699087

  11. Metabolic Activation of Rhein: Insights into the Potential Toxicity Induced by Rhein-Containing Herbs.

    Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Jiyue; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yuan; Ruan, Jianqing; Zhang, Hongjian

    2016-07-20

    Rhein is a major component of the many medicinal herbs such as rhubarb. Despite wide use, intoxication cases associated with rhein-containing herbs are often reported. The present work aimed to investigate if rhein was subject to metabolic activation leading to toxicity. Upon incubations with different species of liver microsomes, three monoglucuronides were identified, corresponding to two hydroxyl glucuronides and one acyl glucuronide via the carboxyl group, respectively. Further study revealed that rhein acyl glucuronide was chemically reactive, and showed cytotoxicity toward hepatocarcinoma cells. In addition, significant species differences in glucuronidation of rhein were observed between laboratory animals and humans. Reaction phenotyping experiments demonstrated that rhein acyl glucuronide was catalyzed predominantly by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, 1A9, and 2B7. Taken together, the present study confirmed that rhein could be metabolically activated via the formation of acyl glucuronide, especially in human. PMID:27362917

  12. Presence of Bacillus cereus in Packaged Some Spices and Herbs Sold in Istanbul

    Harun Aksu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-three samples of packaged spices and herbs were collected from different retail shops in Istanbul, Turkey. They were examined for the presence and number of Bacillus cereus. It was determined that fifty-nine samples (63.44% contained more 100 cfu/g of B.cereus, with counts ranging from 102 to 3.2x103 cfu/g. In the 34 samples (36.56%, B.cereus were less 102 cfu/g. Only 5 samples (5.38% had counts between 103-104 cfu/g. The results suggest that incidence of B.cereus was very high in spices and herbs, and therefore should not be ignored in food industry, especially in the meat industry and mass catering establishments.

  13. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Zhongyue; Su, Junping; Liu, Weiwei; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Guo, Yuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00-38.50%) compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0) were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera. PMID:26186216

  14. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae.

    Yongqiang Liu

    Full Text Available Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00-38.50% compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, finite rate of increase (λ, fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0 were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera.

  15. Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....

    ... W X Y Z 5 Tips: What You Should Know About Popular Herbs Share: Herbal or botanical ... draw clear conclusions. Because of this variability, you should carefully review the available information and talk to ...

  16. Accumulation of some heavy metals in spice herbs in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat valley

    Peculiarities of some heavy metals (HM), (Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Cr, Zr) accumulation have been studied in spice herbs (basil, dill, coriander, savory) grown in open-air hydroponics and soil cultures of the Ararat Valley. It turned out that the amount of HM content in spice herbs grown in open-air hydroponic conditions was less than in the ones grown in soil conditions. The content of Pb and Ni in spice herbs exceeded the allowed concentration limits (ACL), especially in soil plants. Practical recommendations on obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been prepared. The biotechnological hydroponics method of producing spice herbs in the Ararat Valley is ecologically more beneficial than the soil method. Practical proposals of obtaining ecologically safe agricultural products have been developed

  17. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determin

  18. Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period

    Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria

  19. Persistence of stout clonal herbs as invaders in the landscape: a field test of historical records

    Pyšek, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil; Francírková, T.; Prach, K.

    Leiden: Backhuys Publishers, 2001 - (Brundu, G.; Brock, J.; Camarda, I.; Child , L.; Wade, M.), s. 235-244 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2005601; GA AV ČR IAA6005805; GA ČR GA206/99/1239 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : field test * invaders * stout clonal herbs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    Lee-Wen Chang; Chin-Chen Chu; Heuy-Ling Chu; Horng-Cherng Wu; Pin-Der Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L.,Mallotus repandus (Wild) Muell-Arg. (MRM),Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC),Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) Ohashi (TTLO),Clinacanthus nutans(Burm f.) Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB),Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM), againsttert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from seven herbs, reducing ability, metal-chelating activity and radical-scavenging activity such as 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were determined. In cellular systems,t-BHP was used as a model oxidant to induce oxidative stress. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate and chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate were used as fluorescence probe to determine reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione level int-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells, respectively. In addition, total tannins, total anthocyanins, total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results: According to the data obtained from the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method,DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing ability determination,MRM,SPRB, and BMDC showed relatively high antioxidant properties whileTTLO andICM were in the middle andSolanum indicum andClinacanthus nutans had relatively low activity. In cellular model systems,SPRB,BMDC, andTTLO showed higher protective effects againstt-BHP-induced oxidative stress.BMDC,ICM, andTTLO displayed higher inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species generation int-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells. In addition,SPRB,MRM, andBMDC showed significantly positive modulated glutathione levels. Tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids and polyphenolics were present in the herbs, which may in part contribute to regulating the oxidative stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that the seven selected herbs may play a crucial role in

  1. Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Herbivory in the Perennial Herb Lythrum salicaria

    Lehndal, Lina

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I combined field, common-garden and greenhouse experiments to examine the ecological and evolutionary consequences of plant-herbivore interactions in the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria. More specifically I examined (1) whether resistance and tolerance to damage from herbivores vary with latitude and are positively related to the intensity of herbivory in natural populations, (2) whether effects of herbivory on plant fitness vary with latitude, (3) whether populations are loc...

  2. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A.; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; ELLIOTT Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS w...

  3. Traditional Chinese medical herbs staged therapy in infertile women with endometriosis: a clinical study

    Ding, Zhaorong; Lian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrioid tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterus. About 30 to 40% patients with endometriosis are infertile. In traditional Chinese medical system, endometriosis associated infertility is mostly caused by kidney deficiency and blood stasis. The herb of reinforcing kidney and removing blood stasis is designed to treat the disease. Material and methods: All the 80 up-to-standard patients were divide...

  4. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Gentiana rigescens

    Xiaodong Zhang; Andrew C. Allan; Caixia Li; Yuanzhong Wang; Qiuyang Yao

    2015-01-01

    Gentiana rigescens is an important medicinal herb in China. The main validated medicinal component gentiopicroside is synthesized in shoots, but is mainly found in the plant’s roots. The gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory control remain to be elucidated. Genome resources of gentian are limited. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can aid in supplying global gene expression profiles. In this study we present sequence and transcript abundance data for the root and...

  5. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Svetla Angelova; Zlatina Gospodinova; Maria Krasteva; Georgi Antov; Valentin Lozanov; Tsanko Markov; Stefan Bozhanov; Elena Georgieva; Vanio Mitev

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction o...

  6. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Gaurav Sapra; Yogesh Kumar Vyas; Rahul Agarwal; Ashish Aggarwal; Chandrashekar, K. T.; Kanika Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice...

  7. Herbal Medicines in Brazil: Pharmacokinetic Profile and Potential Herb-Drug Interactions

    JoseMariaPrieto

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapid...

  8. Nephroprotective, Diuretic and Antioxidant Effects of Some Medicinal Herbs in Gentamicin-Nephrotoxic Rats

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby; Ashraf Abd-Elkhalik Hammouda

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the nephroprotective, diuretic and antioxidant effects of extracts of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs in gentamicin (GM)-nephrotoxic rats. Material and Methods: Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into six equal groups. Group 1 was given sterile saline solution by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (negative control). Group 2 (nephrotoxic) was injected with GM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days during the last week of th...

  9. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Ch’ng, Yung Sing; Tan, Chu Shan; Loh, Yean Chun; Ahmad, Mariam; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd.; YAM, MUN FEI

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King) for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR) macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR), second-derivative IR (SD-IR), and two-dimensional correla...

  10. Efficacy of Thai Traditional Herb Extracts against Fish and Shrimp Pathogenic Bacteria

    Direkbusarakom, S.; Ezura, Y.; Yoshimizu, M.; Herunsalee, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen species of Thai traditional herbs were selected for this study. They were Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Clinacanthus nutans, Eclipta alba, Momordica charantia, Phyllanthus acidus, P. amarus, P. debilis, P. pulcher, P. reticulatus, P. urinaria, Psidium guajava, Tinospora cordifolia, T. crispa and white and red strains or Ocimum sanctum. Using an agar plate dilution method, they were tested for antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria: Aeomonas hydrophila, a Strep...

  11. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    Lee-Wen Chang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L., Mallotus repandus (Wild Muell-Arg. (MRM, Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC, Tadehagi triquetrum (L. Ohashi (TTLO, Clinacanthus nutans (Burm f. Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB, Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM, against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from seven herbs, reducing ability, metal-chelating activity and radical-scavenging activity such as 2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were determined. In cellular systems, t-BHP was used as a model oxidant to induce oxidative stress. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate and chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate were used as fluorescence probe to determine reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione level in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells, respectively. In addition, total tannins, total anthocyanins, total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined. Results: According to the data obtained from the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method, DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing ability determination, MRM, SPRB, and BMDC showed relatively high antioxidant properties while TTLO and ICM were in the middle and Solanum indicum and Clinacanthus nutans had relatively low activity. In cellular model systems, SPRB, BMDC, and TTLO showed higher protective effects against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. BMDC, ICM, and TTLO displayed higher inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species generation in t-BHP-induced Clone 9 cells. In addition, SPRB, MRM, and BMDC showed significantly positive modulated glutathione levels. Tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids and polyphenolics were present in the herbs, which may in part contribute to regulating the oxidative stress. Conclusions: These results indicated that the seven

  12. Comparison of the protective effects of seven selected herbs against oxidative stress

    Lee-Wen Chang; Chin-Chen Chu; Heuy-Ling Chu; Horng-Cherng Wu; Pin-Der Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the protective effects of the water extracts of seven herbs, including Solanum indicum L., Mallotus repandus (Wild) Muell-Arg. (MRM), Bombax malabarica DC (BMDC), Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) Ohashi (TTLO), Clinacanthus nutans (Burm f.) Lindau, Salvia plebeia R. Br (SPRB), Ixeris chinensis Mak (ICM), against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in Clone 9 cells. Methods: To evaluate the antioxidant properties of water extracts from sev...

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) herb

    Hadush Gebrehiwot; R. K. Bachetti; Aman Dekebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leaves and flowering parts of Ocimum basilicum are believed to be rich of different phytochemicals and are traditionally used as antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, digestive, galactogogue, stomachic, and tonic agents. Hence, the study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of sweet basil (O. basilicum) herb. Methods: The leaf extract was used for screening of phytochemicals. A small amount of the powdered leaves of ...

  14. Isolation, identification and evaluation of natural antioxidants from aromatic herbs cultivated in Lithuania

    Dapkevicius, A.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction by inactivating free radicals formed during peroxidation of lipids. Aromatic and medicinal herbs are rich sources of natural radical scavenging compounds. The research described in this thesis foc...

  15. Divergence between phenotypic and genetic variation within populations of a common herb across Europe

    Villellas, Jesús; Berjano, Enrique Regina; Terrab, Anass; García González, María Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the pattern and causes of phenotypic and genetic variation within and among populations might help to understand life history variability in plants, and to predict their responses to changing environmental conditions. Here we compare phenotypic variation and genetic diversity of the widespread herb Plantago coronopus across Europe, and evaluate their relationship with environmental and geographical factors. Genetic diversity was estimated in 18 populations from molecular markers wit...

  16. Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest

    Maciej Wódkiewicz; Anna Justyna Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Białowieża Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and ...

  17. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Dejan Brkić; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Marina Soković; Petar D. Marin; Jasmina Glamočlija

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

  18. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    Sophia Yui Kau Fong; Qiong Gao; Zhong Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food intera...

  19. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer

    Petiwala, Sakina M.; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Jeremy eJohnson

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecul...

  20. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    RAVINDRA ADE; SHIVAJI DESHMUKH

    2012-01-01

    Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combinat...

  1. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  2. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Jing Wang; Feng-sen Li; Nan-nan Pang; Ge Tian; Min Jiang; Hong-ping Zhang; Jian-bing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration o...

  3. Sedative and hypnotic effects of Iranian traditional medicinal herbs used for treatment of insomnia

    Andalib, Sasan; Naeini, Azadeh Motavallian; Vaseghi, Ali; Vaseghi, Golnaz

    2011-01-01

    For tens of centuries, plants have been highly valued and regularly used as medicine amongst the masses. Insomnia, a loss of sleep, is mostly treated by synthetic sleeping tablets these days. However, questions have been raised about the safety of prolonged use of artificial sedatives due to their deleterious side effects such as physical dependence. In recent years, there has been an increasing propensity to preclude insomnia by herbal medicines throughout the world. Many herbs have a len...

  4. Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols

    Milovanović Mirjana; Banjac Nebojša; Vucelić-Radović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium) and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser k...

  5. Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction

    Fornari, Tiziana; G. de Vicente; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R.; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO 2 is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a compre...

  6. Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry

    Guo, F.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry diets. Therefore, there is an intensive search for alternatives such...

  7. Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.

    Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

  8. Rare medicinal herbs of the Himalayas: an ardent need for preservation.

    Pandey, Pt Kartikay

    2007-07-01

    The forest wealth of the Himalayan ranges is abundant with unique medicinal herbs, having tremendous economic importance. Latterly, these have adversely suffered at the hands of poachers and unlawful trade activities. The author cites the names of some of the rare species, in a bid to achieve their conservation through sensitization and participation of the masses, especially the tribals, in the greater interest of humanity. PMID:17638343

  9. 18C. Chinese Herbs Cured a Kidney Calculus—A Retrospective Case Report

    Zhou, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is referred to as holistic or complementary and alternative medicine. Herbal remedy plays the main role of TCM. It has been widely used in preventive measures and treatment modalities for all stages of illness. Here is a retrospective case report about herb healing the kidney stone and improving type II diabetes and hypertension. Patient, Method and Result: A male, 46 years old, chief complaint: intermit...

