WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Persistent Trillium (Trillium persistens) Recovery Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistent trillium (Trillium persistens) is restricted to the Tallulah-Tugallo River system in, Rabun, Habersham, and Stephens Counties, Georgia, and Oconee County, South Carolina. The species is very restricted in distribution, as indicated by the f...

D. A. Rayner

1984-01-01

2

???-????????: C00005874 - Trillium tschonoskii  

Full Text Available C00005874 C28H30O16 Kaempferol 3-[2'''-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1->6)-galactoside] Trill l Flavonoids, 1, (1999), 297.Flavonol O-glycosides;Nakano ,Phytochem.,22,(1983),1249 Trillium Trilliaceae Pla

3

Mobile Trillium Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile trillium engine development, integration and deployment in clustered environment“The air transport industry has a constantly growing mobile workforce and a complex, dynamic workflow that requires workers to access and act on the real time information. Rapid mobilization and automation of the key workflow process will allow air transport industry to reduce business cost, better management and improved customer services.” [1]The aim of this thesis is to develop a backend system that ...

2013-01-01

4

Pacific trillium (Trillium ovatum) flowering in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pacific trillium (Trillium ovatum) flowering in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon. Cascading effects of forest fragmentation include reduced recruitment of Pacific trillium as a result of positive effects on deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Forest fragmentation has increased mouse populations, resulting in increased seed predation that may decrease recruitment rates and increase local extinction risks for trillium. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (13:5) in October of 2003.

Jules, Erik

2010-02-12

5

Size-dependent gender modification in a hermaphroditic perennial herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The size-advantage model predicts that hermaphroditic organisms adjust sex allocation depending on their resource status. We investigated the relationship between size and sex allocation in the co-sexual perennial herbs Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum at two sites in southern Ontario, Canada by measuring pollen and ovule production and biomass allocation at flowering and fruiting. In both species, there was a strong relationship between size and gender; larger plants allocated prop...

1999-01-01

6

Sit-and-wait pollination in the spring flowering woodland plant, Trillium grandiflorum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In animal-pollinated plants, reproductive success is commonly limited by pollen availability, which can occur in environments where pollinator activity is scarce or variable. Extended floral longevity to maximize a plant’s access to pollinators may be an adaptation to such uncertain pollination environments. Here, we investigated the effects of flower exposure time to pollinators on female fertility (fruit and seed set) in the bee-pollinated woodland herb Trillium grandiflorum, a spe...

2011-01-01

7

Post-glacial history of Trillium grandiflorum (Melanthiaceae) in eastern North America: inferences from phylogeography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dispersal and migration are important processes affecting the evolutionary history and genetics of species. Here we investigate post-glacial migration and gene flow in Trillium grandiflorum (Melanthiaceae), a wide-ranging, forest herb from eastern North America. Using phylogeographic approaches, we examined cpDNA and allozyme diversity in 35 populations of T. grandiflorum sampled from throughout the geographic range of the species. Nested clade analysis (NCA) of cpDNA haplotypes indicated that T. grandiflorum likely survived in two refugia in the southeastern US during the last glaciation and that long-distance dispersal characterized the post-glacial recolonization of northern areas. There was no evidence for reduced allozyme diversity in populations from glaciated compared to ice-free regions, probably because of the greater abundance and larger effective size of populations in the north. An analysis of isolation-by-distance based on the allozyme data suggested a pattern of population differentiation consistent with restricted gene flow. Notwithstanding the significance of rare seed dispersal events for migration, a comparison of allozyme and cpDNA genetic structure indicates that pollen flow between populations is more likely than seed dispersal. These results for T. grandiflorum represent the first phylogeographic analysis of a temperate woodland herb in eastern North America and support the importance of occasional long-distance dispersal events in the post-glacial migration of plants. PMID:21653402

Griffin, Steven R; Barrett, Spencer C H

2004-03-01

8

Sit-and-wait pollination in the spring flowering woodland plant, Trillium grandiflorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In animal-pollinated plants, reproductive success is commonly limited by pollen availability, which can occur in environments where pollinator activity is scarce or variable. Extended floral longevity to maximize a plant’s access to pollinators may be an adaptation to such uncertain pollination environments. Here, we investigated the effects of flower exposure time to pollinators on female fertility (fruit and seed set in the bee-pollinated woodland herb Trillium grandiflorum, a species with long-lived flowers (~17-21 d that blooms in early spring when pollinator activity is often variable. We experimentally exposed flowers to pollinators for different amounts of time to determine the extent to which floral longevity influenced reproductive success. The amount of time that flowers were exposed to pollinators significantly increased fruit set and seed set per flower, but not seed set per fruit. Our results provide experimental evidence that long floral life spans may function as a ‘sit-and-wait’ pollination strategy to increase the amount of exposure time to pollinators and promote seed set in the unpredictable pollination environments often experienced by early spring ephemerals. In large populations with infrequent pollinator visitation, as commonly occurs in T. grandiflorum, pollination may be a largely stochastic process.

Barrett, Spencer C.H.

2011-07-01

9

Fine-scale spatial genetic structure within continuous and fragmented populations of Trillium camschatcense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations was analyzed for the ling-lived understory perennial herb Trillium camschatcense using allozyme loci. We used Sp statistics to compare SGS between 2 life-history stages, juveniles (J) and reproductives (R), as well as between 2 populations, continuous and fragmented, with different habitat conditions. In the continuous population, significant SGS was detected in both stages but the extent was greatly reduced with the progress of the stage (J, Sp = 0.0475; R, Sp = 0.0053). We inferred that limited seed dispersal and subsequent random loss of individuals from the family patches are responsible for the J and R stage structures, respectively. The fragmented population differed in the patterns of SGS; significant structure was detected in the R stage, but not in the J stage (J, Sp = 0.0021; R, Sp = 0.0165) despite significant positive inbreeding coefficients (J, F(IS) = 0.251). The observed differences in the J-stage structures between populations may be explained by habitat fragmentation effects because reduced recruitment in the fragmented population prevents the development of maternal sibling cohort. Such comparative analysis between populations and life-history stages can be useful to understand the different underlying causes of SGS. PMID:17611258

Yamagishi, Hiroki; Tomimatsu, Hiroshi; Ohara, Masashi

2007-01-01

10

Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

Science.gov (United States)

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

2014-01-01

11

Fate of partial order on trillium and distorted windmill lattices  

Science.gov (United States)

The classical Heisenberg model on the trillium and distorted windmill lattices exhibits a degenerate ground state within large- N theory where the degenerate wave vectors form a surface and line, in three-dimensional space, respectively. We name such states partially ordered to represent the existence of long-range order along the direction normal to these degenerate manifolds. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations using Monte Carlo (MC) methods and we find a first-order transition to a magnetically ordered state for both cases. We further show that the ordering on the distorted windmill lattice is due to order by disorder, while the ground state of the trillium lattice is unique. Despite these different routes to the realization of low-temperature ordered phases, the static structure factors obtained by large- N theory and MC simulations for each lattice show quantitative agreement in the cooperative paramagnetic regime at finite temperatures. This suggests that a remnant of the characteristic angle-dependent spin correlations of partial order remains above the transition temperatures for both lattices. The possible relevance of these results to ?-Mn , CeIrSi, and MnSi is discussed.

Isakov, Sergei V.; Hopkinson, John M.; Kee, Hae-Young

2008-07-01

12

The influence of coniferous canopies on understorey vegetation and soils in mountain forests of the northern Calcareous Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compositional and edaphic gradients were studied in montane forests of the Bavarian Alps (Germany), in which natural mixed deciduous-coniferous tree layers have been altered by past management in favour of Picea abies. Data on species composition and ecological factors were collected in a stratified random sample of 84 quadrats comprising a gradient from pure Picea to pure Fagus sylvatica stands. Data about the understorey composition were subjected to indirect (DCA) and direct gradient analysis (RDA) with the proportion of Picea in the canopy as a constraining variable. Three principal components of a matrix containing seven descriptors of mineral soil, relief and tree layer cover were included as covariables describing the variability of primary ecological factors. Gradients of organic topsoil morphology and chemistry were extracted correspondingly. Responses of individual species, species group and topsoil attributes were studied by simple and partial correlation analysis. Mosses were significantly more abundant and diverse under Picea stands. Few graminoid and herb species were partially associated with Picea, and total understorey richness and cover did not differ systematically by stand type. No relationship between tree layer and understorey diversity was detected at the studied scale. Juvenile Fagus sylvatica was the only woody species significantly less abundant under Picea. In the topsoil lower base saturation, lower pH and larger C/N ratios in the litter layer were partially attributable to the proportion of Picea, only for base saturation a relationship was detected in greater soil depth also. The frequency of broad humus form types did not differ by tree species, nor was overall depth of organic forest floor attributable to canopy composition

2000-05-01

13

Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the understorey Amazonian herb Heliconia acuminata.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized 10 microsatellite loci for the plant Heliconia acuminata from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil). Markers were screened in 61 individuals from one population and were found to be polymorphic with an average of eight alleles per locus. We found moderate to high levels of polymorphic information content, and observed and expected heterozygosities. All 10 markers are suitable for spatial genetic structure and parentage analyses and will be used for understanding H. acuminata dynamics across a fragmented landscape. PMID:21564896

Côrtes, M C; Gowda, V; Kress, W J; Bruna, E M; Uriarte, M

2009-07-01

14

Structural organization of ribosomal DNA in four Trillium species and Paris verticillata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rDNA structure in Trillium and Paris was examined by Southern blot hybridizations of EcoRI- and Hind3-digests of nuclear DNA using 32P-rRNAs. Their rDNAs consist of repeating units of the largest lengths ever known for higher plants. Evidence for differentiation of the rDNA structure during evolution was obtained. Each Trillium species has rDNA consisting of a characteristic set of some members out of five rRNA genes of 13.7-, 14.7-, 15.6-, 17.1- and 18.5-kb repeating units. One species has a rDNA structure characterized by much higher relative frequencies of longer-sized rRNA genes, whereas another species has larger amounts of shorter-sized classes. Other two species examined have intermediatesized genes. There is no direct correspondence of each size class to a certain member of several genomic sets, haploid chromosome complements, which have been denoted on the basis of the affinity in pairing between homologous chromosomes, homologies of chromosomal morphology and external morphology. Paris verticillata, a species in a genus most closely related to Trillium, has two size classes of 15.6 and 17.1 kb, both of which correspond to those found in Trillium. The results indicate that the rDNA structure was rather stable during evolution in these genera. (author)

1983-01-01

15

Methods for describing light capture by understorey weeds in temperate forests: consequences for tree regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light quantity and light quality are two of the main environmental factors controlling the success of seed germination, seedling establishment and growth of trees in the understorey of our temperate forests. Increasing light availability by the practice of thinning also promotes the development of the ground vegetation, graminoids, forbs and shrubs, which may affect tree regeneration. These plants can intercept a significant fraction of the available light in the understorey and thus the resu...

Balandier, P.; Marquier, A.; Gaudio, N.; Wehrlen, L.; Casella, E.; Coll, L.; Kiewitt, A.; Harmer, R.

2009-01-01

16

Improved understorey bamboo cover mapping using a novel hybrid neural network and expert system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The giant panda is an obligate bamboo grazer. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo determines the quantity and quality of panda habitat. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional remote sensing classification techniques. In this paper, a new method combines an artificial neural network and a GIS expert system in order to map understorey bamboo i...

2009-01-01

17

Culinary herbFAQ  

Science.gov (United States)

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

18

Long-term population demography of Trillium recurvatum on loess bluffs in western Tennessee, USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper uses modified population viability models and spatial structure via block analysis to assess population demography of Trillium recurvatum a clonal understory plant. The population is expanding, a likely outcome of the relatively high proportion of juvenile and non-flowering adult ramets and fast-replicating non-flowering adults. Further work is needed to elucidate the relative contributions of clonal vs seed recruitment to genetic structure and demography.

2012-01-01

19

Growth and morphology of three forest understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea and Pteridium aquilinum) according to light availability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea and Pteridium aquilinum are three forest understorey species that compete with tree seedlings for environmental resources. Forest managers therefore seek to control their growth, which is driven in part by the light available in the forest understorey. An experiment was set up in a nursery in which the three understorey species C. vulgaris, M. caerulea and P. aquilinum were planted at six light levels (6, 11, 22, 36, 48 and 100% of full sunlight) replicated ...

Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Dumas, Y.; Ginisty, C.

2011-01-01

20

Growth and morphology of three forest understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea and Pteridium aquilinum) according to light availability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calluna vulgaris, Molinia caerulea and Pteridium aquilinum are three forest understorey species that compete with tree seedlings for environmental resources. Forest managers therefore seek to control their growth, which is driven in part by the light available in the forest understorey.

Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Dumas, Y.; Ginisty, C.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Qualitative and quantitative determination of major saponins in Paris and Trillium by HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and HPLC with electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) were used to identify and quantify steroid saponins in Paris and Trillium plants. The content of the known saponins such as Paris I, II, III, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and protodioscin in Paris and Trillium plants was determined simultaneously using the developed HPLC-ELSD method. Furthermore, other 12 steroid saponins were identified by HPLC-ESI(+/-)-MS(n) detection. In the end, a developed analytical procedure was proved to be a reliable and rapid method for the quality control of Paris and Trillium plants. In addition, the alternative resources for Paris yunnanensis used as a traditional Chinese medicine were discovered according to the hierarchical clustering analysis of the saponin fraction of these plants. PMID:20870470

Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jieyin; Zhao, Wanshun; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

2010-11-01

22

Uniting board to bedside: the use of driver diagrams in quality monitoring and improvement at Trillium Health Centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boards of directors of healthcare organizations are increasingly being urged to extend their governance activities beyond financial matters to include the quality of patient care. Recently, Trillium Health Centre identified four big dot indicators and generated corollary driver diagrams aimed at helping its board understand and measure the organization's quality improvement plans, efforts and results. In addition to keeping board members up to date on these developments, the driver diagrams have supported quality improvements in their own right--for example, with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers--and have helped staff to focus and become more deeply engaged in Trillium's patient-centred quality improvement initiatives. PMID:22116567

Cochrane, Patti; Ginzburg, Amir; Spencer, Gary; Marani, Farah

2011-01-01

23

Counteracting gradients of light and soil nutrients in the understorey of Mediterranean oak forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The forest canopy modifies the availability of resources (light, water, and soil nutrients in the understorey. In this paper we analyze the relationships between woody canopy density, litter accumulation, and topsoil N and P availability in the understorey of two oak forests: one in southern Portugal and the other in southern Spain. Both forests persist on low-nutrient soils, particularly poor in P. We hypothesize that direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey cause opposite gradients in the availability of essential resources (light and key soil nutrients in the understorey. In both studied forests we found significant relationships between the overall canopy density, light availability, topsoil litter accumulation, and the availability of N and P, which frequently limit plant growth. Path analysis (by Shipley’s d-sep method showed that the available data were consistent with the proposed causal model. The average values of soil variables at the end quartiles of the light-availability gradient were compared. Results showed large differences in litter accumulation (~30× and available-N and -P topsoil concentrations (~3× in the Spanish forest (with the wider environmental gradient. Furthermore, P increased from the “very low” range to the “low” or even the “optimum” range of availability (according to standard plant growth criteria, which suggests potential effects on the growth of the understorey plant species. We conclude that the counteracting gradients of the essential resources – light and nutrients – in the forest understorey resulted from direct and indirect effects of the canopy overstorey, respectively. We suggest that these counteracting effects of the woody canopy on essential resources of different nature must be considered when interpreting the patterns of understorey plant populations and communities.

L. V. García

2006-12-01

24

Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD. Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1- total height; 2- leaf number; 3- leaf dry mass;4- stem dry mass; 5- root dry mass; 6- stem length/mass; 7-shoot/root mass; 8- percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.

Válio Ivany Ferraz Marques

2003-01-01

25

Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

2013-01-01

26

Radiolysis of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolysis of the chief component of 124 types of medicinal herbs has been studied, with the majority stable under gamma irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. 16 types of the herbs (12.9%) show radiolytic decomposition at 10 kGy, and 6 types (4.8%) at 5 kGy. No radiolytic decomposition is found at less than 2 kGy. The model system study showed that gamma radiolysis is different from thermohydrolytisis and photolysis and water absorbed on the herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of the herbs. Pulse and gamma radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalis-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to OH radical attack. Fructose and glucose can inhibit the gamma radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by gamma ray, with the following measures: 1. keeping the herbs in dry state, 2. making bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine with honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs, 3. reducing the microbiological contamination in producing process and thus, requiring lower applied dose

1996-12-01

27

Radiolysis of herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiolysis of 124 types of herbs was studied. The majority were stable under ?-irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition was detected at 10 kGy for 16 types of herbs (12.9%) and at 5 kGy for 6 types (4.8%). No detectable radiolytic decomposition was found at baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glycoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalic-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to the attack of OH radical. The addition of fructose and glucose can inhibit the ?-radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by ?-ray, but important measure and step should be adopted. That is: 1, the herbs must exist in dry state; 2, it is preferred to make bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine and honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs; 3, the producer must pay attention to executing strictly manufacture procedure to reduce the microbiological contamination, thus subsequently lower the applied dose.

Wu, Jilan; Zhang, Xujia; Yuan, Rongyao; He, Yongke

1995-08-01

28

Natural regeneration of Pinus pinea L. in Tunisia as influenced by canopy cover, litter biomass and understorey vegetation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pinus pinea is one of the most valuable species used in Tunisia in the reforestation program. This species is shade-intolerant and hence needs light to correctly regenerate. It is also influenced by the understorey vegetation and the litter biomass, both also correlated to light availability. To quantify the importance of these different factors, the natural regeneration and evolution of the biomass of understorey vegetation and litter were studied in artificial forests of Pinus pinea located...

Adili, B.; El Aouni, M. H.; Garchi, S.; Balandier, P.

2009-01-01

29

HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout history, plants have been used for medicinal purposes and, during the last three decades, we have witnessed a most remarkable revival of herbal medicine. In today’s medicine, as many as one third to approximately half of all drugs available in the market are derived from plants. For example anticancer drugs such as vincristine, vinblastine and paclitaxel (Taxol are derived from plants and the widely used cardioactive drug digoxin is extracted from the foxglove plant (Digitalis lantana. Herbal therapies are widely used but are not as safe as is being promoted because of lack of safety data. So many of these herbal therapies can interact with other medications, causing either potentially dangerous side effects and / or reduced benefits from the medication. Almost one third of current users of herbal drugs were at risks of herb drug interaction. Since only limited information are available in the literature concerning herb drug interaction.. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical careers.

N. Minaz

2011-04-01

30

Strong persistent growth differences govern individual performance and population dynamics in a tropical forest understorey palm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Persistent variation in growth rate between individual plants can have strong effects on population dynamics as fast growers reach the reproductive size at an earlier age and thus potentially contribute more to population growth than slow growers. In tropical forests, such persistent growth differences have so far been documented for canopy tree species, where they are primarily associated with forest gap dynamics, but not for forest understorey species which are less responsive to gaps. H...

2012-01-01

31

Strong persistent growth differences govern individual performance and population dynamics in a tropical forest understorey palm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Persistent variation in growth rate between individual plants can have strong effects on population dynamics as fast growers reach the reproductive size at an earlier age and thus potentially contribute more to population growth than slow growers. In tropical forests, such persistent growth differences have so far been documented for canopy tree species, where they are primarily associated with forest gap dynamics, but not for forest understorey species which are less responsive to gaps. Here...

2012-01-01

32

Effects of tree species composition on within-forest distribution of understorey species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Question: Do tree species, with different litter qualities, affect the within-forest distribution of forest understorey species on intermediate to base-rich soils? Since habitat loss and fragmentation have caused ancient forest species to decline, those species are the main focus of this study. Location: Three ancient forests, along a soil gradient from acidification-sensitive to base-rich, were studied: Limbrichterbosch and Savelsbos in The Netherlands and Holtkrat in Denmark. Methods: Canop...

2005-01-01

33

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Pip...

Melo, Geruza L.; BARBARA MIOTTO; BRISA PERES; Ca?ceres, Nilton C.

2013-01-01

34

Climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species and giant pandas in China's Qinling Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is threatening global ecosystems through its impact on the survival of individual species and their ecological functions. Despite the important role of understorey plants in forest ecosystems, climate impact assessments on understorey plants and their role in supporting wildlife habitat are scarce in the literature. Here we assess climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species with an emphasis on their ecological function as a food resource for endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). An ensemble of bamboo distribution projections associated with multiple climate-change projections and bamboo dispersal scenarios indicates a substantial reduction in the distributional ranges of three dominant bamboo species in the Qinling Mountains, China during the twenty-first century. As these three species comprise almost the entire diet of the panda population in the region, the projected changes in bamboo distribution suggest a potential shortage of food for this population, unless alternative food sources become available. Although the projections were developed under unavoidable simplifying assumptions and uncertainties, they indicate potential challenges for panda conservation and underscore the importance of incorporating interspecific interactions into climate-change impact assessments and associated conservation planning.

Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Winkler, Julie A.; Li, Yu; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2013-03-01

35

Restoration of the understorey layer of recent forest bordering ancient forest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently established forests are commonly characterized by an impoverished understorey. Restoration is mostly based on spontaneous secondary succession, but little is known about the time period needed to achieve a community species pool with species composition equal to that of ancient forests. Vegetation in transects of 197 plots in 13 recent forest stands contiguous to the Meerdaalwoud ancient forest complex was surveyed. The recent forest stands ranged in age from 36 to 132 yr. The community species pool was described with an ecological, functional and phytosociological approach and based on groups derived from a CCA. Differences in community species pool between age classes of recent forest stands were analysed. During establishment of a new forest competitive species, forest edge species and species with high Ellenberg values for light and nitrogen and a more persistent seed bank will dominate the understorey. After 90 yr of succession the cover by these species decreases and reaches equal values to ancient forest after ca. 105 yr. A large number of forest species will be able to colonize the forest in less than 90 yr. Some typical forest species, however, have very low colonization rates and still have low cover in recent forest more than 105 yr old, so that complete restoration of the understorey requires a time period of over a century. Anthropogenic introduction of forest plant species may reduce the time required for ancient forest vegetation equality.

Bossuyt, Beatrijs; Hermy, Martin [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. of Land and Water Management

2000-05-01

36

Herbs in exercise and sports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigat...

Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

2012-01-01

37

Herbs in exercise and sports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers h...

Chen Chee; Muhamad Ayu; Ooi Foong

2012-01-01

38

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests – understorey vegetation – at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

D. B. Metcalfe

2013-08-01

39

[Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541

Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto

2013-06-01

40

Steroidal saponin of Trillium tschonoskii. Reverses multidrug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combating with multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major part of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemotherapy. Steroidal saponin from Trillium tschonoskii (TTS) could be a potential weapon. We found TTS could reverse the MDR in HCC cells and significantly enhance chemosensitization. TTS inhibited HepG2 and R-HepG2 cells survival in a dose-dependent manner by 75% and 76%, respectively (p<0.01), as well as colony formation 77% and 81% (p<0.01). Moreover, TTS induced sensitization of R-HepG2 to anti-cancer drugs, indicated by significantly reduced IC50. On the other hand, TTS suppressed expression of P-glucoprotein in MDR HCC cells, and thereby increased accumulation of doxorubicin from 126 ng/10(5)cells to 752 ng/10(5)cells (p<0.01). TTS also repressed expression of many other MDR genes, such as MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP5, MVP and GST-?. In vivo, TTS dose-dependently reduced R-HepG2 cells xenografts tumour formation by inhibiting tumour cells proliferation in mice. Consistence with in vitro finding, TTS induced R-HepG2 sensitization to doxorubicin and therefore reduced tumour formation in vivo. PMID:23786867

Wang, Hui; Zhai, Zhenbo; Li, Nanlin; Jin, Haifeng; Chen, Jianghao; Yuan, Shifang; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Juliang; Li, Yongping; Yun, Jun; Fan, Jing; Yi, Jun; Ling, Rui

2013-08-15

 
 
 
 
41

The rhizome of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. extract induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. has been used to treat several diseases including cancers in folk medicine. However, the mechanisms responsible for T. tschonoskii extract-induced apoptosis are not clear. This study was mainly undertaken to identify the major biochemical changes in a lung cancer cell line upon treatment with an T. tschonoskii extract (TTME), and to investigate the functional relationship between these changes. The n-butanol extract was used to evaluate the mechanism of induction of apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and its effects on mitochondrial function and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The n-butanol extract of T. tschonoskii has cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and morphological effects on the lung cancer cell line. T. tschonoskii mainly leads to apoptosis of cancer cells with a concomitant increase in the release of cytochrome c and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. A rapid increase in the level of intracellular ROS and an accumulation of cells in the G2/M and S phase of the cell cycle were also observed in treated cells. These observations suggest that the n-butanol extract of T. tschonoskii has promising anticancer activities, which could be useful in cancer treatment. PMID:22191213

Huang, Wenfeng; Zou, Kun; Xiong, Bin

2011-01-01

42

HERBE final safety report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Final safety report of HERBE system constructed at the RB reactor consists of 13 chapters, as follows. Chapter 0 includes a summary and the contents of the Final safety report, fundamental characteristics of the system and conclusion remarks, with the license agreement of the Safety Committee of the Boris Kidric Institute. Chapter 1 describes and analyzes the site of the HERBE system, including demography, topography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismicity, ecology. Chapter 3 covers technical characteristics of the system, Chapter 4 deals with safety analysis, Chapter 5 describes organisation of construction and preliminary operational testing of the system. Chapter 6 deals with organisation and program of test and regular operation, relevant procedures. Chapter 7 defines operational conditions and constraints, Chapter 8 and describe methods and means of radiation protection and radioactive materials management respectively. Chapter 10 contains a review of emergency plans, measures and procedures for nuclear accident protection. Chapters 11 and 12 are concerned with quality assurance program and physical protection of the HERBE system and related nuclear material

1991-01-01

43

Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied subtropical forests.

