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Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile/ Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial da alga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar. Foram realizadas a determinação do teor de fibra alimentar total e a descrição de algumas propriedades físico-químicas, e os efeitos fisiológicos da farinha da alga seca sobre ratos alimentados com dieta hipercolesterolemizante foram investigados. Esta alga pode ser considerada uma fonte alternativa potencial de fibra com cerca de 400 g. (more) kg-1 (base seca) e propriedades físico-químicas interessantes: uma capacidade de retenção de água de 8,74 g/água.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 0,90 (extrato de carboidratos), uma capacidade de adsorção de lipídeos de 4,52 g/óleo.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 5,70 (extrato de carboidratos), uma viscosidade intrínseca de 2,4 dl.g-1 (extrato de carboidrato da alga) e capacidade de troca iônica de 3,51 Eq.kg-1 (extrato de carboidrato). A dieta contendo farinha de alga foi capaz de manter baixos os níveis de colesterol total de ratos sem causar aumento indesejável na fração LDL-C. Nenhuma evidência de componentes tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais na farinha de alga foi encontrada. Os ratos mostraram um volume fecal maior (13 g) do que aqueles alimentados com dieta contendo celulose como fonte de fibra (7 g) (p Abstract in english This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical pr (more) operties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g) (p

Carvalho, AFU.; Portela, MCC.; Sousa, MB.; Martins, FS.; Rocha, FC.; Farias, DF.; Feitosa, JPA.

2009-08-01

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Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g) (p Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial da alga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar. Foram realizadas a determinação do teor de fibra alimentar total e a descrição de algumas propriedades físico-químicas, e os efeitos fisiológicos da farinha da alga seca sobre ratos alimentados com dieta hipercolesterolemizante foram investigados. Esta alga pode ser considerada uma fonte alternativa potencial de fibra com cerca de 400 g.kg-1 (base seca) e propriedades físico-químicas interessantes: uma capacidade de retenção de água de 8,74 g/água.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 0,90 (extrato de carboidratos), uma capacidade de adsorção de lipídeos de 4,52 g/óleo.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 5,70 (extrato de carboidratos), uma viscosidade intrínseca de 2,4 dl.g-1 (extrato de carboidrato da alga) e capacidade de troca iônica de 3,51 Eq.kg-1 (extrato de carboidrato). A dieta contendo farinha de alga foi capaz de manter baixos os níveis de colesterol total de ratos sem causar aumento indesejável na fração LDL-C. Nenhuma evidência de componentes tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais na farinha de alga foi encontrada. Os ratos mostraram um volume fecal maior (13 g) do que aqueles alimentados com dieta contendo celulose como fonte de fibra (7 g) (p < 0,05). Essas propriedades conferem a alga o potencial de ser utilizada na tecnologia de alimentos para a aquisição de alimentos de baixas calorias, podendo ser importante para o controle do peso corporal, redução do colesterol sanguíneo total e da fração LDL-C, como também na prevenção de doenças gastrintestinais.

AFU. Carvalho; MCC. Portela; MB. Sousa; FS. Martins; FC. Rocha; DF. Farias; JPA. Feitosa

2009-01-01

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Isolation and structure determination of algicidal compounds from Ulva fasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-seven species of seaweeds including 10 Chlorophyta, 13 Phaeophyta, and 14 Rhodophyta collected from the coast of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, were screened for algicidal activity against the red-tide phytoplankton Heterosigma akashiwo. The green alga Ulva fasciata (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) showed the strongest algicidal activity among the seaweeds tested. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of U. fasciata led to isolation of three algicidal compounds whose structures were determined to be hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (HDTA), octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid (ODTA), and alpha-linolenic acid on the basis of spectroscopic information. These polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed potent algicidal activity against H. akashiwo (LC(50) 1.35 microg/ml, 0.83 microg/ml, and 1.13 microg/ml for HDTA, ODTA, and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively), and the result demonstrated the potential of these PUFAs for practical harmful algal bloom control.

Alamsjah MA; Hirao S; Ishibashi F; Fujita Y

2005-11-01

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Isolation and structure determination of algicidal compounds from Ulva fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven species of seaweeds including 10 Chlorophyta, 13 Phaeophyta, and 14 Rhodophyta collected from the coast of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, were screened for algicidal activity against the red-tide phytoplankton Heterosigma akashiwo. The green alga Ulva fasciata (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) showed the strongest algicidal activity among the seaweeds tested. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of U. fasciata led to isolation of three algicidal compounds whose structures were determined to be hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (HDTA), octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid (ODTA), and alpha-linolenic acid on the basis of spectroscopic information. These polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed potent algicidal activity against H. akashiwo (LC(50) 1.35 microg/ml, 0.83 microg/ml, and 1.13 microg/ml for HDTA, ODTA, and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively), and the result demonstrated the potential of these PUFAs for practical harmful algal bloom control. PMID:16306701

Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Hirao, Shotaro; Ishibashi, Fumito; Fujita, Yuji

2005-11-01

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Modulation of gene expression of carotene biosynthesis-related protein by photosynthetic electron transport for the acclimation of intertidal macroalga Ulva fasciata to hypersalinity and excess light.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A gene (UfCBR) encoding carotene biosynthesis-related (CBR) protein that potentially functions for the dissipation of excessive energy has been cloned from the intertidal green macroalga Ulva fasciata Delile. Hypersalinity and high light ?300 µmol m(-2) s(-1) increased both UfCBR mRNA level and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The increase of UfCBR mRNA level and NPQ by high light was inhibited by treatment of photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, but not by stigmatellin, an inhibitor that blocks electron transfer from quinol oxidase to iron-sulfur protein in cytochrome b(6) f complex. Treatment of dimethylthiourea, an H(2) O(2) scavenger, under 1200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) condition inhibited H(2) O(2) accumulation but did not affect UfCBR mRNA level, while treatment of H(2) O(2) in 150 µmol m(-2) s(-1) condition decreased UfCBR mRNA level. Thus, an reactive oxygen species-independent redox control via a more reduced state downstream the cytochrome b(6) f complex is involved in high light up-regulation of UfCBR expression in U. fasciata. The expression of UfCBR in U. fasciata against oxidative stress occurring in high light or high salinity in relation to NPQ is discussed.

Hsu YT; Lee TM

2012-03-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp) of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1) and higher (1.5 g kg-1) doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón) de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1) y más alto (1,5 g kg-1) dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01). Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

Joseph Selvin; Aseer Manilal; Suganthan Sujith; George Seghal Kiran; Aron Premnath Lipton

2011-01-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases/ Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón) de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1) y más alto (1,5 g kg-1) dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de ca (more) marones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P Abstract in english Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp) of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1) and higher (1.5 g kg-1) doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva di (more) et and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P

Selvin, Joseph; Manilal, Aseer; Sujith, Suganthan; Seghal Kiran, George; Premnath Lipton, Aron

2011-07-01

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Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

1998-01-01

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Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus/ Atividade antiviral da alga verde marinha Ulva fasciata na replicação do metapneumovírus humano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, foi avaliada a atividade antiviral da alga marinha Ulva fasciata, coletada nas Praias do Forno e Rasa, em Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, sobre a replicação do metapneumovírus humano (HMPV). Os extratos desta alga foram preparados utilizando três diferentes metodologias, visando a comparação da atividade de diferentes grupos de compostos químicos que são obtidos dependendo da metodologia empregada. Quatro, do total de seis extratos foram capazes de (more) inibir praticamente 100% da replicação viral. Os resultados demonstram também que a maioria dos extratos (cinco, dos seis), possui atividade virucida e, portanto, possuem a habilidade de interagir com a partícula viral extracelularmente impedindo a infecção. Por outro lado, apenas dois extratos (coletado da Praia do Forno e, preparado através de maceração e maceração do decocto) foram capazes de se ligar a receptores celulares, impossibilitando assim a entrada das partículas virais nas células. Finalmente, apenas o extrato que foi preparado por maceração da alga coletada na Praia do Forno, demonstrou atividade intracelular. Até onde sabemos, este é um estudo pioneiro sobre a atividade antiviral de algas marinhas sobre o HMPV. É também o primeiro estudo sobre atividade antiviral sobre HMPV realizado no Brasil. O estudo também mostra o efeito de diferentes condições ambientais e procedimentos químicos utilizados na preparação do extrato sobre suas propriedades biológicas. Abstract in english We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of different groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstra (more) ted that the majority of the extracts (five out of six) possess virucidal activity and therefore have the ability to interact with the extracellular viral particles and prevent the infection. On the other hand, only two extracts (from Forno beach, obtained by maceration and maceration of the decoction) were able to interact with cell receptors, hindering the viral entry. Finally, only the extract of algae collected at Forno beach, obtained by maceration presented intracellular activity. To our knowledge, this is a pioneer study on antiviral activity of marine algae against HMPV. It is also the first on antiviral activity against HMPV ever done in Brazil. The study also shows the effect of different environment factors and different chemical procedures used to obtain the extract on its biological properties.

Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Albuquerque, Maria Carolina Maciel de; Costa, Sonia Soares; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gestinari, Lísia Mônica de Souza; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela

2010-02-01

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Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus Atividade antiviral da alga verde marinha Ulva fasciata na replicação do metapneumovírus humano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of different groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstrated that the majority of the extracts (five out of six) possess virucidal activity and therefore have the ability to interact with the extracellular viral particles and prevent the infection. On the other hand, only two extracts (from Forno beach, obtained by maceration and maceration of the decoction) were able to interact with cell receptors, hindering the viral entry. Finally, only the extract of algae collected at Forno beach, obtained by maceration presented intracellular activity. To our knowledge, this is a pioneer study on antiviral activity of marine algae against HMPV. It is also the first on antiviral activity against HMPV ever done in Brazil. The study also shows the effect of different environment factors and different chemical procedures used to obtain the extract on its biological properties.Neste artigo, foi avaliada a atividade antiviral da alga marinha Ulva fasciata, coletada nas Praias do Forno e Rasa, em Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, sobre a replicação do metapneumovírus humano (HMPV). Os extratos desta alga foram preparados utilizando três diferentes metodologias, visando a comparação da atividade de diferentes grupos de compostos químicos que são obtidos dependendo da metodologia empregada. Quatro, do total de seis extratos foram capazes de inibir praticamente 100% da replicação viral. Os resultados demonstram também que a maioria dos extratos (cinco, dos seis), possui atividade virucida e, portanto, possuem a habilidade de interagir com a partícula viral extracelularmente impedindo a infecção. Por outro lado, apenas dois extratos (coletado da Praia do Forno e, preparado através de maceração e maceração do decocto) foram capazes de se ligar a receptores celulares, impossibilitando assim a entrada das partículas virais nas células. Finalmente, apenas o extrato que foi preparado por maceração da alga coletada na Praia do Forno, demonstrou atividade intracelular. Até onde sabemos, este é um estudo pioneiro sobre a atividade antiviral de algas marinhas sobre o HMPV. É também o primeiro estudo sobre atividade antiviral sobre HMPV realizado no Brasil. O estudo também mostra o efeito de diferentes condições ambientais e procedimentos químicos utilizados na preparação do extrato sobre suas propriedades biológicas.