  10. Antioxidant activity of medicinal, aromatic and culinary herbs from organic and conventional farming

    Sabolová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The constant attempting of a comeback to the nature has its impact in food industry and agriculture. People prefer natural antioxidants that are considered as less dangerous to health than synthetic antioxidants. Herbs are very suitable as natural antioxidants due to the production of substances (secondary metabolites) that have antioxidant effect and can be easily used as food antioxidants. The reason for strengthening of nature may be the rising preferences of products in ecological...

  11. Weeds and endangered herbs have unforeseen dispersal helpers in the agri-environment: gastropods and earthworms

    Türke, Manfred; Blattmann, Tamara; Knop, Eva; Kindermann, Anne; Prestele, Julia; Marquez, Leonardo; Eisenhauer, Nico; Fischer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Agri-environmental schemes involving organic farming or set-aside management aim at promoting biodiversity and restoring ecosystem functioning in agrarian landscapes. Application of pesticides in these crop fields is strongly regulated facilitating the spread of weeds but also allowing for the establishment of endangered herbs and a variety of animals.Recent studies found gastropods and earthworms to be legitimate dispersers of seeds of wild plants. We assumed that both groups also playa sign...

  12. Effects of Kaolinite (Macsumsuk) and Herb Mixtures on the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Pork

    Kim, Byung Ki; Hwang, Eun Gyeong; Jung, Dae Jin; Ha, Jae Jung; Oh, Dong Yep; Choi, Chang Bon

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to identify technology for the production of high quality pork, based on the meat consumption habits of consumers. Macsumsuk, a type of kaolinite (a clay mineral), and/or a mixture of herbs (Mori Folium, Sophorae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, and Pogostemi Herba) were added to the diets of fattening pigs. Sixty barrow pigs (4 kinds of treatment × 5 pigs/treatment × 3 replicates) were randomly assigned to either the Control (no additive...

  13. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    Weerapreeyakul Natthida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P = 0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7 ± 12.3 μg/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79 ± 7.62 μg/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

  14. An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs)

    *S. K. Bariyah

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medication centuries back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modern medical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like ant...

  15. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    Beata Zimowska; Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak; Ewa Dorota Król; Ewa Dorota Zalewska

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita) was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis) stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and...

  16. Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) -Does It Ensure a Perfect Supply of Medicinal Herbs for Research and Drug Development?

    Leung, P. C.; K.F. Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Summary: While users of herbal formulae have been disappointed with the lack of uniformity with the quality of herbs provided by the herb suppliers of different standings, they do not have better means of supply.  The tradition of identifying special geographic regions, as being specific for the best supply of certain herbal items is no longer reliable since the large demand for large quantities of quality supply could not be satisfied by limited plantations in those regions. A comprehensive ...

  17. Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations

    Scollard, Johann

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a ...

  18. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics

    Yu-xia Ma; Xing-yue Yang; Gang Guo; Dong-qing Du; Yan-pu Yu; Shu-zhong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles’ treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results....

  19. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Rong-liang Dun; Min Yao; Long Yang; Xue-jun Cui; Jian-min Mao; Yu Peng; Guang-chong Qi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane H...

  20. Quantitative prediction and clinical evaluation of an unexplored herb-drug interaction mechanism in healthy volunteers.

    Gufford, B T; Barr, J T; González-Pérez, V; Layton, M E; White, J R; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative prediction of herb-drug interaction risk remains challenging. A quantitative framework to assess a potential interaction was used to evaluate a mechanism not previously tested in humans. The semipurified milk thistle product, silibinin, was selected as an exemplar herbal product inhibitor of raloxifene intestinal glucuronidation. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model simulations of the silibinin-raloxifene interaction predicted up to 30% increases in raloxifene area under the curve (AUC0-inf) and maximal concentration (Cmax). Model-informed clinical evaluation of the silibinin-raloxifene interaction indicated minimal clinical interaction liability, with observed geometric mean raloxifene AUC0-inf and Cmax ratios lying within the predefined no effect range (0.75-1.33). Further refinement of PBPK modeling and simulation approaches will enhance confidence in predictions and facilitate generalizability to additional herb-drug combinations. This quantitative framework can be used to develop guidances to evaluate potential herb-drug interactions prospectively, providing evidenced-based information about the risk or safety of these interactions. PMID:26904384

  1. Evaluation of 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5α-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5α-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5α-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5α-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5α-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5α-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  2. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans

    The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ≥ 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

  3. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Tsao, Sai-Wah [Department of Anatomy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Yibin, E-mail: yfeng@hku.hk [School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-24

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Herb Formula KIOM2012H against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Hwayong Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. KIOM2012H dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation and gene expressions involved in lipogenesis and related regulators. Experimental animals also showed a decrease in body weight changes and lipid-associated physiological parameters. This study shows that KIOM2012H has an alleviating effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation, and therefore can be applied for development of new therapeutic pharmaceuticals for treatment of NAFLD using natural products and herbs.

  5. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    Ming Hong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products.

  6. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products

  7. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy.

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products. PMID:26305257

  8. Review: Treatment of toxicity caused by anti-tubercular drugs by use of different herbs

    Radhika Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a familiar ailment in India and worldwide and is chief cause of mortality among all the infectious diseases. In present scenario therapy of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol are commonly recommended against TB. These drugs lead to many adverse reactions which are one of the major reasons for non adherence of patients to these drugs that may lead to development of MDR. With the current scenario of MDR cases rising, this problem of adverse drug reactions cannot be taken lightly. Due to lack of successful drugs for treatment of toxicity caused by anti-TB drugs we have to turn towards traditional medicine. Ayurveda is an ancient system of natural and holistic medicine. Ayurvedic herbs have still being used as a part of treatment regimen in many parts of world. Local people still use these herbs as they are full of curative properties. Because anti-tubercular drugs induced toxicity leads to oxidative enzymes imbalance also leads to necrosis in liver tissue and many other degenerative changes, herbal extracts were experimented upon to test their ability to ameliorate toxicity by activating protective pathways. In this review we have summarized few of such herbs whose extracts were tested for their curative properties against anti-tubercular drugs induced toxicity.The main constituents in extracts that were responsible for protective effects have also been summarized along with their mechanisms of action.

  9. Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs

    Nadejda Rozanova (Torshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic therapy (CT is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo. In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20–40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer.

  10. Investigation of the biosynthetic potential of endophytes in traditional Chinese anticancer herbs.

    Kristin I Miller

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a rich empirical knowledge of the use of plants for the treatment of disease. In addition, the microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are also of interest as the producers of the compounds responsible for the observed plant bioactivity. The present study has pioneered the use of genetic screening to assess the potential of endophytes to synthesize bioactive compounds, as indicated by the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS and polyketide synthase (PKS genes. The total DNA extracts of 30 traditional Chinese herbs, were screened for functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. The four PCR screens were successful in targeting four bacterial PKS, six bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and three fungal NRPS gene fragments. Analysis of the detected endophyte gene fragments afforded consideration of the possible bioactivity of the natural products produced by endophytes in medicinal herbs. This investigation describes a rapid method for the initial screening of medicinal herbs and has highlighted a subset of those plants that host endophytes with biosynthetic potential. These selected plants can be the focus of more comprehensive endophyte isolation and natural product studies.

  11. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; gān jú huā), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; shān zhā), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  12. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  13. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  14. Analysis of the Detection Characteristics of Irradiated Dried Spices and Herbs by Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    This study attempted to determine whether Photostimulated Luminescence (PSL) is applicable for the detection of post-irradiated foods by measuring the PSL photon counts of unirradiated and irradiated dried spices and herbs. A total of 19 dried spices and herbs was irradiated with a ∨60Co γ-ray source at 1, 5 and 10 kGy followed by measurement of PSL photon. The photon counts of unirradiated samples below 700 correspond to negative. Fifteen samples irradiated over 1 kGy showed photon counts of more than 5,000, indicating irradiation treatment. Intermediate counts (photon count 700-5,000) were observed in irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark at 10 kGy. These results suggest that it is possible to detect whether dried spices and herbs were irradiated by analyzing PSL, with the exception of white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark. Irradiated white/black pepper, nutmeg and cinnamon bark containing low levels of minerals were not sensitive to PSL. Therefore, further investigation is suggested to be performed by Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis or another validated or standardized method

  15. Assessment of Potential Herb-Drug Interactions among Nigerian Adults with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Ezuruike, Udoamaka; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that patients with diabetes do not rely only on prescription drugs for their disease management. The use of herbal medicines is one of the self-management practices adopted by these patients, often without the knowledge of their healthcare practitioners. This study assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDIs) amongst Nigerian adult diabetic patients. This was done through a literature analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of their herbal medicines and prescription drugs, based on information obtained from 112 patients with type-2 diabetes attending two secondary health care facilities in Nigeria. Fifty percent of the informants used herbal medicines alongside their prescription drugs. Worryingly, 60% of the patients taking herbal medicines did not know their identity, thus increasing the risk of unidentified HDIs. By comparing the pharmacokinetic profile of eight identified herbs taken by the patients for the management of diabetes against those of the prescription drugs, several scenarios of potential HDIs were identified and their clinical relevance is discussed. The lack of clinical predictors points toward cultural factors as the influence for herb use, making it more difficult to identify these patients and in turn monitor potential HDIs. In identifying these possible interactions, we have highlighted the need for healthcare professionals to promote a proactive monitoring of patients' use of herbal medicines. PMID:27559312

  16. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs.

    Jain, A; Basal, E

    2003-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators. These mediators include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Sphaeranthus indicus caused a smaller, still significant suppression of ROS. Aloe vera had no effect on ROS production. In the case of proinflammatory cytokine-induced monocytes, maximum suppression was shown by Azadirachta indica and Sphaeranthus indicus, followed by Hemidesmus indicus, Rubia cordifolia, and Curcuma longa. Aloe vera showed insignificant inhibitory activity. Thus, these herbs shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis. PMID:12622461

  17. [Macroscopic and microscopic identification of Chinese herb belonging to genus Senecio].

    Yang, Xue-Jing; Yang, Li; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Mian; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2011-07-01

    The medicinal herbs derived from genus Senecio have been commonly used in Chinese medicine and triggered attention in recent decades for that they contain the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Therefore the botanical pharmacognostic study to authenticate those herbs based on their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics is important for the assurance of safety when they are applied as raw material for extracts or for finished products. In this paper, 13 taxa (11 species and 2 varieties) of Senecio plants were collected and their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were observed and described by digital microscopic illustration. The results showed that the distribution of collenchyma in the cortex, the level of development for pericycle, the location of the phloem, and the ratio of pith in transverse sections of the stems, and the morphology of the leaf epidermal cells, the stomatal types and the non-glandular hairs in leaf surface view were found to be the main microscopic characteristics for authentication of different Senecio species. The herbs derived from genus Senecio can be distinguished from each other on the basis of their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, and those observation can be used for the identification of commercial crude drugs from Senecio plants. PMID:22010359

  18. Effects of Kaolinite (Macsumsuk) and Herb Mixtures on the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Pork.

    Kim, Byung Ki; Hwang, Eun Gyeong; Jung, Dae Jin; Ha, Jae Jung; Oh, Dong Yep; Choi, Chang Bon

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to identify technology for the production of high quality pork, based on the meat consumption habits of consumers. Macsumsuk, a type of kaolinite (a clay mineral), and/or a mixture of herbs (Mori Folium, Sophorae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, and Pogostemi Herba) were added to the diets of fattening pigs. Sixty barrow pigs (4 kinds of treatment × 5 pigs/treatment × 3 replicates) were randomly assigned to either the Control (no additives), T1 (3% Macsumsuk), T2 (3% Herb mixtures), or T3 (3% Macsumsuk + 3% Herb mixtures) groups, and were fed the diets for 60 d. Dressed weights were in the order of T1 (93.40±4.68kg) > T2 (91.40±6.52kg) > Control (88.80±1.57kg) > T3 (86.80±2.01kg). Back-fat thickness of the Control animals (23.2±1.03) was significantly greater than that of the various treatment groups (pquality grade were higher for all the treated groups than the Control group, thought the difference was not statistically significant. Crude fat content was significantly higher in the Control group (2.23±0.34%) than in the treated groups (pquality by reducing cooking loss, decreasing cholesterol content, and enhancing sensory characteristics. PMID:26761182

  19. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.

    Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-06-01

    Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

  20. The diversity and abundance of ground herbs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest in Brunei Darussalam

    Nurul Hazlina Zaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants are important components of total plant species richness in tropical forests. Ground herb diversity and abundance were studied in a lowland Mixed Dipterocarp forest (Andulau and a heath forest (Bukit Sawat in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. At each site, all ground herbs in twenty randomly selected 10 × 10 m subplots within a one hectare permanent plot were censused and identified. The study recorded a total of 20 families and 32 genera of ground herbs, with the family Zingiberaceae as the most abundant at both sites. Thirteen genera were recorded only at Andulau and 7 genera were exclusive to Bukit Sawat, with twelve genera common to both sites. Ground herb species richness appear higher at Andulau than Bukit Sawat (37 vs. 29, but this difference was not statistically significant at the subplot level. However, ground herb abundance and density were significantly higher at Bukit Sawat than Andulau (n =  846 vs. 385; 4230 vs. 1925 individuals ha-1. The more open canopy at Bukit Sawat may provide higher light availability here than at Andulau, which is characterised by a closed canopy. We suggest that light availability is the most important environmental factor influencing ground herb density and abundance at these sites. 