Liu H-Y

2012-08-01

44

Sensitivity of understorey vegetation to nitrogen and sulphur deposition in a spruce stand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The response of understorey vegetation to addition of nitrogen and sulphur was examined in a 60-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand in southern Finland. The understorey vegetation was studied on experimental plots receiving nitrogen (25 kg N ha{sup -1}) and sulphur (30 kg S ha{sup -1}) as ammonium sulphate once a year for 4 years. The dominant moss species on the site were Pleurozium schreberi (Mitt.) and Dicranum polysetum (Sw.). The biomass of the dominant moss species was decreased significantly by sulphur and nitrogen deposition during the study period. Due to the addition of nitrogen and sulphur, the biomass of P. schreberi was decreased by 60% and the biomass of D. polysetum by 78%. Over a 4-year study period the responses of vascular plants to addition of nitrogen and sulphur were not significant. Forest-floor mosses seemed to be more sensitive to nitrogen and sulphur deposition than vascular plants. Since bryophytes lack a cuticle and absorb water very rapidly after rain, they are exposed more to the direct effects of acid deposition than other plants. Thus, mosses may indicate changes in forest vegetation due to acid deposition

Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

1998-02-01

45

Parallel evolutionary paths to mycoheterotrophy in understorey Ericaceae and Orchidaceae: ecological evidence for mixotrophy in Pyroleae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several forest understorey achlorophyllous plants, termed mycoheterotrophs (MHs), obtain C from their mycorrhizal fungi. The latter in turn form ectomycorrhizas with trees, the ultimate C source of the entire system. A similar nutritional strategy occurs in some green forest orchids, phylogenetically close to MH species, that gain their C via a combination of MH and photosynthesis (mixotrophy). In orchid evolution, mixotrophy evolved in shaded habitats and preceded MH nutrition. By generalizing and applying this to Ericaceae, we hypothesized that green forest species phylogenetically close to MHs are mixotrophic. Using stable C isotope analysis with fungi, autotrophic, mixotrophic and MH plants as comparisons, we found the first quantitative evidence for substantial fungi-mediated mixotrophy in the Pyroleae, common ericaceous shrubs from boreal forests close to the MH Monotropoideae. Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha, Pyrola rotundifolia and Chimaphila umbellata acquired between 10.3 and 67.5% of their C from fungi. High N and 15N contents also suggest that Pyroleae nutrition partly rely on fungi. Examination of root fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences at one site revealed that 39 species of mostly endophytic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, including abundant Tricholoma spp., were associated with O. secunda, P. chlorantha and C. umbellata. These fungi, particularly ectomycorrhizal associates, could thus link mixotrophic Pyroleae spp. to surrounding trees, allowing the C flows deduced from isotopic evidence. These data suggest that we need to reconsider ecological roles of understorey plants, which could influence the dynamics and composition of forest communities. PMID:17089139

Tedersoo, Leho; Pellet, Prune; Kõljalg, Urmas; Selosse, Marc-André

2007-03-01

46

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

2013-01-01

47

Primary forest dynamics in lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, and the role of the understorey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in species composition in two 4-ha plots of lowland dipterocarp rainforest at Danum, Sabah, were measured over ten years (1986-1996) for trees > or = 10 cm girth at breast height (gbh). Each included a lower-slope to ridge gradient. The period lay between two drought events of moderate intensity but the forest showed no large lasting responses, suggesting that its species were well adapted to this regime. Mortality and recruitment rates were not unusual in global or regional comparisons. The forest continued to aggrade from its relatively (for Sabah) low basal area in 1986 and, together with the very open upper canopy structure and an abundance of lianas, this suggests a forest in a late stage of recovery from a major disturbance, yet one continually affected by smaller recent setbacks. Mortality and recruitment rates were not related to population size in 1986, but across subplots recruitment was positively correlated with the density and basal area of small trees (10-recruitment rates were correlated with rgr among small trees. Separating understorey species (typically the Euphorbiaceae) from the overstorey (Dipterocarpaceae) showed marked differences in change in mortality with increasing gbh: in the former it increased, in the latter it decreased. Forest processes are centred on this understorey quasi-stratum. The two replicate plots showed a high correspondence in the mortality, recruitment, population changes and growth rates of small trees for the 49 most abundant species in common to both. Overstorey species had higher rgrs than understorey ones, but both showed considerable ranges in mortality and recruitment rates. The supposed trade-off in traits, viz slower rgr, shade tolerance and lower population turnover in the understorey group versus faster potential growth rate, high light responsiveness and high turnover in the overstorey group, was only partly met, as some understorey species were also very dynamic. The forest at Danum, under such a disturbance-recovery regime, can be viewed as having a dynamic equilibrium in functional and structural terms. A second trade-off in shade-tolerance versus drought-tolerance is suggested for among the understorey species. A two-storey (or vertical component) model is proposed where the understorcy-overstorey species' ratio of small stems (currently 2:1) is maintained by a major feedback process. The understorey appears to be an important part of this forest, giving resilience against drought and protecting the overstorey saplings in the long term. This view could be valuable for understanding forest responses to climate change where drought frequency in Borneo is predicted to intensify in the coming decades. PMID:11605620

Newbery, D M; Kennedy, D N; Petol, G H; Madani, L; Ridsdale, C E

1999-11-29

48

A latitudinal gradient in seed nutrients of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutrient concentration in seeds determines many aspects of potential success of the sexual reproductive phase of plants, including the seed predation probability, efficiency of seed dispersal and seedling performance. Despite considerable research interest in latitudinal gradients of foliar nutrients, a similar gradient for seeds remains unexplored. We investigated a potential latitudinal gradient in seed nutrient concentrations within the widespread European understorey forest herb Anemone nemorosa L. We sampled seeds of A. nemorosa in 15 populations along a 1900-km long latitudinal gradient at three to seven seed collection dates post-anthesis and investigated the relative effects of growing degree-hours >5 °C, soil characteristics and latitude on seed nutrient concentrations. Seed nitrogen, nitrogen:phosphorus ratio and calcium concentration decreased towards northern latitudes, while carbon:nitrogen ratios increased. When taking differences in growing degree-hours and measured soil characteristics into account and only considering the most mature seeds, the latitudinal decline remained particularly significant for seed nitrogen concentration. We argue that the decline in seed nitrogen concentration can be attributed to northward decreasing seed provisioning due to lower soil nitrogen availability or greater investment in clonal reproduction. This pattern may have large implications for the reproductive performance of this forest herb as the degree of seed provisioning ultimately co-determines seedling survival and reproductive success. PMID:21489100

De Frenne, P; Kolb, A; Graae, B J; Decocq, G; Baltora, S; De Schrijver, A; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; Dhondt, R; Diekmann, M; Gruwez, R; Heinken, T; Hermy, M; Liira, J; Saguez, R; Shevtsova, A; Baskin, C C; Verheyen, K

2011-05-01

49

Seedling growth of understorey species of a Southeast Brazilian tropical forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese (Crescimento de plântulas de espécies de sub-bosque de uma floresta tropical do sudeste brasileiro). Respostas de crescimento de plântulas ao sombreamento têm sido objeto de intensa pesquisa em regiões temperadas e florestas tropicais úmidas. Neste trabalho, treze espécies de sub-bosque foram estuda [...] das sob duas diferentes densidades de fluxo de fotons fotossintéticos (PPFD). Plântulas foram mantidas em casa de vegetação sob 51% e 2,6% da irradiação solar. O crescimento das plântulas foi avaliado através de: 1-) altura total; 2-) número de folhas; 3-) massa seca das folhas; 4-) massa seca do caule;5-)massa seca da raiz; 6-)razão comprimento do caule /massa seca do caule; 7-) razão da massa seca da parte aérea/raiz; 8-) porcentagem de alocação de fotossintatos para folhas, caule e raiz. Para a maioria dos parâmetros considerados, baixa PPFD reduziu drasticamente o crescimento. É possível que a estratégia dessas espécies de sub-bosque esteja na redução de crescimento sob baixa PPFD, resguardando energia para a sobrevivência. Abstract in english Thirteen understorey species of a mesophyllous tropical forest were studied under two different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). Seedlings were grown in the glasshouse under 51% and 2.6% solar PPFD. Growth of the seedlings was evaluated by 1-) total height; 2-) leaf number; 3-) leaf dry [...] mass;4-) stem dry mass; 5-) root dry mass; 6-) stem length/mass; 7-)shoot/root mass; 8-) percent allocation to leaf, stem and roots. For most of the parameters recorded, low PPFD drastically reduced growth. It seemed that the strategy of these understorey species was a reduction of growth under low PPFD saving energy for survival.

Ivany Ferraz Marques, Válio.

50

Light-mediated influence of three understorey species (Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum, Molinia caerulea) on growth and morphology of Pinus sylvestris seedlings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pinus sylvestris is a pioneer species and as such is relatively light-demanding. Therefore, its natural regeneration may be inhibited by some forest understorey species that develop with light and can then reduce light as well as soil resources (i.e. nutrients and water) availability for the pine seedlings. To better quantify these effects, we designed two experiments in a nursery. The first one aimed at studying the influence of density of three common understorey species in temperate forest...

Gaudio, N.; Balandier, P.; Philippe, G.; Dumas, Y.; Jean, F.; Ginisty, C.

2009-01-01

51

Using cover measurements to estimate aboveground understorey biomass in Maritime pine stands
---
Estimation de la biomasse aérienne du sous-bois de peuplements de pin maritime à l'aide de mesures de recouvrement
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* Understorey plays a major role in forest fluxes and stocks balances, however this compartment is generally poorly quantified. Our objectives were to establish models to estimate understorey biomass using vegetation cover measurements and to investigate upscaling methodologies from stand to regional level. * Understorey aboveground biomass measurements were undertaken in Maritime pine stands of mesohygric, mesic and dry moorlands in South West France. * Average biomass stock in this compartm...

Porte?, Annabel J.; Samalens, Jean-charles; Dulhoste, Raphae?l; Du Cros, Re?mi Teissier; Bosc, Alexandre; Meredieu, Ce?line

2009-01-01

52

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests – understorey vegetation – at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon ...

Metcalfe, D. B.; Eisele, B.; Hasselquist, N. J.

2013-01-01

53

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma flo [...] resta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus) e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus) foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003), particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação. Abstract in english Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Braz [...] il. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

GERUZA L., MELO; BARBARA, MIOTTO; BRISA, PERES; NILTON C., CÁCERES.

54

Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do gênero Piper sp.. Sete fases de campo foram executadas durante oito dias consecutivos de setembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2008. Quatro espécies de roedores (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Mus musculus e duas espécies de marsupiais (Didelphis albiventris e Gracilinanus microtarsus foram capturadas. As espécies capturadas apresentaram diferença significativa quanto ao uso do microhabitat (ANOVA p= 0,003, particularmente entre locais no solo e sub-bosque. Akodon montensis utilizou com maior frequência samambaias terrestres e troncos caídos, S. angouya lianas, D. albiventris troncos caídos e Piper sp. e G. microtarsus árvores e lianas. Nós demonstramos que a comunidade de pequenos mamíferos locais, de fato, apresenta uma seleção de microhabitats, com associações entre a maioria das espécies e habitats. Além disso, há forte indício de seleção de habitat devido à pressão de predação.

GERUZA L. MELO

2013-06-01

55

In situ observation of stomatal movements and gas exchange of Aegopodium podagraria L. in the understorey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations of stomata in situ while simultaneously measuring CO(2) gas exchange and transpiration were made in field experiments with Aegopodium podagraria in a highly variable light climate in the understorey of trees. The low background photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) caused a slight opening of the stomata and no visible response to sporadic lightflecks. However, if lightflecks were frequent and brighter, slow opening movements were observed. Small apertures were sufficient to allow maximal photosynthetic rates. Therefore, the small apertures observed in low light usually only caused minor stomatal limitations of lightfleck photosynthesis. The response of stomata to step-wise changes in PPFD under different levels of leaf to air vapour pressure difference (Delta(W)) was observed under controlled conditions. High Delta(W) influenced the stomatal response only slightly by reducing stomatal aperture in low light and causing a slight reduction in the initial capacity to utilize high PPFD levels. Under continuous high PPFD, however, stomata opened to the same degree irrespective of Delta(W). Under high Delta(W), opening and closing responses to PPFD-changes were faster, which enabled a rapid removal of the small stomatal limitations of photosynthesis initially present in high Delta(W) after longer periods in low light. It is concluded that A. podagraria maintains a superoptimal aperture in low light which leads to a low instantaneous water use efficiency, but allows an efficient utilization of randomly occurring lightflecks. PMID:11053464

Kaiser, H; Kappen, L

2000-10-01

56

The evolution of self-compatible and self-incompatible populations in a hermaphroditic perennial, Trillium camschatcense (Melanthiaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of selfing from outcrossing ancestors is known to have occurred repeatedly in angiosperms. Theoretical studies have argued that the transition from outcrossing to selfing is accomplished more easily than the reverse case, and phylogenetic analyses involving self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) species has basically supported this assumption. The evolutionary direction of self-compatibility and self-incompatibility was examined in Trillium camschatcense, which contains geographically widespread SC populations, and restricted SI populations. Ecological surveys have revealed that the SC populations were suitable for outcrossing, and selfing in these populations did not confer any fitness advantage. Since reproductive fitness indicates the possibility of an evolutionary shift from self-compatibility to self-incompatibility, the phylogenetic relationships of SI and SC populations of T. camschatcense were investigated based on cpDNA variations and nuclear DNA microsatellite polymorphisms. Although phylogenetic analyses did not provide credible evidence to determine evolutionary direction, the SI populations turned out to be monophyletic with extremely low genetic differentiation. Based on these results, we proposed two possible scenarios for the evolutionary backgrounds of SI and SC populations in T. camschatcense. The plausibility of each scenario was evaluated based on the reproductive and geographical features of the mating systems. PMID:19543950

Kubota, Shosei; Ohara, Masashi

2009-09-01

57

Phyllanthus Niruri: A magic Herb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal herbs are significant source of pharmaceutical drugs. Latest trends haveshown increasing demand of phytodrugs and some medicinal herbs have provenhepatotprotective potential. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular,cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseasesInflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherentlydetrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair,and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and ispartially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated MolecularPatterns; DAMP’s. DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of proinflammatorycytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Paithankar V. V.

2011-12-01

58

Outbreaks by canopy-feeding geometrid moth cause state-dependent shifts in understorey plant communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased spread of insect outbreaks is among the most severe impacts of climate warming predicted for northern boreal forest ecosystems. Compound disturbances by insect herbivores can cause sharp transitions between vegetation states with implications for ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks. By analysing vegetation plots prior to and immediately after a severe and widespread outbreak by geometrid moths in the birch forest-tundra ecotone, we document a shift in forest understorey community composition in response to the moth outbreak. Prior to the moth outbreak, the plots divided into two oligotrophic and one eutrophic plant community. The moth outbreak caused a vegetation state shift in the two oligotrophic communities, but only minor changes in the eutrophic community. In the spatially most widespread communities, oligotrophic dwarf shrub birch forest, dominance by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, was effectively broken and replaced by a community dominated by the graminoid Avenella flexuosa, in a manner qualitatively similar to the effect of wild fires in E. nigrum communities in coniferous boreal forest further south. As dominance by E. nigrum is associated with retrogressive succession the observed vegetation state shift has widespread implications for ecosystem productivity on a regional scale. Our findings reveal that the impact of moth outbreaks on the northern boreal birch forest system is highly initial-state dependent, and that the widespread oligotrophic communities have a low resistance to such disturbances. This provides a case for the notion that climate impacts on arctic and northern boreal vegetation may take place most abruptly when conveyed by changed dynamics of irruptive herbivores. PMID:23568711

Karlsen, Stein Rune; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Odland, Arvid; Ims, Rolf Anker; Elvebakk, Arve

2013-11-01

59

SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER HERBS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal of pharmaceutical research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs used against various types of cancer. With the advanced knowledge of molecular science and the refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, we are in a much better position now to identify various anticancer herbs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on the use of herbs to boost immune system of the body against cancer. Scientists have contributed for a number of years to identify hundreds of anticancer herbs, and developed various herbal formulations from their active principles that inhibit growth and spread of cancer without any side effect. Such herbs possess anticancer, immunoenhancing, antiangiogenesis, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. They inhibit growth and spread of cancer by modulating the activity of hormones, enzymes and other biological factors. The therapeutic effect of these herbs is executed by the complex synergistic interaction among their various active principles. Some important anticancer herbs have been discussed here.

Pandey Govind

2011-07-01

60

Pollination and reproduction of a self-incompatible forest herb in hedgerow corridors and forest patches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat-corridors are assumed to counteract the negative impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation, but their efficiency in doing so depends on the maintenance of ecological processes in corridor conditions. For plants dispersing in linear habitats, one of these critical processes is the maintenance of adequate pollen transfer to insure seed production within the corridor. This study focuses on a common, self-incompatible forest herb, Trillium grandiflorum, to assess plant-pollinator interactions and the influence of spatial processes on plant reproduction in hedgerow corridors compared to forests. First, using pollen supplementation experiments over 2 years, we quantified the extent of pollen limitation in both habitats, testing the prediction of greater limitation in small hedgerow populations than in forests. While pollen limitation of fruit and seed set was common, its magnitude did not differ between habitats. Variations among sites, however, suggested an influence of landscape context on pollination services. Second, we examined the effect of isolation on plant reproduction by monitoring fruit and seed production, as well as pollinator activity and assemblage, in small flower arrays transplanted in hedgerows at increasing distances from forest and from each other. We detected no difference in the proportion of flowers setting fruit or in pollinator activity with isolation, but we observed some differences in pollinator assemblages. Seed set, on the other hand, declined significantly with increasing isolation in the second year of the study, but not in the first year, suggesting altered pollen transfer with distance. Overall, plants in hedgerow corridors and forests benefited from similar pollination services. In this system, plant-pollinator interactions and reproduction seem to be influenced more by variations in resource distribution over years and landscapes than by local habitat conditions. PMID:19412706

Schmucki, Reto; de Blois, Sylvie

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Report on start of HERBE experimental operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the start of experimental operation of the HERBE N system, needed aluminium vessels were constructed, HERBE lattice was formed and the criticality is expected after decisions and permission of the Institute safety committee. Five figures are presented in this report

1989-01-01

62

Biogenic NO emission from a spruce forest soil in the Fichtelgebirge (Germany) under the influence of different understorey vegetation cover  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of the EGER project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions) soil samples have been taken from the spruce forest site "Weidenbrunnen" (Fichtelgebirge, Germany) in September 2008 to determine the NO exchange in the laboratory and for a series of soil analyses. The soil was sampled below different understorey vegetation covers: young Norway spruce, moss/litter, blueberries and grass. We investigated the net NO release rate from corresponding organic layers as well as from the A horizon of respective soils. Additionally we measured pH, C/N ratio, contents of ammonium, nitrate, and organic C, bulk density, the thickness of the organic layer and the quality of the organic matter. Net NO release rates (as well as the NO production and NO consumption rates) from the soil samples were determined by a fully automated laboratory incubation & fumigation system. Purified dry air passed five dynamic incubation chambers, four containing water saturated soil samples and one reference chamber. By this procedure, the soil samples dried out slowly (within 2-6 days), covering the full range of soil moisture (0-300% gravimetric soil moisture). To quantify NO production and NO consumption rates separately, soil samples were fumigated with zero-air (approx. 0 ppb NO) and air of 133 ppb NO. The chambers were placed in a thermostatted cabinet for incubation at 10 an 20Ë? C. NO and H2O concentrations at the outlet of the five dynamic chambers were measured sequentially by chemiluminescence and IR-absorption based analyzers, switching corresponding valves every two minutes. Net NO release rates were determined from the NO concentration difference between soil containing and reference chambers. Corresponding measurements of H2O mixing ratio yielded the evaporation loss of the soil samples, which (referenced to the gravimetric soil water content before and after the incubation experiment) provided the individual soil moisture contents of each soil samples during the incubation experiment. Our contribution focus net NO release rates, NO production and NO consumption rates of spruce forest soils sampled under different understorey vegetation covers. Generally, organic layers show significant higher NO production and NO consumption rates than the soils from the corresponding A horizons. Soils under the understorey vegetation cover "moos/litter" revealed the lowest NO production and NO consumption rates. Net NO release rates, NO production and NO consumption rates of soil samples obtained below the four different under- storey vegetation covers will be discussed in terms of pH, C/N ratio, contents of ammonium, nitrate, and organic C, bulk density, thickness of organic layer, as well as quality of the organic matter.

Bargsten, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

2009-04-01

63

Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

2012-02-15

64

HERBE- Analysis of test operation results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is part of the safety analyses performed for the RB reactor operation with the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and is part of the final safety report together with the 'Report on test operation of HERBE for the period Dec. 15 1989 - May 15 1990. This report covers the following main topics: determination of reactivity variations dependent on the variations moderator critical level; determination of reactivity for the flooded neutron converter; and the accident analysis of neutron converter flooding

1991-01-01

65

POTENTIAL OF HERBS AS COSMACEUTICALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

Jain Amit

2010-09-01

66

Carbon dioxide and energy flux partitioning between the understorey and the overstorey of a maritime pine forest during a year with reduced soil water availability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes were measured above and within a maritime pine forest during an atypical year with long-lasting reduced soil water availibility. Energy balance closure was adequately good at both levels. As compared with what is usually observed at this site the ecosystem dissipated less energy via latent heat flux and more via sensible heat flux. The understorey canopy was responsible for a variable, significant component of the whole canopy fluxes of water vap...

Jarosz, Nathalie; Brunet, Yves; Lamaud, Eric; Irvine, Mark; Bonnefond, J. -m; Loustau, Denis

2008-01-01

67

Land-use history affects understorey plant species distributions in a large temperate-forest complex, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Europe, forests have been strongly influenced by human land-use for millennia. Here, we studied the importance of anthropogenic historical factors as determinants of understorey species distributions in a 967 ha Danish forest complex using 156 randomly placed 100-m2 plots, 15 environmental, 9 spatial, and 5 historical variables, and principal components analysis (PCA), redundancy analysis (RDA) as well as indicator species analysis. The historical variables were status as ancient (1805 AD) high forest, reclaimed bogs, �100 m from Bronze Age burial mounds, or former conifer plantation, and stand age. The PCA results showed that the main gradients in species composition were strongly related to the explanatory variables. Forward variable selection and variation partitioning using RDA showed that although modern environment was the dominant driver of species composition, anthropogenic historical factors were also important. The pure historical variation fraction constituted 13% of the variation explained. TheRDA results showed that ancient-forest status and, secondarily, reclaimed bog status were the only significant historical variables. Many typical forest interior species, with poor dispersal and a strong literature record as ancient-forest species, were still concentrated in areas that were high forest in 1805. Among the younger forests, there were clear floristic differences between those on reclaimed bogs and those not. Apparently remnant populations of wet-soil plants were still present in the reclaimed bog areas. Our results emphasize the importance of historical factors for understanding modern vegetation patterns in forested landscapes.

Svenning, J.-C.; Baktoft, Karen H.

2009-01-01

68

[Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs. PMID:23944088

Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

2013-05-01

69

Report on analysis of HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is the choice of HERBE system configuration and detailed analysis of neutronic characteristics of the chosen configuration. The system is planned to be built at the RB reactor. Neutronic parameters were calculated by computer code VESNA based on transmission probability method using 44 group nuclear data for 28 nuclides. In the first phase, it has been proposed to achieve HERBE system by using fuel elements existing at the RB reactor. It is suggested to build new hybrid system in the RB reactor using new fuel elements that would be produced

1989-01-01

70

Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

1996-01-01

71

Herbs in Orthodox Practice: A View by Medical Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use and opinion of herbs among medical students of Imo State University Nigeria was assessed. Information on herb use, indication and opinion from returned self-administered questionnaire was analyzed. A total of 114 students (91.2%) of 125 responded. 32 (28.1%) students had used herbs before, a significant proportion being males (OR 3.7). Herbal tea was the most popular herb used; maintaining good health and treating malaria were the only indications (50% each). Most students (>90%) believe ...