Gabriella da Silva Mendes; Angélica Ribeiro Soares; Fernanda Otaviano Martins; Maria Carolina Maciel de Albuquerque; Sonia Soares Costa; Yocie Yoneshigue-Valentin; Lísia Mônica de Souza Gestinari; Norma Santos; Maria Teresa Villela Romanos

2010-01-01

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Selective toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from Ulva fasciata on red tide phyotoplankter species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid isolated from Ulva fasciata showed toxic effects on red tide phytoplankters in a concentration-dependent manner. Among six species tested, raphidophycean flagellate Heterosigma akashiwo was the most susceptible to these fatty acids, and 50% lethal concentrations (LC50) of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid were estimated to be 0.58 and 1.91 microg/ml respectively, whereas dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum and Heterocapsa circularisquama were highly resistant and no significant toxic effects were observed up to 1,000 microg/ml. Both fatty acids were less toxic to fish (devil stinger), zooplankters (brine shrimp and rotifer), and mammalian cell lines (U937, HeLa, Vero, and CHO cells) than H. akashiwo. PMID:17213644

Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Ishibe, Keiko; Kim, Daekyung; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Ishibashi, Fumito; Fujita, Yuji; Oda, Tatsuya

2007-01-07

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Selective toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from Ulva fasciata on red tide phyotoplankter species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid isolated from Ulva fasciata showed toxic effects on red tide phytoplankters in a concentration-dependent manner. Among six species tested, raphidophycean flagellate Heterosigma akashiwo was the most susceptible to these fatty acids, and 50% lethal concentrations (LC50) of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid were estimated to be 0.58 and 1.91 microg/ml respectively, whereas dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum and Heterocapsa circularisquama were highly resistant and no significant toxic effects were observed up to 1,000 microg/ml. Both fatty acids were less toxic to fish (devil stinger), zooplankters (brine shrimp and rotifer), and mammalian cell lines (U937, HeLa, Vero, and CHO cells) than H. akashiwo.

Alamsjah MA; Ishibe K; Kim D; Yamaguchi K; Ishibashi F; Fujita Y; Oda T

2007-01-01

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In intro antioxidant activities of different sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3 and UFP4) were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, ABTS radical assay, and reducing power assay. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant properties, and UFP2 and UFP3, which have lower content of sulfate showed higher antioxidant activities than UFP1 and UFP4, which have higher content of sulfate. Besides, the content of protein, uronic acid and molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of UFP were not a function of a single factor but a combination of several factors.

Shao P; Chen M; Pei Y; Sun P

2013-08-01

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Bacterial extracellular polymeric substances and their effect on settlement of zoospore of Ulva fasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) secreted by Bacillus flexus (GU592213) were estimated to have the molecular weight of approximately 1528 and 33,686 kDa with the elemental composition of Na, P, Mg, C, O, Cl and S. The (1)H NMR and FT-IR analysis of EPS confirmed the presence of different aliphatic and aromatic groups. The EPS was amorphous in nature with an average particle size of 13.969 ?m (d 0.5) and roughness of 193 nm. The GC-MS analysis has revealed different monosaccharides such as fucose, ribose, xylose, galactose, mannose and glucose. Oligo and polysaccharides were detected with MALDI TOF-TOF MS. The bacterial EPS for the first time tested as a natural substratum for settle of zoospores of Ulva fasciata by incubating for various durations ranging from 2h to 48 h. The zoospore settlement on EPS coated cover slips progressively increased with incubation time in axenic cultures over controls. The EPS, thus investigated in this study was found to facilitate the primary settlement of spores that play crucial role in recruitment of macroalgal communities in coastal environment including intertidal regions.

Singh RP; Shukla MK; Mishra A; Reddy CR; Jha B

2013-03-01

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In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Hawaiian marine Limu: Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two Hawaiian marine algae (Ulva fasciata and Gracilaria salicornia) were evaluated. Ethanolic extracts of these two algae exhibited intracellular reactive 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic radical, nitric oxide, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. In addition to the antioxidant activity these algae possessed appreciable antimicrobial activity and total phenolic contents. The overall results have established that these two marine algae could be used to derive bioactive compounds for a possible role as nutraceutical agents.

Vijayavel K; Martinez JA

2010-12-01

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In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Hawaiian marine Limu: Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two Hawaiian marine algae (Ulva fasciata and Gracilaria salicornia) were evaluated. Ethanolic extracts of these two algae exhibited intracellular reactive 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic radical, nitric oxide, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. In addition to the antioxidant activity these algae possessed appreciable antimicrobial activity and total phenolic contents. The overall results have established that these two marine algae could be used to derive bioactive compounds for a possible role as nutraceutical agents. PMID:21091257

Vijayavel, Kannappan; Martinez, Jonathan A

2010-12-01

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Hypersalinity and hydrogen peroxide upregulation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ulva fasciata against oxidative stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The modulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), FeSOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) gene expression and activities and antioxidants in Ulva fasciata against hypersalinity (90 per thousand)-induced oxidative stress was studied. Increases in H(2)O(2) contents but no changes in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group contents suggest oxidative damage did not occur in 90 per thousand condition. Antioxidants were consumed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging indicated by decreased ascorbate and glutathione contents by 90 per thousand. Antioxidant enzymes were differently expressed by 90 per thousand for ROS removal. MnSOD activity and transcript increased 1 h after 90 per thousand treatment with a peak at hour 3, while FeSOD activity increased fast to the plateau after 1 h and its transcript increased after 3 h. APX activity increased 1 h after 90 per thousand but its transcript rose till 3 h, and GR activity increased after 1 h with a peak at hour 3 but its transcript increased till 3 h. CAT activity and transcript increased after 12 h. Enzyme activity is transcriptionally regulated by 90 per thousand except a fast increase in FeSOD, APX, and GR activities during 1 h. APX is responsible for early H(2)O(2) decomposition while CAT scavenges H(2)O(2) in the later period. The inhibition of 90 per thousand induced increase of H(2)O(2) content and FeSOD activity and transcript by treatment of a H(2)O(2) scavenger, dimethylthiourea, and the increase of FeSOD transcript of 30 per thousand grown thalli by H(2)O(2) treatment suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates the upregulation of FeSOD by hypersalinity while other enzymes is modulated by factors other than H(2)O(2).

Sung MS; Hsu YT; Hsu YT; Wu TM; Lee TM

2009-03-01

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Hypersalinity and hydrogen peroxide upregulation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ulva fasciata against oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The modulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), FeSOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) gene expression and activities and antioxidants in Ulva fasciata against hypersalinity (90 per thousand)-induced oxidative stress was studied. Increases in H(2)O(2) contents but no changes in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group contents suggest oxidative damage did not occur in 90 per thousand condition. Antioxidants were consumed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging indicated by decreased ascorbate and glutathione contents by 90 per thousand. Antioxidant enzymes were differently expressed by 90 per thousand for ROS removal. MnSOD activity and transcript increased 1 h after 90 per thousand treatment with a peak at hour 3, while FeSOD activity increased fast to the plateau after 1 h and its transcript increased after 3 h. APX activity increased 1 h after 90 per thousand but its transcript rose till 3 h, and GR activity increased after 1 h with a peak at hour 3 but its transcript increased till 3 h. CAT activity and transcript increased after 12 h. Enzyme activity is transcriptionally regulated by 90 per thousand except a fast increase in FeSOD, APX, and GR activities during 1 h. APX is responsible for early H(2)O(2) decomposition while CAT scavenges H(2)O(2) in the later period. The inhibition of 90 per thousand induced increase of H(2)O(2) content and FeSOD activity and transcript by treatment of a H(2)O(2) scavenger, dimethylthiourea, and the increase of FeSOD transcript of 30 per thousand grown thalli by H(2)O(2) treatment suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates the upregulation of FeSOD by hypersalinity while other enzymes is modulated by factors other than H(2)O(2). PMID:18758860

Sung, Ming-Shiuan; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Yuan-Ting; Wu, Tzure-Meng; Lee, Tse-Min

2008-08-30

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A bioactive dipeptide derivative from Malachra fasciata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The chloroform extract of the air-dried leaves of Malachra fasciata afforded aurantiamide acetate (1). The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by synthesis. Aurantiamide acetate was found to be active against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans, and T. mentagrophytes and inactive against S. aureus, E. coli and A. niger at a dosage of 80 ?g. It was found to reduce the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C by 32%. (Author)

1998-01-01

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Metabolites from the sea hare Aplysia fasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Examination of the digestive and hermaphroditic glands' organic extract of the sea hare Aplysia fasciata yielded 16 metabolites, including eight sesquiterpenes, three diterpenes, and five C(15)-acetogenins. Among them, three sesquiterpenes, 6-hydroxy-1-brasilene (1), epibrasilenol acetate (2), and 6-epi-beta-snyderol (3), one acetogenin, (3Z,9Z)-7-chloro-6-hydroxy-12-oxo-pentadeca-3,9-dien-1-yne (4), and one diterpene, 16-acetoxy-15-bromo-7-hydroxy-9(11)-parguerene (5), are new natural products. The structure elucidation and the assignment of the relative configurations of the isolated natural products were established on the basis of extensive analyses of their spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, IR).

Ioannou E; Nappo M; Avila C; Vagias C; Roussis V

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

A novel methylated sesquiterpene from seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytochemical investigation of chloroform extract from the leaves of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (Posidoniaceae), yielded posidozinol, a new methylated sesquiterpene along with ?-sitosterol and four known fatty acids: palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids. The structure elucidation has been established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, GS/MS and ES mass spectrometry. Antibacterial effects of crude extracts from P. oceanica were evaluated against: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus microorganisms.

Hammami S; Salem AB; Ashour ML; Cheriaa J; Graziano G; Mighri Z

2013-07-01

22

Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different fractions, isolated from the lichen Usnea fasciata, were analyzed by PC, TLC, and RP-HPLC. Analysis of the organic phases, mainly containing phenolics, revealed that usnic acid is the main product from secondary metabolites, whereas the polysaccharides isolichenin and raffinose are the most abundant water-soluble carbohydrates. Fractions containing usnic acid, as well as those containing isolichenin, showed moderate activity against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich tumor cells. High antitumoral activity, near 90% inhibition, was found associated with the fraction containing raffinose.

Periera EC; Nascimento SC; Lima RC; Silva NH; Oliveira AF; Bandeira E; Boitard M; Beriel H; Vicente C; Legaz ME

1994-09-01

23

Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

2011-11-15

24

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae).The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

Gupta Satish Chand; Shenoy Sumanth; Kotecha Mita

2012-01-01

25

4-acetylaplykurodin B and aplykurodinone B, two ichthyotoxic degraded sterols from the Mediterranean mollusk Aplysia fasciata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two ichthyotoxic lactones, 4-acetylaplykurodin B [1] and aplykurodinone B [2], were isolated from the external parts of the body of the mollusk Aplysia fasciata. Their structures, determined by spectroscopic and chemical means, are closely related to aplykurodin B [3] previously isolated from Aplysia kurodai. The interconversion of delta- and gamma-lactones in the aplykurodin derivatives has been also investigated.