  1. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 k

  2. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 102 to l.4 x 108 per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 102 to 4.3 x 106 per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 101 to 1.9 x 105 per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  3. Phenolic compounds from Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp. Piperitum (Apiaceae herb and evaluation of hepatoprotective antioxidant activity

    Mona T. M. Ghanem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc and butanol (BuOH fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum. In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%, successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH· . Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250-300 g. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ΅g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM was exerted at 12.5 ΅g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare herb is a potential source of natural

  4. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

    2008-01-01

    Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A ...

  5. [Differences of concept and entity of xiao-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Golden Chamber].

    Yang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Lu, Xing

    2012-01-01

    There are significant differences of the XIAO-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and the Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber. The reasons are: (1) With the development of history, differentiation of herb category and effect kept changing from the Han Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, which led to the differences in concept and entity of herbs in different periods. (2) Lin Yi of the Song Dynasty may have redefined some herb's names according to the current situation when he revised Zhang Zhongjing's works. PMID:22613473

  6. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  7. EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF AERIEL DRIED PARTS OF SOME HERBS IN BROILER DIETS

    Yasar, S., D. Namik, G. Fatih, A. Gokcimen and K. Selcuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determines possible antibacterial, antioxidant and growth-promoting effects of some selected herbs in broiler chickens. Ground aerial parts of Thymbra spicata, Origanum minutiflorum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mrytus communis, Salvia tomentosa and ground seed of Cumin were added to broiler diets at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/w. Volatile essential oil contents were analysed. Samples of blood, digesta and intestinal tissues were analysed to determine antioxidant activity, bacteria growth and intestinal histomorphology, respectively. The results showed that at 0-21 days of age the birds performed better on the diets up to 0.25% of herbal inclusion level. Increasing the inclusion level from 0.5 to 1.5% for Origanum minutiflorum, Thymbra spicata and partially for Rosmarinus officinalis increased feed consumption with lower weight gain and depressed efficiency of feed conversion, but not for Salvia tomentosa, Mrytus communis and Cumin. The results further showed that broilers could better perform on the diets up to 0.5% of inclusion level at 42 days. All levels (except 1.5% for Cumin and Salvia tomentosa did not cause any impairment in performance of broilers. High inclusion levels (0.5 to 1.5% reduced E. coli count. The selected herbs did not cause an oxidative stress at a given inclusion level. Of the plants Rosmarinus officinalis clearly demonstrated strong antioxidant effect. The high doses of Origanum minutiflorum caused depression in growth rate associated with shortened villus development of intestinal epithelium in broilers. However, increased growth rate with Cumin associated with longer villus and increased dry matter retention in broilers at 21 days were recorded. It was suggested that some of selected herbs can be incorporated up to 0.5% into broiler diets on account of their antibacterial and antioxidant properties

  8. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Svetla Angelova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by МТТ cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 μg/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

  9. Phenolcarboxylic acids from medicinal herbs exert anticancer effects through disruption of COX-2 activity.

    Tao, Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Sheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

    2014-09-25

    Integrated research of herbs and formulas characterized by functions of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis is one of the most active fields in traditional Chinese medicine. This paper strives to demonstrate the roles of a homologous series of phenolcarboxylic acids from these medicinal herbs in cancer treatment via targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a well-recognized mediator in tumorigenesis. We selected thirteen typical phenolcarboxylic acids (benzoic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives and their dehydration-condensation products), and found gallic acid, caffeic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B showed 50% inhibitory effects on hCOX-2 activity and A549 cells proliferation. 2D-quantitative method was introduced to describe the potential structural features that contributed to certain bioactivities. We also found these compounds underwent responsible hydrogen bonding to Arg120 and Ser353 in COX-2 active site residues. We further extensively focused on danshensu [d-(+)-β-(3,4-dihydoxy-phenylalanine)] or DSS, which exerted COX-2 dependent anticancer manner. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 could enhance the ability of DSS inhibiting A549 cells growth. Additionally, COX-2/PGE2/ERK signaling axis was essential for the anticancer effect of DSS. Furthermore, combined treatment with DSS and celecoxib could produce stronger anticancer effects in experimental lung metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. All these findings indicated that phenolcarboxylic acids might possess anticancer effects through jointly targeting COX-2 activity in cancer cells and provided strong evidence in cancer prevention and therapy for the herbs characterized by blood-activating and stasis-resolving functions in clinic. PMID:24916702

  10. The Most Frequent Herbs Proposed by Iranian Traditional Medicine for Alopecia Areata

    Rezghi, Maedeh; Fahimi, Shirin; Zakerin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common immune-mediated hair loss disorder. AA has a reported incidence of 0.1-0.2% with a lifetime risk of 1.7%. Histologically, AA is characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear cells around the bulb of the affected hair follicles. Corticosteroids are the most popular drugs for the treatment of this disease. Despite its high prevalence, currently available treatments are mostly unsatisfactory and inefficient for the more chronic and severe types of the AA. Alopecia areata is a well-known disorder in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). “Da oth-tha,lab” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate AA. Traditional Iranian physicians believed that the presence of morbid matter in the scalps is the main cause of the disease, which blocks nutrients and causes hair roots to deteriorate. Herbal medicines in the form of topical preparations were applied by ITM scholars for the treatment of AA. This study was performed to determine the most frequent useful herbs for AA as mentioned in ITM. Methods: Seven ITM references such as Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo,men tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi,i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi) and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar) were studied for anti-AA medicines. Subsequent to our study, the herbal medicines were listed and scored based on the frequency of their prescriptibility. Moreover, we took the effort to provide the best scientific name for each plant. Results: This study showed that Allium cepa L., Artemisia abrotonon L., Allium sativum L., and Asphodelus ramosus L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM references for the recovery of AA. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new herbal medicines for clinical research in the field of alopecia areata treatment.

  11. Pyrolysis kinetics of biomass (herb residue) under isothermal condition in a micro fluidized bed

    Highlights: • Herb residual pyrolysis kinetics was studied under isothermal condition. • A micro fluidized bed was used as the reactor. • Pyrolysis reaction in the fluidized bed can be finished in around 10 s. • The values of activation energy for generating H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 were achieved. - Abstract: Herb residue is one of the most important industrial biomass in China in terms of availability and potential for use as a bioenergy resource. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of this fuel in an inert atmosphere was evaluated using a micro fluidized bed. The isothermal differential analysis was applied for determination of kinetic parameters for the major gas components formation including reaction order, activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The temperature inside the micro fluidized bed was steady and the pyrolysis reaction of herb residue finished in around 10 s at 600–800 °C. The reaction time for complete releasing of individual gas components was shorter at higher temperature. Experimental results showed that under the conditions studied, the values of activation energy for generating H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 were 18.90, 12.05, 10.48 and 11.31 kJ/mol respectively, corresponding to the values of pre-exponential factor in the range of 0.88–1.38 s−1. The results indicated that H2 was the most difficult to form due to the highest activation energy, while generating CO was the easiest corresponding to the lowest activation energy. Compared with TGA and other analysis approaches, the kinetic parameters obtain by the micro fluidized bed were significantly lower benefiting from its quick reaction features

  12. Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs

    Griselda Patricia Scipioni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks of compound yerba maté. In most cases they complied with the standards of the country with the exception of one trademark from Argentina.A erva-mate composta é um produto que se consome amplamente na região do MERCOSUL. Obtém-se misturando erva-mate com outras ervas aromáticas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o estudo das características físico-químicas das principais ervas usadas na mistura e a caracterização das marcas de erva-mate composta. Determinou-se a umidade, extração de água, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e a concentração de cafeína. Encontraram-se nas ervas, valores padrões diferentes aos da erva-mate tais como valores maiores de conteúdo de umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis ácidas e menores extratos de água. Fizeram-se determinações em nove marcas de erva-mate composta. Na maioria dos casos, cumpriam com as normas do país, exceto uma marca da Argentina

  13. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  14. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Sven Schröder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan, Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto, Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto, and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto. The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN.

  15. Herbs in hemato-oncological care: an evidence-based review of data on efficacy, safety, and drug interactions.

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Attias, Samuel; Tadmor, Tamar; Schiff, Elad

    2010-08-01

    Herbal remedies are clearly a complementary and alternative modality used frequently by patients with hemato-oncological neoplasias during the course of their specific treatment. This review focuses on the potential safety and efficacy of herbs which are either used often or even on a daily basis by patients with hematological malignancies or indicated in the herbal pharmacopeias utilized by various traditional systems of medicine, in order to improve the well-being of patients with these cancers. Traditional medicine worldwide is a source for ongoing laboratory research related to the activity of herbs on cultured cell lines derived from patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Although the number of clinical studies in the field of hemato-oncology is limited, there appears to be potential efficacy in studies of mistletoe (Viscum album), green tea, Indian and Middle-Eastern spices, and some traditional Chinese, American, and European herbs. In addition to the potential efficacy of herbs, safety issues are also reviewed here, particularly, the documented and potential side effects, herb-drug interactions, and matters of quality control. Based on the above issues, the authors suggest enhancing doctor-patient communication regarding herbal use by adopting a patient-centered attitude based on scientific perspective. PMID:20528250

  16. Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

    2012-03-01

    A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 μg kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

  17. Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  18. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    Naoki Ohkura; Haruna Yokouchi; Mariyo Mimura; Riki Nakamura; Gen-ichi Atsumi

    2015-01-01

    Aims The present study aimed to identify new hemostyptics by assessing the coagulation enhancing activity of 117 Chinese herbal extracts in vitro. Methods Herbs were boiled in water for about 30 min, filtered and then lyophilized filtrates (10 mg/mL) were dissolved in water. Coagulation was assayed as prothrombin time (PT). Plasma diluted in saline was incubated with each extract for five minutes and then PT reagent was added followed by CaCl2 solution and the time taken to form ...

  19. Progress in Study on Shen-invigorating Herbs Used in Promoting Follicular Development

    连方; 王玉东; 张宁

    2003-01-01

    @@ The practice of stimulating follicular development by Shen-invigorating herbs is directed by traditional Chinese medical theories of "the Shen stores essence of life and governs reproduction" and also the theory of "females' periodicity of the ebb and flow of the blood sea". The follicular phase has physiologic characteristics of blood sea ebbing and yin growing, accordingly using the treating principle of invigorating Shen and nourishing the essence can stimulate follicles' normal development and maturation which can cure many diseases such as female infertility, menoxenia and amenorrhoea. This article will give an introduction of the recent 10 years' research of Shen-invigorating treatment in stimulating follicular development .

  20. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    Joshi Devi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

  1. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Satish Patel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

  2. Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis

    T S Roopashree

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In view of increasing resistance to existing antimicrobial agents, herbal drugs are being looked as very importance source for discovery of new agents for treating various ailments related to bacterial infections. Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Momordica charantia are well known plants in Asia including India which posses wide range of pharmacological activities. These drugs have been used in India as  folk remedy in the form of decoctions and infusions to treat bacterial infections and also claimed to be an effective against variety of skin conditions like psoriasis, acne, wounds etc. The present investigation was carried out to study the unexplored area of these drugs towards their antibacterial activity with respect to their traditional use as antipsoriatic agents. The herbs were subjected to successive extraction using different solvents and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial evaluation against both gram positive and gram negative organisms by cup plate technique. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts were found to be more effective against all the bacteria. Staphyllococcus aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts among the tested organisms.   Industrial relevance: The selected herbs have been used traditionally for treating skin diseases like psoriasis, for which there is no complete cure till date. Though exact mechanism of these herbs for their effectiveness in psoriasis is not understood, according to American academy of dermatology antibacterial therapy could also be used for treating psoriasis. In view of this study of antibacterial activity was carried out. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts exhibited highest activity especially against S. aureus which has been one of the organisms which aggravate conditions like psoriasis. As the aqueous extracts have shown excellent activity, these extracts could be formulated individually or in combination as external or internal dosage forms

  3. Antioxidant activities of herbs, fruit and medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum extracts produced by microfiltration process

    Vukosavljević Predrag; Novaković Miroslav; Bukvić Branka; Niksić Miomir; Stanisavljević Ivana; Klaus Anita

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents kinds of extraction and cross-flow filtration of composition of 46 healthful and aromatic herbs, 8 fruits and fungi Ganoderma lucidum. Those extracts are part of Bitter 55, which have significant antioxidant capacity. Antioxidative activities of plant extracts have been determined by DPPH test using method of Blois. Bitter 55 which was kept at the green bottle in the dark has EC50 = 141.07 μl/ml and it was stable during 150 days. Synthetic anti-oxidants BHT (ditertbutilhyd...

  4. Comparative studies on phenotypic plasticity of two herbs,Changium smyrnioides and Anthriscus sylvestris

    常杰; 关保华; 葛滢; 陈玉成

    2004-01-01

    The endangered medicinal herb, Changium smyrnioides can only be found in deciduous forest gaps within the middle to northern subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest zone of China. The considerable plasticity of its shoot and root structure helps it to capture light more effectively in winter and early spring, and to adapt to the soil moisture conditions in its narrow habitat. Another medicinal plant, Anthriscus sylvestris, is of similar economic importance but commonly distributed widely. In contrast to C. smyrnioides, it has low structural plasticity. It is also specialized to adapt to the moist and sunny environment, where habitat, such as the banks of creeks and rivers, is abundant.