Enwere, O. Okezie

2009-01-01

72

A REVIEW: HERBS USED AS ANTICANCER AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are the plants which will have desirable odour, taste and other medical uses. Anti-cancer agents are effective in cancer treatment. Here an attempt has been made to review some herbs used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. These herbs were found for posses anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various pre-clinical or clinical studies. Cancer is a disease in which body cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cell may invade nearby tissues and they may spread through the blood stream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. The search for anticancer agents from the plant sources alkaloids in earnest in the 1950s such as Vincristine, Vinblastine and the isolation of cytotoxic Podophyllotoxins will reduce white blood cell count and caused bone marrow depression in rats. Roots, leaves, stem, root, bark and fruity of the plant herbs are used in the treatment of cancer. The dietary antioxidants having anti carcinogenic property are in demand. Identification and characterization of these anti-carcinogens in the diet can be used for reducing the risk of human cancer. Tea (Camellia thea an evergreen plant contains antioxidants which prevent and repair cellular damage caused by reactive free radicals. Supervitamin drinks containing a combination of Hordeum vulgare, Medicago sativa and Spirulina enhances the activity of immune cells against cancer. Mentha species containing antioxidants prevent reocurrence of cancer.

Badri Nagarani

2011-01-01

73

Vibriocidal activities of some local herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four of the seven tested medicinal plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against Vibrio cholerae. These 7 plants are: Ficus capensis, Mitragyna stipulosa, Entada africana, Piliostigma reticulatum, Terminalia avicennoides, Mimosa pudica, and Lannea acida. Of them Terminalia avicennoides showed higher antimocrobial activity than others. Potentials of these herbs in the control of cholera need to be determined. PMID:7594314

Akinsinde, K A; Olukoya, D K

1995-06-01

74

Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

Maria Kowalik

2013-04-01

75

Updates on the clinical evidenced herb-warfarin interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of "interacting herbs." In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

2014-01-01

76

Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

2014-01-01

77

Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation, Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to. The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.

Tang George

2009-06-01

78

SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling haemorrhage from cuts and bruises. In vitro clotting time of blood in presence and  absence  of various plant extracts was used as a guide to study haemostatic activityof the herbs under study. Of the ten plants evaluated, aqueous extracts of Quercus pubescens, Thevetia peruviana proved to have  significant  haemostatic activity at PZingiber officinale, Zanthoxylum rhetsa and petroleum ether extracts of Psidum guajava, Terminalia chebula, Zanthoxylum rhetsa confirmed the same results.

Shital Tanaji Jadhav

2013-09-01

79

PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS: AN AMPLE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL HERB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbal drugs have been one of the primarily used drugs since olden times for the treatment of a range of diseases. In addition, the medicinal plants have played a vital role in world health as the herbal plants still make an important contribution to health care. Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, has been used since ages because of its rich medicinal values and ethnomedical importance. Phyllanthus amarus is a small, erect, annual herb which is a rich source of phytochemicals tha...

2011-01-01

80

Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are als...

Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS) – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq.) is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol) used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer ...

2011-01-01

82

MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.

A. Santoro

2013-02-01

83

Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The NTP studies a large variety of substances to which the population may be exposed in the environment, occupationally, in the food supply, or els...

1999-01-01

84

Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The NTP studies a large variety of substances to which the population may be exposed in the environment, occupationally, in the food supply, or elsewhere. PMID:10585909

1999-12-01

85

SCREENING OF INDIAN HERBS FOR HAEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India is one of the important widespread geographic locations  on mega biodiversity areas on earth. The rich cultural heritage of India is also associated with the use of available ethno medicinal  flora and fauna since ages. To raise this traditional knowledge to global level and to serve the mankind using the same,  a systematic modern approach has been adopted here to ascertain the rational use of traditionally applied Indian herbs for the purpose of healing wounds and controlling ha...

2013-01-01

86

Mutagenicity testing of some medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of four brands of a Pakistani local medicine called naswar and six indigenous herbs commonly used as medicine in children were tested for their ability to induce mutations to prototrophy in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537. Petroleum ether extracts of one brand of naswar, namely green naswar of Peshawar, exhibited mutagenicity in all of the four tester strains. Organic extracts of three herbs, Saussurea lappa, Swertia chiraita, and Skimmia laureola, exhibited mutagenic activity in tester strain TA98. Green naswar of Bannu, grey naswar, red naswar, and the remaining three herbs, namely, Acorous calamus, Azadarachta indica, and Zanthozylum alatum, exhibited no mutagenic activity under the present experimental conditions. The abilities of green naswar of Peshawar and Saussurea lappa to induce mutations was shown to be related to the presence of cyclic aromatic compounds with molecular formulas C34 H44 O9 and C15 H18 O2, respectively. The experimental data are discussed as they relate to the potential hazards of such naturally occurring compounds and to synthetic compounds in excessive and uncontrolled use by the general public in villages in Pakistan. PMID:3319606

Riazuddin, S; Malik, M M; Nasim, A

1987-01-01

87

Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of di...

Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.

2010-01-01

88

Gamma Irradiation does not Cause Carcinogenesis of Irradiated Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Microbial contamination of medicinal herbs can be effectively reduced by gamma irradiation. Since irradiation may cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs, the objective of this research is to study the effect of gamma irradiation (10 and 25 kGy) from cobalt-60 on carcinogenicity. The herbs studied were Pueraria candollei Grah., Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiber montanum, Senna alexandrina P. Miller, Eurycoma Longifolia Jack, Gymnostema pentaphylum Makino, Ginkgo biloba, Houttuynia cordata T., Andrographis paniculata, Thunbergia laurifolia L., Garcinia atroviridis G., and Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. The results showed that gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 and 25 kGy did not cause carcinogenicity of the irradiated herbs

2009-07-02

89

Xylans from the medicinal herb Phyllanthus niruri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phyllanthus niruri is a well-known medicinal herb that is widely used in Asia, Africa, and South America. The characterization of two purified polysaccharides from the whole plant has been investigated. Methylation analysis and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed the chemical structure of two xylans. A hot 15% aqueous KOH fraction yielded a linear beta-(1-->4)-linked xylan, and 2% aqueous KOH afforded a complex acidic heteroxylan, with a (1-->4)-linked beta-Xylp main chain, substituted by rhamnose, arabinose, and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid side chains. These contained nonreducing end-units of arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, and nonmethylated glucuronic acid. PMID:15679336

Mellinger, Caroline G; Carbonero, Elaine R; Cipriani, Thales R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

2005-01-01

90

Radioprotective activity in some medicinal herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs of the Araliaceae and other families were tested for their radioprotective activity by either measuring 30 days survival rates (a commonly applied method) or counting the thrombocytes 14 days after irradiation (an improved method) in mice. The extracts were i.p. injected once within 4 min after the whole body X-ray irradiation. Of 12 materials examined, Aralia elata, Angelica acutiloba and Morus bombysis seemed to be good starting materials for preparing radioprotective substance(s) because of their relatively high specific activity and high yields of the extracts. (author).

Yonezawa, Morio (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Center for Radioisotopes)

1993-09-01

91

The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of ?-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

2001-03-01

92

The Radioprotective Effects of Rhizomata Herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed this study to determine the effect of Baizhu (Atractylodes japonica), Chuanxiong (Cnidium officinale), Shanyao (Discorea Japonica) and Shengma (Cimicifuga heracleifolia), as Oriental rhizomata herbs, on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of {gamma}-radiation. Shengma was effective in intestinal crypt survival(p<0.05). The frequency of radiation induced apoptosis was also reduced by pretreatment with Chuanxiong and Shengma(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Shengma might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

Kim, Sung Ho [Chonam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Deog [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-15

93

Fungal and aflatoxin contamination of medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the consumption of aromatic and medicinal herbs has been increasing in the last years, the Argentinian Health Authorities are concerned to control the quality and security of them. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination are two parameters to be taken into account, to ensure the harmlessness of the phytomedicinal products. In 81 different samples, grouped in end products (EP), raw material (RM) and at harvest (SH), fungal flora (enumeration and identification) as well as naturalAspergillus flavus and aflatoxin occurrence were investigated. In all samples fungal counts fulfilled the international general recommendation limits (maximum 10(5) cfu/g). Predominant flora was made up by xerophilic species ofAspergillus(100%), byPeniciIlium (< 50%) and in less percentage byFusarium (5.6%). Among the Aspergilli, A.flavus was present in all the three groups of samples. Using a TLC method, 47% of A. flavus isolates were toxinogenic, producing aflatoxin B1 and B2. In herbs, 4.7% of RM samples were naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Considering the carcinogenic activity of aflatoxins it is essential to regulate them in the raw material (vegetal drug). PMID:23605060

Rizzo, I; Varsavsky, E; Vedoya, G; Haidukowski, M; Frade, H; Chiale, C

1998-06-01

94

Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prio...

Kemper Kathi J; Gardiner Paula; Gobble Jessica; Woods Charles

2006-01-01

95

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. (CHIRCHIRA: A MAGIC HERB IN FOLK MEDICINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prickly chaff (achyranthes aspera linn herbs are vital source of drugs from the ancient time holding the scenario of the Indian system of medicine.Achyranthes aspera linn known as chirchira in hindi is an indigenous herb found in India, It has been used in almost all the traditional system of medicine, ayurveda, unani, and sidha from the ancient time . The tribal, rural, and aboriginal people our country commonly  in this herb in various disorders. Achyranthes aspera leaves reported to have antimicrobial property so mostly  used in the treatment of skin and teeth disorder.The present paper enumerates the ethnopharmacognostic, ethopharmacologic, traditional value and folk remedies of this herb, which may help the researchers to set their minds for approaching the utility, efficacy and potency of herb.

R Charde

2011-07-01

96

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves. PMID:11714298

Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

2001-11-01

97

Heavy Metal Contents in Tea and Herb Leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of tea brands and herbs available in the retail market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were assessed based on contents of heavy metals in their tissues. All tested brands of tea and herbs possess considerable amounts of the eight tested heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd. The tested nine brands of tea as well as five herbs proved high variability (P < 0.01) in their contents of heavy metals. Among tested heavy metals, Mn was the most abundant one in tea leaves (390-...

Al-oud, Saud S.

2003-01-01

98

Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs. PMID:23055641

Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K J; Kumar, Abhimanyu

2012-07-01

99

Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786

Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi

2011-10-01

100

Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant. PMID:22228959

Jana, S; Shekhawat, G S

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Herbs and spices in traditional Portuguese culinary: A preliminary picture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aromatic plants of intense smell and taste known as herbs or spices are used worldwide and seem to be present as essential flavouring elements in almost all culinary traditions of settled people and also in nomadic herdsmen cultures.

Dias, A. S.; Dias, L. S.

2011-01-01

102

Radioactive survey of herb teas marketed in Saitama prefecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides, such as 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K in 49 dried herbs marketed in Saitama were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. No 134Cs was detected. On the other hand, 137Cs concentrations were ranged from 2.1 to 240 Bq/kg-dry in 10 dried herbs imported from Europe. 40K level was 99.9 - 1400 Bq/kg-dry in all dried herbs. Obvious regional differences of 137Cs concentrations of 'eyebright' between Polish product and Bulgarian were observed. The committed effective dose of 137Cs by annually drinking a cup of herb tea in adults was estimated to be about 1.0 x 10-3 mSv and the contribution of 137Cs is proved to be very small in this study. (author)

2009-12-01

103

Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

Wannipa Phianphak

2007-03-01

104

Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have bee...

Matthews, H. B.; Lucier, G. W.; Fisher, K. D.

1999-01-01

105

The Anticoccidial Efficacy of Natural Herb Extracts in Calves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The anticoccidial efficacy of natural herb extracts was evaluated in suckling calves with bovine coccidial infection (Eimeria sp., including E.bovis and E. zuernii). The herb extracts were orally administered to 5 calves (treatment group) for 7 weeks and the clinical signs, oocyst excretion and blood parameters, which reflect hepatic and renal functions, as well as nutritional condition and body weight gain of the treatment group were compared with those of untreated 5 ca...

2006-01-01

106

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxid...

Korac?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

107

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by o...

Shizuo Toda

2011-01-01

108

Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most ...

Škrinjar Marija M.; Nemet Nevena T.

2009-01-01

109

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (D...

Niu, Linhai; Mantri, Nitin; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie; Pang, Edwin

2011-01-01

110

COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

SharmaYashaswini

2011-03-01

111

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value. The acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care and the development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics has led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants. Wild plants have been reported to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for centuries, and indigenous plants have been used in herbal medicine for curing various diseases. The development of bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibacterial agents. In lieu of the above justification, present study aimed at evaluating the In vitro antibacterial studies on the extracts of three herbs namely Punica Granatum, Ricinus communis and Zingiber officinalis carried out on five medically important bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Based on the present investigation results, extracts has great potential against different microorganisms tested and has inhibitory effect. It can be concluded that these plants can be used as therapeutic natural agents that may serve as lead for the development of new pharmaceuticals addressing the major therapeutic needs.

Pesaramelli Karteek

2012-08-01

112

PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS: AN AMPLE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL HERB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal drugs have been one of the primarily used drugs since olden times for the treatment of a range of diseases. In addition, the medicinal plants have played a vital role in world health as the herbal plants still make an important contribution to health care. Phyllanthus amarus, a world-renowned botanical, has been used since ages because of its rich medicinal values and ethnomedical importance. Phyllanthus amarus is a small, erect, annual herb which is a rich source of phytochemicals that are attributed to biologically active lignans, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, ellagitannins and phenylpropanoids that are present in the leaf, stem and root of the plant. It is a little wonder that the plant is used for so many purposes in herbal medicine systems and in clinical research over the years. Numerous studies have reported that Phyllanthus amarus have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Moreover, studies have demonstrated hepatoprotective, antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antiallodynic, antioedematogenic, antispasmodial, chemoprotective, antihypercalciuric, antiviral, antispasmodic, antinociceptive and diuretic properties associated with Phyllanthus amarus. The present review article summarizes the potent pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant.

Kiran Divya

2011-04-01

113

Antitussive Medicinal Herbs - An Update Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles of the airways; it is inappropriately stimulated in various situations like inflammation of the respiratory tract or neoplasia. In these cases, cough has a pathological character and it is necessary sometimes to use cough-suppressant drugs. The most frequently used antitussive drugs in clinical conditions produce adverse effects like depression of the respiratory centre, decreased secretion in the bronchioles and inhibition of ciliary activity, increased sputum viscosity, decreased expectoration, hypotension and constipation acts as limitation to the therapy. Use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments including antitussive activity as they are safe and devoid of adverse effects. Medicinal plants are an important source for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds, which have served and continue to serve as lead molecules for the development of new drugs. Thus this review may provide an insight into herbs possessing antitussive activity.

G. R. Saraswathy

2014-01-01

114

Software Reuse Case Study; TRILLIUM.  

Science.gov (United States)

DoD has identified software reuse as a central strategy for improving the quality, timeliness and cost efficiency of its weapons, command and control and other automated information systems. However, to reap full benefits from software reuse technology, D...

D. Dikel J. Rosoff P. Kengor J. Lichtenstein G. DeMarco

1993-01-01

115

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots, small and medium canopy gaps (11 and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae. There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas, em clareiras pequenas e médias (11, e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae. Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia.

RAF. Lima

2009-05-01

116

Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest / Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas), [...] em clareiras pequenas e médias (11), e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae). Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and [...] large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

Lima, RAF.; Gandolfi, S..

117

Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - The case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa. PMID:24792083

Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

2014-08-01

118

Composition of flavonoids in fresh herbs and calculation of flavonoid intake by use of herbs in traditional Danish dishes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many herbs are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh herbs in the diet may therefore contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. The present study was performed in order to quantify flavonoids in commonly eaten fresh herbs. Fifteen fresh herbs (basil, chives, coriander, cress, dill, lemon balm, lovage, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, spearmint, tarragon, thyme, and watercress) were analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Five major flavonoid aglycones were detected and quantified by HPLC after acid hydrolysis: apigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin. The highest levels of flavonoids were found in parsley (510-630 mg apigenin /100 g), lovage (170 mg quercetin/100g), mint (18-100 mg apigenin/ 100 g), and dill (48-110 mg quercetin/100 g). Mass spectrometric detection, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), was used to verify the presence of flavonoids in the hydrolysed extracts of herbs. Some traditional Danish dishes contain herbs, particularly parsley. dill, cross and chives, and the contribution to the flavonoid intake by consumption of these dishes was calculated. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Knuthsen, Pia

2001-01-01

119

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

2013-01-01

120

Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Respiratory effects of exposure to dust from herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of 150 people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs were examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. People were subjected to routine physical examination and to lung function examinations with the LUNGTEST 500 spirometer (MES, Kraków, Poland). The spirometric values of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)), vital capacity (VC) and FEV(1)/VC were recorded before and after work. Physical chest examination revealed pathological crepitations in 10 people (6.7 %). The mean baseline spirometric values in the study and reference groups did not show significant differences compared to the normal values. In the herb workers exposed to organic dust the post-shift decrease of all analysed spirometric values was noted. The post-shift decrease of some spirometric values (VC, VC % of normal values) was highly significant (p 15 %) the frequency of reported respiratory work-related symptoms (83.3 %) was higher than in the rest of exposed group (61.5 %). In conclusion, occupational exposure to dust from herbs may cause harmful effects on the respiratory system among herb processing workers. This indicates the need for use of prophylactic measures in this professional group, the more so as number of people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs is growing. PMID:16028858

Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czes?awa; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Góra, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2005-01-01

122

Sensory Evaluation of Irradiated Herbs for Insect Disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated herbs: Glyeyrrhiza glabra I. Zingiber officinale Roseoe., Cartharmus tinctorius L., Pandanus amaryllifolius Rox. b and Chrysanthemum moriifoloum Ramat. The herbs were irradiated at the doses of 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 Gy (Dose rate 2.1 Gy/min), followed by storage at 30oC, 70% RH for 7, 60 or 120 days. The nine point hedonic scale method was applied for evaluation. No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non irradiated samples in their colour, odour, flavour and overall quality after irradiation and the mean scores showed the testers acceptance. The experiment could be summarized that the testers accepted the irradiated herbs at the dose of 1,000 Gy with 120 days of storage after irradiation

2006-02-02

123

Determination of two intact glucosinolates in vegetables and Chinese herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for analyzing sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in six vegetable and two Chinese herb samples. A gradient program and mobile phases using methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid containing 20 mM ammonium acetate allowed sufficient retention and separation of the glucosinolates in the sample extracts. Quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion electrospray ionization was used to analyze the fractions collected from the HPLC elution to confirm the identification of the glucosinolates. The levels of sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in the vegetables and Chinese herbs were determined by using an external calibration method. Concentrations of gluconasturtiin in the Chinese herbs were more than 15 times higher than those of sinigrin. Detection limits were 18 nmol g(-1) for sinigrin and 4 nmol g(-1) for gluconasturtiin when 50 g of fresh vegetable was analyzed. PMID:14647944

Cai, Zongwei; Cheung, Ching-Yan; Ma, Wai-Tang; Au, Wai-Man; Zhang, Xiang You; Lee, Albert

2004-02-01

124

The Anticoccidial Efficacy of Natural Herb Extracts in Calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anticoccidial efficacy of natural herb extracts was evaluated in suckling calves with bovine coccidial infection (Eimeria sp., including E.bovis and E. zuernii. The herb extracts were orally administered to 5 calves (treatment group for 7 weeks and the clinical signs, oocyst excretion and blood parameters, which reflect hepatic and renal functions, as well as nutritional condition and body weight gain of the treatment group were compared with those of untreated 5 calves (control group. During the experimental period, all the 5 calves in the control group had bloody diarrhea accompanied with remarkable oocyst excretion. None of the 5 calves in the treatment group had bloody diarrhea. No significant differences were observed in the blood parameter results between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicate that the daily administration of herb extracts to calves from the suckling to weaning period is effective in preventing bovine coccidial infection.

T. Yasui

2006-01-01

125

Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by oxidation. These results showed that some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. It has been demonstrated that high total polyphenol content in the herb teas provides high antioxidant activities.

Shizuo Toda

2011-03-01

126

Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People’s Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines.

Bin Xiao

2011-07-01

127

EFFECT OF MEDICINAL HERB EXTRACTS TREATED ON COTTON DENIM FABRIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made through this research work to developed medicinal herb extracts treated fabric. In this work, medicinal herbs such as Ricinus Communis (leavesand seeds, Datura metel (leaves with fruits , Aloe Vera (flower ,Abutilon indicum (leaves, Solanum surattense (Leaves, Coccinia grandis (Fruits and leaves,Aloe vera (leaves, Cardio spermum halicacabum (Leave, have been selected for finishing hundred percent cotton denim fabric using dip method .The finished fabrics have beentested for its antimicrobial activity using standard test method ENISO 20645 and it is concluded that datura metel ( leaves with fruits have good antibacterial activity on theselected denim fabrics when compared to other herbs enhanced the wearing capacity of the denim fabric for an extended period without any skin/dermal irritations/infectionsand bad odor.

M.Sumithra

2013-01-01

128

HERB: A production system for programming with hierarchical expert rule bases: User's manual, HERB Version 1. 0  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expert systems are artificial intelligence programs that solve problems requiring large amounts of heuristic knowledge, based on years of experience and tradition. Production systems are domain-independent tools that support the development of rule-based expert systems. This document describes a general purpose production system known as HERB. This system was developed to support the programming of expert systems using hierarchically structured rule bases. HERB encourages the partitioning of rules into multiple rule bases and supports the use of multiple conflict resolution strategies. Multiple rule bases can also be placed on a system stack and simultaneously searched during each interpreter cycle. Both backward and forward chaining rules are supported by HERB. The condition portion of each rule can contain both patterns, which are matched with facts in a data base, and LISP expressions, which are explicitly evaluated in the LISP environment. Properties of objects can also be stored in the HERB data base and referenced within the scope of each rule. This document serves both as an introduction to the principles of LISP-based production systems and as a user's manual for the HERB system. 6 refs., 17 figs.

Hummel, K.E.

1987-12-01

129

Kinetic experiments at coupled fast-thermal core HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1991 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the 'Vinca' Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and used for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews the kinetic experiments carried out at HERBE system, including their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in calculation is presented too. (author)

1996-09-16

130

Sizing and Design of the PV-WIND Energy Dryer for Medical Herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical herbs are located in Egypt in different areas and they are very important to increase the national income of Egypt. It is necessary to dry the herbs in their growing locations. As the growing locations are located far from the natural supply grid of Egypt, renewable energy sources such as PV&WIND are preferably utilized to achieve the drying process. Moreover, since the drying process is actually used to remove water from the herbs, thus it can preserve the herbs i...

Emad Ahmed Sweelem; Nafeh, Abdel-shafy A.; Faten Hosny Fahmy

2013-01-01

131

‘Yang-Invigorating’ Chinese Tonic Herbs Enhance Mitochondrial ATP Generation in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs have been shown to enhance the myocardial mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in mice ex vivo. In the present study, we examined the effect of treatment with the methanol extract of ‘Yang-invigorating’ herbs on mitochondrial ATP generation capacity in H9c2 cardio-myocytes. The effect of ‘Yin-nourishing’ herbs was also investigated for comparison. The results indicated that all ‘Yang-invigorating’ Chinese tonic herbs dose-dependently en...

Hoi Shan Wong; Hoi Yan Leung; Kam Ming Ko

2011-01-01

132

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total {beta}-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Brito, M.S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastiao, K.I.Katia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.brlenach@usp.br; Freitas, Paulo C.D

2002-03-01

133

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linne), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linne) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linne). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography

2002-03-01

134

Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, V and Zn in 15 medicinal herbs commonly used in Indian household for treatment of various ailments. viz. C. rhombifolia (Amaltas), W. somnifera (Ashwagandha), P. corylifolia (Bakuchi), T. cordifolia (Guduchi), M. fragrans (Jaiphal), N. jatamansi (Jatamansi), A. paniculata (Kalmegh), H. anticlysentrica (Kutaj), T. chebula (Laghu Haritaki), S. racemosa (Lodhra), A. indica (Neem), V. negundo (Nirgundi), H. indicus (Sariva), A. calamus (Vach) and E. ribes (Vidang). Several of herbs are enriched in Ca, Co, Cu, Mg, P, Fe, Mn and Zn, which play a vital role in biochemical and enzymatic processes. Jatamansi, often used as antibacterial, antipyretic and heart tonic is specially enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Na, Mn, Fe, Rb and Zn. Also Guduchi and Laghu Haritaki are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively. An attempt has been made to correlate elemental contents with the therapeutic importance of various herbs. Also our results for the participation in an Intercomparison Study of renewal of Pine Needles (SRM-1575a) from NIST, USA are presented. (author)

2007-03-01

135

Application of Medicinal Herbs to Aquaculture in Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquaculture has increased greatly in Asia, but there are various problems associated with acquacultural production one of which is the use of antimicrobial agents resulting in more resistant bacterial strains which adversely affect human health and the natural environment. This paper presents information on the role and application of herbs for aquaculture in Asia.