Spinella A; Gavagnin M; Crispino A; Cimino G; Martinez E; Ortea J; Sodano G

1992-07-01

26

4-acetylaplykurodin B and aplykurodinone B, two ichthyotoxic degraded sterols from the Mediterranean mollusk Aplysia fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two ichthyotoxic lactones, 4-acetylaplykurodin B [1] and aplykurodinone B [2], were isolated from the external parts of the body of the mollusk Aplysia fasciata. Their structures, determined by spectroscopic and chemical means, are closely related to aplykurodin B [3] previously isolated from Aplysia kurodai. The interconversion of delta- and gamma-lactones in the aplykurodin derivatives has been also investigated. PMID:1402961

Spinella, A; Gavagnin, M; Crispino, A; Cimino, G; Martinez, E; Ortea, J; Sodano, G

1992-07-01

27

Physiological and biochemical responses of Ulva prolifera and Ulva linza to cadmium stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Responses of Ulva prolifera and Ulva linza to Cd(2+) stress were studied. We found that the relative growth rate (RGR), Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (Yield) of two Ulvaspecies were decreased under Cd(2+) treatments, and these reductions were greater in U. prolifera than in U. linza. U. prolifera accumulated more cadmium than U. linza under Cd(2+) stress. While U. linza showed positive osmotic adjustment ability (OAA) at a wider Cd(2+) range than U. prolifera. U. linza had greater contents of N, P, Na(+), K(+), and amino acids than U. prolifera. A range of parameters (concentrations of cadmium, Ca(2+), N, P, K(+), Cl(-), free amino acids (FAAs), proline, organic acids and soluble protein, Fv/Fm, Yield, OAA, and K(+)/Na(+)) could be used to evaluate cadmium resistance in Ulva by correlation analysis. In accordance with the order of the absolute values of correlation coefficient, contents of Cd(2+) and K(+), Yield, proline content, Fv/Fm, FAA content, and OAA value of Ulva were more highly related to their adaptation to Cd(2+) than the other eight indices. Thus, U. linza has a better adaptation to Cd(2+) than U. prolifera, which was due mainly to higher nutrient content and stronger OAA and photosynthesis in U. linza.

Jiang HP; Gao BB; Li WH; Zhu M; Zheng CF; Zheng QS; Wang CH

2013-01-01

28

Maternal provisioning in Ophionereis fasciata and O. schayeri: brittle stars with contrasting modes of development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evolutionary change from planktotrophic to lecithotrophic development in echinoderms is closely tied to an increase in maternal provisioning. We provide the first data on the major energetic constituents in the eggs of two ophiuroids, the planktotroph Ophionereis fasciata (egg diameter 103 microm) and the lecithotroph O. schayeri (egg diameter 248 microm), to document changes in maternal investment associated with the switch to lecithotrophy in O. schayeri. Lipid classes in the eggs of the two species did not differ except for the presence of small amounts of wax esters in the eggs of O. schayeri. Production of a large egg in O. schayeri is mostly due to enhanced deposition of one energy-storage lipid, triglyceride. The eggs of O. schayeri are not simply scaled-up versions of the ancestral-type eggs of O. fasciata. The relationship between lipid and protein content and egg volume conformed to the relationship previously established for echinoderm eggs. Surprisingly, total lipid and protein data for the eggs of O. schayeri grouped with data for the eggs of planktotrophic echinoderms. The eggs of O. schayeri are small compared with those of other echinoderms with lecithotrophic development, and their energetic contents may approach the minimum provisions necessary to permit development without feeding.

Falkner I; Byrne M; Sewell MA

2006-12-01

29

The feeding ecology of Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata) floaters in southern Spain: implications for conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Although many studies have investigated the feeding habits of Palaearctic raptors, few have analysed non-breeding populations during dispersal. Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata), a threatened species in Western Europe, has a relatively long and critical dispersal period. We studied ...

30

Electroantennogram Responses of the Tea Slug Moth, Iragoides fasciata to Some Plant Volatiles Associated with Tea, Camellia sinensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, be...

Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, J ing; Han, Bao-Yu

31

The effects of chloramphenicol on Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The administration of pharmacological substances in the food producing industry is a crucial and long established practice in ensuring animal welfare. However, a very high percentage of the drugs used will directly or indirectly be present in the various compartments of natural ecosystems therefore constituting a source of pollution. The reactions that these active compounds may impose on non-target organisms are still widely unknown and further research is essential. Also, new approaches on monitoring are necessary and in this sense, the present work aimed to assess the persistence of chloramphenicol (a banned but illegally used antibiotic) in seawater, together with its effects on the growth of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Moreover, the potential use of this species as a bioindicator was assessed. Results showed CAP presented an exponential degradation pattern in seawater with concentrations decreasing faster than expected. As for the effects on U. lactuca it acted as a growth promoter also contradicting the initial assumptions. Regarding the role of this species in biomonitoring it successfully took up CAP in solution while reflecting the concentrations present conferring it good characteristics as a bioindicator. On the other hand, this ability points to a possibility of CAP being accumulated and transferred along the trophic web through the consumption of U. lactuca by organisms in higher levels. PMID:23395526

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

2013-02-08

32

The effects of chloramphenicol on Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The administration of pharmacological substances in the food producing industry is a crucial and long established practice in ensuring animal welfare. However, a very high percentage of the drugs used will directly or indirectly be present in the various compartments of natural ecosystems therefore constituting a source of pollution. The reactions that these active compounds may impose on non-target organisms are still widely unknown and further research is essential. Also, new approaches on monitoring are necessary and in this sense, the present work aimed to assess the persistence of chloramphenicol (a banned but illegally used antibiotic) in seawater, together with its effects on the growth of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Moreover, the potential use of this species as a bioindicator was assessed. Results showed CAP presented an exponential degradation pattern in seawater with concentrations decreasing faster than expected. As for the effects on U. lactuca it acted as a growth promoter also contradicting the initial assumptions. Regarding the role of this species in biomonitoring it successfully took up CAP in solution while reflecting the concentrations present conferring it good characteristics as a bioindicator. On the other hand, this ability points to a possibility of CAP being accumulated and transferred along the trophic web through the consumption of U. lactuca by organisms in higher levels.

Leston S; Nunes M; Viegas I; Ramos F; Pardal MÂ

2013-04-01

33

Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in the leaf, stem and root were analyzed. In general salt stress resulted in a decrease of plant growth, nodulation and percent tissue nitrogen in A. nilotica plants. Root-shoot ratio showed gradual increase with increasing sea water concentrations. Nitrogen contents decreased in leaf and stem, whereas it increased in roots. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape with increasing salinity. A. nilotica accumulated NaCl in the xylem of the roots that may be considered as a preliminary salt tolerant mechanism adopted by the plant.

Ahmad Mahmood; Mohammad Athar; M. Afzal Siddique; Nadeem Mahmood; Aun Raza Naqvi

2012-01-01

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Experimental in situ exposure of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile to 15 trace elements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been used for trace element (TE) biomonitoring since decades ago. However, present informations for this bioindicator are limited mainly to plant TE levels, while virtually nothing is known about their fluxes through P. oceanica meadows. We therefore contaminated seagrass bed portions in situ at two experimental TE levels with a mix of 15 TEs (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and Bi) to study their uptake and loss kinetics in P. oceanica. Shoots immediately accumulated pollutants from the beginning of exposures. Once contaminations ended, TE concentrations came back to their original levels within two weeks, or at least showed a clear decrease. P. oceanica leaves exhibited different uptake kinetics depending on elements and leaf age: the younger growing leaves forming new tissues incorporated TEs more rapidly than the older senescent leaves. Leaf epiphytes also exhibited a net uptake of most TEs, partly similar to that of P. oceanica shoots. The principal route of TE uptake was through the water column, as no contamination of superficial sediments was observed. However, rhizomes indirectly accumulated many TEs during the overall experiments through leaf to rhizome translocation processes. This study thus experimentally confirmed that P. oceanica shoots are undoubtedly an excellent short-term bioindicator and that long-term accumulations could be recorded in P. oceanica rhizomes. PMID:23811022

Richir, J; Luy, N; Lepoint, G; Rozet, E; Alvera Azcarate, A; Gobert, S

2013-06-03

35

Experimental in situ exposure of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile to 15 trace elements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been used for trace element (TE) biomonitoring since decades ago. However, present informations for this bioindicator are limited mainly to plant TE levels, while virtually nothing is known about their fluxes through P. oceanica meadows. We therefore contaminated seagrass bed portions in situ at two experimental TE levels with a mix of 15 TEs (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and Bi) to study their uptake and loss kinetics in P. oceanica. Shoots immediately accumulated pollutants from the beginning of exposures. Once contaminations ended, TE concentrations came back to their original levels within two weeks, or at least showed a clear decrease. P. oceanica leaves exhibited different uptake kinetics depending on elements and leaf age: the younger growing leaves forming new tissues incorporated TEs more rapidly than the older senescent leaves. Leaf epiphytes also exhibited a net uptake of most TEs, partly similar to that of P. oceanica shoots. The principal route of TE uptake was through the water column, as no contamination of superficial sediments was observed. However, rhizomes indirectly accumulated many TEs during the overall experiments through leaf to rhizome translocation processes. This study thus experimentally confirmed that P. oceanica shoots are undoubtedly an excellent short-term bioindicator and that long-term accumulations could be recorded in P. oceanica rhizomes.

Richir J; Luy N; Lepoint G; Rozet E; Alvera Azcarate A; Gobert S

2013-09-01

36

Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

1984-05-01

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Adsorption of uranium(VI) onto Ulva sp. -sepiolite composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ulva sp. and sepiolite were used to prepare composite adsorbent. The adsorption of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions onto Ulva sp.-sepiolite has been studied by using a batch adsorber. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) adsorption, such as solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, and temperature, have been investigated and the optimum conditions determined. The adsorption patterns of uranium on the composite adsorbent followed the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models have been applied and the data correlate well with Freundlich model. The sorption is physical in nature (sorption energy, E = 4.01 kJ/mol). The thermodynamic parameters such as variation of enthalpy ?H, variation of entropy ?S and variation of Gibbs free energy ?G were calculated from the slope and intercept of lnKd vs. 1/T plots. Thermodynamic parameters (?Hads = -22.17 kJ/mol, ?Sads = -17.47 J/mol x K, ?Gdegads (298.15 K) = -16.96 kJ/mol) show the exothermic heat of adsorption and the feasibility of the process. The results suggested that the Ulva sp-sepiolite composite adsorbent is suitable as a sorbent material for recovery and biosorption/adsorption of uranium ions from aqueous solutions. (author)

2009-01-01

38

Effects of chronic dietary exposure to trace elements on banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Little currently is known about the accumulation or effects of contaminants on reptiles. To date, most studies examining reptile exposure to trace elements report tissue burdens of field-captured animals. but seldom provide insight into the dose, duration, or mode of exposure involved. For two years, juvenile banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) were fed with prey items collected from a coal ash-contaminated site that contained elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Se, Sr, and V. With the exception of Cu, snakes accumulated significant concentrations of elements, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Accumulation varied significantly among liver, kidney, and gonads, and in most cases between sexes. Selenium accumulation was most notable, greatly exceeding established toxicity thresholds for other vertebrates. Despite the high concentrations of pollutants accumulated, snakes exposed to the contaminated diet survived through the study and exhibited normal food consumption, growth. condition factor, overwinter survival and mass loss, metabolic rate, and gonadosomatic index. The results of this study confirm that diet can be a significant route of exposure to trace elements in snakes and indicate that further studies on snakes are warranted to better understand their responses to contaminants.

Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Staub, B.P.; Jackson, B.P.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

2002-07-01

39

Epiphyte load on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile does not indicate anthropogenic nutrient loading in Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) La biomasa de epífitos de la angiosperma marina Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile no es indicadora de aportes antropogénicos de nutrientes en el Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Cabrera (Islas Baleares, Mediterráneo Occidental)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To be published in Scientia Marina: http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/index.php/secId/6/IdArt/3731/. , [EN] The epiphyte load on the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile was estimated at the end of summer in three sites and two depths (7 m and 17 m) of the Cabrera Archipelago National Park...

Terrados, Jorge; Medina Pons, Francisco Javier

40

Photosynthetic properties of three Brazilian seaweeds/ Propriedades fotossintéticas de três macroalgas marinhas brasileiras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O desempenho fotossintético de três grupos distintos de macroalgas marinhas, Ulva fasciata Delile (alga verde), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (alga parda) e Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (alga vermelha), foi comparado com auxílio de um fluorímetro de pulso e amplitude modulada. O potencial fotoquímico máximo do PS II (Fv/Fm) variou de 0,80 a 0,51, sendo que os menores valores foram observados em P. br (more) asiliensis. Sob a irradiância de 400 µmol fótons m-2 s-1, o maior valor de dissipação fotoquímica (qP = 0,92 ± 0,13) foi observado para U. fasciata. A alga vermelha P. brasiliensis dissipou elevada quantidade de energia de excitação (qN = 0,56 ± 0,09), resultando em valores baixos de potencial fotoquímico efetivo do PS II (0,23 ± 0,04), e também de taxa relativa de transporte de elétrons (3,3 ± 0,7). O elevado potencial fotossintético encontrado para U. fasciata explica, parcialmente, a capacidade da espécie de crescimento rápido e de alta produtividade. Abstract in english Photosynthetic performance of distinct marine macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile (green alga), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (brown alga), and Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (red alga), were compared using a pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometer. The maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) ranged from 0.80 to 0.51, and the lowest value was found in P. brasiliensis. Under 400 µmol photons m-2 s-1 irradiance, the highest (more) value of photochemical quenching (qP = 0.92 ± 0.13) was observed for U. fasciata. The red alga P. brasiliensis dissipated high amounts of excitation energy (qN = 0.56 ± 0.09), resulting in relatively low values for the effective quantum yield of PS-II (0.23 ± 0.04), as well as for the relative electron transport rate (3.3 ± 0.7). The high photosynthetic potential found for U. fasciata partially explains the species ability for rapid growth and high productivity.

Chaloub, Ricardo M.; Reinert, Fernanda; Nassar, Cristina A. G.; Fleury, Beatriz G.; Mantuano, Dulce G.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Photosynthetic properties of three Brazilian seaweeds Propriedades fotossintéticas de três macroalgas marinhas brasileiras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of distinct marine macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile (green alga), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (brown alga), and Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (red alga), were compared using a pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometer. The maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) ranged from 0.80 to 0.51, and the lowest value was found in P. brasiliensis. Under 400 µmol photons m-2 s-1 irradiance, the highest value of photochemical quenching (qP = 0.92 ± 0.13) was observed for U. fasciata. The red alga P. brasiliensis dissipated high amounts of excitation energy (qN = 0.56 ± 0.09), resulting in relatively low values for the effective quantum yield of PS-II (0.23 ± 0.04), as well as for the relative electron transport rate (3.3 ± 0.7). The high photosynthetic potential found for U. fasciata partially explains the species ability for rapid growth and high productivity.O desempenho fotossintético de três grupos distintos de macroalgas marinhas, Ulva fasciata Delile (alga verde), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (alga parda) e Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (alga vermelha), foi comparado com auxílio de um fluorímetro de pulso e amplitude modulada. O potencial fotoquímico máximo do PS II (Fv/Fm) variou de 0,80 a 0,51, sendo que os menores valores foram observados em P. brasiliensis. Sob a irradiância de 400 µmol fótons m-2 s-1, o maior valor de dissipação fotoquímica (qP = 0,92 ± 0,13) foi observado para U. fasciata. A alga vermelha P. brasiliensis dissipou elevada quantidade de energia de excitação (qN = 0,56 ± 0,09), resultando em valores baixos de potencial fotoquímico efetivo do PS II (0,23 ± 0,04), e também de taxa relativa de transporte de elétrons (3,3 ± 0,7). O elevado potencial fotossintético encontrado para U. fasciata explica, parcialmente, a capacidade da espécie de crescimento rápido e de alta produtividade.

Ricardo M. Chaloub; Fernanda Reinert; Cristina A. G. Nassar; Beatriz G. Fleury; Dulce G. Mantuano; Anthony W. D. Larkum

2010-01-01

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Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth interaction of Ulva pertusa and Alexandrium tamarense.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhanced UV-B (280 - 320 nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion is one of global environmental problems. Not only marine organisms but also marine ecosystems can be affected by enhanced UV-B radiation. The effects of UV-B radiation on interaction of macro-algae and micro-algae were investigated using Ulva pertusa Kjellman and Alexandrium tamarense as the materials in this study. The results demonstrated that UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa and Alexandrium tamarense when they were both mono-cultured, and the growth inhibition of algae was more significant with increasing doses of UV-B radiation. Alexandrium tamarense could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa in mixed culture, and the growth inhibition was more significant when increasing the initial cell density. However, Ulva pertusa could inhibit the growth of Alexandrium tamarense in early phase and stimulate the growth in latter phase when they were grown in mixed culture. Lower initial cell density (10(2) cell/ml) of Alexandrium tamarense could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa under UV-B radiation treatment, however, with the initial cell density increasing (10(3) and 10(4) cell/ml), the growth of Ulva pertusa was stimulated under lower dose of UV-B radiation and inhibited under higher dose of UV-B radiation by Alexandrium tamarense. Compared with that in mixed culture, Ulva pertusa showed more positive inhibition to the growth of Alexandrium tamarense under UV-B radiation treatment.

C ai HJ; Tang XX; Zhang PY; Dong D; Qu L

2005-01-01

43

Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia)  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud). Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, lahumedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje) que presenta la especie.De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en lasdiferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y consíndrome de polinización por zumbido.

Rodríguez Calderón Ángela Teresa; Nates-Parra Guiomar

2006-01-01

44

Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae Gracilaria tikvahiae and Ulva sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva sp. were grown under three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular. 18 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Habig, C.; DeBusk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

1984-01-01

45

Electroantennogram responses of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata to some plant volatiles associated with tea, Camellia sinensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species.

Huang AP; Bao XC; Liu BY; Wang YJ; Zhou LY; Ning J; Han BY

2012-01-01

46

Electroantennogram responses of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata to some plant volatiles associated with tea, Camellia sinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species. PMID:23414096

Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, Jing; Han, Bao-Yu

2012-01-01

47

Wood-growth zones in Acacia seyal Delile in the Keita Valley, Niger: Is there any climatic signal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acacia trees are a key element in Sahelian semiarid ecosystems, being some of the few tree species surviving in such extreme environments. Understanding their growth dynamics represents a fundamental step to improve forest sustainable management. Dendroclimatology, the study of tree rings and their relationships with climate, could help in understanding how changing climatic conditions may impact these ecosystems. We studied Acacia seyal Delile trees growth in Keita Valley, in the Sahelian zone of Niger. Wood from 8 trees of known age was sampled to study the relationships between growth zones, i.e. ring patterns, and climatic conditions. We present herein, a study based on cross sections instead of cores. Wood-anatomical and dendrochronological analyses enabled us to evaluate the relationships between age and ring formation, and to confirm that one tree ring for rainy season is formed. Moreover, surprisingly for a species growing at such latitudes, acacia tree rings have a climatic signal, mainly due to the precipitation falling during the rainy season but also influenced by the average seasonal temperature.

Nicolini G; Tarchiani V; Saurer M; Cherubini P

2010-03-01

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Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG?1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ?Cu-PMG-Cu to ?Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG. PMID:23376752

Trinelli, María Alcira; Areco, María Mar; Afonso, María dos Santos

2013-01-07

49

Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG?1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ?Cu-PMG-Cu to ?Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG.

Trinelli MA; Areco MM; Afonso Mdos S

2013-05-01

50

Alterações na composição florística das algas da Praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ) Changes in the marine flora of the Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ)  

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Full Text Available A Baía de Guanabara no decorrer da ocupação de suas margens sofreu uma continua degradação, levando-a a grandes modificações em seu entorno e a inúmeros danos ambientais. Além de uma significativa alteração paisagística, ocorreu também uma queda na qualidade de suas águas, devido ao lançamento de grande quantidade de efluentes não tratados (domésticos e industriais). Este trabalho teve como objetivo inventariar a flora algácea da praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ), compará-la com levantamentos realizados há três décadas. Os resultados mostraram desaparecimento de 30 táxons (49%) outrora existentes no início da década de 70 e o aparecimento de 14 espécies (23%). A flora atual é dominada por Ulva fasciata Delile e Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, espécies potencialmente indicadoras de poluição orgânica. Tais resultados evidenciam que, ao longo dessas três décadas, uma série de impactos trouxe profundas alterações na comunidade de macroalgas.During the past three decades, the Guanabara Bay suffered continuous degradation, leading to severe changes in the surrounding area and environmental damages. Besides significant loss of its natural landscape, the quality of its water decreased with continuous disposal of non-treated domestic organic sewage and industrial effluents. The present study aimed to survey the algal flora of Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ) and to compare it with information gathered three decades ago. Results showed a decrease of 30 taxa (49%) of the algal species and an increase of 14 species (23%) in comparison with algal flora recorded three decades ago. The actual algal flora is dominated by Ulva fasciata Delile and Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, species indicative of organic pollution. These results elucidate the environmental impacts caused upon the macroalgae community of the Guanabara Bay during throughout the period.

ANDRÉ TAOUIL; YOCIE YONESHIGUE-VALENTIN

2002-01-01

51

Assessment of the cytotoxic and anti-viral potential of aqueous extracts from different parts of Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile against Peste des petits ruminants virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV); a negative sense single stranded RNA enveloped virus that causes Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is dramatically affecting the health status of ruminants all around the world resulting in extensive economical losses in livestock sector. Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile; a tannin-rich medicinal plant distributed throughout subcontinent, is traditionally used as food for ruminants and possesses anti-viral potential against different RNA viruses. In the current study, aqueous extracts from the bark, leaves and pods of A. nilotica (Linn) Delile indica were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities against PPRV by adopting MTT colorimetric assay and anti-viral assay using Vero cell line. Aqueous extract from the leaves presented significantly better (P<0.05) anti-PPRV activities in comparison to pods extract. On the contrary, bark extract did not show any anti-viral activity. The data presented in the study could pave a way toward the discovery of novel anti-viral chemicals in the plants against PPRV and other viral diseases.