  5. The Chinese herb-derived Sparstolonin B suppresses HIV-1 transcription

    Deng, Xin; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Jiang, Feng; Chen, Ran; Peng, Peichun; Wen, Bin; Liang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chines herb derived Sparstolonin B, (SsnB), is a recently identified natural compound that selectively blocks TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling. But it is unknown whether this compound has any effect on HIV infection. Findings We found that SsnB treatment blocked HIV-1 transcription via a novel mechanism that requires the TAR region. Treatment of human T cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells with SsnB at 1 μM significantly inhibited HIV production. Lastl...

  6. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  7. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass; Mohammed Saud Al-Jasser

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, resp...

  8. Preliminary design characteristics of the RB fast-thermal core 'HERBE'

    The 'RB' is zero power heavy water critical assembly designed in 1958 in Yugoslavia. The reactor operated using natural metal uranium, 2% enriched metal uranium, and 80% enriched UO2 fuel of Soviet origin. A study of design of fast neutron fields began in 1976 and three fast neutron fields were designed up to 1983: the external neutron converter, the experimental fuel channel and the internal neutron converter, as the first step to fast-thermal coupled system. The preliminary design characteristics of the HERBE - a new fast - thermal core at the RB reactor are shown in this paper

  9. Treatment with Parenteral Nutrition Support and Chinese Herbs in One Case of Primary Small Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Yan-cheng Dai; Zhi-peng Tang; Gui-tong Ma; Ping Yin; Yu-ping Gong; Wen Liu; Song Wang; Ya-li Zhang; Xin-ying He

    2009-01-01

    @@ INTESTINAL lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease first reported by Waldmanin in 1961.~1 Since then, no more than two hundred cases have been reported. IL is characterized by dilated lymphatic vessles in the intestinal wall and small bowel mesentery which induce loss of protein and lymphocytes into bowel lumen. We here report a case of IL in a young male patient who was admitted for complaint of recurrent diarrhea for ten years and aggravation of the illness one year ago. He was diagnosed by endoscopy and confirmed by pathology as a primary IL and treated by parenteral nutrition support and Chinese herbs.

  10. The most dangerous pathogens of herbs from Lamiaceae and Plantaginaceae family

    Beata Zimowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging various parts of herbs from Lamiaceae family were carried out in 2004-2009 and from Plantaginaceae family in 2009-2011 correspondingly. Phoma strasseri, the most dangerous pathogen of peppermint (Mentha piperita was commonly obtained from peppermint rhizomes and stems with symptoms of necrosis and tissue disintegration.Phomopsis sclareawas isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis stems, showing symptoms of necrosis, peeling off and bark breaking. Phoma nepeticolawas obtained from the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca leaves and stems with symptoms of small necrotic spots. Phyllosticta plantaginiswas isolated from leaves of ribwort (Plantago lanceolata showing symptoms of small, regular, necrotic spots.

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TRIKATU HERBS THE HEALING TOUCH OF AYURVEDA

    Das Arpita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, arguably the oldest system of rnedicine in the world, frequently uses fixed combinations of herbs. An important ingredient of many recipes, some of which date back to 6000 BC, is 'Tlikatu' (Sanskrit, meaning 'three acrid'. Which is a mixture of black pepper Piper nigrum; long pepper, Piper longum; and ginger, Zingiber ofticinale; the reason for the inclusion of these has recently been examined and a theory for their use proposed which involves enhancement of bioavailability. The bioavailability enhancement probably results from the fact that piperine is a poter inhibitor of drug metabolism.

  12. Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC

    Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

  13. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    Cho, J.H.; Zhang, S; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg l...

  14. Combination Effects of Herbs in a Multi-herbal Formula: Expression of Juzen-taiho-to's Immuno-modulatory Activity on the Intestinal Immune System

    Hiroaki Kiyohara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal formulas of traditional Japanese (Kampo, Chinese and Korean medicines usually comprise multiple herbs in a single formula. These medicines are expected to show their clinical effects by chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical combination effects of multi-herbs. However, little effort has been made so far to scientifically clarify the nature of such combination effects. Interestingly, for example, though a Kampo medicine Juzen-taiho-to (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese stimulates the immune functions of Peyer's patch cells, none of its single component herbs shows such activity. We thus examined the combination effect of herbs in the Juzen-taiho-to formula for the expression of its immuno-stimulating activity. Juzen-taiho-to, a composite formula of 10 herbs, has been generally considered to comprise two kinds of basic formula, each of which consists of four different herbs in addition to two others. The combinations of herbs based on these two basic formulas were evaluated for their stimulating activities on cytokine production from murine Peyer's patch cells both in vitro and ex vivo. Combined decoction of six among 10 herbs in Juzen-taiho-to is crucial for the expression of its stimulating activity on Peyer's patch cells. 3D-HPLC analysis of the ingredients in the fractions from the combined decoctions indicated that, in addition to quantitative changes of ingredients, alterations occur in their chemical composition by decoction of different herbs. The stimulating activity of Juzen-taiho-to on Peyer's patch cells results from the combination effect of its six essential component herbs. This combination effect is based on physicochemical interactions among the ingredients of the component herbs.

  15. Isolation of chlorogenic acid from Mutellina purpurea L. herb using high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore proper isolation conditions of chlorogenic acid from the herb of Mutelina purpurea L. - a new source of this bioactive molecule. The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 40% aqueous solution of methanol combined with high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was utilised for the efficient extraction and the separation of chlorogenic acid from the M. purpurea herb in less than 30 min. The structure of the obtained compound was confirmed by mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. The preparative HPCCC was performed using the mixture of ethyl acetate, butanol and water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the reverse-phase mode. The chlorogenic acid was isolated from this herb for the first time, yielding 96% purity. The ASE with 40% methanol combined with HPCCC separation was proven to be a useful tool for quick and efficient isolation of chlorogenic acid from M. purpurea. PMID:25185707

  16. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  17. Screening for anti-pancreatic lipase properties of 28 traditional Thai medicinal herbs

    Ananya Dechakhamphu; Nattapong Wongchum

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the effect of 28 medicinal plants on inhibition of pancreatic lipase and evaluate the phytochemical contents of extracts. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of 28 traditional Thai herbal medicines were assayed for their in vitro activities against porcine pancreatic lipase using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as a substrate. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloids was done. Results: Extracts from four herbs, Memecylon edule Roxb., Garcinia vilersiana Pierre, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl., at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, strongly inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase by 90.97%, 92.04%, 94.64%and 95.38%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between phenolic content and inhibition activity. Inhibition activity was significantly correlated with flavonoid and with alkaloid contents. Conclusions: From this result, it could be concluded that herbs represent a rich of anti-pancreatic lipase compounds, in particular, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from these plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia.

  18. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  19. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE.

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians' article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  20. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  1. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2.

    Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Promkhatkaew, Duanthanorm; Bunjob, Malee; Chueyprom, Asawachai; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2010-02-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. PMID:20140802

  2. Availability of essential trace elements in medicinal herbs used for diabetes mellitus and their possible correlations

    Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further, Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material (RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1-2 μg/g), Rb (10-40 μg/g), Cs (80-300 ng/g), Se (∼100 ng/g) and Zn (25-60 μg/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2±1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 μg/g whereas Cd and Pb were in ∼5 μg/g and <10 μg/g, respectively. (author)

  3. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paullinia cupana Kunth

    This paper presents some comparisons about the influence of high doses of irradiation and biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids and flavonoids. Since raw materials are often contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, they can also result in serious human illness. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of microorganisms. Whether the essential oils, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation will be analyzed. The powdered and dehydrated herbs for and medical uses will be irradiated with electron bean applying doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated will be Paullinia cupana Kunth (popular name Guarana) is largely cultivated in Brazil and to very used as energetic drink, and Rhamus purshiana D.C. despite the nutritional value, this vegetable has important medicinal proprieties as depurate and diuretic. The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation will be analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography. (author)

  4. A system for screening agonists targeting β2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs

    Hui WANG; Shi-you LI; Chuan-ke ZHAO; Xin ZENG

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human 132-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Imrnaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii lmmaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration re-sponse analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (ECI/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 μg/ml, respectively.Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening β2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of β2-adrenoceptor.

  5. Antioxidant and anti-glycation activities correlates with phenolic composition of tropical medicinal herbs

    JS Ramkissoon; MF Mahomoodally; N Ahmed; AH Subratty

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contribution of total phenolic content (TPC) in glycation inhibitory activity of common tropical medicinal food and spices with potential antioxidative properties. Methods: In vitro glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) assay was used. Ethanolic extracts of ten common household condiments/herbs (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Thymus vulgaris, Petroselinum crispum, Murraya koenigii Spreng, Mentha piperita L., Curcuma longa L., Allium cepa L., Allium fistulosum and Coriandrum sativum L.) were evaluated for antioxidative activity by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the TPC, flavonoid and tannins content were determined. Results: Findings showed good correlation between TPC/DPPH (r= 0.8), TPC/FRAP (r= 0.8), TPC/Anti-glycation (r=0.9), DPPH/Anti-glycation (r= 0.6), FRAP/Anti-glycation (r = 0.9), Flavonoid/Anti-glycation (r= 0.7) and Tannins/Anti-glycation (r = 0.8) and relatively fair correlation for TPC/Flavonoids (r = 0.5) and TPC/Tannins (r =0.5). Results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress. Conclusions: The positive glycation inhibitory and antioxidative activities of these tropical herbs suggest a possible role in targeting ageing, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.

  6. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  7. Enxertia herbácea em Myrtaceae nativas do Rio Grande do Sul

    Daiane Silva Lattuada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade da técnica de enxertia herbácea em frutíferas nativas da família Myrtaceae. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Horticultura e Silvicultura/ UFRGS, em Porto Alegre. Duas espécies de Myrtaceae nativas foram usadas, tanto como porta-enxerto quanto como enxerto, Eugenia uniflora (Pitangueira e E. involucrata (Cerejeira-do-rio-grande ou Cerejeira-do-mato, totalizando quatro combinações. O método de enxertia adotado foi por garfagem em fenda cheia, em ramos herbáceos, com diâmetro médio do porta-enxerto de 0,1cm, enquanto os ramos dos enxertos apresentavam diâmetro médio entre 0,08 a 0,1cm, para as duas espécies. As análises foram quinzenais e, após 70 dias, foram analisadas estatisticamente a pega e a altura média das brotações emitidas. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental composta de cinco enxertos. Os resultados indicaram pega de 60% na combinação Pitangueira-Pitangueira (porta enxerto - enxerto. As demais combinações mostraram-se ineficientes.

  8. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Alberti, A. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Corda, U. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuochi, P. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.it; Bortolin, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Calicchia, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  9. Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser known Alliaria officinalis Andrz. are described as a good sources of highly prized essential oils in several wild-growing herbs. They are traditionally used in cooking. Quinoa seeds considered as multipurpose agro-industrial crop and the seeds may be utilized for human food and in flour products and in animal feed stocks because of its high nutritive value. Furthermore, watermelon meal possesses good nutritional quality, which may be commercially used as a new feed in the human or in the cattle nutrition. Seed oils, from Rubus ideaus, Ribes nigrum and walnut are also presented. The chemical composition on the sterols and essential fatty acids content, of these seed oils are shown that some of them can be successfully used in human nutrition, under specific conditions. Finally, developing new cholesterol-reducing products, such as phytosterols and their esters, which are marked as cholesterol-reducing food ingredient as well as the information on its incorporation into foods, are also included.

  10. Influence of void effects on reactivity of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    Coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at the experimental zero power heavy water reactor RB is a system with the significant effects of the neutron leakage and neutron absorption. Presence of a coolant void introduces a new structure in an extremely heterogeneous core. In those conditions satisfactory results of the calculation are acquired only using specified space-energy homogenization procedure. In order to analyze transient appearances and accidental cases of the reactor systems, a procedure for modeling of influence of moderator and coolant loss on reactivity ('void effect') is developed. Reduction of the moderator volume fraction in some fuel channels due to air gaps or steam generation during the accidental moderator boiling, restricts validity of the diffusion approximation in the reactor calculations. In cases of high neutron flux gradients, which are consequence of high neutron absorption, application of diffusion approximation is questionable too. The problem may be solved using transport or Monte Carlo methods, but they are not acceptable in the routine applications. Applying new techniques based on space-energy core homogenization, such as the SPH method or the discontinuity factor method, diffusion calculations become acceptable. Calculations based on the described model show that loss of part of moderator medium introduce negative reactivity in the HERBE system. Calculated local void reactivity coefficients are used in safety analysis of hypothetical accidents

  11. Quality control aspects of herbs and botanicals in developing countries: Coleus forskohlii Briq a case study

    Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current trend of commercialization of herbal medicines draw a huge need of maintaining their quality. The declaration of quality, safety and efficacy of medicinal plants as well as poly-herbal formulations has become an important issue. Hence, qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbal drugs and formulations viz., fingerprint profiles and quantification of the various markers become key factors of quality control. Materials and Methods: Present investigation is a detailed report for quality control of well-known herb Coleus forskohlii Briq, which includes physicochemical parameter determination, safety evaluation, microscropical evaluation, and chromatographic fingerprinting as well. Results: Physico-chemical characters were evaluated according to Indian Pharmacopoeia, further microscopic evaluation of transverse section of Coleus reveals that periderm, secondary phloem, and wide secondary xylem cylinder, which occupies major portion of the root fragmentary. Chromatographic fingerprint profiles of Coleus have been generated, and a marker based standardization strategy was adopted; using different analytical technique like high-performance thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to maintain quality and ensure safety as well as efficacy. Conclusion: These advancements in modern techniques of analysis can lead to effective quality control of Coleus as well as other herbs. Present report can act as pioneer for quality control of modern herbal medicine.