Direkbusarakom, Sataporn

2004-01-01

136

Dosimetry Characteristics of Coupled Fast-Thermal Core 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'HERBE' is new coupled fast-thermal core, designed in 1991, at the 'RB' reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute. It is used for verification of designed oriented computer codes developed in the Institute, training and sample irradiation in fast neutron field. For the last purpose a vertical experimental channel (VCH) is placed in the central axis of the fast core. Neutron spectrum in the centre of the VCR is calculated in 44 energy groups. Space distributions of two energy group neutron flux in the 'HERBE' are measured using gold foils and converted into the neutron absorbed dose (in air and tissue) using group flux-dose conversion factors. Gamma absorption doses in the air in the centre of the VCH are measured using calibrated small ionisation chamber filled with air. Determined dose rates are related to the reactor power. The first preliminary irradiations of silicon diodes (designed for production of the neutron dosemeters) in the centre of the VCH of the 'HERBE' fast core are carried out in 1994 and 1995. This paper describes calculation methods and measurement techniques applied to determination of the irradiation performance and dosimetry characteristics of the 'HERBE' system. (author)

1996-06-09

137

Experimental verification of calculating neutron doses in the HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental verification of calculation of neutron dose rate in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE is described. determination of the neutron dose rate is based on on calculation and measurement of neutron flux. Calculation and experimental data evaluation are performed by computer codes developed in the NET laboratory. The good agreement between calculation and experimental results is achieved. (author)

1993-05-25

138

High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of isoflavones in medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoestrogens have been used as a food supplement to prevent osteoporosis. The isoflavones in the phytoestrogens are daidzein, genistein and formononetin which are present in various herbs. This study examined the quantity of isoflavones in medicinal herbs, which can be used as a phytoestrogen supplement; soybean. These isoflavones were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV/VIS detector. The concentration of daidzein in Puerariae Radix was 10,436.16 +/- 2,143.83 mg/kg of the dried herb, which was much higher than that extracted from soybeans, 341.47 +/- 18.96 mg/kg. The amount of genistein in Sophorae flavescentis Radix (336.09 +/- 50.89 mg/kg) was approximately 11 times higher than that extracted from soybean (30.03 +/- 7.17 mg/kg). The level of formononetin in Dalbergiae odoriferae Lignum, 2,189.14 +/- 136.46 mg/kg, was the highest among the herbs tested. The total isoflavone content of Puerariae Radix was approximately 30 times higher than that extracted from soybean. Therefore, plants from the family Leguminosae, particularly Puerariae Radix, can be a good source of phytoestrogens. PMID:16491850

Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Young-Sun; Lee, Je Hyun; Choi, Hwansoo; Kim, Chungsook

2006-01-01

139

Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

2006-01-01

140

Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy  

Science.gov (United States)

Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis.

Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

2014-01-01

142

HPLC analysis of methanolic extract of herbs for quercetin content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbs are rich source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized according to their chemical structure, into flavones, isoflavonoes and flavon-3-ol, anthocyanidins. They have aroused considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effect on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti allergic, anti platelet, anti inflammatory, antitumor, anti carcinogenic and anti ageing properties. HPLC analysis can be used for classification of herbs based upon secondary metabolites. Extract yield at optimum condition was then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantifying bioactive flavonoid compounds. It was observed that mint contains the highest concentration of quercetin i.e. about 10.8mg/g.

Nitu Trehan

2013-05-01

143

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Dang, Yuanye; Guo, Jiajie; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Yitao

2011-01-01

144

Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

Xue Charlie

2011-05-01

145

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

Wu Guosheng

2011-07-01

146

An update on Murraya koenigii Spreng: a multifunctional Ayurvedic herb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae, a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Leaves, fruits, roots and bark of this plant are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. These alkaloids have been reported for their various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic and antioxidant activities. Apart from these activities, the plant is reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant make a demand of an exhaustive review of its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of various ailments frequently affecting humans. The present review gives a detailed description of the phytochemical, pharmacological, clinical and pre-clinical works carried out on this medicinal herb and also throws light on its therapeutic potential.

Priyanka Gupta

2011-08-01

147

Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, pi...

Lu, Jin-jian; Bao, Jiao-lin; Chen, Xiu-ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-tao

2012-01-01

148

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.0...

Anjana Devkota; Pramod Kumar Jha

2010-01-01

149

Antimicrobial activity of traditionally used herbs against human pathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antimicrobial agents are effective in curing diseases because of their selective toxicity against pathogenic microbes without causing any harm to the cells of the host. Antimicrobial activity of three herbs Amaranthus spinosus, Solanum nigrum and Orchis muscula were tested using methanol, hexane, chloroform and acetone extracts against six human pathogenic microbes. Agar well diffusion method was used for preliminary screening of extracts against microbes. The micro-dilution method was used f...

2013-01-01

150

Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, de...

Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq; Muhammad Riaz; Vincenzo de Feo

2012-01-01

151

Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacolo...

Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K. J.; Kumar, Abhimanyu

2012-01-01

152

The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence p...

Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

2008-01-01

153

Herbs and spices in traditional recipes of Alentejo (Portugal)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alentejo, representing about 30% of the area and 5% of the population of Portugal, is a semi-arid region of undulated plains with a Mediterranean climate softened by the Atlantic, with mild winters but hot and dry summers. With an old history of scarcity and pauperism, it shows very particular cultural traits, including a unique culinary tradition, with a high use of wild plants, herbs, and bread-based dishes.

Dias, A. S.; Dias, L. S.

2006-01-01

154

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, in...

Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Dang, Yuanye; Guo, Jiajie; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Yitao

2011-01-01

155

Biochemical Changes in Goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes in goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs. The analysis of data was done in 18 goats, irrespective of age, sex and breed. The experimental goats were randomly divided in six groups. The effect of crude powder and cold aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, Swertia chirata and Piper longum was studied on various biochemical parameters, i.e., Blood glucose, Total protein, Albumin and Globumin. Significant increase was noti...

Sahni, Sachin Jain And Y. P.

2010-01-01

156

Synergy effects of herb extracts: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic basis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal medicine, especially traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine have played and still play an important role in fighting against various diseases. Emerging clinical studies regarding traditional Chinese medicine have provided convincing evidence for the first time to gain credibility and reputation outside China. Although synergistic therapeutic actions of herbal ingredients have been frequently reported, few reports have offered clear underlying mechanisms. This might be the main reason for the conflicting views with respect to the therapeutic efficacy of medicinal herbs. Therefore, this paper reviews the herb synergisms reported in the recent literature and discusses thoroughly the mechanisms underlying synergistic actions of herbal ingredients. The authors conducted an electronic literature search to detect articles published mainly in the last five years. Articles were included if they pertained to synergy research of ethnomedicines or the active compounds derived from them, included verification of synergy effects using modern analytical tools and molecular-biological methods. Results have revealed that the multi-component nature of medicinal herbs makes them particularly suitable for treating complex diseases and offers great potential for exhibiting synergistic actions. The mechanisms underlying synergistic therapeutic actions of herb medicines are (1): different agents may regulate either the same or different target in various pathways, and therefore cooperate in an agonistic, synergistic way; (2): regulate the enzymes and transporters that are involved in hepatic and intestinal metabolism to improve oral drug bioavailability; (3): overcome the drug resistance mechanisms of microbial and cancer cells; and (4): eliminate the adverse effects and enhance pharmacological potency of agents by "processing" or by drug-drug interaction. The exploration of synergistic mechanisms of herbal ingredients will not only help researchers to discover new phytomedicines or drug combinations but also help to avoid the possible negative synergy. Further clinical research is required for verifying these reported drug combinations and discovered synergistic mechanisms. PMID:24177191

Yang, Yong; Zhang, Zaiqi; Li, Shuping; Ye, Xiaoli; Li, Xuegang; He, Kai

2014-01-01

157

Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

Jain, Dheeraj P; Pancholi, Shyam S; Patel, Rakesh

2011-07-01

158

Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

During our survey of herbs looking for activity on bone metabolism, we found that the dried leaves of sage strongly inhibit bone resorption. Therefore, we investigated several common herbs rich in essential oils (sage, rosemary, and thyme) and essential oils extracted from these herbs and other plants (oils of sage, rosemary, juniper, pine, dwarf pine, turpentine, and eucalyptus) as well as their monoterpene components (thujone, eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thymol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, bornylacetate as well as menthol) and found that they inhibit bone resorption when added to the food of rats. Pine oil, used as a representative essential oil, protects an osteoporosis model, the aged ovariectomized rat, from bone loss. The monoterpenes borneol, thymol, and camphor are directly inhibitory in the osteoclast resorption pit assay. Nonpolar monoterpenes may require metabolism to be active in vitro, for example, cis-verbenol, a metabolite of alpha-pinene occurring in human urine, inhibits osteoclast activity in contrast to the parent compound. Within 30 min borneol inhibits the formation of actin rings, a characteristic of resorbing osteoclasts indicating cell polarization. Both the in vitro and the in vivo effects of borneol are reversible. Our study demonstrates for the first time that essential oils and monoterpenes are efficient inhibitors of bone resorption in the rat. PMID:12689680

Mühlbauer, R C; Lozano, A; Palacio, S; Reinli, A; Felix, R

2003-04-01

159

Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

1997-01-01

160

Antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs essential oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spices and herbs have been used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. A number of spices shows antimicrobial activity against different types of microorganisms. This article gives a literature review of recent investigations considering antimicrobial activity of essential oils widely used spices and herbs, such as garlic, mustard, cinnamon, cumin, clove, bay, thyme, basil, oregano, pepper, ginger, sage, rosemary etc., against most common bacteria and fungi that contaminate food (Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. and many others. Antimicrobial activity depends on the type of spice or herb, type of food and microorganism, as well as on the chemical composition and content of extracts and essential oils. Summarizing results of different investigations, relative antimicrobial effectiveness can be made, and it shows that cinnamon, cloves and mustrad have very strong antimicrobial potential, cumin, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary show medium inhibitory effect, and spices such as pepper and ginger have weak inhibitory effect.

Nemet Nevena T.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Use of Herbs by the Patients with Diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal medicines, products and therapies are a subject of great public interest both nationally and worldwide. Use of herbal therapy is common among patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the consumption rate, duration and methods of herbs and alternative therapies used by the patients with diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed with 400 volunteer patients with diabetes. A face to face interview was conducted between January-May, 2003. The ratio of the herb used, herb species used, pattern of use, demographic characteristics of users and nonusers were determined. 25 % of the 400 respondent with diabetes reported herb use. There was a significant difference for Body Mass Index (BMI of users and nonusers (X2=13.01, p<0.05. A positive correlation was found between herb use and educational levels (r=0.106, p<0.05. The herbs mostly used by the patients were nettle (28%, thyme (27%, parsley (12% and jujuba (12%, respectively. The most common pattern of herb consumption was boiling the herbs and drinking the hot water extract (74%, this was followed by adding to foods (12%. Of 39% of the users self-reported that the herb decreased their blood glucose levels. Patients with diabetes tended to use herbs. They need to be educated by the health professionals.

Neriman Inanc

2007-01-01

162

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

1999-08-01

163

General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ("1"3"7Cs,"9"0Sr, "2"3"9,"2"4"0_P_u) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

1999-01-01

164

Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

2013-01-01

165

Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

2013-01-01

166

Simulation of fast zone flooding accident of system HERBE - experiment and Monte Carlo calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Validation of Monte Carlo MCNP program against experimental results of criticality of the coupled fast-thermal System HERBE is done for regular HERBE core and for accident simulation by controlled flooding of the neutron converter done by heavy water. It was confirmed that MCNP code could satisfactorily simulate complex heterogeneous structure of the designed coupled fast-thermal system HERBE and that obtained results are valid for further nuclear safety analyses of the flooding accident. (author)

2006-06-06

167

Documents needed for obtaining the operation licence for the HERBE system at the RB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Documents included in this volume are needed for obtaining the operation licence for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE constructed at the RB reactor. It contains the following chapters: description of the system; nuclear calculations; performed changes at the RB reactor; proofs about static and dynamic stability of the built construction; normal operation regime of HERBE; accident analysis; dosimetry data; additional instructions and regulations for reactor operation; program of start-up; program for testing the HERBE system

1989-01-01

168

Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruiment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant species richness is mainly determined by the presence of many species of subordinate herbs. These herbs experience high colonization and extinction rates. We conclude that the creation of colonization...

2003-01-01

169

Modeling and Simulation of a Renewable Energy Based-Medical Herb Dryer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The medical herbs should be dried directly after harvesting, otherwise, insects and fungi spoilage them. Conventional drying methods such as open sun drying and conventional fuel dryers are not suitable, since they contaminate the herbs, decrease the drying efficiency and at the same time increase the drying cost. Therefore, the recent trend is toward the harnessing the renewable energy to dry the medical herbs. This paper p...

Nafeh, Abdel-shafy A.; Emad Ahmed Sweelem; Faten Hosny Fahmy

2013-01-01

170

Traditional Use of Herbs, Shrubs and Trees of Shogran Valley, Mansehra, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Shogran valley (Hazara). Information on local names, traditional medicinal uses and occurrence of the herbs, shrubs and trees has been presented. A total of 77 species of herbs, 12 species of shrubs and 18 species of trees were recorded that are used medicinally and for other purposes. Among herbs Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Bth., Convolvulus arvensis L. , Geranium nepalense Sweet, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Swee...

Abdul Matin; Mir Ajab Khan; Muhammed Ashraf; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi

2001-01-01

171

Physicochemical characterization of different trademarks of compound Yerba Maté and their herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of the main herbs used in the mixture of yerba maté with other aromatic herbs and the characterization of the trademarks of compound yerba maté. Moisture, water extract, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and caffeine concentration were determined. Results showed higher values of moisture content, total and aci-insoluble ash and lower water extracts in the herbs. Determinations were carried out in nine trademarks o...

Griselda Patricia Scipioni; Darío Jorge Ferreyra; Miguel Eduardo Schmalko

2007-01-01

172

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATURAL HERBS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN WATER PURIFICATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural herbs for antibacterial activity in water purification. The antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Wheatgrass (Triticum Aestivum), Amla (Phyllanthus Emblica) and Katakphala (Strychnos Potatorum) were tested by Disc Diffusion Method (Kirby –Bauer Method) after extracting the dried material powder of natural herbs in 50% alcohol (ethanol). An antibacterial activity was observed in all herb...

2011-01-01

173

Assessment of toxigenic fungi on Argentinean medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was performed to determine the incidence of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins on 152 dried medicinal and aromatic herbs, belonging to 56 species, which are used as raw material for drugs. International methodologies for fungal enumeration and identification were applied as well as TLC and HPLC techniques for toxins detection. The 52% out of 152 samples were contaminated with species from Aspergillus genus, 27% belonging to the Flavi section and 25% to the Circumdati section. The 16% of the total samples was contaminated with species from Fusarium genus. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus (Flavi section), were the predominant species isolated, 50% out of 40 isolates were toxigenic. Aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 10 to 2000 ng/g. Only 26% of isolates from the Circumdati section (A. alliaceus, A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum) produced ochratoxin A in low concentrations between 0.12 and 9 ng/g. From a total of 29 strains of Fusarium spp., 27.5% were Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which produced fumonisin Bland fumonisin B2 ranged from 20 to 22000 microg/g and from 5 to 3000 microg/g respectively. The remaining species, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. compactum, F. sombucinum and F. solani were able to produce neither group A and B trichothecenes nor zearalenone. The incidence of A. ochraceus and Fusarium spp. and their toxigenic capacities on medicinal herbs were studied for the first time in Argentina. It would be important to look for natural contamination to define acceptability Limits which allow the control of sanitary quality of medicinal herbs used as phytotherapic medicines in several countries. PMID:15293944

Rizzo, Inés; Vedoya, Gabriela; Maurutto, Silvio; Haidukowski, Miriam; Varsavsky, Edith

2004-01-01

174

Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diabetes mellitus é um problema de saúde pública que leva a complicações graves ao longo do tempo. Experimentalmente, muitas ervas têm sido recomendadas para o tratamento da diabetes. Contudo, na maior parte dos casos as recomendações são baseadas em estudos em animais e existem evidências limitadas [...] sobre a sua utilidade clínica. Esta revisão tem como foco as ervas nas quais as ações hipooglicêmicas são apoiadas por três ou mais estudos clínicos. Realizou-se pesquisa no Google Scholar, Medline e Science Direct utilizando palavras-chave diabete, plantas, ervas, glicose e pacientes. Segundo os estudos clínicos, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum mostraram atividade hipoglicêmica e, em alguns casos, hipolipidêmica em pacientes diabéticos. Entre elas, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum e Trigonella foenum-graecum apresentam grande reputação no manejamento da diabetes. Portanto, parece que os médicos podem confiar nessas ervas e aconselhar aos pacientes para que melhorem o tratamento da diabetes. Abstract in english Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefu [...] lness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

Ghorbani, Ahmad.

175

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-09-01

176

Biochemical Changes in Goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes in goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs. The analysis of data was done in 18 goats, irrespective of age, sex and breed. The experimental goats were randomly divided in six groups. The effect of crude powder and cold aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, Swertia chirata and Piper longum was studied on various biochemical parameters, i.e., Blood glucose, Total protein, Albumin and Globumin. Significant increase was noticed in the level of blood glucose, serum total protein and albumin. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 315-317

Sachin Jain and Y.P. Sahni

177

Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

1999-01-01

178

Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50?...

Baeza, Carlos M.; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; Negritto, M.

2008-01-01

179

GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

2013-11-01

180

A retrospective of the career of Ray Herb  

Science.gov (United States)

Ray Herb's career in the development of electrostatic accelerators spans 65 years. He began in 1933 by pressurizing a Van de Graaff generator, for the first time. Over the next six years, the group at the University of Wisconsin, under his direction, developed the fundamentals of equipotential rings, potential grading, corona triode control, and other basic mechanisms for the practical use of electrostatic accelerators while making fundamental contributions to experimental nuclear physics. This group held the world's record in sustaining potential difference of 4.5 MV. During World War II, he worked on radar at the Radiation Laboratory. After the war, Herb resumed his career with further fundamental contributions including metal/ceramic bonding, ultrahigh vacuum pumping, negative ion source development and metal charge carriers. The company, National Electrostatics, under his direction manufactured the accelerator which still holds the world's record for the highest sustained potential difference of 32+/-1.5 MV. Throughout his career he led teams which made the electrostatic accelerator a valuable tool for applications in a wide variety of scientific fields, well beyond nuclear physics.

Norton, G. A.; Ferry, J. A.; Daniel, R. E.; Klody, G. M.

1999-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous extracts of 12 Chinese medicinal herbs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Artemisia argyi, Commiphora myrrha, Duchesnea indica, Gleditsia sinensis, Ligustrum lucidum, Rheum palmatum, Rubia cordifolia, Salvia chinensis, Scutellaria barbata, Uncaria rhychophylla and Vaccaria segetalis were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on eight cancer cell lines as well as on normal human mammary epithelial cells. Five human and three murine cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung, pancreas and prostate) were used. All the crude aqueous extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity on some or all of the cancer cell lines, but only two showed activity against the normal mammary epithelial cells. Overall, the murine cell lines tended to be more sensitive to most of the extracts compared with the human cell lines. Among the human cell lines, cell type specificity was observed for two extracts. These results indicate the potential use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as antineoplastic agents and suggest that further studies evaluating their mechanism(s) of action and the isolation of active antitumor compounds are warranted. PMID:16161030

Shoemaker, Mark; Hamilton, Bobbi; Dairkee, Schanaz H; Cohen, Isaac; Campbell, Michael J

2005-07-01

182

Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS. We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals.

Woods Charles

2006-04-01

183

Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

1999-07-01

184

Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

2000-12-01

185

In vitro screening of tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs: part II.  

Science.gov (United States)

With growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide, there is a need to assess and screen commercially available natural products for relative tumoricidal properties under standard experimental conditions. In the current study, we screened and ranked 264 traditional Chinese and Egyptian herbal medicines for tumoricidal potency against malignant neuroblastoma in vitro. The data obtained show that tumoricidal potencies of plants were randomly dispersed throughout similar orders, families and genera under the Division: Magnoliophyta, class: Magnoliopsida, subclasses: Asteridae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Hamamelididae, Magnoliidae and Rosidae. The most potent plant extracts (LC?? beth root (Trillium Pendulum), Family (Liliaceae) and galbanum (Ferula Galbaniflua), Family (Apiaceae). Gromwell root is traditionally used in the preparation of Chinese medicinal tea. In addition, galbanum was highly regarded for its sacred and medicinal value according to ancient texts and the bible. Future research will be required to isolate and identify chemical constituents within these plants which are responsible for tumoricidal effects. PMID:20564497

Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

2010-12-01

186

Photosynthetic responses of four tropical tree species grown under gap and understorey conditions in a semi-deciduous forest Respostas fotossintéticas de quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas crescidas sob condições de clareira e de sub-bosque em uma floresta semi-decídua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leaf CO2 assimilation (A) as a function of photosynthetic photon flux density (Q) or intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out on four tropical woody species growing in forest gap and understorey (Bauhinia forficata Link. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. as pioneers, and Hymenaea courbaril L. and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. as non-pioneers). Chlorophyll fluorescence indicated similar acclimation capacities of photochemical apparatus to contrastin...

Souza, Gustavo M.; Sato, Agnaldo M.; Ribeiro, Rafael V.; Prado, Carlos Henrique B. A.

2010-01-01

187

Lymphocyte Transformation Test for Medicinal Herbs Yields False-Positive Results for First-Visit Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed lymphocyte transformation tests (LTTs) for toki (angelicae radix) and ogon (scutellariae radix) on first-visit patients who had never taken Kampo medicines. LTTs for both herbs were positive in 12 of 14 patients, suggesting that LTTs for these herbs are unreliable for the diagnosis of Kampo medicine-induced liver injury.

Mantani, Naoki; Kogure, Toshiaki; Tamura, Jun Ichi; Shimada, Yutaka; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

2003-01-01

188

Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level.

Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming

2014-01-01

189

Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

2014-01-01

190

Trace element analysis of some medicinal herbs by proton induced x-ray emission (pixe)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trace element analysis of some medicinal herbs by proton induced x-ray emission (pixe) Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used to investigate the concentration of nineteen trace elements in eleven medicinal herbs commonly used for the treatment of different diseases in Pakistan. Mg, Si, K, Ca and Fe were detected in all the medicinal herbs studied. Germanium has been detected only in violet flower. Indian Lilac, field marigold and violet flower have the highest number of trace elements with maximum concentration. No toxic elements such as Pb, Hg etc. were detected in these medicinal herbs. The accuracy of our results was validated by analyzing standard reference material Citrus Leaf (NIST- SRM -1572). Results indicate that medicinal herbs are a rich source of trace elements which may be useful for the cure of certain ailments. (author)

2013-08-01

191

Determination of several trace elements in Chinese herbs with epithermal neutral activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For purpose of medication and health, Chinese herbs have been long adopted throughout oriental communities. Thus, more than ten trace elements in herbal medicines that are frequently consumed by children in central Taiwan were analyzed herein to explore the importance of various herbs. These elements are considered beneficial to human health in many folds. INAA was applied to determine the concentrations of elements as Al, Cl and Sc, while ENAA analyzed As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in this work. Among various local herbs, the elemental concentrations varied from 104 to 10-3 ?g/g. The experimental results suggest that the ENAA method can be applied successfully to analyze trace elements of As, Cd, Mn, and Sb in herbs. Yet, thirteen elements were verified, and a quantified index AT was introduced to help classifying the elements. The ATs in various Chinese herbs are also discussed herein and the accuracy is in excellent agreement with values reported in previously published data. (author)

2002-04-01

192

Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary as...

Carlsen Monica H; Blomhoff Rune; Andersen Lene F

2011-01-01

193

Parasitic fungi of ornamental plants and herbs of Szczecin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the years 2000-2001, the occurrence of fungi parasitizing on ornamental plants and herbs cultivated in the Vegetative Hall of the Agricultural University in Szczecin was investigated. The plants represented ca. 200 species. Disease and etiological symptoms were found in 37% of plant species. Most diseased plants came from the family Asteraceae. The plant species most frequently affected was Melisa officinalis. In the laboratory, 35 fungal species were recognized. Most fungi came from the phylum Ascomycota (13 species, and least from the phylum Oomycota (3 species. The phylum Ascomycota was represented only by species of the order Erysiphales. Other relatively frequently found fungi also were members of the phylum Basidiomycota (11 species. Of the fungi recognized, 31 species were earlier frequently recorded in Poland, and three rarely. Erysiphe flexuosa parasitizing Aesculus hippocastanum was not recorded in Poland to date; in Europe this fungus was recognized only in Germany and Switzerland.

Iwona Adamska

2002-06-01

194

Alkaloids isolated from natural herbs as the anticancer agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-01-01

195

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old [...] seeds exhibited germination (82%) without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC). GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001) higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p

Devkota, Anjana; Jha, Pramod Kumar.

196

NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ SEEDLINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1 of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

2004-07-01

197

Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: a medicinal herb with promising health benefits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23128091

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

198

Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

Vincenzo De Feo

2012-11-01

199

Treatment of dementia with herbs: a short review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dementia is a common symptom observed in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of senile dementia seen in the general population. Multiple factors like oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation may be related to the neurodegenerative states. Many drugs like cholinesterase have been used for treatment but the progression of the disease still poses a challenge to the clinician. During recent times, herbs have gained much popularity as supplements because of the cost effectiveness, easy availability and fewer side effects. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may help in the prevention of mortality and morbidity concerned with any neurodegenerative disease. Understanding the cellular and molecular biology of the mode of the action of herbal products may be beneficial for researchers and clinicians. The present review article attempts to look into the potential herbal extracts which may act as an antioxidant in combating dementia. PMID:23455743

Tang, C T; Belani, L K; Das, S; Jaafar, M Z

2013-01-01

200

Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.

Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

2006-01-01

202

Essential oil composition of the coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. herb depending on the development stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The herbal material of Coriandrum sativum is the fruit. Fresh herb is also used as an aromatic spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content and chemical composition of coriander herb obtained at different plant growth stages. Coriander plants were grown in a glasshouse, the herb was harvested at the initial stage of flowering and from regrowing shoots. Essential oil extraction from the herb was performed by the hydrodistillation method, whereas the assessment of the chemical composition – using GC-MS method. The examined material contained 0.17–0.29 ml × 100g-1 of essential oil, depending on the stage of plant development when the harvest was done. 61 (generative phase and 65 (vegetative phase compounds were found in the examined coriander oil. The essential oil from the coriander herb contained the highest amount of aliphatic aldehydes, among which was decanal, E-2-dodecanol and E-2-decenol had the highest percentages. The contents of most aliphatic aldehydes decreased with each subsequent harvest of the herb. In addition to the above-mentioned aliphatic aldehydes, the presence of linalool, phytol, and oleic acid was found in the essential oil extracted from the coriander herb.

Renata Nurzy?ska-Wierdak

2013-04-01

203

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Luiz Fernando Verissimo

2011-12-01

204

Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity informat [...] ion of these herbs. More than half (35) of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens) or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa). For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

Luiz Fernando, Verissimo; Andre D., Bacchi; Tiago, Zaminelli; Gustavo Henrique O. de, Paula; Estefania G., Moreira.

205

In vitro antidiabetic activities of five medicinal herbs used in Chinese medicinal formulae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fructus Corni, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Poria, Rhizoma Alismatis and Rhizoma Dioscoreae are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for diabetes treatment. They are also the component herbs of an antidiabetic foot ulcer formula with demonstrated clinical efficacy. Although some of these herbal extracts were previously shown to possess in vivo antidiabetic effects (i.e. lowering blood glucose levels), the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible antidiabetic mechanisms of these individual herbs, using a systematic study platform which includes four in vitro tissue models: glucose absorption into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), gluconeogenesis by rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE, glucose uptake by human skin fibroblasts cell line Hs68 and mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1. All tested herbs showed significant in vitro antidiabetic effects in at least two models. Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Poria, Rhizoma Alismatis and Rhizoma Dioscoreae showed significant inhibitory effects in the BBMV glucose uptake assay. All tested herbs showed significant stimulatory effects to the glucose uptake of Hs68 and 3T3-L1 cells, except Poria and Rhizoma Dioscoreae which were not effective to Hs68 and 3T3-L1 respectively. However, none of the tested herbs inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, the five herbs exhibited distinct antidiabetic mechanisms in vitro and hence our investigations provided scientific evidence to support the traditional usage of these herbs for diabetic treatment in medicinal formulae. PMID:18570234

Lau, C H; Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, K M; Lau, T W; Lam, F C; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Ho, Y Y; Lau, C B S

2008-10-01

206

Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by the four herb extracts. Among the four herbs, P. chinensis cortex and S. baicalensis had the greatest inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa, followed by C reticulate peel and A. annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies. PMID:24701910

Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

2014-01-01

207

Biological screening of selected herbs used in traditional treatment of diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (petai belalang) and Averrhoa belimbi (belimbing buluh) were claimed in folk traditional medicine to be effective for diabetes treatment. However, there was not enough scientific research or data to support these claims. In this study, through biological screening for cytotoxic activities using brine shrimp lethality assay, these herbs in aqueous extracts were suitable to be consumed. The brine shrimp were not affected by the aqueous extracts indicating the absence of toxic substances in both herbs. Further studies must be carried out in animal for toxicity testing to determine the safeness and efficiency of these herbs for diabetes treatment. (Author)

2004-07-12

208

Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

2012-12-01

209

Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samp...

Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

2013-01-01

210

The potential of Sutherlandia frutescens for herb-drug interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Africa, Sutherlandia frutescens is a popular medicinal herb widely consumed by people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Concomitant use with antiretroviral drugs has generated concerns of herb-drug interaction (HDI). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of the crude extracts of S. frutescens on the major cytochrome P450 isozymes with the use of pooled human liver microsomes. Its effect on the metabolic clearance of midazolam using cryopreserved hepatocytes was also monitored. The potential of S. frutescens to inhibit human ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-gp and BCRP) and the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) activity was assessed using cell lines overexpressing the transporter proteins. S. frutescens showed inhibitory potency for CYP1A2 (IC(50) = 41.0 µg/ml), CYP2A6 (IC(50) = 160 µg/ml), CYP2B6 (IC(50) = 20.0 µg/ml), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 22.4 µg/ml), CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 23.0 µg/ml), CYP2C19 (IC(50) = 35.9 µg/ml), and CYP3A4/5 (IC(50) = 17.5 µg/ml [with midazolam1'-hydroxylation]; IC(50) = 28.3 µg/ml [with testosterone 6?-hydroxylation]). Time-dependent (irreversible) inhibition by S. frutescens was observed for CYP3A4/5 (K(I) = 296 µg/ml, k(inact) = 0.063 min(-1)) under the conditions of this study. S. frutescens also delays the production of midazolam metabolites in the hepatocytes, decreasing its clearance by 40%. Furthermore, S. frutescens inhibited P-gp (IC(50) = 324.8 µg/ml), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 10.4 µg/ml), and OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 6.6 µg/ml). The result indicates the potential for HDI between S. frutescens and the substrates of the affected enzymes, if sufficient in vivo concentration of the extract is attained. PMID:23209194

Fasinu, Pius S; Gutmann, Heike; Schiller, Hilmar; James, Alexander-David; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

2013-02-01

211

Antimicrobial Activity of Endemic Herbs from Tangkahan Conservation Forest North Sumatera to Bacteria and Yeast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tangkahan Conservation Forest in Karo County, North Sumatera has high biodiversity of endemic herbs. Many species of the wild herbs are well known used as traditional medicine not only by local people but also by people out of the area. The methanol extract of the medicinal wild herbs in Tangkahan Conservation Forest, Karo County to relief skin diseases caused by bacteria and fungi never been studied medically. The antimicrobial activity leave extract of the medicinal herbs to pathogenic microorganisms are studied. The leaves extract of kembu-kembu (Callicarpa candicans, rintih bulung (Piper muricatum, cep-cepan (Castanopsis costata, and sereh kayu (Eugenia grandis, has antimicrobial to bacteria (Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast (Candida albicans. Toxicity assay of these plants by brine shrimp method using Artemia salina indicates that cep-cepan dan sereh kayu have lethal concentration higher than kembu-kembu and rintih bulung.

Kiki Nurtjahja

2013-12-01

212

A Study of the Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction in the Coupled Fast-Thermal System 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used for calculation in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system 'HERBE'. (author)

1994-01-23

213

[Postmarketing herbs clinical evaluation should concern about re-evaluating symptoms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Re-evaluation of premarketing medicine is a important supplementary of clinical and elementary research. It is a basement that establish the medicine administration supervisition , found and integrity postmarketing washing out mechanism and define reasonable using drug. After drug marketing, we must not only concern on the re-evaluation of herbs security but also focus on evaluating herbs suitable symptom, as well as its dosage and course of treatment, ect. The re-evaluation of symptoms were seen as the core and feature of traditional Chinese medicine's clinical evaluation. It is also seen as hot spot and difficulty of the research . This article try to focus on simply illustrating the necessity and research thinking of re-evaluation symptoms of postmarketing herbs. So we can define the re-evaluation of postmarketing drug's objection, method, and basement. It will provide beneficial experience and reference to re-evaluation symptom of marketed herbs. PMID:20822030

He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

2010-06-01

214

A study of the effective delayed neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used for calculation in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system 'HERBE'. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

1994-01-01

215

Radioactive contaminated herbs after the Chernobyl accident - a retrospective view of their destruction control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rains in May 1986 'watered' the ground and the plants with a mixture of radionuclides. As a result many agricultural products and other plants in Bulgaria were radioactively polluted. Herbs widely used as medicine or as fragrant tea were also badly affected. The author reports some data about radioactive contamination of the herbs with Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Radioactivity distribution in terms of dose range and herb species is given. Measures taken for destruction of the herb crop of 1986-1987 through incineration or burial are described, as well as the administrative and technical procedures assuring control of these measures. Proposals for continuing annual monitoring of the burial sites are presented. 6 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

1996-01-01

216

Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

Ba?gel, S; Erdemo?lu, S B

2006-04-15

217

Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty c...

Clement Yuri N; Williams Arlene F; Aranda Derick; Chase Ronald; Watson Nadya; Mohammed Rochelle; Stubbs Odia; Williamson Deneil

2005-01-01

218

Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present a...

Fatima, N.; Ishrat-Ullah Siddiqui; Fahmida Perveen; Maqsood, Z. T.

2004-01-01

219

Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum Majorana L. Herb and extracts obtained with different solvents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hy...

Va?gi, Erika; Rapavi, Erika; Hadolin Kolar, Majda; Va?sa?rhelyine? Pere?di, Katalin; Bala?zs, Andrea; Bla?zovics, Anna; Sima?ndi, Be?la

2012-01-01

220

Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Measurement of ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delayed neutron parameters and methods used in reactor safety studies are verified by measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction ?eff in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE. The HERBE system is strongly heterogeneous. Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of ?eff measurement are described. The measured and calculated quantities and estimated uncertainties are presented. Agreement between the computation and measurement suggests the validity of the calculation method

1994-06-19

222

Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer ...

2010-01-01

223

Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

2013-08-01

224

Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens. PMID:22700791

Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ali, Lizna; Jabeen, Ayesha; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rizvi, Tahir A; Ashraf, S Salman

2013-01-01

225

Seed germination responses of the medicinal herb Centella asiatica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of several environmental factors on germination of medicinal herb Centella asiatica was investigated. Freshly harvested seeds of C. asiatica did not germinate even after gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment and exposure to different treatments with light qualities, while two-three months old seeds exhibited germination (82% without pre-treatment at warm environment (25 -30ºC. GA3 treatment induced germination by two weeks earlier than in control. Germination was significantly (p=0.001 higher in red and white light than in blue and far red light. In addition, germination of C. asiatica was sensitive towards the salt stress and was significantly inhibited at 6500 ppm NaCl. The leaf leachates from invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of C. asiatica. Parthenium hysterophorus had significant effect (p<0.001 on seed germination. These data contribute for the establishing of an efficient protocol for C. asiatica cultivation.

Anjana Devkota

2010-01-01

226

Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364

Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D

1994-01-01

227

Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing macrophage function. In this study we demonstrated in vitro suppression of macrophage chemiluminescent oxidative burst associated with viable cells and cell-free extracts of two urological neoplasms--murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) and murine bladder tumor (MBT). Suppression was reversed by extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL). Murine macrophage cell line J774 was incubated with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extract for 18 hours at 37C and 5% CO2. Chemiluminescent oxidative burst as an indicator of macrophage function was triggered by adding zymosan A suspension containing luminol and assayed in an automated luminometer. Photon emission over time was counted and the results were expressed as integrated photon emission. Significant dose-related depression of oxidative burst occurred with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extracts. Depression was partially or completely reversed by the presence of 50-100 micrograms./ml. of either the AM or the LL extract. AM and LL have previously been shown to modulate immune response. Data from this study suggest that they may also exert their antitumor activity via abolition of tumor-associated macrophage suppression. PMID:1856958

Rittenhouse, J R; Lui, P D; Lau, B H

1991-08-01

228

Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.

Zhang Xiao-Jing

2013-01-01

229

Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out.

Shen, Y.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhan, Q.M.; Guo, R.; Liu, J.W.; Yang, C.Z.

1989-02-01

230

Detection of herbs and spices irradiated through optically stimulated luminescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The irradiation of foods is one of the common practices in several countries of the American and European continents. In spite of the widespread use of irradiation methods and technics of nutritious products, it doesn't exist a method of general use at the present time for the detection of previously submitted foods to irradiation with pasteurization ends or sterilization. In the present work the results are presented obtained in the detection of herbs and spices exposed to radiation in the range of 0.1 - 3 KGy, by means of the photostimulation with light of 470 nm. It was used for it a RIS0 model team TL/OSL-GIVE-15 conditioned with a ? ray source, "9"0Sr/"9"0Y and a source of light of 50 mW/cm2. samples of chili guajillo were studied, pepper, cumin, mint and camomile; achieving you to detect exhibitions of the order of 8.33x10"-"4 KGy that which is indicative of the high sensitivity of the luminescence technique optically stimulated. The answer of the samples with regard to the radiation dose presents a range of lineality for low dose of the order of 0.5 KGy; and supralineal for further dose without to arrive to a saturation stage. (Author)

2003-09-10

231

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants - blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

2014-01-01

232

Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, d?/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

1991-05-13

233

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

Science.gov (United States)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

2004-09-01

234

Dietary intake of spices and herbs in habitual northeast thai diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spices and herbs are rich in polyphenols and widely used in habitual diets in the tropical regions. To elucidate their effects on human health, intake of the portion of spices and herbs from habitual diets should be determined. Consumption patterns were determined from 24-hour records or recalls of 181 men and 370 women in Khonkaen and Ubon Ratchathani provinces, representing upper and lower northeast Thailand. There was a slight variation in dishes, but twelve spices/herbs were commonly used in the two areas. The amounts of spices/ herbs in the four most common dishes (Somtum, Jaew, Pon and Kang-Nor-Mai) were estimated by weighing ingredients before and after cooking. The average amount of spices/herbs consumed was 4.9, 26.1, 14 and 11 g/meal, contributing 36.6, 43.1, 20.6 and 29.8 mg polyphenols/meal for Somtum, Jaew, Pon and Kang- Nor-Mai, respectively. Chili was common in all recipes, with an average amount of 8.3-27.5 mg polyphenols/meal. In conclusion, habitual northeast Thai diets contain several spices/herbs and a substantial amount of polyphenols was commonly consumed. PMID:22691861

Tantipopipat, S; Boonpraderm, A; Charoenkiatkul, S; Wasantwisut, E; Winichagoon, P

2010-04-01

235

Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

2011-12-01

236

EL CARIOTIPO FUNDAMENTAL EN RHODOLIRIUM SPECIOSUM (HERB.) RAVENNA Y R. ANDICOLA (POEPP.) RAVENNA (AMARYLLIDACEAE) / THE FUNDAMENTAL KARYOTYPE IN RHODOLIRIUM SPECIOSUM (HERB.) RAVENNA AND R. ANDICOLA (POEPP.) RAVENNA (AMARYLLIDACEAE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The karyotype of Rhodolirium speciosum (Herb.) Ravenna and R. andícola (Poepp.) Ravenna were examined. The species have 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 3sm + 1st chromosomes. Both species present a very different karyotype in comparison to other Amaryllidaceae from Chile. [...

Carlos M, Baeza; Camila, Mariangel; Eduardo, Ruiz; María, Negritto.

237

EL CARIOTIPO FUNDAMENTAL EN RHODOLIRIUM SPECIOSUM (HERB. RAVENNA Y R. ANDICOLA (POEPP. RAVENNA (AMARYLLIDACEAE THE FUNDAMENTAL KARYOTYPE IN RHODOLIRIUM SPECIOSUM (HERB. RAVENNA AND R. ANDICOLA (POEPP. RAVENNA (AMARYLLIDACEAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The karyotype of Rhodolirium speciosum (Herb. Ravenna and R. andícola (Poepp. Ravenna were examined. The species have 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 3sm + 1st chromosomes. Both species present a very different karyotype in comparison to other Amaryllidaceae from Chile.

Carlos M Baeza

2009-01-01

238

Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

Blomhoff Rune

2011-05-01

239

Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to the successful use of the {sup 15}N natural abundance technique. Acacia leiocalyx demonstrated greater N{sub 2} fixation as well as photosynthesis and instantaneous water use efficiency than Acacia disparimma. However, no strong relationship between plant photosynthesis and N{sub 2} fixation was observed in this study. A high within-treatment variation may have masked the relationships between plant BNF activities and photosynthesis. Conclusions: The {sup 15}N natural abundance technique is preferred to be used for future studies as it is simple and inexpensive compared with {sup 15}N enrichment method. The dependence of both species on BNF at site 2, where fuel reduction burning had not taken place for 8 years, suggests that the frequent burning impoverished the soil, and this has wider implications as higher fire frequencies are to be expected in other Australian ecosystems as a result of global climate change. (orig.)

Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

2012-05-15

240

THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

Sebastião Ferreira de Lima

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbs on squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: histopathologic analysis of 240 cases.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three types of traditional Chinese herb medicine were used to treat 98 patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prior to surgical treatment. Forty-two patients with the same diagnosis were treated with these herbs plus cyclophosphamide (endoxan. One hundred similar patients received surgical treatment without herbs or endoxan treatment as controls. Histologic examinations of surgical specimens were made on all of these patients. Stromal lymphoid-cell infiltration and cancer tissue degeneration were more prominent in Menispernum dehuricum DC- or Chelidonium majus L-treated patients, and were less clear in patients treated with herbs plus endoxan and the controls. The antitumor action of herbs is thought to be brought about by the activation of an immunological rejection mechanism. Herbs plus endoxan may result in the masking of the immunological response of hosts without obviously damaging cancer tissues.

Xian,Mei-Sheng

1989-12-01

242

Effect of irradiation on total chemical profiles of ten selected local herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As utilisation of medicinal herbs in food and bio industry increases, mass production and the supply of high quality herbs are required. Restriction on the use of fumigants and preservatives on herbs demands safe hygienic technologies such as irradiation. The stability of the active components of ten local herbs after irradiation was studied. The herbs selected were Hempedu Bumi, Mas Cotek, Tongkat Ali, Kacip Fatimah, Misai Kucing, Dukung Anak, Jarum Tujuh Bilah, Kesom, Pegaga and Sambung Nyawa. The herbs were dried, powdered and irradiated at different doses of gamma radiation (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy) at room temperature prior to extraction. The herbs were then extracted either in methanol or chloroform and freeze dried. About 10.0 mg of each extract (in triplicates) were weighed into an Eppendorf vial and solubilised in 700 ?l CD3OD using sonication in an ultrasound bath to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then transferred to a NMR vial and a 1H-NMR spectrum was acquired according to standard Total Quality Profile (TQP) protocol. The results of the statistical analysis showed clearly that all irradiated plant samples did not exhibit any significant pattern of differences. Using SIMCA analysis, we found that there is no statistical basis for separation of control, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 25 kGy irradiated samples on a 95 % confidence limit. TQP analysis for the ten selected herbal plant shows that irradiation up to 25 kGy did not cause significant changes to the total chemical profiles and thus the integrity of the herbal material in the analysed plants. (author)

2010-10-12

243

Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4% reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6% obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1% obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%, and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.

Mohammed Rochelle

2005-02-01

244

Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.

Bensoussan Alan

2010-02-01

245

Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs have higher nitrogen concentrations in their tissues than woody plants, and because pollen is particularly rich in nitrogen, we predicted that male growth would be more compromised by reproduction ...

Harris, Ms; Pannell, Jr

2008-01-01

246

Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumors while Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL) are often used as an adjunct in cancer therapy. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. The effects of these herbs on [3H]AFB1 binding to calf-thymus DNA were assessed. Organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of AFB1 were extracted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mutagenesis assays revealed that all of these herbs produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of histidine-independent revertant (His+) colonies induced by AFB1. At a concentration of 1.5 mg/plate, SB and OD in combination exhibited an additive effect. The trend of inhibition of these four herbs on AFB1-induced mutagenesis was: SB greater than LL greater than AM. LL, OD and SB significantly inhibited AFB1 binding to DNA, reduced AFB1-DNA adduct formation, and also significantly decreased the formation of organosoluble metabolites of AFB1. Our data suggest that these Chinese medicinal herbs possess cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:1377337

Wong, B Y; Lau, B H; Tadi, P P; Teel, R W

1992-06-01

247

Reversal effects of traditional Chinese herbs on multidrug resistance in cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. In this work, fractions from 17 clinically used antitumour traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential to restore the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells to a known antineoplastic agent. The effects of these fractions were evaluated by MTT method and an assay of the cellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Fractions from the PB group (herbs with the ability to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis) showed more significant effects than fractions from the CH group (herbs with the ability to clear away heat and toxic materials). Fractions from CH?Cl? extracts were more effective than fractions from EtOAc extracts. Five herbs (Curcuma wenyujin, Chrysanthemum indicum, Salvia chinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Cassia tora L.) could sensitise these resistant cancer cells at a non-toxic concentration (10?µg?mL?¹), and markedly increased doxorubicin accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells, which necessitates further investigations on the active ingredients of these herbs and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:21848372

Yang, Lei; Wei, Dan-Dan; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jun-Song; Kong, Ling-Yi

2011-11-01

248

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

249

Novel temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system powered by a photovoltaic array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each plant has its own optimal drying temperature, especially for the medicinal herbs, because they are sensitive to heat. If the drying temperature becomes more than the optimal value, some chemical reactions will occur and influence the quality of the dried herb, such as color, taste, and aroma. While if the drying temperature becomes lower than the optimal value, the drying process will slow down; and consequently an expected degradation in the quality of the herb may occur, due to insects and fungi infestation which increase in moist conditions. This paper presents a new temperature control technique for a medicinal herb dryer system. The technique fixes the drying temperature of the medicinal herbs at 40 degree C, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. The control of the dryer temperature is achieved through using the proportional integral (PI) controller. The designed dryer contains two systems, which are the thermal and the electrical systems. The thermal system is designed to heat the drying air by using the solar energy and bio-gas fuel. Whereas, the electrical system, which contains a photovoltaic (PV) modules and a battery, is designed to supply the different electrical loads of the dryer system. The control technique is investigated through simulation work by using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate the high capability of the proposed technique in controlling the drying temperature, even in cases of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions

2006-12-01

250

[Aromatic trees and herbs that connect Heaven and earth].  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities. Aromatics smokes that connected people on the earth with deities in Heaven healed people's mind, sometimes curing illness through what is now called aromatherapy. In fact, such use of aromatics is still practiced in China, where aromatics are highly regarded as treatment agents. There have also been reports of aromatics being used for psychological and mental disorders. PMID:18548886

Sugiyama, Shigeru

2007-01-01

251

MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of new results with experimental data, in spite complex heterogeneous composition of the HERBE core, are achieved confirming that MCNP5 code could apply successfully to study on HERBE kinetics parameters after uncertainties in impurities in material compositions and positions of fuel elements in fast zone were removed.

Peši? Milan P.

2011-01-01

252

Toxicity of the Chinese herb mu tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis). What history tells us.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant sources of some traditional Chinese herbs may have changed over time. History records of herbal toxicity should be viewed critically when different plants might have been used under the same name in earlier eras. The current main source of the Chinese herb Mu Tong is Aristolochia manshuriensis. Examination of classical Chinese herbal literature revealed that until the mid 17th century the original source plants of Mu Tong had been several Akebia species. From the 17th century until the early 20th century Clematis species were the main source of Mu Tong. A manshuriensis has only been widely used since the 1950s. Renal failure due to ingestion of large doses of A. manshuriensis has been reported in China and other countries while no such toxicity has been recorded in traditional Chinese herbal texts. Documentation of traditional Chinese herbal literature should help to ensure the safe use of Chinese herbs. PMID:12503251

Zhu, You-Ping

2002-01-01

253

Genotoxicological safety of the ?-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with ?-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with ?-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity

2001-05-01

254

Protection of mouse immune system by a preparation of herb mixture against whole body irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preparation(P.P-I) of herb mixture was designed to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. The herb preparation was water extract of herb mixture(Agelica gagantis Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix) added with its polysaccharide fraction. In the present experiments, the ability of the preparation to protect hematopoietic and immune system was assessed in mice irradiated with 60Co ?-rays. The administration of P.P-I increased regeneration of blood cells and splenic lymphocytes in irradiated mice. In the administration mice, both B and T cells of lymphocytes were repopulated to normal level following irradiation, the response of repopulated lymphocytes to mitogen was recovered and the production of antibody against injected antigen was increased. These results indicated that the preparation protect hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage, and that enhanced immunity. Since the preparation is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful radioprotector

2001-05-01

255

THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

E. Nurdin

2011-06-01

256

Metal Concentration in Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs and Infusion by Lebanese Population: Health Impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The levels of K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Pb in commonly used medicinal herbs and their infusions by Lebanese were analyzed by EDXRF and ASS techniques, respectively. The order of metal contents in the herbs was found to be: K (6990-19850 ug/g) > Ca(1630-14450 ug/g) > Fe(80-3650 ug/g) > Mn (28-458 ug/g) > Zn (23-108 ug/g) > Cu (5-71 ug/g) > Cr (3.1-55 ug/g) Pb> (1.1-10.3 ug/g) > As (nd-10.8 ug/g) > Cd (nd-1.7 ug/g). The mean levels of toxic metals in herbs Pb, As and Cd were...