Raheel R; Ashraf M; Ejaz S; Javeed A; Altaf I

2013-01-01

52

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN ISOMORPHIC PHASE AND SEX RATIOS OF A NATURAL POPULATION OF ULVA PERTUSA (CHLOROPHYTA)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The green macroalga Ulva L. is well known as having an alternation of isomorphic biphases: gametophyte and sporophyte. However, an examination of the temporal alternation in phase dominance has not been carried out. By inducing reproduction of thallus samples in the laboratory, this study reports the temporal changes in the two phases and sex ratios in a natural population of Ulva pertusa Kjellm. in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, over a period of >3 years. The results showed that a temporal alternation in phase dominance occurred after 11-20 months; seasonal changes in phase dominance were not observed in the Ulva population. The sex ratio of male and female gametophytes remained ~1:1 throughout the investigated period, although skewed sex ratios were observed in several collections.

Hiraoka Masanori; Yoshida Goro

2010-10-01

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Implications of Zostera noltii recolonization on Hydrobia ulvae population structure success.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over 1990-1998, the Mondego estuary, Portugal, experienced profound modifications due to eutrophication, culminating in the disappearance and replacement of Zostera noltii by opportunistic macroalgae in the inner most disturbed areas. A decade after restoration measures implementation, Z. noltii started to gradually recolonize the inner parts, following 20 years of absence. This work explores the factors underlying successful Z. noltii recolonization and its subsequent implications on a mud snail Hydrobia ulvae population. During the macroalgal bloom, highest values in H. ulvae abundance, biomass and production were recorded, strongly declining afterwards. Three recovery attempts characterized the post-restoration phase, with considerably increases in H. ulvae abundance, biomass and production since Z. noltii reappearance. The seagrass provided long-term protection and abundant food resources for reproductive adults, contrarily to the ephemeral macroalgae. Through time, large size individuals increased, becoming the population more stable, structured and similar to the one inhabiting the "original"Z. noltii meadows.

Grilo TF; Cardoso PG; Pardal MA

2012-02-01

54

Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L-1) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (

2009-01-01

55

Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different co...

Hanan Hafez Omar

56

Changes in N cycling induced by Ulva detritus enrichment of sediments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Macroalgal accumulation and decomposition in shallow water environments typically result in an increase in the organic matter content of the sediment, affecting both benthic metabolism and nutrient dynamics. The present study investigates how a pulse addition of Ulva detritus to estuarine sediment influences the micro-distribution of O2, NO3? and NO2? within the sediment, as well as the rates of oxygen consumption, nitrification and nitrate reduction. The micro-distributions of O2, NO3? and NO2? were monitored with microsensors in Ulva-amended sediment microcosms and in unamended controls during a 1 mo incubation experiment. Process rates were obtained from numerical modeling of the concentration profiles. Oxygen consumption and nitrate reduction were enhanced by a factor of 2 in Ulva-amended sediment compared to the control. This led to a significant reduction in the penetration depths of oxygen and nitrate. Nitrification increased significantly in response to enhanced NH4 + supply from decomposition of the Ulva detritus. Aerobic ammonia oxidation exceeded rates of nitrite oxidation, leading to accumulation of NO2 ? in the oxic zone of the sediment. Nitrite and NO3 ? produced via nitrification diffused up to the sediment surface, inducing a net efflux to the water column, and downwards, supporting a high rate of denitrification coupled to nitrification. The present study shows that organic enrichment with Ulva detritus enhances sediment oxygen uptake, nitrification and denitrification, the net result being loss of nitrogen from the system. This might constitute a compensating or self-restoration mechanism counteracting an increase in N in intertidal sediment affected by eutrophication-induced macroalgal blooms

Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter

2013-01-01

57

Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp) and metabolism of its sulphate by human colonic microbiota in a semi-continuous culture system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The green alga, sea-lettuce (Ulva sp), could be considered as a new source of dietary fibre. Ulva, however, contains high levels of sulphate, part of which is chemically bound in soluble polymers (ulvan). The purpose of this study was to assess the fermentation characteristics and sulphate metabolism of Ulva and ulvan by human faecal bacteria fermentation system using a semi-continuous fermenter. Ulva and ulvan were poorly fermented, even after adaptation of the microbiota. Only 16.6% and 8.9% of Ulva and ulvan organic matter, respectively, were recovered as short chain fatty acids. Nevertheless, 40% of the sulphate in Ulva was dissimilated to sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Supplementation of Ulva with more fermentable polysaccharides, such as algal xylan and resistant starch, though decreasing the ammonia production originating from Ulva protein degradation, did not significantly reduce the sulphide levels. It is postulated that unless crude Ulva is desulphated, its daily consumption at a level of 20 g of dry product could stimulate colonic microbial sulphate reduction, which may have detrimental effects for the host.

Durand M; Beaumatin P; Bulman B; Bernalier A; Grivet JP; Serezat M; Gramet G; Lahaye M

1997-05-01

58

Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2009-08-15

59

Effect of background colour on growth and adhesion strength of Ulva sporelings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the effects of a range of black, grey and white substrata on the growth and attachment strength of Ulva sporelings on glass and polydimethylsiloxane (Silastic-T2) surfaces. The rate of development of sporelings was strongly influenced by the colour of the substratum on which they grew. On black backgrounds, sporelings grew slowly and germination was delayed. Laboratory screening methods for antifouling and fouling-release coatings that rely on the growth of Ulva sporelings can be compromised if samples are of different colours. Hydrodynamic removal of sporelings from coatings may also be affected by substratum colour, since smaller plants generate lower hydrodynamic forces making them more difficult to remove.

Finlay JA; Fletcher BR; Callow ME; Callow JA

2008-01-01

60

Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16%FWd(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50?M NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7mgNgDW(-1)d(-1) and 2.7mgPgDW(-1)d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89?M NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water.

Sode S; Bruhn A; Balsby TJ; Larsen MM; Gotfredsen A; Rasmussen MB

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 {mu}g L{sup -1}), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals.

Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Sook; Lee, Han-Kyun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2008-01-31

62

Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 ?g L-1), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 ?g L-1, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 ?g L-1 Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals

2008-01-31

63

Colonization potential of the genus Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) in Comodoro Rivadavia Harbor (Chubut, Argentina)  

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Full Text Available Temporal and spatial changes in the coverage of five Ulva L. species (U. prolifera O.F. Müller, U. intestinalis L., U. hookeriana (Kützing) Hayden et al., U. compressa L. and U. linza L.) were analyzed on rocky substrata experimentally immersed in Comodoro Rivadavia Harbor (Argentina). Colonization was studied during an annual period at three levels: upper intertidal, middle intertidal and subtidal. Coverage was significantly higher in the middle intertidal and subtidal levels than in the upper intertidal level, where all species of Ulva were absent. Seasonal changes were also significant: coverage in summer and spring was significantly higher than in autumn and winter. Most species showed high spatial variability among replicates from the same level and season. Zonation patterns within the harbor differed from those observed in natural areas, probably due to low wave exposure and its interaction with herbivory and desiccation stress. Colonization patterns observed in this study indicate niche segregation in closely related species of the genus Ulva.

Rico Alicia; Lanas Paola; López Gappa Juan

2005-01-01

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Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040 mg L-1) > Cd (0.095 mg L-1) > Pb (0.489 mg L-1) > Zn (0.572 mg L-1). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 ?g L-1. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788 ?l L-1) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests.

2008-01-01

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Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC{sub 50} of 0.040 mg L{sup -1}) > Cd (0.095 mg L{sup -1}) > Pb (0.489 mg L{sup -1}) > Zn (0.572 mg L{sup -1}). The EC{sub 50} for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC{sub 50} of 0.788 {mu}l L{sup -1}) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests.

Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Han, Young-Seok [Institute of Green Technology, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin Young; Jun, Yong Sung; Kwon, Mun Ju [Marine Research Division, Incheon Health and Environment Institute, Incheon 400-102 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2008-06-15

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Accumulation of selenium in Ulva sp. and effects on morphology, ultrastructure and antioxidant enzymes and metabolites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of selenium (Se) on Ulva sp., a green macroalga naturally growing in the Venice Lagoon, was investigated. The alga was provided for 10 days with concentrations of selenate (Na(2)SeO(4)) ranging from 0 to 100 ?M. Se accumulation in the algal biomass was linearly related to the selenate dose and this relationship was not affected by the high sulfate concentration measured in the seawater. The amount of Se measured in the alga was always relatively low and not hazardous to algal consumers. However, Se induced the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in Ulva sp. and, as a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD, and catalase, CAT) and the amount of antioxidant metabolites (phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) increased, even when selenate was supplied to the macroalga at low concentration (2.5 ?M). This indicated that different components of the antioxidant defence system played a pivotal role in overcoming oxidative damage by Se in the macroalga, and explained the lack of morphological and ultrastructural alterations in Ulva sp. exposed to selenate.

Schiavon M; Moro I; Pilon-Smits EA; Matozzo V; Malagoli M; Dalla Vecchia F

2012-10-01

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Inorganic nitrogen control in wastewater treatment ponds from a fish farm (Orbetello, Italy): Denitrification versus Ulva uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the N removal efficiency of an Ulva-based phytotreatment system receiving wastewaters from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy), to identify the main biogeochemical pathways involved and to provide basic guidelines for treatment implementation and management. Fluxes of O2 and nutrients in bare and in Ulva colonised sediments were assessed by light/dark core incubations; denitrification by the isotope pairing technique and Ulva growth by in situ incubation of macroalgal disks in cages. O2 and nutrient budgets were estimated as sum of individual processes and further verified by 24-h investigations of overall inlet and outlet loads. Ulva uptake (up to 7.8mmolNm-2h-1) represented a net sink for water column and regenerated NH4+ whilst N removal via denitrification (10-170?molNm-2h-1) accounted for a small percentage of inorganic nitrogen load (-2h-1) indicating that N loss could be enhanced. The control of Ulva standing stocks by optimised harvesting of surplus biomass may represent an effective strategy to maximise DIN removal and could result in the assimilation of ?50% of produced inorganic nitrogen.