  12. Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.

    Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

    2006-11-01

    The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

  13. Sale of medicinal herbs in pharmacies and herbal stores in Hurlingham district, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Hernán G. Bach

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the sale of medicinal plants was described in the urban city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacists and herb store owners about different characteristics of retail. Likewise, different types of retailers were compared, and the phytomedicine degree of acceptance was consulted. The percentage of customers who buy medicinal plants in herb stores is higher than in pharmacies. The five most demanded species were: "malva" (Malva sp., 18%; "manzanilla" (Matricaria recutita, 13%; "tilo" (Tiliasp., 12%; "cuasia" (Picrasma crenata, 8%; and "boldo" (Peumus boldus, 7%. In like manner, the most demanded mixes of species were those that had slimming properties, 21%; digestive, 17%; sedative and diuretic, 13%. Of the 32 most frequently requested species, only 13 are native. Phytomedicines were widely accepted in the different kinds of retail stores. It was also emphasized that, contrary to the usual assumption, the choice to consume plants is cultural rather than economic. Due to the acceptance observed in the use of phytomedicines, it must be emphasized the potential that Argentina possesses for the development of this industry.

  14. [Clinical and experimental study of burns treated locally with Chinese herbs].

    Wang, G D; Zhang, Y M; Xiong, X Y

    1991-12-01

    According to the multiple pharmacological functions of Chinese herbs for treating burns, the authors selected some traditional herbs to cure the burning wound, which had not only the function of improving the local microcirculation of the burned surface and their bactericidal action, but also the function of changing the bacterial growth milieu action. Coptis chinensis 40%, Herba Taraxaci 40%, Fructus Mume 10% and Salvia miltiorrhizae 10% were boiled, infiltrated and disinfected. The mixture thus made was called as Burn II, which were applied on the burned surface daily, 97.1% of 103 patients were cured. Through the experiment of 60 rabbits burned by irons, which were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 in each group) and each 2 groups infected respectively with Bacillus pyocyaneus, Bacillus Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus, took one of each infected group as control group. After 14 days, the infected burned surfaces which were applied with Burn II daily. The results showed that the effect of Burn II was not only significant, but also its usage was not highly restricted by the medical condition. PMID:1821339

  15. Flavonoid Glycosides and Their Derivatives from the Herbs of Scorzonera austriaca Wild.

    Xie, Yang; Guo, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Guang-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides and two derivatives were isolated from the herbs of Scorzonera austriaca Wild by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified, using chemical and spectroscopic methods, as 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone 6-C-(2''-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside) (1), 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone 6-C-(2''-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside) (2), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (3), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone 6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), 3'-methoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone 6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone 8-C-(6''-O-trans-caffeoyl β-d-glucopyranoside) (6), and 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone 8-C-(6''-O-trans-caffeoyl β-d-glucopyranoside) (7). Compounds 6 and 7 are new flavonoid glycoside derivatives, and compounds 1-5 were isolated from the herbs of Scorzonera austriaca for the first time. Compounds 6 and 7 were also assayed for their hepatoprotective activities with rat hepatocytes in vitro. PMID:27338324

  16. Elucidation of Danzhixiaoyao Wan and Its Constituent Herbs on Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production

    Hui Liao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Danzhixiaoyao Wan (DW is a common 10 herbs formulation in China for regulating several clinical conditions affecting women. This research tried to explain one of DW's functions, purging heat, using in vitro pharmacological analyses. The whole formulation and each single herb of DW were compared based on antioxidant activity with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay, and for their inhibitory effect (IE on nitric oxide (NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages with the Griess assay. The results showed that DW as a whole formulation had both antioxidant activity and an IE on NO production, while the individual herb component of DW varied in their ORAC values and inhibition of NO production. The ORAC value of the whole DW was 450 μmol TE g−1. The order of antioxidant (ORAC activity of the single herbs was: Mentha haplocalyx (1352 μmol TE g−1 > Glycyrrhiza uralensis (1184 μmol TE g−1 > Gardenia jasminoides (1129 μmol TE g−1 > Paeonia suffruticosa (465 μmol TE g−1, with the contributions being additive rather than synergistic. The production of nitrite by stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (unstimulated: 0.5 ± 0.1 μM versus LPS: 38.9 ± 2.3 μM was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05 by M. haplocalyx, G. jasminoides, Bupleurum chinense and Paeonia lactiflora. DW as a whole had an IE on NO production, but this was not significant. The single herb M. haplocalyx had the highest ORAC value and the highest IE on NO production, followed by G. jasminoides. Both of these herbs have the ‘purging heat’ property in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and this property of the samples may be correlated with the antioxidant activity and IE on NO production.

  17. Classification of Herbs Plant Diseases via Hierarchical Dynamic Artificial Neural Network after Image Removal using Kernel Regression Framework

    Lili N.A,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When herbs plants has disease, they can display a range of symptoms such as colored spots, or streaks that can occur on the leaves, stems, and seeds of the plant. These visual symptoms continuouslychange their color, shape and size as the disease progresses. Once the image of a target is captured digitally, a myriad of image processing algorithms can be used to extract features from it. The usefulness of each of these features will depend on the particular patterns to be highlighted in the image. A key point in the mplementation of optimal classifiers is the selection of features that characterize the image. Basically, in this study, image processing and pattern classification are going to be used to implement a machine vision system that could identify and classify the visual symptoms of herb plants diseases. The image processing is divided into four stages: Image Pre-Processing to remove image noises (Fixed-Valued Impulse Noise, Random-Valued Impulse Noise and Gaussian Noise, Image Segmentation to identify regions in the image that were likely to qualify as diseased region, Image Feature Extraction and Selection to extract and select important image features and Image Classification to classify the image into different herbs diseases classes. This paper is to propose an unsupervised diseases pattern recognition and classification algorithm that is based on a modified Hierarchical Dynamic Artificial Neural Network which provides an adjustable sensitivity-specificity herbs diseases detection and classification from the analysis of noise-free colored herbs images. It is also to proposed diseases treatment algorithm that is capable to provide a suitable treatment and control for each identified herbs diseases.

  18. The effect of sodium reduction and the use of herbs and spices on the quality and safety of bologna sausage

    Carla Ivone Carraro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the replacement of 50% NaCl by KCl in Bologna sausage with the addition of herbs and spice blends (coriander, onion, white pepper, cardamom, and Jamaican pepper was evaluated. The formulations tested showed a significant reduction in the sodium content with no major alterations in the emulsion stability, texture, and microbiological characteristics. The use of 50% KCl caused a reduction in the sensory quality leading to a significant decrease in the consumers' purchase intention. The formulations with the addition of herbs and spice blends presented better results in the sensory evaluation indicating that this strategy can reduce the negative effects resulting from the use of KCl.

  19. Chemical Composition, Antioxidative and Anticancer Activities of the Essential Oil: Curcumae Rhizoma–Sparganii Rhizoma, a Traditional Herb Pair

    Guan-Ling Xu; Di Geng; Meng Xie; Kai-Yue Teng; Yu-Xin Tian; Zi-Zhen Liu; Cheng Yan; Yan Wang; Xia Zhang; Yan Song; Yue Yang; Gai-Mei She

    2015-01-01

    As a classical herb pair in clinics of traditional Chinese medicine, Curcumae Rhizoma–Sparganii Rhizoma (HP CR–SR) is used for activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The essential components in HP CR–SR and its single herbs were comparatively analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data. 66, 22, and 54 components in volatile oils of Curcumae Rhizoma, Sparganii Rhizoma, and HP CR–SR were identified, and total contents accounted for 75.416%, 91.857%, and 79.553% respec...

  20. Descomposición foliar in situ de Heliconia marginata en un humedal herbáceo (Barlovento, Venezuela)

    Ruben Torres; Carlos Lugo; Elizabeth Gordon; Lourdes Suárez-Villasmi

    2015-01-01

    Los humedales herbáceos se encuentran entre los ecosistemas más productivos del planeta debido a procesos biogeoquímicos particulares originados por plantas emergentes, lo que se traduce en magnificación de la producción de biomasa viva y deposición continua de materia orgánica muerta. Se hizo un experimento de campo en un humedal herbáceo de la región de Barlovento para cuantificar el coeficiente de descomposición foliar de Heliconia marginata (Heliconiaceae) en condiciones naturales.Helicon...

  1. Determination of the natural and artificial radioactivity of a selection of traditional Mexican medicinal herbs by gamma spectrometry

    This work presents the results of a gamma spectrometry analysis of 30 traditional Mexican medicinal herbs. The analysis was carried out using low level background shielding, a hyper-pure germanium detector, and a multichannel analyzer system. Natural and artificial radioactivity concentration from 226Ra (through 214Pb and 214Bi), 228Th (through 208Tl), 228Ra (through 228Ac), 40K, and 137Cs were determined in this analysis. The results show low concentration levels of natural radioactivity and no artificial radionuclides, and different contents of natural 40K, in the studied medicinal herbs. These low concentration levels of natural radionuclides, cannot be consider a health risk for common consumers. (author)

  2. THE CONTENT OF TANNINS IN THE ALCOHOL EXTRACT OF THE HERB OF TEUCRIUM POLIUM L. AND DETERMINATION OF ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Юлия Георгиевна Рудакова; Александр Борисович Дмитриев; Ольга Ивановна Попова

    2014-01-01

    The content of tannins in the herb of Teucrium polium L. is investigated. The content of tannins in the herb of Teucrium polium L. was determined by different methods. There is shown the most suitable methods of tannins determination are the coulometry and the spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of alcohol extract by coulometry is determined.

  3. [The "Hortulus" of Valafridus Strabus from the IX-th century: one of the oldest documents of the medieval knowledge of herb-growing].

    Rzepiela, A

    2000-01-01

    Valafridus Strabus, the author of the Latin poem entitled Hortulus (The Little Garden), lived in the Caroline epoch. He was a German monk and a poet and, for some time, he was connected with the famous Benedictine abbey at St. Gallen, which had a garden with curative herbs. He dedicated his best work, The Little Garden, to Grimaldus, the abbot of St. Gallen who was his master and teacher. This work, written in 444 hexameters, consists of 26 chapters which contain descriptions of 23 herbs such as sage, rue, lovage, mint and others. Apart from herbs, there are also descriptions of some vegetables grown in the monastery gardens, such as pumpkin, melon and celery. "The Little Garden" is one of the oldest and most highly valued documents of the medieval knowledge of herb-growing and their curative properties. It also gives us an idea of the arrangement of the medieval monastery garden in which herbs were grown. PMID:11771506

  4. Lipid A-based affinity biosensor for screening anti-sepsis components from herbs

    Jie Yao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LPS (lipopolysaccharide, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl β-D-glucopyranoside was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC–HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3 from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs.

  5. Formação do Herbário de Carajás - HCJS

    Luís Carlos Nepomuceno da Silva

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a formação e o conteúdo do Herbário de Carajás, sediado no Parque Botânico de Carajás, km 85 PA-275, com funcionamento a partir de fevereiro de 1987 e cuja área de abrangência é a Serra dos Carajás. A montagem do Herbário envolveu investimentos em reformas prediais, compra de material e climatização do espaço físico, recebendo-se doações de alguns equipamentos pelo PNUD. O treinamento de pessoal em coletas e preparo de exsicatas foi totalmente realizado em Carajás. A coleta de material fértil é realizada nos ecossistemas existentes: campos rupestres, área de transição e floresta. A identificação a nível de família Botânica é realizada no próprio laboratório do Parque e a metodologia em implantação é o envio de material botânico para especialistas de cada família de diferentes instituições, interessados no recebimento deste material. O Herbário vem atingindo seu objetivo principal que é coexistir, dentro de um programa de estudos ambientais, com a atividade mineradora, fomentado à área de Botânica.Carajás range, an iron ore area at southeast Pará, inside the Amazon forest had its botany's studies at first related with identification of the types of vegetation found in the area - tropical forest an a kind of shrub savana due to superficial iron ore. With the mine and beneffit path opperating, efforts turned to the research of recovering explored sites, with suitable native species what required the creatioan of an Herbarium avaiable. Also the Herbarium gives suport to research on other subjects and fit Herbarium establishment, february 1987. The Herbarium establishment, february 1987, began with a training program. The Botanic Material has it identification partialy done at Carajás Botanic Park where the Herbarium lays, being sent then to specialists inters ted in each botanic family. This work describes the creation of Carajás Herbarium, its aims and contents.

  6. SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM OBSERVATION ON 250 MIGRAINEURS TREATED BY ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY COMBINED WITH CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    YeDebao

    2000-01-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular headache with recurrent attack and long history. It is quite difficult in clinic for the healing of migraine. The author since 1993, has treated migraineurs with point-injection, acupuncture combined with Chinese herbs in special migraine clinic of Zhejiang

  7. SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM OBSERVATION ON 250MIGRAINEURS TREATED BY ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY COMBINED WITH CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    叶德宝

    2000-01-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular headache with recurrent attack and long history. It is quite difficult in clinic for the healing of migraine. The author since 1993, has treated migraineurs with point-injection, acupuncture combined with Chinese herbs in special migraine clinic of ZhejiangCollege of TCM, and meantime, made full short-term and long-term observation and received satisfied results.