Korfali, Samira I.; Mohamad Mroueh; Mohammad Al-Zein; Rosin Salem

2013-01-01

257

Nephroprotective and Diuretic Effects of Three Medicinal Herbs Against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nephroprotective and diuretic effects of three medicinal herbs namely Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa, alone and in combination, against gentamicin (GM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were investigated. Forty two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into 6 equal groups, each of 7 animals. The 1st group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with saline solution (0.2 mL/rat. The 2nd group was i.p., injected with GM (80 mg/kg b.wt. for 8 consecutive days. The other four groups were given orally aqueous infusion of the three herbs, alone and combined, (1 mL/rat, 150 mg/kg b.wt. along with GM. Twenty four hours after the last administration, blood and urine samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Kidney specimens were taken for estimating oxidant/antioxidant parameters and for histopathology. The results showed that GM induced nephrotoxicity characterized by renal dysfunction as evident by biochemical and histopathological alterations, elevated lipid peroxidation and reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues. Oral administration of aqueous infusion of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs caused a nephroprotective effect evident by significant decreases in the elevated serum urea, creatinine and ALP activity and normalized the decreased serum levels of Na+ and K+ electrolytes in GM-treated rats. It significantly increased urine output and urinary concentration of Na+and K+; denoting a diuretic activity. It also ameliorated renal tubular necrosis in GM-treated rats. The nephroprotective of herbs could be due to the antioxidant effect of these herbs as evident by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusively, the study suggests that mixture of these three herbs may be useful for patients who suffer from renal diseases and those on GM therapy.

Aml F. Elgazar

2013-01-01

258

Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

2008-09-21

259

An Extensive Survey of the Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potency of Ocimum sanctum (Queen of Herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum, known as Queen of Herbs, is an important member of the family Lamiaceae due to its use in herbal medicationcenturies back, especially, in India and other parts of the sub-continent. It is still a subject of immense importance in modernmedical research and it is due to the chemical constituents present in it like flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins,minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and many others. It has shown a wide range of therapeutic potencies like antimicrobial,anticataleptic, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic and cardioprotective activities. The aim of the present reviewis to present an extensive survey on the phytochemistry and pharmacological applications of the herb.

S. K. Bariyah

2013-01-01

260

Measurement of spectrum and gamma radiation absorption dose rate in the center of HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this task was measurement of spectrum and absorption dose rate of gamma radiation in the center of vertical experimental channel of the HERBE system. This paper contains theoretical description of gamma radiation sources in reactors, methods and instruments for measuring gamma spectrum and absorption dose rate in the center of HERBE system. Influence of NAI (TI) detector efficiency and (n,?) activation was determined and the reactor gamma spectrum was measured. Absorption gamma dose rate was measured dependent on the reactor power

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

9-Hydroxypiperitone beta-D-glucopyranoside and other polar constituents from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methanolic extract from dill (Anethum graveolens) herb was subjected to XAD-2 adsorption chromatography. The methanolic eluate was fractionated with the all liquid chromatographic technique of multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC). After acetylation of MLCCC subfractions and flash chromatography, final purification of dill herb constituents was achieved by preparative and/or analytical HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained in pure form, including the beta-D-glucopyranosides of 9-hydroxypiperitone, p-menth-2-ene-1,6-diol, and 8-hydroxygeraniol. Structure elucidation is based on electrospray ionization ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:11052739

Bonnländer, B; Winterhalter, P

2000-10-01

262

Phytotherapeutic profile of Nigerian herbs. I: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

From a survey of anti-arthritic remedies used in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine, three plants--Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Costus afar and Terminalia ivorensis--were selected for closer study. Twenty-five volunteers were monitored while receiving treatment from two reputable herbalists, and the result of the clinical investigation prompted the pharmacological and phytochemical studies on the herbs. Differential solvent extracts of the herbs reduced carragenin-induced oedema of the rat paw, checked diarrhoea due to arachidonic acid and castor oil, and ameliorated all signs associated with adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. The constituent-activity relationship of the drugs and their probable mode of action are briefly discussed. PMID:7154695

Iwu, M M; Anyanwu, B N

1982-11-01

263

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Kedzia, B

2000-03-01

264

Verification of kinetic parameters of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1989 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the VINCA Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews experiments for kinetic parameters verification carried out at HERBE system. Their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results are included. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in the calculations is presented too. (author)

1997-01-01

265

Among Few Commonly Used Anti-diabetic Herbs: Fenugreek is the Best  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adiantum Capillus Veneris, Momordica charantia, Eugenia Jambolanum, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium Sativum and Fenugreek has long history of use as anti-hyperglycemic agent. These herbs are extensively studied, but in terms of organic constituents however their metal contents may play important role. Chromium, iron, manganese, magnesium and zinc which play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in these herbs by atomic absorption spectrotroscopy. Since chromium is present at ppb level, it is examined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with zeeman background correction. None of these species contain metals above the toxic limit. Fenugreek was found to be rich source of metal specially chromium.

N. Fatima

2004-01-01

266

Fast spectrum determination in coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at the RB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RB is an unshielded, zero power nuclear facility with natural and enriched uranium fuel (2% and 80%) and D2O as moderator. The fields of fast neutrons are created at the RB reactor and the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE among them. The fast neutron spectrum in these fields are measured by improved version of activation technique. The results for HERBE configuration are given in this paper. The dosimetric and other purposes of this fast neutron field are also emphasised. (author)

1994-06-05

267

Evaluating the traditional Chinese literature for herbal formulae and individual herbs used for age-related dementia and memory impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547

May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L

2012-06-01

268

Effects of tree sapling diversity and nutrient addition on herb-layer invasibility in communities of subtropical species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exotic species are assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However, little is known of the relationships within vertically structured plant communities such as forests, where tree saplings interact with herbaceous species, especially in the early phases of succession. This relationship was tested in a common garden experiment which assessed the impacts on tree saplings and herbaceous species following nutrient addition and the introduction of exotic herb species. The experiment was established in South- East China using four broad-leaved tree species (Elaeocarpus decipiens, Schima superba, Castanea henryi and Quercus serrata to study the relationships between tree sapling diversity, herb-layer productivity and invasibility. Tree saplings were planted in monoculture and in mixtures of two and four species. A full factorial design was applied, within which species composition was crossed with nutrient and exotic seed-addition treatments. The seed-addition treatment included mixtures of seeds from eight exotic herb species, and herb community attributes were assessed after a four month growing season. Results indicate that certain tree species negatively affect native as well as exotic herbs; however, the high productivity of native herbs had a stronger negative impact on exotic species than tree saplings. Nutrient addition increased the productivity of exotic herbs but had no effect on native herbs. Remarkably, exotic species introduction had a negative feedback effect on the growth of tree saplings, which highlights the potential of exotic herbs to diminish tree recruitment. Although tree saplings reduced invasive effects on the herb-layer during the earliest phase of forest succession, nutrient addition had a more profound and opposite effect on these invaders.

Alexandra Erfmeier

2012-02-01

269

Skull form of herb field mouse, Apodemus uralensis: intraspecific variation on a continental scale.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Vantaa : Finnish Forest Research Institute, 2012 - (Henttonen, H.; Huitu, O.). s. 65 ISBN 978-951-40-2374-3.[Rodens et Spatium /13./. 16.07.2012-20.07.2012, Rovaniemi]Institucionální podpora: RVO:68081766Klí?ová slova: herb field mouseKód oboru RIV: EG - Zoologie

Mikula, Ond?ej; Schnitzerová, P.; Mošanský, L.; Juškaitis, R.; Bogdanov, A.; Mezhzherin, S.; Macholán, Miloš

270

Phytochemical studies of the herb, Tragopogon orientalis L. (Asteraceae. 2. Components of a methanol extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vitexin, orientin, isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were isolated from the herb, Tragopogon orientnlis L. The occurrence of quercetin and the phenolic acids: chlorogenic, homoprotoca-techuic, protocatechuic, caffeic, gentysic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic o-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-cumaric, syringic, vanillic, ferulic and salicylic, and of the sugars: glucose, fructose and sucrose was demonstrated chromatographically.

Helena D. Smolarz

1988-03-01

271

Antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effects of wild herbs mainly cultivated in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244

Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

2013-01-01

272

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, ...

2012-01-01

273

Plant-animal interactions and seed output of two insectpollinated herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I combined comparative and experimental studies in the field and in the greenhouse to examine factors influencing reproductive success in two insect-pollinated herbs, the tristylous, selfincompatible perennial Lythrum salicaria and the self-compatible, biennial Pedicularis palustris. More specifically, I explored (i) the effects of plant population characteristics on the intensity and outcome of interactions with pollinators and seed predators, (ii) w...

Waites, Anna R.

2005-01-01

274

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

Boo-Yong Lee

2013-10-01

275

Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5 years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

Abahussain NA

2007-09-01

276

Determination of gamma spectrum and absorbed dose in the center of the HERBE system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to know the influence of neutron and gamma radiation on sample during irradiation in the centre of the reactor system HERBE. It was the reason for measuring the gamma energy spectrum as well as corresponding absorbed radiation dose. In this paper the results of measurements are shown.(author)

1995-06-06

277

Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

1998-07-01

278

Germination ecology of the clonal grassland herb Knautia arvensis: Regeneration strategy and geographic variation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated germination responses and seed recruitment in the clonal grassland herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) throughout the species’ distributional range in Norway. Four predicted relationships between germination responses and field regeneration behaviour were tested using phytotron experiments and experimental and observational field studies. Seedlings appeared in all experimental microsites in the field, corroborating phytotron predictions that gap- or depth-sensing strategies ...

2003-01-01

279

Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486

Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2005-01-01

280

Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical constitution of the herbs. The extracts, presented no change in the color increasing the irradiation doses (results are similar in other herbs extracts) as showed in the absorption peaks. The samples showed similar curves, presenting no changes in the chemical compounds. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after treatment by high doses radiation, Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to Quimer and IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

2001-11-26

 
 
 
 
281

Similarity between seed bank and herb layer in a natural deciduous temperate lowland forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forest seed banks mostly studied in managed forests proved to be small, species poor and not reflecting aboveground species composition. Yet studies conducted in undisturbed communities indicate a different seed bank characteristic. Therefore we aimed at describing soil seed bank in an undisturbed forest in a remnant of European lowland temperate forests, the Bia?owie?a Forest. We compared similarity between the herb layer and seed bank, similarity of seed bank between different patches, and dominance structure of species in the herb layer and in the seed bank of two related oak-hornbeam communities. We report relatively high values of Sorensen species similarity index between herb layer and seed bank of both patches. This suggests higher species similarity of the herb layer and soil seed bank in natural, unmanaged forests represented by both plots than in fragmented communities influenced by man. Although there was a set of core seed bank species present at both plots, yielding high Sorensen species similarity index values, considerable differences between plots in seed bank size and dominance structure of species were found, indicating spatial variability of studied seed bank generated by edaphic conditions. Dominance structure of species in the herb layer was not reflected in the underlying seed bank. This stresses, that natural forest regeneration cannot rely only on the seed bank, although some forest species are capable of forming soil seed banks. While forest seed banks may not reflect vegetation composition of past successional stages, they may inform on history and land use of a specific plot.

Maciej Wódkiewicz

2010-06-01

282

Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interlukine-1? (IL-?), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-?b), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes.

Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

283

Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

1993-01-01

284

Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to search for cannabis in herb mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herb mixtures including cannabis among the other herbs have recently appeared. When cannabinoids from herb extracts are detected by chemical examinations such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, forensic analysts have to determine whether cannabis is actually in the mixture or the cannabinoids are spiked. Morphological examinations are time-consuming, since it is difficult to find several pieces of cannabis among a large number of herb pieces using a microscope. Here, we propose a procedure for efficiently searching for cannabis in herb mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI/IMS). Pieces of herb mixtures were spread on double-sided adhesive tape attached to a stainless steel plate. The pieces were then covered with a conductive sheet and pressed. After a solution containing a matrix reagent was sprayed, the distribution of cannabinoids in the sample was visualized by MALDI/IMS. Then, just the pieces with cannabinoids could be picked up selectively with tweezers and decolorized. Cystolith hairs and trichomes, which are characteristic of cannabis, were observed in most of these pieces using a biological microscope. This MALDI/IMS procedure enables cannabis to be found in herb mixtures without inefficient random sampling and microscopic morphological examination. PMID:24838491

Kuwayama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2014-07-01

285

Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4oC. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring...

Florou-paneri, P.; Palatos, G.; Govaris, A.; Botsoglou, D.; Giannenas, I.; Ambrosiadis, I.

2005-01-01

286

Water deficit affects photosynthetic induction in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae growing in understorey and gap conditions Déficit hídrico afeta a indução fotossintética em Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae e em Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae desenvolvendo-se em condições de sub-bosque e de clareira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In tropical forests, light is considered the most limiting resource for plant growth and reproduction. Besides light, water deficit leads invariably to a decrease in photosynthesis. Thus, despite of the unquestionable role of light in CO2 assimilation (A, it is expected that water deficit affects and limits the light utilization by plants. In this study, we investigated how water deficit influenced the photosynthetic induction of the early successional tree Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae and the late successional Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae in the understorey and in the forest gap. Field measurements were carried out in June and August 2006 in plants of approximately two-years-old. In August, the plants were subjected to a period of 45 d without rain characterizing a water deficit situation. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in August, both in forest gap and understorey (-2.5 and -3.8 MPa, respectively, than in June (-0.6 and -1.6 MPa, respectively. In June, both species presented a rapid increase in A after a saturating light pulse under gap conditions. However, in the understorey the increase in A was slower in B. forficata than in E. leiocarpa. In August water deficit limited the increase in Amax in both species, indicating that potential utilization of increasing irradiance was reduced by water deficit conditions. The constrain in Amax was less pronounced in the understorey where plants at least reached the irradiance compensation point, whereas carbon gain by photosynthesis of the plants grown in the gap did not compensate the carbon loss by respiration.Em florestas tropicais, a luz é considerada o recurso mais limitante para o crescimento e reprodução das plantas. Além da luz, o déficit hídrico leva invariavelmente à diminuição da fotossíntese. Assim, apesar do indiscutível papel da luz na assimilação de CO2 (A, espera-se que o déficit hídrico afete e limite a utilização da luz pelas plantas. Neste estudo, investigou-se como o déficit hídrico influenciou a indução fotossintética de uma espécie pioneira arbórea, Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae, e de uma secundária, Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae, no sub-bosque e na clareira. As medidas foram feitas em junho e agosto de 2006 em plantas com aproximadamente dois anos. Em agosto, as plantas foram sujeitas a um período de 45 d sem chuva, caracterizando uma situação de déficit hídrico. O potencial hídrico foliar foi significativamente menor em agosto, na clareira e no sub-bosque (-2,5 e -3,8 MPa, respectivamente, do que em junho (-0,6 and -1,6 MPa, respectivamente. Em junho, ambas espécies apresentaram um rápido aumento em A após o pulso de luz saturante na clareira. Contudo, no sub-bosque, o aumento em A foi mais lento em B. forficata do que em E. leiocarpa. Em agosto, o déficit hídrico limitou o aumento em Amax em ambas espécies, indicando que a utilização potencial do aumento da irradiância foi reduzida por condições de déficit hídrico. A restrição em Amax foi menos pronunciada no sub-bosque, onde as plantas ao menos atingiram a irradiância de compensação, enquanto o ganho de carbono pela fotossíntese das plantas desenvolvidas na clareira não compensou a perda de carbono pela respiração.

Maria T. Portes

2006-12-01

287

Water deficit affects photosynthetic induction in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) growing in understorey and gap conditions / Déficit hídrico afeta a indução fotossintética em Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae) e em Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) desenvolvendo-se em condições de sub-bosque e de clareira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em florestas tropicais, a luz é considerada o recurso mais limitante para o crescimento e reprodução das plantas. Além da luz, o déficit hídrico leva invariavelmente à diminuição da fotossíntese. Assim, apesar do indiscutível papel da luz na assimilação de CO2 (A), espera-se que o déficit hídrico af [...] ete e limite a utilização da luz pelas plantas. Neste estudo, investigou-se como o déficit hídrico influenciou a indução fotossintética de uma espécie pioneira arbórea, Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), e de uma secundária, Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae), no sub-bosque e na clareira. As medidas foram feitas em junho e agosto de 2006 em plantas com aproximadamente dois anos. Em agosto, as plantas foram sujeitas a um período de 45 d sem chuva, caracterizando uma situação de déficit hídrico. O potencial hídrico foliar foi significativamente menor em agosto, na clareira e no sub-bosque (-2,5 e -3,8 MPa, respectivamente), do que em junho (-0,6 and -1,6 MPa, respectivamente). Em junho, ambas espécies apresentaram um rápido aumento em A após o pulso de luz saturante na clareira. Contudo, no sub-bosque, o aumento em A foi mais lento em B. forficata do que em E. leiocarpa. Em agosto, o déficit hídrico limitou o aumento em Amax em ambas espécies, indicando que a utilização potencial do aumento da irradiância foi reduzida por condições de déficit hídrico. A restrição em Amax foi menos pronunciada no sub-bosque, onde as plantas ao menos atingiram a irradiância de compensação, enquanto o ganho de carbono pela fotossíntese das plantas desenvolvidas na clareira não compensou a perda de carbono pela respiração. Abstract in english In tropical forests, light is considered the most limiting resource for plant growth and reproduction. Besides light, water deficit leads invariably to a decrease in photosynthesis. Thus, despite of the unquestionable role of light in CO2 assimilation (A), it is expected that water deficit affects a [...] nd limits the light utilization by plants. In this study, we investigated how water deficit influenced the photosynthetic induction of the early successional tree Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae) and the late successional Esenbeckia leiocarpa (Rutaceae) in the understorey and in the forest gap. Field measurements were carried out in June and August 2006 in plants of approximately two-years-old. In August, the plants were subjected to a period of 45 d without rain characterizing a water deficit situation. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in August, both in forest gap and understorey (-2.5 and -3.8 MPa, respectively), than in June (-0.6 and -1.6 MPa, respectively). In June, both species presented a rapid increase in A after a saturating light pulse under gap conditions. However, in the understorey the increase in A was slower in B. forficata than in E. leiocarpa. In August water deficit limited the increase in Amax in both species, indicating that potential utilization of increasing irradiance was reduced by water deficit conditions. The constrain in Amax was less pronounced in the understorey where plants at least reached the irradiance compensation point, whereas carbon gain by photosynthesis of the plants grown in the gap did not compensate the carbon loss by respiration.

Portes, Maria T.; Alves, Thiago H.; Souza, Gustavo M..

288

Study on Herb-herb Interaction Potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on Mast Cell Stabilizing Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Synergistic interactions between the components of mixtures of herb are a vital part of their therapeutic efficacy. There is no real basis for better efficacy of a mixture of herb extract than an equivalent dose of an individual herbal extract. Speculation as to explain this, whether it involves synergy, enhanced bioavailability, cumulative effects or simply the additive properties of the constituents requires further research. Liquorice, Kantkari and Vasaka are present in number of herbal fo...

2011-01-01

289

Study on Herb-herb Interaction Potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on Mast Cell Stabilizing Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between the components of mixtures of herb are a vital part of their therapeutic efficacy. There is no real basis for better efficacy of a mixture of herb extract than an equivalent dose of an individual herbal extract. Speculation as to explain this, whether it involves synergy, enhanced bioavailability, cumulative effects or simply the additive properties of the constituents requires further research. Liquorice, Kantkari and Vasaka are present in number of herbal formulation available in market for asthma and respiratory disorders so, present study was undertaken to explore the interaction potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra with Solanum xanthocarpum and Adhatoda vasica on mast cell stabilization compound 48/80 and egg albumin induced degranulation. Isobole method and Combination Index values were used to derive possible magnitude of interaction at various combinations. Compound 48/80 and egg albumin significantly disrupted mast cells (p Solanum xanthocarpum Extract (SXE and Adhatoda vasica Extract (AVE showed significant protection (pAdhatoda vasica extract and Liquorice extract (AVE+LE as well as Solanum xanthocarpum extract and Liquorice extract (SXE+LE, demonstrated significant (pin vitro study, a combination of Liquorice extract with Solanum xanthocarpum extract and Adhatoda vasica extract deserves further clinical investigation in properly designed clinical trials in patients with allergic conditions.

Shailesh V. Malaviya

2011-01-01

290

Validation of the fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of the measurements of the fast neutron spectrum in the HERBE coupled fast-thermal system are validated in this paper. When advantages and disadvantages of a He-filled semi-conductor-sandwich detector are compared to other neutron detectors, the former is found more appropriate. The neutron detection is based on the reaction 3He(n,p)T + 0.764 MeV and simultaneous detection of the reaction products in the silicon diodes. The pulses from the diodes are amplified and shaped in separate open-quotes energy close quotes channels and summed to produce a single pulse with height proportional to the energy of the incident neutron plus the Q value of the reaction. A well-known measuring system of the He neutron spectrometer is used for the HERBE fast neutron spectrum measurement and calibration in a thermal neutron field

1995-06-25

291

Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

2012-02-01

292

The Main Anticancer Bullets of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Thunder God Vine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thunder god vine or Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. is a representative Chinese medicinal herb which has been used widely and successfully for centuries in treating inflammatory diseases. More than 100 components have been isolated from this plant, and most of them have potent therapeutic efficacy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the past four decades, the anticancer activities of the extracts from this medicinal herb have attracted intensive attention by researchers worldwide. The diterpenoid epoxide triptolide and the quinone triterpene celastrol are two important bioactive ingredients that show a divergent therapeutic profile and can perturb multiple signal pathways. Both compounds promise to turn traditional medicines into modern drugs. In this review, we will mainly address the anticancer activities and mechanisms of action of these two agents and briefly describe some other antitumor components of the thunder god vine.

Zi Liu

2011-06-01

293

Influence of Void Effect on Reactivity of Coupled Fast-Thermal System Herbe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents theoretical procedure for modelling of the influence of moderator loss on reactivity of Vinca Institute's HERBE system. The model, based on the SPH method for the cross section homogenization in reactor core, is applied for cell calculations, where the loss of part of the moderator is simulated in 2 of 3 moderator zones. Void effect is analysed in global reactor calculations independently for two zones of the thermal core. The calculations are carried out for various steam volume fraction in both zones. Local void coefficients are determined in the reactor calculations. The extreme conditions (total moderator loss) are verified in specially designed experiments at the HERBE system which confirmed the validity of the model.(author)

1997-01-01

294

Isolation of two new bioactive proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius herb extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin (1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) in addition to the known compound epigallocatechin-(4beta-->6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from the air-dried herb of Cistus salvifolius. The chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR-spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-3 and the water extract of C. salvifolius herb were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 2 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 followed by compound 3, compound 1 and the water extract, while compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate in vitro inhibition against COX-1. PMID:21699087

Qa'dan, F; Nahrstedt, A; Schmidt, M

2011-06-01

295

Limited evidence for allelopathic effects of giant hogweed on germination af native herbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Invasive alien plants often occur in monospecific stands with high density in the invaded range. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites in such stands could have allelopathic effects on germination of native species. We tested this component of the novel weapon hypothesis for Heracleum mantegazzianum, a prominent invader in Europe, using seeds of 11 native herbs exposed to soil or soil extracts from invaded stands, moist seeds or seed extracts of H. mantegazzianum. There was no effect of the various treatments on germination of most species, while germination was reduced in Urtica dioica on invaded soil, in Poa trivialis with H. mantegazzianum seed extract, and negative effects of the essential oil bergapten were found in three species. In P. trivialis the results of the seed extract were not supported by the experiment with added seeds of the invasive plant. Thus, there is limited evidence for allelopathic effects of the invasive H. mantegazzianum on germination of co-occurring native herbs.

Wille, Wibke; Thiele, Jan

2013-01-01

296

Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....  

Science.gov (United States)

Time to Talk Tips What You Should Know About 5 Popular Herbs Herbal or botanical supplements are ... About Complementary Health Approaches for Quitting Smoking More Time To Talk Tip Sheets Home Home Page Contact ...

297

Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria) occupied intermediate position. The Republican permissible level on Sr 90 for medicinal -technical raw material is absent in Belarus. Therefore we cannot give recommendations on using the specified kinds of the herbs mentioned above and collected during the spring period of their development. We only verify the results of the studies. In order to provide the answer to the question it's necessary to conduct further studies of the herbs growing in territories with lower level of soil contamination by Sr 90. It is required to develop the Republican allowable level of Sr 90 content in medicinal-technical raw material

2006-04-01

298

A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance l...

2009-01-01

299

Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P?=?0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7?±?12.3 ?g/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79?±?7.62 ?g/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

Weerapreeyakul Natthida

2012-06-01

300

Isolation, identification and evaluation of natural antioxidants from aromatic herbs cultivated in Lithuania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction by inactivating free radicals formed during peroxidation of lipids. Aromatic and medicinal herbs are rich sources of natural radical scavenging compounds. The research described in this thesis foc...