2005-01-01

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An alternative evaluation method for accumulated dead leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile on the beaches. Removal of uranium from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an important endemic sea plant in the Mediterranean Sea. Its dead leaves are accumulated in the beaches and cause bad view and also odour in the touristical beaches. Therefore, these dead leaves accumulated on the beaches are collected and then burned in some beaches in Turkey. In the present study, the adsorption between dead leaves and uranium were studied in the aqueous solutions. The adsorption data obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetics. Among the studied isotherms, the data were well in line with the Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduschkevich models and the maximum adsorption capacities obtained from these models were found as 5.67 and 9.81 mg g-1, respectively. Negative values of Gibbs free energy showed that the adsorption was in spontaneous nature. In conclusion, the dead leaves of P. oceanica from touristic beaches might be collected and evaluated as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions. (author)

2012-01-01

69

Impact of mercury contamination on the population dynamics of Peringia ulvae (Gastropoda): Implications on metal transfer through the trophic web  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of mercury contamination on the population structure and dynamics of the gastropod Peringia ulvae (also known as Hydrobia ulvae) and its impact on the trophic web were assessed along a mercury gradient in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The gastropod was revealed to be a tolerant species to the contaminant, since the highest densities, biomasses and growth productivity values were recorded at the intermediate contaminated area followed by the most contaminated one and finally the least contaminated area. P. ulvae was however negatively affected by mercury in terms of growth and life span. So, in the most contaminated area the population was characterised mainly by the presence of juveniles and young individuals. The intermediate contaminated area showed a greater equilibrium in terms of groups' proportion, being the adults the dominant set. The least contaminated area presented intermediate values. P. ulvae life spans were shortest in the most contaminated area (7–8 mo), followed by the least contaminated area (10–11 mo) and finally, the intermediate one (11–14 mo).P. ulvae revealed to be an important vehicle of mercury transfer from sediments to the trophic web, incorporating approximately 15 g of Hg, annually, in the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 Km2). Therefore, despite P. ulvae being revealed to be not a good bio-indicator of mercury contamination, since it did not suffer profound modifications in its structure and functioning, it is a crucial element in the mercury biomagnification processes throughout the food web.

Cardoso, P. G.; Sousa, E.; Matos, P.; Henriques, B.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

2013-09-01

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Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- to high-nutrient supplies. We carried out N and P enrichment field experiments on Ulva spp. in seven coastal systems, with one of these systems represented by three different subestuaries, for a total of nine sites. We showed that rate of growth of Ulva spp. was directly correlated to annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, where growth increased with increasing DIN concentration. Internal N pools of macroalgal fronds were also linked to increased DIN supply, and algal growth rates were tightly coupled to these internal N pools. The increases in DIN appeared to be related to greater inputs of wastewater to these coastal waters as indicated by high ?¹?N signatures of the algae as DIN increased. N and P enrichment experiments showed that rate of macroalgal growth was controlled by supply of DIN where ambient DIN concentrations were low, and by P where DIN concentrations were higher, regardless of latitude or geographic setting. These results suggest that understanding the basis for macroalgal blooms, and management of these harmful phenomena, will require information as to nutrient sources, and actions to reduce supply of N and P in coastal waters concerned.

TEICHBERG MIRTA; FOX SOPHIAE; OLSEN YLVAS; VALIELA IVAN; MARTINETTO PAULINA; IRIBARNE OSCAR; MUTO ELIZABETIYURIKO; PETTI MONICAAV; CORBISIER THAÏSN; SOTO-JIMÉNEZ MARTÍN; PÁEZ-OSUNA FEDERICO; CASTRO PAULA; FREITAS HELENA; ZITELLI ANDREINA; CARDINALETTI MASSIMO; TAGLIAPIETRA DAVIDE

2010-09-01

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Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- to high-nutrient supplies. We carried out N and P enrichment field experiments on Ulva spp. in seven coastal systems, with one of these systems represented by three different subestuaries, for a total of nine sites. We showed that rate of growth of Ulva spp. was directly correlated to annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, where growth increased with increasing DIN concentration. Internal N pools of macroalgal fronds were also linked to increased DIN supply, and algal growth rates were tightly coupled to these internal N pools. The increases in DIN appeared to be related to greater inputs of wastewater to these coastal waters as indicated by high ?15N signatures of the algae as DIN increased. N and P enrichment experiments showed that rate of macroalgal growth was controlled by supply of DIN where ambient DIN concentrations were low, and by P where DIN concentrations were higher, regardless of latitude or geographic setting. These results suggest that understanding the basis for macroalgal blooms, and management of these harmful phenomena, will require information as to nutrient sources, and actions to reduce supply of N and P in coastal waters concerned.

Teichberg M; Fox SE; Olsen YS; Valiela I; Martinetto P; Iribarne O; Muto EY; Petti MAV; Corbisier TN; Soto-Jiménez M; Páez-Osuna F; Castro P; Freitas H; Zitelli A; Cardinaletti M; Tagliapietra D

2010-09-01

72

Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides  

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Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter).

RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC; DUSAN SLADIC; SIMEON POPO; MARIO ZLATOVIC; ZORAN KLJAJIC; MIROSLAV J. GASIC

2005-01-01

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Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16%FWd(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50?M NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7mgNgDW(-1)d(-1) and 2.7mgPgDW(-1)d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89?M NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. PMID:23954716

Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

2013-07-04

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Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 ± 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 ± 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

2010-01-01

75

Functional sulfur amino acid production and seawater remediation system by sterile Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sterile Ulva, which is a macroalga, has the potential to grow stably; therefore, this seaweed is expected to be an efficient resource of functional food containing various nutrients such as sulfur amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. Ulva latuca was selected from the "Marine Park" in Tokyo Bay, and its growth rate (g-dry/[m2.d]) was measured using model reactors located on the land or on the surface of the sea at Yokohama. The growth rate of U. lactuca was recorded to be approx 20 g-dry/(m2.d), which is estimated to be 10 times greater than that in a natural field in the Marine Park. In addition, this growth rate was higher than that of conventional crops such as corn and rice on a farm or paddy. These data led us to newly design and propose a floating type of labor-efficient U. lactuca production system. d-Cysteinolic acid, which is included in U. lactuca as a major sulfur amino acid, inhibited the Fenton reaction, resulting in suppression of hydroxyl radical production and singlet oxygen. Addition of the sulfur amino acid (1 microM) to HepG2 cells markedly decreased the intracellular triglyceride level. Hence, this proposed facility also has the potential for industrial production of a valuable resource for the primary prevention of lifestyle-related diseases using enriched or eutrophied seawater. PMID:14981285

Hirayama, Shin; Miyasaka, Masashi; Amano, Hideomi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Shimojo, Nobuhiro; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Okami, Yoshiro

2004-02-01

76

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil/ Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da c (more) idade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos. Abstract in english The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20) (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile) (20), that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). (more) No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Rocha, Liliana de O.; Soares, Maria Magali S. R.; Corrêa, Cristiana Leslie

2004-12-01

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Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India.

Swaminathan TR; Basheer VS; Gopalakrishnan A; Rathore G; Chaudhary DK; Kumar R; Jena JK

2013-08-01

78

Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). PMID:23201525

van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

2012-11-07

79

Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L).

van der Wal H; Sperber BL; Houweling-Tan B; Bakker RR; Brandenburg W; López-Contreras AM

2013-01-01

80

Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1)y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy.

Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha?1 y?1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g?1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy.

Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas

2011-01-01

82

Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and fluctuating levels of nitrogen sources. Our understanding of the influences of this varying condition on the uptake and growth responses of U. lactuca is limited. In this present work, we examined the growth response of U. lactuca exposed to different sources of nitrogen (NH4+; NO3?; and the combination NH4NO3) by using photo-scanning technology for monitoring the growth kinetics of U. lactuca. The images revealed differential increases of the surface area of U. lactuca disks with time in response to different N-nutrient enrichments. The results showed a favorable growth response to ammonium as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 ?M of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4?±?0.18% day?1 and 9.4?±?0.72% day?1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5?±?0.24 mg DW m?2·day?1. The presence of ammonium apparently discriminated the nitrate uptake by U. lactuca when exposed to NH4NO3. Apart from showing the significant differential growth response of U. lactuca to different nitrogen sources, the work exhibits the applicability of a photo-scanning approach for acquiring precise quantitative growth data for U. lactuca as exemplified by assessment of the growth response to two different N-sources.

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, JØrn Dalgaard

2011-01-01

83

Engineered antifouling microtopographies: kinetic analysis of the attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva to silicone elastomers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microtopography has been demonstrated as an effective deterrent to biofouling. The majority of published studies are fixed-time assays that raise questions regarding the kinetics of the attachment process. This study investigated the time-dependent attachment density of zoospores of Ulva, in a laboratory assay, on a micropatterned and smooth silicone elastomer. The attachment density of zoospores was reduced on average 70-80% by the microtopography relative to smooth surfaces over a 4 h exposure. Mapping the zoospore locations on the topography revealed that they settled preferentially in specific, recessed areas of the pattern. The kinetic data fit, with high correlation (r(2) > 0.9), models commonly used to describe the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. The grouping of spores on the microtopography indicated that the pattern inhibited the ability of attached spores to recruit neighbors. This study demonstrates that the antifouling mechanism of topographies may involve disruption of the cooperative effects exhibited by fouling organisms such as Ulva.

Cooper SP; Finlay JA; Cone G; Callow ME; Callow JA; Brennan AB

2011-09-01

84

Biomethanation potential of macroalgae Ulva spp. and Gracilaria spp. and in co-digestion with waste activated sludge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biochemical methane potential of four species of Ulva and Gracilaria genus was assessed in batch assays at mesophilic temperature. The results indicate a higher specific methane production (per volatile solids) for one of the Ulva sp. compared with other macroalgae and for tests running with 2.5% of total solids (196±9 L CH(4) kg(-1)VS). Considering that macroalgae can potentially be a post treatment of municipal wastewater for nutrients removal, co-digestion of macroalgae with waste activated sludge (WAS) was assessed. The co-digestion of macroalgae (15%) with WAS (85%) is feasible at a rate of methane production 26% higher than WAS alone without decreasing the overall biodegradability of the substrate (42-45% methane yield). The use of anoxic marine sediment as inoculum had no positive effect on the methane production in batch assays. The limiting step of the overall anaerobic digestion process was the hydrolysis.

Costa JC; Gonçalves PR; Nobre A; Alves MM

2012-06-01

85

Biomethanation potential of macroalgae Ulva spp. and Gracilaria spp. and in co-digestion with waste activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical methane potential of four species of Ulva and Gracilaria genus was assessed in batch assays at mesophilic temperature. The results indicate a higher specific methane production (per volatile solids) for one of the Ulva sp. compared with other macroalgae and for tests running with 2.5% of total solids (196±9 L CH(4) kg(-1)VS). Considering that macroalgae can potentially be a post treatment of municipal wastewater for nutrients removal, co-digestion of macroalgae with waste activated sludge (WAS) was assessed. The co-digestion of macroalgae (15%) with WAS (85%) is feasible at a rate of methane production 26% higher than WAS alone without decreasing the overall biodegradability of the substrate (42-45% methane yield). The use of anoxic marine sediment as inoculum had no positive effect on the methane production in batch assays. The limiting step of the overall anaerobic digestion process was the hydrolysis. PMID:22459959

Costa, J C; Gonçalves, P R; Nobre, A; Alves, M M

2012-03-10

86

Algal Bioremediation of Waste Waters from Land-Based Aquaculture Using Ulva: Selecting Target Species and Strains  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimised reduction of dissolved nutrient loads in aquaculture effluents through bioremediation requires selection of appropriate algal species and strains. The objective of the current study was to identify target species and strains from the macroalgal genus Ulva for bioremediation of land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia. We surveyed land-based aquaculture facilities and natural coastal environments across three geographic locations in Eastern Australia to determine which species of Ulva occur naturally in this region and conducted growth trials at three temperature treatments on a subset of samples from each location to determine whether local strains had superior performance under local environmental conditions. DNA barcoding using the markers ITS and tufA identified six species of Ulva, with U. ohnoi being the most common blade species and U. sp. 3 the most common filamentous species. Both species occurred at multiple land-based aquaculture facilities in Townsville and Brisbane and multiple strains of each species grew well in culture. Specific growth rates of U. ohnoi and U. sp. 3 were high (over 9% and 15% day?1 respectively) across temperature treatments. Within species, strains of U. ohnoi had higher growth in temperatures corresponding to local conditions, suggesting that strains may be locally adapted. However, across all temperature treatments Townsville strains had the highest growth rates (11.2–20.4% day?1) and Sydney strains had the lowest growth rates (2.5–8.3% day?1). We also found significant differences in growth between strains of U. ohnoi collected from the same geographic location, highlighting the potential to isolate and cultivate fast growing strains. In contrast, there was no clearly identifiable competitive strain of filamentous Ulva, with multiple species and strains having variable performance. The fast growth rates and broad geographical distribution of U. ohnoi make this an ideal species to target for bioremediation activities at land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia.