  8. Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.

    Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18) spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed. PMID:23487576

  9. Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes

    Dong Qian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally.

  10. Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes.

    Lu, Yun; Li, Chang-Sheng; Dong, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT) injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA) of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally. PMID:18718024

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  13. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics

    Yu-xia Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao. After three menstrual cycles’ treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results. The VAS of two groups decreased with different descending range. Herb-partitioned moxibustion upregulated 20α-dihydroprogesterone, pregnenolone, prostaglandin E2 and γ-aminobutyric acid and downregulated the content of estrone and prostaglandin H2, while acupuncture upregulated pregnenolone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and downregulated 2-methoxyestradiol-3-methylether, 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 6-keto-prostaglandin. Discussion. It was effective in relieving the abdominal pain by these two therapies. Herb-partitioned moxibustion is superior to acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhea, which could be related to regulating the endocrine hormone.

  14. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics.

    Ma, Yu-Xia; Yang, Xing-Yue; Guo, Gang; Du, Dong-Qing; Yu, Yan-Pu; Gao, Shu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles' treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results. The VAS of two groups decreased with different descending range. Herb-partitioned moxibustion upregulated 20α-dihydroprogesterone, pregnenolone, prostaglandin E2 and γ-aminobutyric acid and downregulated the content of estrone and prostaglandin H2, while acupuncture upregulated pregnenolone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and downregulated 2-methoxyestradiol-3-methylether, 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 6-keto-prostaglandin. Discussion. It was effective in relieving the abdominal pain by these two therapies. Herb-partitioned moxibustion is superior to acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhea, which could be related to regulating the endocrine hormone. PMID:26229545

  15. Historical landscape explotation and its influence on a composition of herb layer in cultural forests in consider of ecotones

    Halas, Petr; Vlková, V.

    Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2008, s. 104-107 ISBN 978-80-210-4600-9. [Geografické aspekty středoevropského prostoru. Brno (CZ), 13.09.2007-13.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : ecotones * herb layer * forest plant species * cultural landscape Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicine herb couple by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Cheng, Tao-Fang; Jia, Yu-Ran; Zuo, Zheng; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Fei

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, specific and reliable method to overall analyze the chemical constituents in clematidis radix et rhizome/notopterygii rhizome et radix herb couple using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and multiple chemometric analysis. First, the separation and qualitative analysis of herb couple was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), and 69 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified. Moreover, in quantitative analysis, eight ingredients including six coumarins and two triterpenoid sapogenins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In terms of good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9995) with a relatively wide concentration range, recovery (85.40-102.50%) and repeatability (0.99-4.45%), the validation results suggested the proposed method was reliable, and successfully used to analyze ten batches of herb couple samples. Then, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to classify samples and search significant ingredients. The results showed that ten batches of herb couple samples were classified into three groups, and six compounds were found for its better quality control. PMID:26834048

  17. Comparative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Guo, Long; Zeng, Su-Ling; Zhang, Yu; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal saponins, which exhibit multiple pharmacological effects, are the major bioactive constituents in herbal medicines from Dioscoreae species. In this study, a sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in four Dioscoreae herbs including Dioscoreae Nipponica Rhizome (DNR) and Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae Rhizome (DHR), Dioscoreae Spongiosae Rhizome (DSR) and Dioscoreae Rhizome (DR). A total of eleven steroidal saponins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF/MS). Furthermore, seven major steroidal saponins was simultaneous quantified using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ/MS). The qualitative and quantitative analysis results indicated that the chemical composition of DNR, DHR and DSR samples exhibited a high level of global similarity, while the ingredients in DR varied greatly from the other three herbs. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were performed to compare and discriminate the Dioscoreae herbs based on the quantitative data. The results demonstrated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins based on HPLC-MS is a feasible method for quality control of Dioscoreae herbs. PMID:26344383

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  19. Uterus-Relaxing Study of a Sudanese Herb (El-Hazha

    Aimun A.E. Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological effects of the Methanolic-extract (AH2 of El-Hazha and its sub-fractions. Approach: These investigations were carried out on in vitro isolated uterus preparations from Non-Pregnant (NP and Late-Pregnant rats (LP. In parallel displacement radio-ligand binding assay was performed for â-Adrenergic Receptors (â-ADR. Results: Showed that the herb and its different fractions produced dose-dependent relaxant effect (pConclusion: We validate the fractionation effect on its relaxant activity and found partial role for â-ADR on mediating this activity. Future study was recommended to isolate and investigate its active components to enhance this activity or to discover a new novel natural therapeutic agent(s.

  20. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    Razić, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavković, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895

  1. Use of herbs or vitamin/mineral/nutrient supplements by pediatric oncology patients.

    Turhan, Ayşe Bozkurt; Bör, Özcan

    2016-05-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread and increasing. We sought to study the frequency and factors affecting of its use in children with cancer. We designed a questionnaire that was administered to the parents of children between September 2013 and March 2014. A total of 74 patients were enrolled into the study. Fifty patients (67.5%) had used one or more than one type of herbs or vitamin/mineral/nutrient. The most commonly used CAM treatment was grape molasses (36.6%). The main source of information to families was the internet. No correlation found between the use of CAM and parents' education status, the level of income, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy treatment. Patients with cancer highly tended to use CAM treatment without informing healthcare professionals. The integration of complementary methods to the conventional treatments is interesting and seem to respond to the needs of patients allowing a more comprehensive approach to care. PMID:27157962

  2. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

  3. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  4. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

  5. Treatment of 30 Cases of Vitiligo by Cupping Method plus External Application of Chinese Herbs

    ZHANG Shu-qing; CHE Jie

    2004-01-01

    在皮损区拔罐,然后外涂中药治疗白癜风患者30例,对照组予西药治疗,3个疗程后,治疗组总有效率96.7%,对照组总有效率76.7%.治疗组疗效好于对照组(P<0.05).%Thirty patients with vitiligo were treated by cupping of skin lesion and compress of Chinese herbs, compared with western medical treatment. After 3-course's treatments the total effective rate ws 96.7% in treatment group and 76.7% in control group. There was a significant difference (P<0.05)between the two groups shown by statistical analysis.

  6. The Queen of Herb with Potent Therapeutic Constituent in Various Disease States: A Reappraisal

    Md Harun Al Rashid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum Linn has been used extensively for its medicinal value in India and China. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leave, stem, flower, root, seed and even whole plant of O. sanctum L. (Tulsi in Hindi and Vasub in Arabic, a small herb seen throughout in India. O. sanctum have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, painful eye disease, chronic fever, insect bite etc. It has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardio-protective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, adoptogenic and diaphoretic activity. Current scientific research revealed  that O. sanctum exhibit significant anticancer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of gastric mucosa thereby reducing mucosal damage and reduces  stress; enhances  stermina and endurance ;boosts the immune system, reduces inflammation; lessens aging factors; supports the heart, lungs and liver.

  7. Microsatellite Primers in the Weedy Annual Herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae and Four Closely Related Species

    Alicia Agudo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus.

  8. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Dejan Brkić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  9. Students' knowledge of the use of herbs and other agents as preparation for sexual intercourse.

    Pitts, M; Magunje, N; McMaster, J

    1994-01-01

    Interest is growing in the use of herbal and other agents as a preparation for sexual intercourse. Concern has been expressed that such traditional practices, which are widespread in central and southern Africa, may increase women's risks of cervical cancer and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. We examined the knowledge and beliefs associated with these practices in a sample of educated young men and women in Zimbabwe. We found that there was widespread knowledge of the use of herbs as a preparation for sex and that the purpose of the practice was to enhance men's sexual experience. Both men and women indicated ambivalent attitudes toward the practice; an interesting pattern of actual and perceived expectations was found. The need for preventive health education concerning these practices is discussed. PMID:8002412

  10. EXPERIMENT STUDIES OF ANTITUMOR PROLIFERATION AND METASTASIS OF A NEW CHINESE HERB AT-1

    曲迅; 郑广娟; 杨美香; 周文; 赵丽霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a new Chinese herb AT-1 on the tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro. Methods: Tumor cell proliferation activity was tested by MTT. The ability of tumor cell invasion and migration was assayed by counting the number of tumor cells going throw matrigel. The expression changes of CD44 genes in PG cells treated with AT-1 were tested by FACS. Results: Compared with the control, the proliferation activity of the cells treated with the At-1 was restrained. The invasion and migration ability of PG cells and the expression of the cell adherence related gene CD44 was decreased treatment with AT-1. Conclusion: AT-1 is a new antitumor proliferation and metastasis agent. Its antitumor metastasis effect might be achieved by decreasing the expression of the cell adherence-associate gene CD44.

  11. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb

    RAVINDRA ADE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deshmukh S, Ade R. 2012. In vitro rapid multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana: an important natural sweetener herb. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 105-108. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, belonging to family Asteraceae and natural sweet plant, but due to poor seed viability, fertility and vigor, Stevia cultivation is a challenging task. In the present study in vitro rapid multiplication method was established for Stevia rebaudiana by inoculating explants on M.S. medium, supplemented with different combination of phytoharmone. The maximum number of shoots (18.3±0.8 was obtained on M.S. medium supplemented with BAP + KIN (1.5 + 0.5 mg/L. The highest rooting percentage (95.25 was observed with (IAA 0.1 mg/L. The rooted plants were successfully established firstly in soil with coco peat (1:1 and then directly in ordinary soil.

  12. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM L -A FOLK UNANI MEDICINAL HERB

    Bhogaonkar P Y

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. widely used in traditional as well as folk medicinal systems is locally known as Gokhru and in unani as Kutta Jhad. In Amravati district (Maharashtra, it was found that the whole plants as well as leaves are used by hakims as blood purifier and in scabies. Here pharmacognostic studies are made regarding whole plant and also only leaves. For standardization of drug material morphological and anatomical characterization is done. Phytochemical investigations were made to know the presence of various bioactive molecules, amino acid composition and minerals. The herb is characterized by unisexual capitula, scabrid surface with scales, trichomes and glands. Root with pith and multiseriate rays; stem with secondary growth restricted to fascicles and xylem with broad vessel elements; mesophyll with multilayered palisade and anomocytic stomata. Plant is rich in potassium and containing flavonoids, catechol, alkaloids, cardenoloids and many free amino acids.

  13. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac.

    Tamayo, C; Richardson, M A; Diamond, S; Skoda, I

    2000-02-01

    The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. PMID:10641040

  14. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    Carlos M Baeza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W. The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W, Argentina. A comparative karyotype study was made between a population of A. presliana subsp. presliana and a population of A. presliana subsp. australis Ehr. Bayer. Both populations presented asymmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, but with different chromosome formulae: A. presliana subsp. presliana has a haploid formula with 4m + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 2t, i.e., four pairs ofmetacentric chromosomes, one submetacentric pair with satellite, one subtelocentric pair with satellite, and two telocentrics pairs. A. presliana subsp. australis has a formula with 2m + 1m-sat + 1sm + 4t chromosomes, i.e., two pairs of metacentric chromosomes, one metacentric pair with satellite, one submetacentric pair, and four telocentrics chromosomes. These results indicated that the karyotype of the subspecies is very different, and it would be possible to recognize A. presliana subsp. australis as a new species.Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de Sudamérica y presenta dos grandes centros de distribución: Chile y Brasil. En Chile se distribuye desde el norte, cerca de Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ O hasta la Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ O. La zona central del país presenta el mayor número de especies. A. presliana Herb. crece con una distribución que va desde Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ O a Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ O en Chile y en la Provincia de Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ O, Argentina. Se hizo un

  15. Proximal tubular injury in Chinese herbs nephropathy: monitoring by neutral endopeptidase enzymuria.

    Nortier, J L; Deschodt-Lanckman, M M; Simon, S; Thielemans, N O; de Prez, E G; Depierreux, M F; Tielemans, C L; Richard, C; Lauwerys, R R; Bernard, A M; Vanherweghem, J L

    1997-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a 94 kDa ectoenzyme of the proximal tubule brush border, physiologically released into the urine with apical membrane fragments. As proximal tubular atrophy was a histological hallmark of Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), this study firstly determined renal excretion of NEP in healthy control subjects (N = 31), in patients with CHN (N = 26) and in women having consumed Chinese herbs and whose renal function was normal but running the risk of developing CHN (N = 27). Another patient group consisted of female patients with glomerular diseases (N = 12). At the same time, measurements of urinary microproteins (Clara cell protein, retinol binding protein, beta 2-microglobulin and alpha 1-microglobulin) were performed, as indicators of tubular dysfunction. Cell damage was estimated by the excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In the control group, the physiological NEP enzymuria was 43.1 micrograms/24 hr (geometric mean). In CHN patients, levels of urinary NEP were significantly decreased in those with moderate renal failure (26.7 micrograms/24 hr; N = 21; P stage renal failure patients (4.35 micrograms/24 hr; N = 5; P two years and in 19 patients at risk during two years, respectively. In the first group, renal function progressively deteriorated in 3 patients, leading them to renal replacement therapy after 38 to 115 weeks. Stable parameters were observed in the remaining 3 patients. A direct correlation between creatinine clearance and NEP excretion was found longitudinally in each case. In the second group, no significant change of urinary NEP levels was observed (45.9 micrograms/24 hr), in parallel with stable renal function. Taken together, these results indicate that, in CHN patients, NEP enzymuria provides a rapid and noninvasive determination of the degree of structural impairment affecting the proximal tubular population and further reflecting the severity of the renal disease. The interest of this urinary marker in

  16. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  17. Recent Trends in Potential Traditional Indian Herbs Emblica Officinalis and Its Medicinal Importance

    Lokesh Deb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emblica Officinalis is a natural, efficacious, an antioxidant with the richest natural source of Vitamin C. Emblica Officinalis berries have the highest amount of naturally occurring vitamin C of any ripe fruit in the world used as a traditional food. Numerous studies conducted on Emblica Officinalis fruit suggest that it has anti-viral properties and also functions as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent. The gelatinous plum-sized Amla fruit contains naturally occurring vitamin, heat stable vitamin C. A clinical study on patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed that the vitamin C contained in Emblica Officinalis was better assimilated than synthetic vitamin C. Further research of contemporary and traditional medical literature indicates that Emblica Officinalis either in combination with other herbs or alone has been useful in the amelioration of colds, warts, skin afflictions, influenza, anemia, diabetes, lung conditions, elevated cholesterol and as an immune restorative in cancer conditions. It is one of the best natural antiageing remedies Emblica Officinalis is used in treatment of Acne and other skin problems. Emblica Officinalis is amazingly effective natural anti-ageing product. Emblica Officinalis is very effective in treatment of Acidity and Peptic ulcers. Emblica Officinalis is rich in Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, essential amino acids and many other vitamins and minerals and anti-oxidants. Regular Use of Emblica Officinalis improves immunity, fights cancers, rejuvenates the body. It fights chronic diseases like hypertension, high Cholesterol, Diabetes, AIDS, influenza, Chronic cough and cold, Chronic infections, Chronic fatigue and Chronic inflammatory conditions. Ayurveda describes it as one of the best herbs for Diabetes, bleeding disorders, strength and stamina promoter.