Dapkevicius, A.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A novel and rapid method to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on starch-iodine agar plate, a novel screening method that can be used to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs is established. The extracts of 100 traditional Chinese medicines were screened for ?-lactamase inhibitors by this method. The inhibition rates of the Rheum palmatum L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Hypericum japonicum Thunb., Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Oxalis corniculate L., Lycopodium clavatum L. and Salix babylonica L. were found ...

Zaichang - Yang; Xiaosheng - Yang; Yule - Niu

2009-01-01

302

ISO - Technical committees - ISO/TC 34/SC 7 - Spices, culinary herbs and condiments  

... Resource area Standards Development Technical committees ISO/TC 34 ISO/TC 34/SC 7 ISO/TC 34/SC 7 Spices, culinary herbs and condiments About Contact details Structure Liaisons Meetings Tools Secretariat: BIS Secretary: Mr Kumar Anil Chairperson: Dr A. Jayathilak until end 2017 ISO Central Secretariat contact: Mme Marie-Noëlle Bourquin Number of published ISO standards under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 34/SC 7 (number includes updates): 72 ...

303

Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

2010-01-01

304

Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work investigates the influence of water stress on vegetative growth, essential oil, proline, total carbohydrates, N, P, K, and protein contents of two species of an herb plant ie Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) and Ocimum americanum L. (american basil). Experiments were carried out during two successive seasons, 2004 and 2005, with experimental pots containing Typic Torrifluvents soil (a clay loam) in a growth chamber at the Experimental Farm, National Research Center (NRC), Giza, Egy...

Khalid, Kh A.

2006-01-01

305

Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum ) w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil we...

2011-01-01

306

Use of Herbs by the Patients with Diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbal medicines, products and therapies are a subject of great public interest both nationally and worldwide. Use of herbal therapy is common among patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the consumption rate, duration and methods of herbs and alternative therapies used by the patients with diabetes in Kayseri, Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed with 400 volunteer patients with diabetes. A face to face interview was conducted between January-Ma...

2007-01-01

307

Curcuminoid Biosynthesis by Two Type III Polyketide Synthases in the Herb Curcuma longa*S?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Curcuminoids found in the rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa, possess various biological activities. Despite much attention regarding the biosynthesis of curcuminoids because of their pharmaceutically important properties and biosynthetically intriguing structures, no enzyme systems have been elucidated. Here we propose a pathway for curcuminoid biosynthesis in the herb C. longa, which includes two novel type III polyketide synthases. One of the type III polyketide syn...

Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Funa, Nobutaka; Horinouchi, Sueharu

2009-01-01

308

The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Herbs as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplements in animal production. Garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma Longa) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) have been widely used as medicinal and growth promoter purposes in ...

Suriya, R.; Zulkifli, I.; Alimon, A. R.

2012-01-01

309

Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and St...

Veres, Katalin; Csupor-lo?ffler, Bogla?rka; La?za?r, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

2012-01-01

310

Factors Associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle/behavior factors in young adults in the US. Methods Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results In our sample of 18 to 30 year olds (n = 6666), 2...

Gardiner Paula; Kemper Kathi J; Legedza Anna; Phillips Russell S

2007-01-01

311

Changes in use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) among clinicians enrolled in an online curriculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Little is known about clinicians' use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS), how their personal HDS use changes with time and training, and how changes in their personal use affect their confidence or communication with patients about HDS. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of clinicians before and after an on-line curriculum about HDS in winter-spring, 2005. Results Of the 569 clinicians who completed surveys both...

Kemper Kathi J; Gardiner Paula; Woods Charles

2007-01-01

312

Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), and Trolox as reference (TEAC) for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs) was calculated. For a...

Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti; Gisela Pizarro de Mattos Barreto; Neura Bragagnolo; Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante

2008-01-01

313

Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait.Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal informati...

2007-01-01

314

Knowledge Acquisition from Textual Documents for the Construction of Medicinal Herbs Domain Ontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study a semi automatic acquisition of domain relevant terms from digital documents in e-newspaper related to Malaysian medicinal herbs is presented. This study proposes (1) TFIDF-based term classification method for acquiring single word terms, (2) recognition of multi-word using TerMine software to acquire multiword terms and (3) Hearst`s methodology of acquiring semantic relationships of hyponym. The results show the benefits of using these methods in selecting relevant terms...

Zaharudin, I.; Noah, S. A.; Noor, M. M.

2009-01-01

315

Sesquiterpene lactones. Part XV. New cytostatic active sesquiterpene lactone from herb of Anthemis nobilis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

From fresh and dried herb (without inflorescences) of Anthemis nobilis L. a new sesquiterpene lactone C20H26O6 was isolated. This compound showed a cytotoxic activity at a level of ED50 HeLa -- 0-56 microgram/ml (1-5 x 10(-6) M), and ED50 KB -- 1.23 microgram/ml (3-5 x 10(-6) M), what qualifies it for further in vivo studies. PMID:905207

Grabarczyk, H; Drozdz, B; Hlado?, B; Wojciechowska, J

1977-01-01

316

Uterus-Relaxing Study of a Sudanese Herb (El-Hazha)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological effects of the Methanolic-extract (AH2) of El-Hazha and its sub-fractions. Approach: These investigations were carried out on in vitro isolated uterus preparations from Non-Pregnant (NP) and Late-Pregnant rats (LP). In parallel displacement radio-ligand binding assay was performed for â-Adrenergic Receptors (â-ADR). Results: Showed that the herb and its ...

Ahmed, Aimun A. E.; Robert Gaspar; Arpad Marki; Andrea Vasas; Mudawi, Mahmoud M. E.; Judit Hohmann; George Falkay

2010-01-01

317

Life-history variation in contrasting habitats: flowering decisions in a clonal perennial herb (Veratrum album)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantifying intraspecific demographic variation provides a powerful tool for exploring the diversity and evolution of life histories. We investigate how habitat-specific demographic variation and the production of multiple offspring types affect the population dynamics and evolution of delayed reproduction in a clonal perennial herb with monocarpic ramets (white hellebore). In this species, flowering ramets produce both seeds and asexual offspring. Data on ramet demography are used to paramet...

Hesse, Elze; Rees, Mark; Mu?ller-scha?rer, Heinz

2008-01-01

318

In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb throug...

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2010-01-01

319

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those relating to the respiratory, circulatory and genito-urinary systems. Seventy herbal pla...

Okoli, R. I.; Aigbe, O.; Ohaju -Obodo; Mensah, J. K.

2007-01-01

320

Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenes...

Young-Jun Lee; Dan-Bi Kim; Jong Seok Lee; Ju-Hyun Cho; Bong Kyun Kim; Hyeon-Son Choi; Boo-Yong Lee; Ok-Hwan Lee

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variation in nectar chemistry among plants, flowers, or individual nectaries of a given species has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect to our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper describes variation in nectar sugar composition in a population of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae) and dissects it into components due to variation among plants, flowers of the same plant, and nectaries of the same flowe...

2006-01-01

322

Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium) and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser k...

Milovanovi? Mirjana; Banjac Nebojša; Vuceli?-Radovi? Biljana

2009-01-01

323

Inhibition of breast tumor growth and angiogenesis by a medicinal herb: Ocimum sanctum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocimum sanctum (OS) is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum sanctum cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes...

Nangia-makker, Pratima; Tait, Larry; Hogan, Victor; Shekhar, Malathy P. V.; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Raz, Avraham

2007-01-01

324

Metal Concentration in Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs and Infusion by Lebanese Population: Health Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels of K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Pb in commonly used medicinal herbs and their infusions by Lebanese were analyzed by EDXRF and ASS techniques, respectively. The order of metal contents in the herbs was found to be: K (6990-19850 ug/g > Ca(1630-14450 ug/g > Fe(80-3650 ug/g > Mn (28-458 ug/g > Zn (23-108 ug/g > Cu (5-71 ug/g > Cr (3.1-55 ug/g Pb> (1.1-10.3 ug/g > As (nd-10.8 ug/g > Cd (nd-1.7 ug/g. The mean levels of toxic metals in herbs Pb, As and Cd were below WHO permissible levels. Cluster analysis indicated metals are most probably in plants due to wastes disposal and irrigation with contaminated wastes and/or from atmospheric waste particulates. The levels of Mn, Cr, Pb and As in herbal infusions were found to be higher in soaked than boiled preparations and correlated with Fe, while Zn and Cu levels were higher in boiled infusions. The highest weekly intake from herbal infusions of toxic metals Cr (492.8 ug, As (77.0 ug, Pb (291.2 ug and Cd (19.0 ug were below the recommended permissible tolerable weekly intake respectively 1260 ug, 900 ug, 1500 ug, and 150 ug. Therefore, the consumption of these traditional medicinal herbs does not pose any health risk provided full compliance with recommended daily doses.

Samira I. Korfali

2013-02-01

325

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

2014-04-01

326

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry diets. Therefore, there is an intensive search for alternatives such...

2003-01-01

327

TCMID: traditional Chinese medicine integrative database for herb molecular mechanism analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM’s modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human’s dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingr...

2013-01-01

328

Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigat...

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

2011-01-01

329

MCNP5 study on kinetics parameters of coupled fast-thermal system HERBE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNP5 against measured criticality and kinetics data for the coupled fast-thermal HERBE System at the Reactor B critical assembly is shown in this paper. Results of earlier calculations of these criticality and kinetics parameters, done by combination of transport and diffusion codes using two-dimension geometry model are compared to results of new calculations carried out by the MCNP5 code in three-dimension geometry. Satisfactory agree...

Peši? Milan P.

2011-01-01

330

Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

2013-01-01

331

The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional phytoestrogen-rich herbs, Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pueraria mirifica is a Thai phytoestrogen-rich herb traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Pueraria lobata is also a phytoestrogen-rich herb traditionally used in Japan, Korea and China for the treatment of hypertension and alcoholism. We evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of the two plant extracts using the Ames test preincubation method plus or minus the rat liver mixture S9 for metabolic activation using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 as...

Cherdshewasart, W.; Sutjit, W.; Pulcharoen, K.; Chulasiri, M.

2009-01-01

332

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxid...

Ko, Seong-hee; Choi, Seong-won; Ye, Sang-kyu; Yoo, Sangho; Kim, Hyun-sook; Chung, Myung-hee

2008-01-01

333

Evaluation of macro and microminerals in crude drugs and infusions of five herbs widely used as sedatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been determined the concentration of fourteen micro and macrominerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn) in both crude drugs and infusions of Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, Nepeta cataria L., Lamiaceae, Passiflora caerulea L., Passifloraceae, Tilia x moltkei Späth ex C.K. Schneid., Tiliaceae, and Valeriana officinalis L., Caprifoliaceae. These herbs are widely consumed by its sedative properties, either alone or in herb mixtures. All measurements were perfo...

Petenatti, Marta E.; Petenatti, Elisa M.; Del Vitto, Luis A.; Te?ves, Mauricio R.; Caffini, Ne?stor O.; Marchevsky, Eduardo J.; Pellerano, Roberto G.

2011-01-01

334

Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of water stress on vegetative growth, essential oil, proline, total carbohydrates, N, P, K, and protein contents of two species of an herb plant ie Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil and Ocimum americanum L. (american basil. Experiments were carried out during two successive seasons, 2004 and 2005, with experimental pots containing Typic Torrifluvents soil (a clay loam in a growth chamber at the Experimental Farm, National Research Center (NRC, Giza, Egypt. Seedlings were treated with different levels of water-stress, determined as a percentage of field water capacity (FWC by weight (50, 75, 100, and 125%. Fresh and dry weights of the herbs were significantly influenced by water stress. For both species under water stress, essential oil percentage, the main constituents of essential oil, proline, and total carbohydrate content increased, and N, P, K, and protein content decreased. Seventy five percent field water capacity resulted in the highest yield of herb and essential oil for both species.

Kh.A. Khalid

2006-12-01

335

Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R.H. Whittaker revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.

Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.

2011-01-01

336

Phenotypic recurrent selection on herb growth yield of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus grown in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim MM,Khalid KA. 2013. Phenotypic recurrent selection on herb growth yield of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus grown in Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 68-72. This investigation was conducted in four generations: base population (G0, G1, G2 and G3 (clone selection generation to evaluate the genetic variability of citronella clones. Thirteen clones were selected from base population to study the herb growth yield characters and oil production as well as genetic parameters, correlation and regression. Results were recorded for herb growth characters (i.e. plant high (PH, no. of tillers (NOT, dry yield (DY, viability percentage (VP and oil production. Significant variation was observed among citronella clones in base population for most studied traits. Wide range of mean values was observed among the characters for generations and cuts in most of traits. High heritability values (0.95, 0.93, 0.89 and 0.72 were estimated in NOT, LG, HY and VP., respectively. Clone code no. 39/3, 17/4 and 8/1 gave highest values of dry weight, oil yield and viability percentage. Selected clones showed significant positive regression and correlation between dry weight and each of number of tillers and linear growth. On contrary, viability percentage had significant negative correlation and regression with other characters. These results raveled high yielding selected citronella clones will be utilized in medicinal plant breeding program.

MOHAMED M. IBRAHIM

2013-11-01

337

Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

Zuo, Zhong

2013-01-01

338

Interaction of carbamazepine with herbs, dietary supplements, and food: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Gao, Qiong; Zuo, Zhong

2013-01-01

339

Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs, Isatis tinctoria L (ITL) and Daphne giraldii Nitsche (DGN), on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF). Compared to the control group, both drugs were able to reduce the incidence of lung abscess (p < 0.05) and to decrease the severity of the macroscopic pathology in lungs (p < 0.05). In the great majority of the rats, the herbs altered the inflammatory response in the lungs from an acute type inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), to a chronic type inflammation, dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (MN). DGN also improved the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs (p < 0.03) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the two herbal groups with regard to serum IgG and IgA anti-P. aeruginosa sonicate antibodies. However, the IgM concentration in the ITL group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.03). These results suggest that the two medicinal herbs might be helpful to CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection, DGN being the most favorable. PMID:8703440

Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Moser, C; Høiby, N

1996-05-01

340

Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Candida spp. from patients with HIV/AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an opportunistic infection, candidiasis is common among individuals infected with HIV. About 90% of patients develop oral and/or oropharyngeal candidiasis in various stages of AIDS. Triazole antifungal agents, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, are considered to be first-choice agents for treatment and prevention because of their relatively low side effects and high effectiveness on mucosal infections. However, with prolonged exposure to azoles, drug resistance becomes a challenge for clinicians and patients alike. In traditional Chinese medicine, more than 300 herbs have been discovered to have "pesticidal" activities, and some of these have been used as antifungal agents in clinical practice for many years. Crude extracts from a number of medicinal herbs have been shown to exhibit antifungal activities in vitro. These include cortex moutan, cortex pseudolaricis, rhizoma alpiniae officinarum, rhizoma coptidis, clove and cinnamon, anemarrhena cortex phellodendri, ramulus cinnamomi, and Chinese gall. The effective anti-Candida principals were identified to be berberine, palmatine, allincin, pseudolaric acid A and B, magnolol, honokiol, and galangin. Thus, traditional Chinese medicinal herbs provide abundant choices for the treatment of refractory candidiasis commonly seen in HIV/AIDS patients. However, there remains a need for further screening of effective extracts and for study of the antifungal mechanisms involved. Importantly, ahead of clinical application, the safety of these compounds must be firmly established. PMID:21441482

Liu, X; Han, Y; Peng, K; Liu, Y; Li, J; Liu, H

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

2012-08-01

342

Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs. - Highlights: ? The PSL and TL properties of polyminerals from foodstuffs irradiated are analyzed. ? Quartz and feldspars were identified by XRD in the powder samples. ? The first TL peak (96–102 °C) has a clear influence on PSL and TL fading decay. ? The glow curves show complex structure and six TL peaks were deconvoluted. ? The PSL and TL results are very appropriate for analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

2012-08-01

343

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

344

Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiation for Decontamination of Microbes on Tea Parasite Herb Scurrula atropurpurea (Bl.) Dans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to find the minimum and maximum dose of gamma irradiation on dried tea parasite herb that can reduce the number of microbes without reducing the inhibitory activity against leukemia L1210 cells. Samples of tea parasite herbs were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The microbial contamination, cytotoxic activities and the chromatogram profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples were observed. The results revealed that the bacteria contaminants of 7.57 x 109 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 7.5 kGy, meanwhile the mold-yeast contaminants of 5.68 x 108 cfu/g were eliminated after irradiation of the samples with dose of ? 5 kGy. Ethyl acetate extracts of irradiated samples until the dose of 10 kGy were still able to maintain its cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia cells proliferation with IC50 values of 9 cfu/g and 5.68 x 108 cfu/g respectively. At this condition, the bacteria and mold/yeast have been killed, whereas the cytotoxic activities of active components (ethyl acetate extract and fraction 2) in tea parasite herbs decreased, but the decrease was not significant and did not remove these cytotoxic activities. (author)

2011-12-01

345

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those relating to the respiratory, circulatory and genito-urinary systems. Seventy herbal plants used in 115 different methods or preparation were identified. About 83% of the herbal preparations were given orally, while 17% were applied topically. The aerial parts of the plants (84% were most frequently administered in the form of decoctions. Some of the herbs also form part of their diets and include: Talinum trangulare, Boerhavia diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Gongronema latifolium and Aframomum melegueta. It can be concluded that medicinal herbs have played and will continue to play major roles in the management of common diseases in these communities.

R.I. Okoli

2007-01-01

346

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework for quantitative prediction of an herb-drug interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herb-drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb-drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb-drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e107; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.69; advance online publication 26 March 2014. PMID:24670388

Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

2014-01-01

347

TCMID: Traditional Chinese Medicine integrative database for herb molecular mechanism analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM's modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID, http://www.megabionet.org/tcmid/), which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ?47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25 210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level. PMID:23203875

Xue, Ruichao; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

2013-01-01

348

Catalytic therapy of cancer with ascorbate and extracts of medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G(2)/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20-40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer. PMID:18955293

Rozanova Torshina, Nadejda; Zhang, Jin Z; Heck, Diane E

2010-06-01

349

Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4oC. Thirty 12-week-old turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation in breast and thigh meat at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Results showed that the feed supplements increased the oxidative stability of meat without exerting any effect on feed intake and daily weight gain of turkeys. Oregano essential oil supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared to the control diet at all time points, but inferior to the oregano herb at 5 g/kg. Also, oregano essential oil at 200 mg/kg was more effective than the oregano herb at 5 g/kg and equivalent to oregano herb at 10 g/kg, in delaying lipid oxidation. Thigh meat was more susceptible to lipid oxidation compared to breast meat.

P. Florou-Paneri

2005-01-01

350

Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

2010-06-01

351

Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

2014-05-01

352

Hepatotoxicity or Hepatoprotection? Pattern Recognition for the Paradoxical Effect of the Chinese Herb Rheum palmatum L. in Treating Rat Liver Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract(RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-treated rats for 12...

2011-01-01

353

Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by ??? cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 ?g/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

Svetla Angelova

2013-01-01

354

Oxalate Content of Egyptian Grown Fruits and Vegetables and Daily Common Herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egyptian dieticians typically rely on foreign databases to find out oxalate content of food due to unavailability of local databases. The soil, fertilizers, climate and cultivars are often very different. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish a local database of oxalate content in Egyptian grown fruits and vegetables and selected daily common herbs. The current study analysed the total and the soluble oxalate in 37 Egyptian grown fruits, vegetables and 9 commonly used herbs. Two methods were used for screening the Egyptian foods for oxalate concentration; the first method was AOAC 1999 and the second was enzymatic method. Total oxalate varied greatly among the vegetables examined, ranging from 4 to 917 mg/100 g F.W. Total oxalate of analysed fruits ranged from 9 to 50 mg/100 g F.W. There is a strong correlation found between the two methods used. Vegetables were classified into 4 categories; low oxalate concentration containing less than 10 mg of oxalic acid /100 g F.W., such as cabbage, courgette, cucumbers, garlic, spring onions and turnip. Moderate oxalate concentration vegetables containing 10-25 mg/100 g F.W., such as aubergine, field bean, corn, peppers and watercress. High oxalate concentration vegetables containing 26-99 mg/100g F.W., such as ful, green beans, celery, mallow, okra and sweet potatoes. Very high oxalate concentration containing 100-900 mg/100g F.W. such as Swiss chard, molokhia, purslane and vine leaves (fresh. Extensive amounts of total oxalate (201-4014 mg/100 g D.W. were found in daily common herbs such as caraway seed, green cardamom, cinnamon, coriander seeds, cumin, curry powder, ginger and turmeric powder.

Aly R. Abdel-Moemin

2014-03-01

355

Lipid A-based affinity biosensor for screening anti-sepsis components from herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available LPS (lipopolysaccharide, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC–HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3 from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ? release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs.

Jie Yao

2014-05-01

356

Determination of selenium in herb plants by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selenium in herb plants was determined by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method with a correlation of "7"5Se gamma-rays energies between a NaI(Tl) detector and a Ge(Li) detector. Each freeze-dried herb plants sample (c.a. 250 mg) was irradiated for 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor in a thermal flux, 3.2 x 10"1"2 n cm"-"2sec"-"1. After about (2 -- 6) weeks from the irradiation, gamma-rays were counted by means of the coincidence counting method with a Ge(Li) detector and a NaI(Tl) detector. In this counting method, the background around the photopeak of "7"5Se-265 keV could be reduced to one twentieth: accordingly the detection limit of selenium could be improved by a factor of four when compared with that by the conventional counting method. For examing the accuracy and the reproducibility of this method, selenium contained in Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaves (NBS) were determined, and the content of selenium was in good agreement with the certified value. The selenium contents of five kinds of galic and onion samples were found to be in range of (0.02 -- 0.31) ?g/g dry weight and in range of (0.02 -- 0.05) ?g/g dry weight, respectively. These values were also in good agreement with fluorometry results. The selenium contents of other herb plants were less than 0.1 ?g/g. (author)

1982-01-01

357

Determination of selenium in herb plants by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selenium in herb plants was determined by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method with a correlation of /sup 75/Se gamma-rays energies between a NaI(Tl) detector and a Ge(Li) detector. Each freeze-dried herb plant sample (c.a. 250 mg) was irradiated for 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor in a thermal flux, 3.2 x 10/sup 12/ n cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. After about (2 -- 6) weeks from the irradiation, gamma-rays were counted by means of the coincidence counting method with a Ge(Li) detector and a NaI(Tl) detector. In this counting method, the background around the photopeak of /sup 75/Se-265 keV could be reduced to one twentieth: accordingly, the detection limit of selenium could be improved by a factor of four when compared with that by the conventional counting method. For examining the accuracy and the reproducibility of this method, selenium contained in Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaves (NBS) were determined, and the content of selenium was in good agreement with the certified value. The selenium contents of five kinds of galic and onion samples were found to be in range of (0.02 -- 0.31) ..mu..g/g dry weight and in range of (0.02 -- 0.05) ..mu..g/g dry weight, respectively. These values were also in good agreement with fluorometry results. The selenium contents of other herb plants were less than 0.1 ..mu..g/g.

Suzuki, S.; Hirai, S. (Musashi Inst. of Tech., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Atomic Research Lab.); Noda, K.

1982-02-01

358

Topical symphytum herb concentrate cream against myalgia: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded. PMID:16510384

Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horàcek, Ondrej; Kàlal, Jan; Kucera, Alexander; Hladìkova, Marie

2005-01-01

359

[Studies on six heavy metal elements dissolution characteristics of Andrographis herb by ICP-OES].  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in andrographis herb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The samples were digested by HNO3-HClO4. The digestion-determination method was evaluated with the relative standard deviations for all these elements between 2.1% and 4.6%, and the recoveries were between 92.0% and 103.2%. The measuring method was proved to be simple, reliable and highly sensitive. The dissolution characteristics of the 6 heavy metal elements in different solvents and with different extraction methods such as refluxing, soaking, and ultrasonic assisted extraction were studied. The experimental results showed that Ba was in the highest concentration followed by Cu and Cr, and the concentration of As, Pb and Cd was relatively lower in the herb. With the increase in ethanol concentration, the dissolution amount of Ba decreased but that of Cu and Cr increased, and the highest concentration of Cd was dissolved in acidic solution. Overall, Cd and Pb were difficult to dissolve out with 85% ethanol refluxing, but As dissolved comparatively more under the same condition. Comparing the extraction methods, the higher concentration of these 6 metals was obtained by refluxing water or alkaline water than that by 85% ethanol maceration. These differences might be related to the existent forms of these six elements in the herb. The determination and study on dissolution characteristics of these elements by using ICP-OES was important for rational using medicinal resources and ensuring the safety of drugs. PMID:20384160

Tang, Rui; Li, Tian-Peng; Gu, Xue-Shi; Li, Yong-Jian; Yang, Yi

2010-02-01

360

Lipid A-based affinity biosensor for screening anti-sepsis components from herbs  

Science.gov (United States)

LPS (lipopolysaccharide), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside) was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC–HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3) from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing) mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs.