Lawton, Rebecca J.; Mata, Leonardo; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2013-01-01

87

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.  

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Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

2013-01-01

88

Two-step process using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis for ethanol production from Ulva pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We established a two-step production process using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Pichia stipitis yeast (P. stipitis) to produce ethanol from seaweed (Ulva pertusa Kjellman) hydrolysate. In addition, the process was designed to completely consume both glucose and xylose. In particular, the yeasts were immobilized using DEAE-corncob and DEAE-cotton, respectively. The first step of the process included a continuous column reactor using immobilized S. cerevisiae, and the second step included a repeated-batch reactor using immobilized P. stipitis. It was verified that the glucose and xylose in 20 l of medium containing the Ulva pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate was converted completely to about 5.0 g/l ethanol through the two-step process, in which the overall ethanol yield from total reducing sugar was 0.37 and the volumetric ethanol productivity was 0.126 g/l/hr. The volumetric ethanol productivity of the two-step process was about 2.7 times greater than that when P. stipitis was used alone for ethanol production from Ulva pertusa Kjellman hydrolysate. The overall ethanol yield from glucose and xylose was superior to that when P. stipitis was used alone for ethanol production. This two-step process will not only contribute to the development of an integrated process for ethanol production from glucose and xylose-containing biomass hydrolysates, but could also be used as an alternative method for ethanol production.

Lee SE; Kim YO; Choi WS; Kang DH; Lee HY; Jung KH

2013-07-01

89

Epibacterium ulvae gen. nov., sp. nov., epibiotic bacteria isolated from the surface of a marine alga.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains U82 and U95(T), were isolated from the marine alga Ulva australis collected at Sharks Point, Clovelly, a rocky intertidal zone near Sydney, Australia. Both strains were oxidase- and catalase-positive, formed brown- to black-pigmented colonies and required NaCl for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA genes of both strains were identical across the sequenced 1326 nt, but showed differences in the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16S and the 23S rRNA genes. At the genomic level the DNA G+C contents of strains U82 and U95(T) were identical (52.6?mol%) and they had a DNA-DNA hybridization value of 83.7%, suggesting that these strains belong to the same species. The closest described phylogenetic neighbour to strains U82 and U95(T) was Thalassobius aestuarii DSM 15283(T) with 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Other close relatives include further species of the genera Thalassobius and Shimia. Strains U82 and U95(T) were negative for bacteriochlorophyll a production, showed antibacterial activity towards other marine bacteria, were resistant to the antibiotics gentamicin and spectinomycin and were unable to hydrolyse starch or gelatin. The major fatty acids (>1%) were 18?:?1?7c, 16?:?0, 18?:?2, 10?:?0 3-OH, 12?:?0, 20?:?1 2-OH and 18?:?0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified phospholipids. Both strains produced ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the sole respiratory lipoquinone. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is suggested that strains U82 and U95(T) are members of a novel species within a new genus for which the name Epibacterium ulvae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is U95(T) (?=?DSM 24752(T)?=?LMG 26464(T)).

Penesyan A; Breider S; Schumann P; Tindall BJ; Egan S; Brinkhoff T

2013-05-01

90

Optimization and kinetic studies on algal oil extraction from marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this present investigation, kinetic studies on oil extraction were performed in marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at 5% moisture content, 0.12 mm particle size, 500 rpm stirrer speed, 55°C temperature, 140 min time and solvent-to-solid ratio as 6:1 with 1% diethyl-ether and 10% methylene chloride in n-hexane solvent mixture. After optimization, 10.88% (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from 30 g of algal biomass. The rate constant was obtained for the first order kinetic study by differential method. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated as 63.031 kJ/mol. From the results obtained in the investigation, U. lactuca biomass was proved to be a suitable source for the biodiesel production.

Suganya T; Renganathan S

2012-03-01

91

Growth inhibition to three red tide microalgae by extracts of Ulva pertusa  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth inhibition effect of different concentration of distilled water extract and four polar organic solvent (methanol, acetone, ether and chloroform) extracts of Ulva pertusa on three typical red tide microalgae ( Heterosigma akashiwo, Alexandrium tamarense and Prorocentrum micans) were investigated. Liquid-liquid fractionation and HPLC analysis for methanol extract of U. pertusa were carried out. Growth of the three microalgae was significantly inhibited by the distilled water extract of U. pertusa at relatively higher concentration. However, the cells of the three microalgae did not die completely even at high concentration. Methanol extract of U. pertusa showed the highest growth inhibition on the three microalgae, and all the cells of the three microalgae were killed at relatively high concentration. The other three organic solvent extracts of U. pertusa had no apparent effect on the three microalgae. The results of bioassays and HPLC analysis suggested that the inhibitory substances in U. pertusa to the microalgal growth had relatively high polarities. H. akashiwo was the most sensitive one while A. tamarense was the most tolerant one to the growth inhibitory substances.

Qiu, Jin; Shuanglin, Dong; Changyun, Wang

2006-06-01

92

Chemical composition and functional properties of Ulva lactuca seaweed collected in Tunisia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical composition and some functional properties of the dried “Ulva lactuca” algae, collected from the littoral between the Taboulba and Sayada area, were determined. The dried “U. lactuca” algae were investigated for their soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre content, mineral amount, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC). Results showed that “U. lactuca” alga powder was characterised by a high content of fibres (54.0%), minerals (19.6%), proteins (8.5%) and lipids (7.9%). The neutral fibres contain hemicellulose (20.6%), cellulose (9.0%) and lignin (1.7%). The proteinic fraction analysis indicated the presence of essential amino acids, which represent 42.0% of the total amino acids. The fatty acids profile was dominated by the palmitic acid, which represents about 60.0% of the total fatty acids, followed by oleic acid (16.0%). The study of the functional properties proved that SWC, WHC and OHC of this alga varied with temperatures and that were comparable to those of some commercial fibre rich products.

Yaich H; Garna H; Besbes S; Paquot M; Blecker C; Attia H

2011-10-01

93

An Ulva armoricana extract protects plants against three powdery mildew pathogens  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protective activity of a crude extract prepared from the green macroalga, Ulva armoricana, previously shown to induce plant defence responses, was evaluated on three plant species, common bean, grapevine and cucumber, cultivated in the greenhouse and inoculated with three powdery mildew pathogens Erysiphe polygoni, E. necator and Sphareotheca fuliginea respectively. Chemical analyses showed that the extract was enriched in ulvans, which are green algae polysaccharides essentially composed of uronic acid and sulphated rhamnose. Weekly applications were performed by spraying of the green algal extract at various dilutions on bean, grapevine and cucumber leaves. A significant effect (50% protection) was observed using a dilution corresponding to about 3 g?l?1 dry matter and up to 90% reduction of symptom severity was obtained for the highest concentration (1/9 dilution, 6 g?l?1 dry matter) for the three plant species. To study the natural variability of the protective activity, five extracts prepared from algae batches harvested at different year periods were evaluated. Although polysaccharide composition varied among batches, all extracts elicit a reporter gene regulated by a defence-gene promoter in a transgenic tobacco line, and protect cucumber plants against powdery mildew infection. Together, these data demonstrate that U. armoricana is a reproducible source of active compounds which can be used to efficiently protect crop plants against powdery mildew diseases.

Jaulneau V; Lafitte C; Corio-Costet MF; Stadnik MJ; Salamagne S; Briand X; Esquerré-Tugayé MT; Dumas B

2011-11-01

94

Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai  

Science.gov (United States)

From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2011-05-01

95

Influences of marine sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by green alga (Ulva pertusa)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution of radionuclides (60Co, 137Cs, 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60Co, followed by 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60Co and 137Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60Co, 7 days for 137Cs, 26 days for 95Zr-95Nb and 24 days for 106Ru-106Rh. (auth.)

1975-01-01

96

Polaribacter reichenbachii sp. nov.: a new marine bacterium associated with the green alga Ulva fenestrata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 6Alg 8(T), was isolated from the common Pacific green alga Ulva fenestrata. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Polaribacter, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 97.6 % to Polaribacter dokdonensis DSW-5(T) and 92.8-96.1 % to other recognized Polaribacter species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 6Alg 8(T) were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1), iso-C(15:0) 2-OH, C(15:0) and C(15:1)?6. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content of the type strain is 31.6 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Polaribacter were readily distinguished based on a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Polaribacter, for which the name Polaribacter reichenbachii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6Alg 8(T) (= KCTC 23969(T) = KMM 6386(T) = LMG 26443(T)).

Nedashkovskaya OI; Kukhlevskiy AD; Zhukova NV

2013-01-01

97

Distributions of radionuclides among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distributions of radionuclides (60Co, 137Cs, 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60Co, followed by 95Zr,-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60Co and 137Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60Co, 7 days for 137Cs, 26 days for 95Zr-95Nb and 24 days for 95Zr-95Nb and 24 days for 106Ru-106Rh. (auth.).

1976-01-01

98

Inhibition of growth of Ulva expansa (chlorophyta) by ultraviolet-B radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) on the growth rate of the intertidal marine alga Ulva expansa (Setch.) S ampersand G. (Chlorophyta). Segments of thallus collected from a natural population were grown in outdoor seawater tanks. Combinations of UV-B-opaque screens, UV-B transparent screens, and UV-B lamps were used to investigate the effects of solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B on the growth of these segments. Growth was measured by changes in segment surface area, damp weight, and dry weight. Growth rates of segments were inhibited under both solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B treatments. Growth rates were also inhibited by high levels of photosynthetically active radiation, independent of UV-B fluence. These results indicate that increases in UV-B resulting from further ozone depletion will have a negative impact on the growth of this alga. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

1994-01-01

99

Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca (seaweed) at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. UV spectral analysis showed peak at 430 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by silver nanoparticles. FT-IR studies reveal the presence of bioactive functional groups such as phenolic compounds, amines and aromatic ring are found to be the capping and stabilizing agents of nanoparticles. The morphology of silver nanoparticles was found to be spherical and ranges about 48.59 nm as confirmed by HR-SEM. Negative zeta potential value of -34 mV suggests that the nanoparticles are highly stable in colloidal solution. XRD patterns also suggest the occurrence of spherical shaped particles due to the presence of silver ions. Further, photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using U. lactuca was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange. PMID:23266074

Kumar, P; Govindaraju, M; Senthamilselvi, S; Premkumar, K

2012-11-30

100

Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we report on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca (seaweed) at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. UV spectral analysis showed peak at 430 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by silver nanoparticles. FT-IR studies reveal the presence of bioactive functional groups such as phenolic compounds, amines and aromatic ring are found to be the capping and stabilizing agents of nanoparticles. The morphology of silver nanoparticles was found to be spherical and ranges about 48.59 nm as confirmed by HR-SEM. Negative zeta potential value of -34 mV suggests that the nanoparticles are highly stable in colloidal solution. XRD patterns also suggest the occurrence of spherical shaped particles due to the presence of silver ions. Further, photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using U. lactuca was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange.