  18. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a 60Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  19. An overview of the evidence and mechanisms of herb-drug interactions

    Bernd eRosenkranz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complimentary medicine is globally popular. There is also increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor of pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is their concurrent consumption with conventional drugs. Herb-drug interaction (HDI is the single most important clinical consequences of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes; the induction and inhibition of transport proteins and stimulation of changes to hepatic and renal functions leading to alteration in drug elimination profiles. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors in compiling clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism and nature of evidence available. The potential of new chemical entities to be involved in HDIs should be considered in their non-clinical safety assessment during the drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications to increase the level of awareness among health professionals.

  20. Exploring the interaction between Salvia miltiorrhiza and human serum albumin: Insights from herb-drug interaction reports, computational analysis and experimental studies

    Shao, Xin; Ai, Ni; Xu, Donghang; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) binding is one of important pharmacokinetic properties of drug, which is closely related to in vivo distribution and may ultimately influence its clinical efficacy. Compared to conventional drug, limited information on this transportation process is available for medicinal herbs, which significantly hampers our understanding on their pharmacological effects, particularly when herbs and drug are co-administrated as polytherapy to the ailment. Several lines of evidence suggest the existence of Salvia miltiorrhiza-Warfarin interaction. Since Warfarin is highly HSA bound in the plasma with selectivity to site I, it is critical to evaluate the possibility of HSA-related herb-drug interaction. Herein an integrated approach was employed to analyze the binding of chemicals identified in S. miltiorrhiza to HSA. Molecular docking simulations revealed filtering criteria for HSA site I compounds that include docking score and key molecular determinants for binding. For eight representative ingredients from the herb, their affinity and specificity to HSA site I was measured and confirmed fluorometrically, which helps to improve the knowledge of interaction mechanisms between this herb and HSA. Our results indicated that several compounds in S. miltiorrhiza were capable of decreasing the binding constant of Warfarin to HSA site I significantly, which may increase free drug concentration in vivo, contributing to the herb-drug interaction observed clinically. Furthermore, the significance of HSA mediated herb-drug interactions was further implied by manual mining on the published literatures on S. miltiorrhiza.

  1. The Impact of Adding the Mixture of Medicinal Herbs to the Diet on the Qualitative Characteristics of Egg

    Ali Karimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other creatures, the human life depends on the phenomena of surrounding environment and the medicinal herbs are always applied in the human and livestock and poultry's foods as well as the pharmaceutical industry in order to protect the health and treat the diseases. The impact of medicinal herbs on the livestock and poultry's performance, their characteristics and enhanced immunity can be measured and applied as well. In this regard, an experiment in the form of completely randomized design was conducted for investigating the impact of the mixture of medicinal herbs (Thyme, oregano, cumin, Alhagi, garlic and eucalyptus in the diet on the performance, the quality of egg and the commercial laying hens' immune responses. The qualitative characteristics of egg including Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, egg shell weight and shell thickness were measured and recorded at the end of each stage. The functional properties such as Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage, egg mass weight and feed intake were recorded and measured weekly and the egg weight two times a week. The obtained data analysis was done through the statistical software SPSS 20 and Duncan test was utilized in order to compare the average traits. Different levels of medicinal herbs had no impact on the improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage and egg mass weight in the whole period, but the medicinal herbs 2 and 3% significantly reduced the total feed intake and egg weight during the period compared to the control and probiotic treatment (p<0.05. The application of medicinal herbs at the level of 1% reduced the egg weight compared to the control treatment (p<0.05. There was no significant difference with the control treatment in any tested treatments in terms of qualitative characteristics of egg including the egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, antibody titer against red blood cells, Lymphocytes, hematocrit, red

  2. Historical changes in flowering phenology are governed by temperature × precipitation interactions in a widespread perennial herb in western North America.

    Matthews, Elizabeth R; Mazer, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    For most species, a precise understanding of how climatic parameters determine the timing of seasonal life cycle stages is constrained by limited long-term data. Further, most long-term studies of plant phenology that have examined relationships between phenological timing and climate have been local in scale or have focused on single climatic parameters. Herbarium specimens, however, can expand the temporal and spatial coverage of phenological datasets. Using Trillium ovatum specimens collected over > 100 yr across its native range, we analyzed how seasonal climatic conditions (mean minimum temperature (Tmin ), mean maximum temperature and total precipitation (PPT)) affect flowering phenology. We then examined long-term changes in climatic conditions and in the timing of flowering across T. ovatum's range. Warmer Tmin advanced flowering, whereas higher PPT delayed flowering. However, Tmin and PPT were shown to interact: the advancing effect of warmer Tmin was strongest where PPT was highest, and the delaying effect of higher PPT was strongest where Tmin was coldest. The direction of temporal change in climatic parameters and in the timing of flowering was dependent on geographic location. Tmin , for example, decreased across the observation period in coastal regions, but increased in inland areas. Our results highlight the complex effects of climate and geographic location on phenology. PMID:26595165

  3. Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives

    Marta E. Petenatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES. The products were obtained from regional markets, mainly in San Luis province (Argentina. The estimated daily intake was compared with current recommendations. All products and its infusions were included within the upper tolerable limits for minerals, in trace elements such as toxic elements present at low levels.

  4. Estrutura da vegetação herbácea em paisagens ciliares no sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Aline Votri Guislon; Karoline Ceron; Guilherme Alves Elias; Robson Santos; Vanilde Citadini-Zanette

    2016-01-01

    As características estruturais e ecológicas da vegetação herbácea fazem com que ela seja sensível às alterações do ambiente, atuando como indicador da qualidade ambiental. No entanto, o estudo dessa comunidade ainda é incipiente em regiões neotropicais. Este estudo descreve a florística e os aspectos fitossociológicos da vegetação herbácea terrícola na mata ciliar de sete rios, no município de Urussanga, sul do estado de Santa Catarina, além de analisar e quantificar o status do conhecimento ...

  5. Effects of Qinghuang power combined with Chinese herbs for Shen reinforcing and Pi strengthening on activated T cells of myelodysplastic syndrome patients

    高飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of Qinghuang Power(QHP)combined with Chinese herbs for Shen reinforcing and Pi strengthening(CHSRPS) on activated T cells of myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS)patients.MethodsThe percentage and the absolute value of

  6. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

    Schroeder, Joseph A.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the prim...

  7. An efficient in vitro regeneration of Ceropegia noorjahaniae: an endemic and critically endangered medicinal herb of the Western Ghats

    Chavan, J. J.; Nalawade, A. S.; Gaikwad, N. B.; Gurav, R. V.; Dixit, G. B.; Yadav, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for the rapid in vitro multiplication of an endemic and critically endangered medicinal herb, Ceropegia noorjahaniae Ans., via enhanced axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants. The effects of phytohormones [6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin) thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] on in vitro regeneration were investigated. The highest number of shoots (18.3 ± 1.3), maximum ...

  8. Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris ): A herb used for improving physique and physical performance

    Joshi Devi; Uniyal Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on qua...

  9. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidative and Anticancer Activities of the Essential Oil: Curcumae Rhizoma–Sparganii Rhizoma, a Traditional Herb Pair

    Guan-Ling Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As a classical herb pair in clinics of traditional Chinese medicine, Curcumae Rhizoma–Sparganii Rhizoma (HP CR–SR is used for activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The essential components in HP CR–SR and its single herbs were comparatively analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data. 66, 22, and 54 components in volatile oils of Curcumae Rhizoma, Sparganii Rhizoma, and HP CR–SR were identified, and total contents accounted for 75.416%, 91.857%, and 79.553% respectively. The thirty-eight components were found in HP CR–SR, and not detected in single herbs Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma. The highest radical trapping action was seen by an essential oil of HP CR–SR (IC50 = 0.59 ± 0.04 mg/mL. Furthermore, the HP CR–SR essential oil showed more remarkable cytotoxicity on tumor cell lines than that of the single herbs Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma in a dose-dependent manner: IC50 values showing 32.32 ± 5.31 μg/mL (HeLa, 34.76 ± 1.82 μg/mL (BGC823, 74.84 ± 1.66 μg/mL (MCF-7, 66.12 ± 11.23 μg/mL (SKOV3, and 708.24 ± 943.91 μg/mL (A549, respectively. In summary, the essential oil of HP CR–SR is different from any one of Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma, nor simply their superposition, and HP CR–SR oil presented more remarkable anticancer and antioxidant activities compared with Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma oils.

  11. Characterization of the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of selected culinary herbs and spices: caraway, turmeric, dill, marjoram and nutmeg

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt; Jorge Regueiro; José Fernando Rinaldi de Alvarenga; Miriam Martinez-Huelamo; Leonel Neto Leal; Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos

    2015-01-01

    Culinary herbs and spices have long been considered essentially as flavor enhancers or preservatives, with little attention given to their potential health-promoting properties. Nevertheless, recent research has shown them to be significant dietary sources of bioactive phenolic compounds. Despite noteworthy efforts performed in recent years to improve our knowledge of their chemical composition, a detailed phenolic profile of these plant-based products is still lacking. In the present work, a...

  12. Microsatellite Primers in the Weedy Annual Herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and Four Closely Related Species

    Alicia Agudo; F. Xavier Picó; Inés Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian...

  13. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

  14. Intraspecific competition and light effect on reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea, an invasive native alpine grassland clonal herb

    Xie, Tian-peng; Zhang, Ge-fei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Du, Guo-Zhen; He, Gui-yong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between sexual reproduction and clonal growth in clonal plants often shows up at the ramet level. However, only a few studies focus on the relationship at the genet level, which could finally account for evolution. The sexual reproduction and clonal growth of Ligularia virgaurea, a perennial herb widely distributed in the alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China, were studied under different competition intensities and light conditions at the genet level thro...

  15. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiling of two egyptian medicinal herbs Polygonum salicifolium Brouss ex Wild and Polygonum senegalense Meisn

    Sameh Reda HUSSEIN; Amal Amin MOHAMED

    2013-01-01

    Polygonum salicifolium Brouss ex Wild and Polygonum senegalense Meisn (polygonaceae), are two medicinal herbs, native to Egypt. The methanol extracts of both the plants were analyzed for total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant activity. Chemical investigations afforded eight phenolic compounds identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic tools. This study shows that the investigated taxa could be good sources of free-radical scavenging compounds and may explain their traditi...

  16. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely...

  17. Effect of the most common spices and herbs in typical northwestern Thai diet on human iron absorption. Highlights and achievements

    Iron deficiency anaemia is highly prevalent among rural population of Northeast Thailand. The habitual diets are plant-based. Several herbal vegetables and spices such as lead tree leaves, ivy gourd, Thai basil, chilli peppers etc are consumed in a substantial in common Northeast dishes. High contents of phytate and polyphenol compounds including tannin in these herbs and spices may profoundly influence iron bioavailability in the northeast population

  18. Effect of herbs-partition moxibustion on IL-1β and TNF-α in UC rats

    Wei Lin Tan; Yuan He Wang; Peng Zhang; Lin Shan Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To observe the effect of herbs-partition moxibustion on IL-1β and TNF-c in UC rats.METHODS The animal models were created by immunological method. They were divided into 5 groups atrandom, after treated by different methods, IL-1β and TNF-α in colon tissue of UC rats were detected withimmunologic technique.RESULTS In control group, there was a little or no IL-1β positive cell in colon mucosa. Compared withthat in rats of control group, the number of IL-1 positive cell in model group was much larger, and IL-1βcells with brown granules were mainly expressed in cytoplasm of macrophage in lamina propria of colon.Compared with model group, IL-1β positive cells in mild moxibustion group markedly decreased (P < 0.05),and those in electro-acupuncture group and herbs-partition moxibustion group decreased even more markedly(P < 0.01). The difference between the last two groups is evident (P < 0.05). TNF-α positive cells are not or seldomly found in UC rats, but in model group, these cells increasedevidently, which were mainly the macrophages in lamina propria of colon. Compared with those in modelgroup, the positive cells decreased markedly in electro-acupuncture group (P<0.05), and decreased moremarkedly in mild moxibustion group and in herbs-partition moxibustion group (P<0.01). There werestatistically significant differences between herbs-partition moxibustion group and electro-acupuncture group(P<0.05).CONCLUSION The mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion may be that inhibited macrophageactivation, reduced expression of IL-1β and TNF-a and thereby blocking their further activation and thencontrolled, the initiated inflammation and its immunity cascade reaction and resulted in restoring the normalimmunity function and benefited in healing of ulcer.