Yao, Jie; Chen, Yiguo; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Dongneng; Zheng, Jiang

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activities of Herbs and Pastures in Northern Japan Determined Using Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Free radicals are not only destructive to the living cells but also reduce the quality of animal products through oxidation. As a result the superoxide anion radical (O2?-, one of the most destructive reactive oxygen species, is a matter of concern for the animal scientists as well as feed manufacturers to ensure the quality of product to reach consumers demand. The superoxide anion radical scavenging activities (SOSA of water and MeOH extracts of 2 herbs and 9 pasture samples collected from lowland and highland swards were determined against a 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline-N-oxide-O2?-spin adduct based on a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Both the water and MeOH extracted SOSA differed among the herbs and pastures. Species and altitudinal variations were observed between extraction methods. The herbs were higher in both water and MeOH extracted SOSA than the pastures except for water extracts of one pasture, white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Among the pastures, quackgrass (Agrophyron repens L. showed higher SOSA in both the MeOH and water extracts, and timothy (Phleum pretense L. showed higher MeOH extracted SOSA. It is apparent that the kind and amount of antioxidants differ among herbs and pastures. Animal health and quality of animal products could be improved by adequate selection and combining of herbs and pastures having higher SOSA.

Mohammad Al-Mamun, Koji Yamaki, Toshiki Masumizu, Yumi Nakai, Katsumi Saito, Hiroaki Sano, Yoshifumi Tamura

2007-01-01

362

Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

2012-03-01

363

Corni fructus as the major herb of Die-Huang-Wan for lowering plasma glucose in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Die-Huang-Wan is a mixture of six herbs used to lower plasma glucose by increasing insulin secretion in normal rats. Die-Huang-Wan contains the herbs dioscorea (Dioscoreae rhizoma), cornus (Corni fructus), alisma (Rhizoma alismatis), holelen (Poria), rehmannia (Rehmanniae radix) and tree peony bark (Moutan radicis cortex). The present study was designed to clarify the major herb contributing to the plasma glucose-lowering action of Die-Huang-Wan in rats. A decrease in plasma glucose was not observed in Wistar rats treated with the cornus-deleted formula of Die-Huang-Wan; however, the action was retained in the other herb-deleted formulas containing cornus. In normal rats, the decrease in plasma glucose and increase in plasma insulin concentrations were dependent on the dose of cornus and were similar to those produced by Die-Huang-Wan. Treatment of Wistar rats with each of the other five herbs separately did not result in a decrease in plasma glucose. Moreover, the increase in plasma insulin or reduction in plasma glucose resulting from cornus treatment was blocked by atropine or 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide mustard, indicating mediation of muscarinic M(3) receptors similar to that caused by Die-Huang-Wan. These results suggest that cornus is the major contributor to the plasma glucose-lowering action in Die-Huang-Wan in normal rats. PMID:15525452

Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min; Hsu, Sheng-Fa; Cheng, Juei-Tang

2004-11-01

364

Antibacterial activity of antipsoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summary: In view of increasing resistance to existing antimicrobial agents, herbal drugs are being looked as very importance source for discovery of new agents for treating various ailments related to bacterial infections. Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis and Momordica charantia are well known plants in Asia including India which posses wide range of pharmacological activities. These drugs have been used in India as  folk remedy in the form of decoctions and infusions to treat bacterial infections and also claimed to be an effective against variety of skin conditions like psoriasis, acne, wounds etc. The present investigation was carried out to study the unexplored area of these drugs towards their antibacterial activity with respect to their traditional use as antipsoriatic agents. The herbs were subjected to successive extraction using different solvents and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial evaluation against both gram positive and gram negative organisms by cup plate technique. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts were found to be more effective against all the bacteria. Staphyllococcus aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts among the tested organisms.   Industrial relevance: The selected herbs have been used traditionally for treating skin diseases like psoriasis, for which there is no complete cure till date. Though exact mechanism of these herbs for their effectiveness in psoriasis is not understood, according to American academy of dermatology antibacterial therapy could also be used for treating psoriasis. In view of this study of antibacterial activity was carried out. Among the various extracts, aqueous extracts exhibited highest activity especially against S. aureus which has been one of the organisms which aggravate conditions like psoriasis. As the aqueous extracts have shown excellent activity, these extracts could be formulated individually or in combination as external or internal dosage forms. In this regard there is great scope for developing new herbal formulation for treating psoriasis using the above said herbal combination.  Further scope exists for research with formulation and development, pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy in patients (clinical trial. This kind of study could generate more such ideas for re-inventing and using herbs in combination to treat many more diseases.

C Narendra

2008-09-01

365

Antioxidant activities of herbs, fruit and medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum extracts produced by microfiltration process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents kinds of extraction and cross-flow filtration of composition of 46 healthful and aromatic herbs, 8 fruits and fungi Ganoderma lucidum. Those extracts are part of Bitter 55, which have significant antioxidant capacity. Antioxidative activities of plant extracts have been determined by DPPH test using method of Blois. Bitter 55 which was kept at the green bottle in the dark has EC50 = 141.07 ?l/ml and it was stable during 150 days. Synthetic anti-oxidants BHT (ditertbutilhy...

2009-01-01

366

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

CERN Document Server

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

2014-01-01

367

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.

Satish Patel

2012-03-01

368

Preliminary design characteristics of the RB fast-thermal core 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'RB' is zero power heavy water critical assembly designed in 1958 in Yugoslavia. The reactor operated using natural metal uranium, 2% enriched metal uranium, and 80% enriched UO2 fuel of Soviet origin. A study of design of fast neutron fields began in 1976 and three fast neutron fields were designed up to 1983: the external neutron converter, the experimental fuel channel and the internal neutron converter, as the first step to fast-thermal coupled system. The preliminary design characteristics of the HERBE - a new fast - thermal core at the RB reactor are shown in this paper. (author)

1989-04-25

369

Micropropagation of Pluchea lanceolata (Oliver & Hiern.) – A potent anti-arthritic medicinal herb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an efficient protocol for micropropagation of a medicinally potent anti-arthritic, threatened herb Pluchea lanceolata using shoot tip explants. Shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) basal medium supplemented with different cytokinins and auxins singly as well as in combinations. Multiple shoot (20.8±0.56) proliferation was obtained on MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5 mg/l Kinetin (Kn). Elongation and further developm...

2013-01-01

370

Pluchea lanceolata (Rasana): Chemical and biological potential of Rasayana herb used in traditional system of medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, (Family: Asteraceae) is a rapidly spreading perennial herb, considered valuable for the management of anti-inflammatory disease. Scientific reports dealing with phytochemical and pharmacological research and its traditional have been reviewed. Reports have also suggested that its prominent constituents viz. triterpenoids, sterols, flavonoids and lactones originate from this plant arbitrate their effects by modulating several therapeutic targets.Out of about 80 species of Pluchea, some of them are on extinct and only 16 have traditional uses in several countries of Asian, Middle East and North American region. The present review covers the period 1935-2011. PMID:22877846

Srivastava, Pooja; Shanker, Karuna

2012-12-01

371

Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

2009-10-01

372

Different chemo types of Gokhru ( Tribulus terrestris : A herb used for improving physique and physical performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris in India is recommended as diuretic, demulcent and aphrodisiac while in traditional Chinese medicines it is used to calm the liver. Currently male impotency is being cured using saponins from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. The change in therapeutic practices with geoclimatic regions have been scientifically elaborated by using the molecular marker techniques, for proper chemo type selection and standardization of herb to fulfill the therapeutic requirement based on quality, quantity of content and efficacy, for targeted therapy and production of quality products with finger prints as claimed in the product.

Joshi Devi

2008-01-01

373

Protection of Chinese Herbs Against Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbs (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Rhodiola crenilata, Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. 30 age-matched male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Rats in group A (n=10), B (n=10) and C (n=10) were fed a standard laboratory chow and allowed tap water ad libitum. In group B and C, renal failure was induced by the ...

Tong, Yanqing; Han, Bing; Guo, Hongyang; Liu, Yanru

2010-01-01

374

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa. PMID:22409913

Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K

2012-03-01

375

Therapeutic mechanisms of single chinese medicine herb or their extracts for extrahepatic obstructive jaundice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstructive jaundice (OJ) is classified as extrahepatic OJ or intrahepatic OJ. Extrahepatic OJ is attributed to a variety of intricate etiological factors. Research has begun with Chinese medicine (CM), which can be used as an adjunctive therapy for extrahepatic OJ. Particular attention has been paid to the therapeutic effects and their mechanisms of single CM herb and relevant extracts. The roles of single CM or their extracts during adjunctive therapy for extrahepatic OJ have been described briefly. This review focuses on the effects and their mechanisms of relevant herbal medicines. PMID:24474675

Zhang, Xi-Ping; Qiu, Feng-Mei; Wang, Xia

2014-06-01

376

The herb community of a tropical forest in central Panamá: dynamics and impact of mammalian herbivores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammals are hypothesized to either promote plant diversity by preventing competitive exclusion or limit diversity by reducing the abundance of sensitive plant species through their activities as browsers or disturbance agents. Previous studies of herbivore impacts in plant communities have focused on tree species and ignored the herbaceous community. In an experiment in mature-phase, tropical moist forest sites in central Panamá, we studied the impact of excluding ground-dwelling mammals on the richness and abundance of herbs in 16, 30x45-m plots. Within each plot, we censused the herbaceous community in 28, 2x2-m subplots (1,792 m2 total area sampled). We identified over 54 species of herbs averaging 1.21 ramets m-2 and covering approximately 4.25% of the forest floor. Excluding mammals for 5 years had no impact on overall species richness. Within exclosures, however, there was a significant two-fold increase in the density of rare species. Overall herbaceous density and percent cover did not differ between exclosures and adjacent control plots, although cover did increase over time. Mammalian exclusion significantly increased the total cover of three-dominant herb species, Pharus latifolius, Calathea inocephala, and Adiantum lucidum, but did not affect their density. This study represents one of the most extensive herbaceous community censuses conducted in tropical forests and is among a few that quantify herbaceous distribution and abundance in terms of both density and cover. Additionally, this work represents the first community level test of mammalian impacts on the herbaceous community in a tropical forest to date. Our results suggest that ground dwelling mammals do not play a key role in altering the relative abundance patterns of tropical herbs in the short term. Furthermore, our results contrast sharply with prior studies on similar temporal and spatial scales that demonstrate mammals strongly alter tree seedling composition and reduce seedling density. Thus, we question the pervasiveness of top-down control on tropical plant communities and the paradigm that defaunation will inexorably lead to widespread, catastrophic shifts in plant communities. PMID:16010533

Royo, Alejandro A; Carson, Walter P

2005-08-01

377

Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, resp...

Al-jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-jasser, Mohammed Saud

2012-01-01

378

Effects of purslane herb on stress ability of aging mice induced by D-galactose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To investigate the effects of purslane herb aquenous extracts (PHAS) on the stress ability of aging mice induced by D-galactose.Methods: We odserved the survival time to hypoxia and heat survival rate of the mice treated with different doses of PHAS and vitamin E. The contents of lipofuscin and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the brain and liver of the mice were tested. Results: As compared with vitamin E, three doses of P...

2004-01-01

379

Pharmacists' attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio fue investigar el conocimiento y actitudes entre los farmacéuticos en Kuwait hacia el uso de plantas medicinales. Métodos: Se diseñó un cuestionario auto-administrado como instrumento para el estudio y se distribuyó entre 100 farmacéuticos cualificados que tra [...] bajan en farmacias privadas y gubernamentales de Kuwait. Resultados: La edad media fue de 34,2 (DE=7,5) años. Alrededor del 51% de los farmacéuticos comunicaron que habían usado plantas medicinale sen su vida. La mayoría estaban interesados en la información sobre plantas medicinales, y su información sobre ellas venía principalmente de la enseñanza en la Universidad. Aunque el conocimiento de los farmacéuticos sobre los usos de las plantas seleccionadas era bueno, su conciencia sobre los efectos adversos era modesta. Alrededor del 31% de los farmacéuticos no tenía suficiente información sobre las posibles interacciones entre las plantas medicinales y los medicamentos convencionales. Conclusión: Se necesita información de plantas medicinales para los estudiantes de farmacia como parte del currículo de la facultad de Farmacia. Deberían establecerse en Kuwait programas de formación continuada para farmacéuticos en ejercicio sobre la seguridad de las diferentes plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private p [...] harmacies in Kuwait. Results: The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists' knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion: Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

Nada A., Abahussain; Eman A., Abahussain; Fawaz M., Al-Oumi.

380

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF TRIKATU HERBS THE HEALING TOUCH OF AYURVEDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ayurveda, arguably the oldest system of rnedicine in the world, frequently uses fixed combinations of herbs. An important ingredient of many recipes, some of which date back to 6000 BC, is 'Tlikatu' (Sanskrit, meaning 'three acrid'. Which is a mixture of black pepper Piper nigrum; long pepper, Piper longum; and ginger, Zingiber ofticinale; the reason for the inclusion of these has recently been examined and a theory for their use proposed which involves enhancement of bioavailability. The bioavailability enhancement probably results from the fact that piperine is a poter inhibitor of drug metabolism.

Das Arpita

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Validation of the MCNP code in fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system 'HERBE'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Validation of the well-known Monte Carlo code MCNPTM against measured fast neutron spectrum in the centre of the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at the RB research reactor is shown in this paper. Fast neutron spectrum is measured in energy range from 2.5 MeV to 10 MeV by using SSB sandwich spectrometer system filled by 3He gas. Calculation of the neutron spectrum in the centre of the fast core of the HERBE System is carried out for the first time by the MCNP code in 3D geometry applying detailed 3D model of the HEU fuel slug developed recently. Satisfactory agreements in comparison of the HERBE criticality and neutron spectrum calculations to measuring ones are obtained. (author)

2000-10-02

382

Photosynthetic responses of four tropical tree species grown under gap and understorey conditions in a semi-deciduous forest Respostas fotossintéticas de quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas crescidas sob condições de clareira e de sub-bosque em uma floresta semi-decídua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf CO2 assimilation (A as a function of photosynthetic photon flux density (Q or intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out on four tropical woody species growing in forest gap and understorey (Bauhinia forficata Link. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. as pioneers, and Hymenaea courbaril L. and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. as non-pioneers. Chlorophyll fluorescence indicated similar acclimation capacities of photochemical apparatus to contrasting light environments irrespective to plant species. Maximum CO2 assimilation and quantum yield derived from A/Q curves indicated higher photosynthetic capacity in pioneer than in non-pioneer species in forest gap. However, the differences among species did not show a straightforward relation with their successional status regarding data derived from A/Q curves under understorey conditions. Both successional groups are able to sustain positive carbon balance under contrasting natural light availabilities, modifying photochemical and biochemical photosynthetic traits with similar phenotypic plasticity capacity.A assimilação de CO2 (A em função da densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossintéticos (Q ou da concentração intercelular de CO2 (Ci, e medidas de fluorescência da clorofila foram realizadas em quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas em uma clareira e um sub-bosque (Bauhinia forficata Link. e Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. como espécies pioneiras, e Hymenaea courbaril L. e Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. como espécies não pioneiras. Os dados de fluorescência da clorofila indicaram que ambos os grupos mostraram capacidade similar de aclimatação do aparato fotoquímico independente do ambiente luminoso. A assimilação máxima de CO2 e a eficiência quântica derivadas das curvas A/Q indicaram maior capacidade fotossintéticas das espécies pioneiras do que as não-pioneiras na clareira. Entretanto, sob condições de sub-bosque, as diferenças observadas em relação às curvas A/Q não mostraram uma relação direta com o grupo funcional das espécies. Ambos os grupos da sucessão foram capazes de manter um balanço de carbono positivo sob disponibilidades de luz contrastantes, modificando as características fotoquímicas e bioquímicas da fotossíntese com capacidade de plasticidade fenotípica similar.

Gustavo M. Souza

2010-12-01

383

Photosynthetic responses of four tropical tree species grown under gap and understorey conditions in a semi-deciduous forest / Respostas fotossintéticas de quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas crescidas sob condições de clareira e de sub-bosque em uma floresta semi-decídua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A assimilação de CO2 (A) em função da densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossintéticos (Q) ou da concentração intercelular de CO2 (Ci), e medidas de fluorescência da clorofila foram realizadas em quatro espécies tropicais arbóreas em uma clareira e um sub-bosque (Bauhinia forficata Link. e Guazuma ulmif [...] olia Lam. como espécies pioneiras, e Hymenaea courbaril L. e Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. como espécies não pioneiras). Os dados de fluorescência da clorofila indicaram que ambos os grupos mostraram capacidade similar de aclimatação do aparato fotoquímico independente do ambiente luminoso. A assimilação máxima de CO2 e a eficiência quântica derivadas das curvas A/Q indicaram maior capacidade fotossintéticas das espécies pioneiras do que as não-pioneiras na clareira. Entretanto, sob condições de sub-bosque, as diferenças observadas em relação às curvas A/Q não mostraram uma relação direta com o grupo funcional das espécies. Ambos os grupos da sucessão foram capazes de manter um balanço de carbono positivo sob disponibilidades de luz contrastantes, modificando as características fotoquímicas e bioquímicas da fotossíntese com capacidade de plasticidade fenotípica similar. Abstract in english Leaf CO2 assimilation (A) as a function of photosynthetic photon flux density (Q) or intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out on four tropical woody species growing in forest gap and understorey (Bauhinia forficata Link. and Guazuma ulmifolia La [...] m. as pioneers, and Hymenaea courbaril L. and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. as non-pioneers). Chlorophyll fluorescence indicated similar acclimation capacities of photochemical apparatus to contrasting light environments irrespective to plant species. Maximum CO2 assimilation and quantum yield derived from A/Q curves indicated higher photosynthetic capacity in pioneer than in non-pioneer species in forest gap. However, the differences among species did not show a straightforward relation with their successional status regarding data derived from A/Q curves under understorey conditions. Both successional groups are able to sustain positive carbon balance under contrasting natural light availabilities, modifying photochemical and biochemical photosynthetic traits with similar phenotypic plasticity capacity.

Souza, Gustavo M.; Sato, Agnaldo M.; Ribeiro, Rafael V.; Prado, Carlos Henrique B. A..

384

Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside) and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid). To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-?(1) levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P = 0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P = 0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P = 0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly). PMID:23346217

Wu, Fang; Bian, Difei; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Tan, Qian; Chen, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yue

2012-01-01

385

A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC1/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 µg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening ?2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of ?2-adrenoceptor.

Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

2009-01-01

386

A system for screening agonists targeting beta2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human beta(2)-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d(2)EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC(1/2 max)) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 microg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of beta(2)-adrenoceptor. PMID:19353741

Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

2009-04-01

387

Renal interstitial fibrosis and urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new renal disease called 'Chinese-herb nephropathy' (CHN) has been reported to occur in women who have ingested slimming pills containing powdered extracts of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra (ST). Moderate to end-stage renal disease developed, requiring renal replacement therapy by dialysis or transplantation. Phytochemical analyses of the pills revealed the presence of aristolochic acids (AA) instead of tetrandrine, suggesting the substitution of ST (Han fang ji) by Aristolochia fangchi containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic AA. A typical histological feature of CHN is a progressive interstitial fibrosis leading to a severe atrophy of the proximal tubules, as documented by the urinary excretion rates of markers of tubular integrity (reduction of neutral endopeptidase enzymuria and high levels of microproteinurias). Removal of the native kidneys and ureters in end-stage CHN patients provided a high prevalence of urothelial carcinoma (46%). Tissue samples contained AA-related DNA adducts, which are not only specific markers of prior exposure to AA but are also directly involved in tumorigenesis. Exposure to Aristolochia species (spp.) is associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (CHN) and urothelial cancer in humans. Health professionals should be aware that in traditional Chinese medicine, Aristolochia spp. are considered interchangeable with certain other herbal ingredients and are also sometimes mistaken for ST, Akebia, Asarum, Clematis spp. and Cocculus spp. in herbal remedies. PMID:12505369

Nortier, J L; Vanherweghem, J L

2002-12-27

388

The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n?=?101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4?kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P?fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines. PMID:24769295

Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

2014-08-01

389

The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Herbs as Growth Promoter in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performances of fast growing birds fed with garlic, cinnamon and tumeric powder. Since, uses of antibiotics as growth promoter have been banned by the European Union, herbs or products containing plant extracts are using as alternative feed supplements in animal production. Garlic (Allium sativum, turmeric (Curcuma Longa and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum have been widely used as medicinal and growth promoter purposes in animals. However, the information of the effect of these herbs on broiler production, especially under tropical environmental condition is still inadequate. About 240 days old chicks were randomly allocated to 10 treatment groups consisting of 3 replications of 8 chicks in each pen. The experimental groups were formulated consisting of non-supplemented (control and supplemented diets. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diet as follows; garlic, turmeric and cinnamon were incorporated at three concentrations; 0.25, 0.5 and 1% into the basal diet (mash form. The overall body weight gain of broiler chickens fed with 0.25% turmeric, 0.5% garlic and 0.5% cinnamon found to be significant different compared with the control group. From the result of present study, it could be suggested that the use of powdered garlic (Allium sativum as feed additive at level of 0.5% as it proved be significantly different in body weight gain and FCR compared with the control group.

A.R. Alimon

2012-01-01

390

Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

Alberti, A. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Corda, U. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuochi, P. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.it; Bortolin, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Calicchia, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

2007-08-15

391

Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as 'irradiated') for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications

2007-08-01

392

Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. PMID:23122119

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-15

393

Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. PMID:20140802

Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Promkhatkaew, Duanthanorm; Bunjob, Malee; Chueyprom, Asawachai; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

2010-02-01

394

Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese herb pairs, Angelica sinensis and Sophora flavescens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Angelica sinensis extract (AE), Sophora flavescens extract (SE), and herb pair A. sinensis and S. flavescens extract (HPE). Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) was induced in rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory potential of AE, SE, and HPE in the regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), maleic dialdehyde (MDA), polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. HPE showed strong antibacterial activity at all tested concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5 ?g/ml) to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella Castellani and Chalmers. HPE significantly inhibited EIU-induced upregulation of NF-?B activation and the production of IL-1?, TNF-?, iNOS, ICAM-1, and COX-2. Moreover, HPE suppressed MDA and infiltration of PMN. The study supports the hypothesis that the antipimple and anti-eczema activities of Dangguikushen compound recipe are attributed to herb pairs, A. sinensis and S. flavescens, used in combination. PMID:21976127

Han, Chunchao; Guo, Jianyou

2012-06-01

395

Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

2006-11-01

396

Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (?²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21339129

Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

2010-04-01

397

Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519

Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-08-10

398

Anti-quorum sensing activity of the traditional Chinese herb, Phyllanthus amarus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA::lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

399

Functional food: Rare herbs, seeds and vegetable oils as sources of flavors and phytosterols  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two plant species of the genus Anthriscus (A. sylvestris and A. cerefolium and Laserpitium latifolium L. are described as a good source of new aroma constituents and phytosterols. These plants are the herbs widely distributed in Serbia and possess significant medicinal value. They are widely applied in traditional medicine, but they are not used as functional food or in food technology. Two well-known domestic aromatic plant species: Mentha piperita L. and Thymus vulgaris L. and the lesser known Alliaria officinalis Andrz. are described as a good sources of highly prized essential oils in several wild-growing herbs. They are traditionally used in cooking. Quinoa seeds considered as multipurpose agro-industrial crop and the seeds may be utilized for human food and in flour products and in animal feed stocks because of its high nutritive value. Furthermore, watermelon meal possesses good nutritional quality, which may be commercially used as a new feed in the human or in the cattle nutrition. Seed oils, from Rubus ideaus, Ribes nigrum and walnut are also presented. The chemical composition on the sterols and essential fatty acids content, of these seed oils are shown that some of them can be successfully used in human nutrition, under specific conditions. Finally, developing new cholesterol-reducing products, such as phytosterols and their esters, which are marked as cholesterol-reducing food ingredient as well as the information on its incorporation into foods, are also included.

Milovanovi? Mirjana

2009-01-01

400

Salmonella Typhimurium internalization is variable in leafy vegetables and fresh herbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite washing and decontamination, outbreaks linked to consumption of fresh or minimally-processed leafy greens have been increasingly reported in recent years. In order to assure the safety of produce it is necessary to gain knowledge regarding the exact routes of contamination. Leaf internalization through stomata was previously reported as a potential route of contamination, which renders food-borne pathogens protected from washing and disinfection by sanitizers. In the present study we have examined the incidence (percentage of microscopic fields harboring ? 1 GFP-tagged bacteria) of Salmonella Typhimurium on the surface and underneath the epidermis in detached leaves of seven vegetables and fresh herbs. The incidence of internalized Salmonella varied considerably among the different plants. The highest incidence was observed in iceberg lettuce (81 ± 16%) and arugula leaves (88 ± 16%), while romaine (16 ± 16%) and red-lettuce (20 ± 15%), showed significantly lower incidence (P iceberg lettuce largely varied (0-100%) through a 2 year survey, with a higher incidence occurring mainly in the summer. These results imply that Salmonella internalization occurs in several leafy vegetables and fresh herbs, other than iceberg lettuce, yet the level of internalization largely varies among plants and within the same crop. Since internalized bacteria may evade disinfection, it is of great interest to identify plants which are more susceptible to bacterial internalization, as well as plant and environmental factors that affect internalization. PMID:21262550

Golberg, Dana; Kroupitski, Yulia; Belausov, Eduard; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo

2011-01-31

 
 
First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8