  19. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: From laboratory to pilot and industrial scale

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger appa...

  20. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J.; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkg...

  1. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    M. Sokovic; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

  2. Good Agricultural Practice (GAP -Does It Ensure a Perfect Supply of Medicinal Herbs for Research and Drug Development?

    P C Leung

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: While users of herbal formulae have been disappointed with the lack of uniformity with the quality of herbs provided by the herb suppliers of different standings, they do not have better means of supply.  The tradition of identifying special geographic regions, as being specific for the best supply of certain herbal items is no longer reliable since the large demand for large quantities of quality supply could not be satisfied by limited plantations in those regions. A comprehensive recommendation of agricultural practice: from seedling, planting, fertilizing, harvesting, storage to distribution, can be offered as a compromise.  There is good prospect of an excellent supply of quality herbal products with uniformity, if Good Agricultural Practice (GAP could be practiced and enforced. Although the need for GAP is urgent, and Japan, China and World Health Organization, have one after the other, written up their recommendation, to put GAP into real practice would need special efforts and takes time. GAP in China is particularly difficult, not only because the herbal items involved are of great numbers but because the current practice of growing medicinal herbs, their marketing and distribution, have been counterproductive to the introduction of the new system of GAP. At this stage, GAP will not be able to satisfy the extensive need for quality and uniformity.  Short of the knowledge of the exact, accurate nature of the active components within a herb, there will be no perfect guarantee on the quality supply.  Henceforth, even when GAP becomes a mature practice, what is required for quality control, viz, different levels of authentication, from chemical finger printing to molecular, DNA identification, will remain necessary as cross-checking mechanisms to make sure that uniformity in scientific experiments and drug development could be maintained

  3. Anti-Tumor Activity of Four Ayurvedic Herbs in Dalton Lymphoma Ascites Bearing Mice and Their Short-Term In Vitro Cytotoxicity on DLA-Cell-Line

    Adhvaryu, Meghna R; Reddy, Narshimha; Parabia, Minoo H

    2008-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity and chemopreventive potential of four Ayurvedic herbs viz. Curcuma longa L., Ocimum sanctum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers ex Hook.f & Thomas and Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. were evaluated using Dalton Lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor model in Swiss Albino mice. The outcome was assessed using survival time, peritoneal ascitic fluid (Tumor volume) and hematological indices as parameters. Animals were divided into five groups (n = 6) viz. one DLA control and four Herb + ...

  4. The Effects of Selected Hot and Cold Temperament Herbs Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine on Some Metabolic Parameters in Normal Rats

    PARVINROO, Shirin; Zahediasl, Saleh; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing some hot and cold temperament herb seeds according to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) on some metabolic parameters in acute (24 h) and sub-acute (7 day) experiments that were performed on rats. For each experiment, effects of diets containing 10% herb seeds in category of hot (anise, fennel, ajowan) and cold (cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin) temperaments were analyzed on body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine o...

  5. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties

    Cross, Deborah Elaine; McDevitt, Regina; Acamovic, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT 1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed wheat-soybea...

  6. Development of photochemoprotective herbs containing cosmetic formulations for improving skin properties.

    Saraf, Swarnlata; Chhabra, Sumit Kour; Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Shailendra

    2012-01-01

    Botanical photochemoprotectives are used because they act on various stages to prevent skin cancer and photoaging. The aim of this study was to prepare herbal creams from various photochemoprotective herbs and to perform efficacy studies on them by using physicochemical, microbiological, safety, psychometric, biophysical, and sun protection factor measurements. Herbal creams were prepared by incorporating hydroalcoholic extracts of Curcuma caesia (rhizome), Areca catechu (seeds), Centella asiatica (leaves) Cinnamon zeylanicum (dried bark), and Tamarindus indica (fruit pulp) in varied concentrations (1-5% w/w) in a base cream. The efficacy of all formulations was checked out for four weeks on 60 normal subjects on the volar forearm for evaluation of biophysical properties, and for psychometric evaluations (fragrance, lathery feel, softness, irritation, stickiness, smoothness, and aftereffect on the skin) and safety measurements. In the biophysical characterization, a cutometer for viscoelasticity, a mexameter for melanin content, a corneometer for hydration, and a sebumeter for sebum determination were used. All the cream formulations with 1% and 3% w/w extracts showed positive results and passed physicochemical, microbiological, and safety tests. The SPF values increased as the concentration of extract was increased up to a limit in the formulations. The SPF values were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in formulations with 3% herbal extract than with 1% herbal extract. Increased skin hydration, sebum levels, viscoelasticity, and decreased melanin values were obtained. The Cinnamon, Centella, and Tamarindus formulations were found more effective as photoprotectives than the Areca and Curcuma formulations. PMID:22591563

  7. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Wang, Jing; Li, Feng-Sen; Pang, Nan-Nan; Tian, Ge; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Ding, Jian-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development. PMID:27073403

  8. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process. PMID:26849201

  9. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Some Medicinal Herbs by LC-MS.

    Matei, Alina O; Gatea, Florentina; Radu, Gabriel L

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry in negative mode method was developed for the identification and quantitative determination of 13 individual phenolics (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, fisetin, isorhamnetin, hesperidin and chrysin) from ethanolic extracts [30, 50 and 70% (w/v)] of Calendula officinalis, Hypericum perforatum, Galium verum and Origanum vulgare and some commercial extracts of these medicinal herbs. Correlation coefficients (r(2)) from calibration curves for all the compounds were between 0.9971 and 0.9996. Limit of detection was in the range of 0.070-0.280 µg/mL and limit of quantification was from 0.233 to 0.932 µg/mL. The method was partially validated and the results obtained are: the intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were within 0.086 and 2.821% and recovery values vary from 95.84% (coumaric acid) to 103.20% (rutin). PMID:25583972

  10. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Gentiana rigescens

    Xiaodong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana rigescens is an important medicinal herb in China. The main validated medicinal component gentiopicroside is synthesized in shoots, but is mainly found in the plant’s roots. The gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory control remain to be elucidated. Genome resources of gentian are limited. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies can aid in supplying global gene expression profiles. In this study we present sequence and transcript abundance data for the root and leaf transcriptome of G. rigescens, obtained using the Illumina Hiseq2000. Over fifty million clean reads were obtained from leaf and root libraries. This yields 76,717 unigenes with an average length of 753 bp. Among these, 33,855 unigenes were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in public protein and nucleotide databases. Digital abundance analysis identified 3306 unigenes differentially enriched between leaf and root. Unigenes found in both tissues were categorized according to their putative functional categories. Of the differentially expressed genes, over 130 were annotated as related to terpenoid biosynthesis. This work is the first study of global transcriptome analyses in gentian. These sequences and putative functional data comprise a resource for future investigation of terpenoid biosynthesis in Gentianaceae species and annotation of the gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Identification of Chinese Herbs Using a Sequencing-Free Nanostructured Electrochemical DNA Biosensor

    Yan Lei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nearly identical phenotypes and chemical constituents, it is often very challenging to accurately differentiate diverse species of a Chinese herbal genus. Although technologies including DNA barcoding have been introduced to help address this problem, they are generally time-consuming and require expensive sequencing. Herein, we present a simple sequencing-free electrochemical biosensor, which enables easy differentiation between two closely related Fritillaria species. To improve its differentiation capability using trace amounts of DNA sample available from herbal extracts, a stepwise electrochemical deposition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs was adopted to engineer a synergistic nanostructured sensing interface. By using such a nanofeatured electrochemical DNA (E-DNA biosensor, two Chinese herbal species of Fritillaria (F. thunbergii and F. cirrhosa were successfully discriminated at the DNA level, because a fragment of 16-mer sequence at the spacer region of the 5S-rRNA only exists in F. thunbergii. This E-DNA sensor was capable of identifying the target sequence in the range from 100 fM to 10 nM, and a detection limit as low as 11.7 fM (S/N = 3 was obtained. Importantly, this sensor was applied to detect the unique fragment of the PCR products amplified from F. thunbergii and F. cirrhosa, respectively. We anticipate that such a direct, sequencing-free sensing mode will ultimately pave the way towards a new generation of herb-identification strategies.

  12. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  13. The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.

    Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

    2014-08-01

    Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P national guidelines. PMID:24769295

  14. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.

    Ramkissoon, Jugjeet S; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Ahmed, Nessar; Subratty, Anwar H

    2012-12-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential. PMID:23134460

  15. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  16. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF THE HERB, EXACUM BICOLOR ROXB.

    Jeeshna M. V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Exacum bicolor Roxb. (Gentianaceae is a phytochemically unexplored traditional medicinal herb, generally distributed in the grasslands of northern Kerala during July-October. The present study through GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of six phytochemical compounds of medicinal importance (two compounds of polyphenolic group viz. 7'-Chloro-3'-(2, 4 dichlorophenyl-3',4'-dihydrospiro(1, 3- dioxolane- and a’-D- Galactopyranoside, methyl 2,6- bis-0-(trimethylsilyl -, cyclic butylboronate, two compounds of alkaloid group viz. 1, 16- Cyclocorynan-16-carboxylic acid, 17-( acetyloxy-19,20-didehydro-10-methoxy-, methyl ester,(16.xi., 19E- and 4 – ( 4 – Chlorophenyl- 5 – morpholin - 4 - yl- thiophen -2- carboxylic acid, ethyl ester, one compound of glycoside group, a’-D- Galactopyranoside, methyl 2,3- bis-0-(trimethylsilyl -, cyclic phenylboronate and one compound of steroid group, 9,19 – Cycloergostan – 3 – ol – 7 – one , 4 , 14 – dimethyl – in addition to number of other compounds. In bioinformatics approach, by using the software, Prediction Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS, molecular formula, pharmacological effects and drug likeness were determined for all the six compounds scientifically which confirm the traditional usage of Exacum bicolor.

  17. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters

    Mrozikiewicz Przemyslaw M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette and SLC (solute carrier transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1. Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB

  18. Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets. PMID:24374449

  19. Oriental herbs as a source of novel anti-androgen and prostate cancer chemopreventive agents

    Junxuan L(U); Sung-Hoon KIM; Cheng JIANG; HyoJeong LEE; Junming GUO

    2007-01-01

    Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are crucial for the genesis of prostate cancer (Pca), which can often develop into androgen-ligand-indepen-dent diseases that are lethal to the patients. Recent studies show that even these hormone-refractory Pca require ligand-independent AR signaling for survival. As current chemotherapy is largely ineffective for Pca and has serious toxic side-effects, we have initiated a collaborative effort to identify and develop novel, safe and naturally occurring agents that target AR signaling from Oriental medicinal herbs for the chemoprevention and treatment of Pca. We highlight our discovery of decursin from an Oriental formula containing Korean Angelica gigas Nakal(Dang Gui) root as a novel anti-androgen/AR agent. We have identified the following mechanisms to account for the specific anti-AR actions: rapid block of AR nuclear translocation, inhibition of binding of 5α-dihydrotestesterone to Arand increased proteasomal degradation of AR protein. Furthermore, decursin lacks the agonist activity of the "pure" anti-androgen bicalutamide and is more potent than bicalutamide in inducing Pca apoptosis. Structure-activity analyses reveal a critical requirement of the side-chain on decursin or its structural isomerdecursinol angelate for anti-AR, cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic activities. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using activity-guided fractionation in cell culture assays combined with mechanistic studies to identify novel anti-andro-gen/AR agents from complex herbal mixtures.

  20. Ecodiagrams of common species of the forest herb layer in the Roztocze National Park

    Bożena Czarnecka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents in graphic standardised form ("ecodiagrams" the conditions in which 24 common species of the herb layer of forest communities occur in the Roztocze National Park. After determining the soil type, its mechanical composition, active and exchangeable acidity, humus content and the content in the rhizosphere layer of nutrient components essential for plants, such as P, K, Na, Ca. Mg. AI, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, the habitats of common plants of the forest from the class Querco-Fagetea were classified as meso-, eu-meso- and cutrophic. Forest plants connected with communities from the class Vaccinio-Piceetea (Hierncium lachenalii Gmel., Melampyrum pratense L., Trientalis eurnpaea L., Vaccinium myrtillus L. are generally associated with fresh, moderately poor and quite frequently also mesotrophic soils. Only Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. is a local species of dry hungry soils, poor in mineral and organic components. The group of accompanying species such as Fragaria vesca L., Galium vernum Scop., Luzula pilosa (L. Willd., Mycelis ruralis (L. Dum. and Oxalis ucetosella L.. show a much wider ecological amplitude-from oligotrophic to eutrophic habitats.