Kumar P; Govindaraju M; Senthamilselvi S; Premkumar K

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Inhibition of growth of Ulva expansa (chlorophyta) by ultraviolet-B radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) on the growth rate of the intertidal marine alga Ulva expansa (Setch.) S & G. (Chlorophyta). Segments of thallus collected from a natural population were grown in outdoor seawater tanks. Combinations of UV-B-opaque screens, UV-B transparent screens, and UV-B lamps were used to investigate the effects of solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B on the growth of these segments. Growth was measured by changes in segment surface area, damp weight, and dry weight. Growth rates of segments were inhibited under both solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B treatments. Growth rates were also inhibited by high levels of photosynthetically active radiation, independent of UV-B fluence. These results indicate that increases in UV-B resulting from further ozone depletion will have a negative impact on the growth of this alga. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Grobe, C.W.; Murphy, T.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

102

Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1) under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1), respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

Ye N; Li D; Chen L; Zhang X; Xu D

2010-01-01

103

Culture and hybridization experiments on an ulva clade including the Qingdao strain blooming in the yellow sea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the summer of 2008, immediately prior to the Beijing Olympics, a massive green tide of the genus Ulva covered the Qingdao coast of the Yellow Sea in China. Based on molecular analyses using the nuclear encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the Qingdao strains dominating the green tide were reported to be included in a single phylogenetic clade, currently regarded as a single species. On the other hand, our detailed phylogenetic analyses of the clade, using a higher resolution DNA marker, suggested that two genetically separate entities could be included within the clade. However, speciation within the Ulva clade has not yet been examined. We examined the occurrence of an intricate speciation within the clade, including the Qingdao strains, via combined studies of culture, hybridization and phylogenetic analysis. The two entities separated by our phylogenetic analyses of the clade were simply distinguished as U. linza and U. prolifera morphologically by the absence or presence of branches in cultured thalli. The inclusion of sexual strains and several asexual strains were found in each taxon. Hybridizations among the sexual strains also supported the separation by a partial gamete incompatibility. The sexually reproducing Qingdao strains crossed with U. prolifera without any reproductive boundary, but a complete reproductive isolation to U. linza occurred by gamete incompatibility. The results demonstrate that the U. prolifera group includes two types of sexual strains distinguishable by crossing affinity to U. linza. Species identification within the Ulva clade requires high resolution DNA markers and/or hybridization experiments and is not possible by reliance on the ITS markers alone.

Hiraoka M; Ichihara K; Zhu W; Ma J; Shimada S

2011-01-01

104

Biosorption of copper, nickel and manganese using non-living biomass of marine alga, Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L(-1)). The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L(-1) was the same as 20 and 30 mg L(-1), increase with increasing pH up to pH 5.0 and then decreased, in single and multimetal solutions. The optimum pH value was observed in the pH range 4-5 for Cu2+ and pH 5-6 for Ni2+ and Mn2+. The maximum biosorption capacities of tested alga for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were 92, 80 and 75%, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L(-1) and pH 5.0. At a further increase of pH (8.0) the biosorption process for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (75, 69 and 63%, respectively at 10 mg L(-1)) was decreased. The minimum biosorptions were 60, 49 and 44% for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L(-1) and pH 2.0. In the multimetal solution, algal biomass exhibited the maximum and the minimum biosorption capacity at different pH values the same as in single metal solution. The inhibitory role of other ions on sorption process can be well observed in multimetal mixture, where biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were significantly decreased in the multimetal solutions. The maximum biosorption was recorded for Cu2+ (83%) in solution of Cu2+ + Mn2+, Mn2+ (67%) in solution of Ni2 + Mn2+ and for Ni2+ (74%) in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ at the concentration 10 mg L(-1) and pH 5.0. The observed reduction in the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (65, 57 and 52%, respectively at 10 mg L(-1) and pH 5.0) was more pronounced in the multimetal solution of Cu2 + Ni2+ + Mn2+ as compared with single metal solution. The results demonstrated that the affinity of the tested alga for sorption of the investigated metal ions in single and multimetal solutions runs in the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Mn2+. Biosorption equilibrium was established by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the analyses conducted, the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ to Ulva lactuca was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm.

Omar HH

2008-04-01

105

Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca  

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Full Text Available The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L-1). The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L-1 was the same as 20 and 30 mg L-1, increase with increasing pH up to pH 5.0 and then decreased, in single and multimetal solutions. The optimum pH value was observed in the pH range 4-5 for Cu2+ and pH 5-6 for Ni2+ and Mn2+. The maximum biosorption capacities of tested alga for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were 92, 80 and 75%, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0. At a further increase of pH (8.0) the biosorption process for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (75, 69 and 63%, respectively at 10 mg L-1) was decreased. The minimum biosorptions were 60, 49 and 44% for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L-1 and pH 2.0. In the multimetal solution, algal biomass exhibited the maximum and the minimum biosorption capacity at different pH values the same as in single metal solution. The inhibitory role of other ions on sorption process can be well observed in multimetal mixture, where biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were significantly decreased in the multimetal solutions. The maximum biosorption was recorded for Cu2+ (83%) in solution of Cu2+ + Mn2+, Mn2+ (67%) in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ and for Ni2+ (74%) in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ at the concentration 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0. The observed reduction in the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (65, 57 and 52%, respectively at 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0) was more pronounced in the multimetal solution of Cu2+ + Ni2+ + Mn2+ as compared with single metal solution. The results demonstrated that the affinity of the tested alga for sorption of the investigated metal ions in single and multimetal solutions runs in the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Mn2+. Biosorption equilibrium was established by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the analyses conducted, the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ to Ulva lactuca was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm.

Hanan Hafez Omar

2008-01-01

106

In situ growth potential of the subtidal part of green tide forming Ulva spp. stocks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ulva spp., the algae most responsible for green tides in Brittany (France), are found on the foreshore and in the most beachward wave area (MBWA) of many bays during green tide phenomena. These algae have recently been seen drifting at greater depths (reaching - 20 m). In view of the significant quantities of algae found at these depths, and the less favorable conditions for algal growth than in the intertidal zone, we attempted to determine if they could grow there. For that, during their maximum growth period (from May to July), algae were picked up at three stations located on the foreshore, in the MBWA and in the subtidal (deep) zones of the Bay of Douarnenez, and their nitrogen, carbon and chlorophyll a + b contents were determined, and their photosynthetic activity was compared in the laboratory. The intracellular concentrations did not differ much from one station to another, although in the subtidal zone, the irradiance and the nitrogen concentration in the ambient water were much lower than those measured on the foreshore and in the MBWA. Photosynthetic activity characterized by maximum amounts of oxygen produced at different irradiances and by saturating and compensating irradiance levels, was also quite similar at the three stations. The irradiance, temperature and salinity of the subtidal environment, together with the chemical and photosynthetic characteristics of the algae found in that area, are consistent with the hypothesis that they grow there, and that their nitrogen supply comes from nitrogen releases from sediments. Nevertheless, their growth rate is probably less than that of algae in the MBWA.

Merceron M; Antoine V; Auby I; Morand P

2007-10-01

107

Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata in a packed column.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata were investigated in a packed bed up-flow column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, the metal-uptake capacity of U. reticulata for copper, cobalt and nickel was found to be 56.3+/-0.24, 46.1+/-0.07 and 46.5+/-0.08 mgg(-1), respectively. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data. The computed sorption capacity per unit bed volume (N0) was 2580, 2245 and 1911 mgl(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The rate constant (K(a)) was recorded as 0.063, 0.081 and 0.275 lmg(-1)h(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. In flow rate experiments, the results confirmed that the metal uptake capacity and the metal removal efficiency of U. reticulata decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model was used to fit the column biosorption data at different flow rates and model constants were evaluated. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the biosorbent was 0.1 M CaCl2 at pH 3 adjusted using HCl. For all the metal ions, a decreased breakthrough time and an increased exhaustion time were observed as the regeneration cycles progressed, which also resulted in a broadened mass transfer zone. The pH variations during both sorption and desorption process have been reported.

Vijayaraghavan K; Jegan J; Palanivelu K; Velan M

2005-07-01

108

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH ?1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g-1 for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater.

2007-09-05

109

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH {approx}1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g{sup -1} for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater.

El-Sikaily, Amany [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt); Nemr, Ahmed El [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedmoustafaelnemr@yahoo.com; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)

2007-09-05

110

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

Science.gov (United States)

The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

111

Low Densities of Epiphytic Bacteria from the Marine Alga Ulva australis Inhibit Settlement of Fouling Organisms?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 (formerly Roseobacter gallaeciensis) are marine bacteria often found in association with the alga Ulva australis and produce a range of extracellular inhibitory compounds against common fouling organisms. P. tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 biofilms with cell densities ranging from 102 to 108 cells cm?2 were established on polystyrene petri dishes. Attachment and settlement assays were performed with marine fungi (uncharacterized isolates from U. australis), marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonas gracilis, Alteromonas sp., and Cellulophaga fucicola), invertebrate larvae (Bugula neritina), and algal spores (Polysiphonia sp.) and gametes (U. australis). Remarkably low cell densities (102 to 103 cells cm?2) of P. tunicata were effective in preventing settlement of algal spores and marine fungi in petri dishes. P. tunicata also prevented settlement of invertebrate larvae at densities of 104 to 105 cells cm?2. Similarly, low cell densities (103 to 104cells cm?2) of Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 had antilarval and antibacterial activity. Previously, it has been shown that abundance of P. tunicata on marine eukaryotic hosts is low (<1 × 103 cells cm?2) (T. L. Skovhus et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:2373-2382, 2004). Despite such low numbers of P. tunicata on U. australis in situ, our data suggest that P. tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 are present in sufficient quantities on the plant to inhibit fouling organisms. This strongly supports the hypothesis that P. tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 can play a role in defense against fouling on U. australis at cell densities that commonly occur in situ.

Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Holmstrom, Carola; Case, Rebecca; Low, Adrian; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2007-01-01

112

Simple mass transport model for metal uptake by marine macroalgae growing at different rates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although algae growing at different rates may exhibit different concentrations of a given metal, such differences in algal chemistry may or may not reflect actual effects of environmental growth factors on the kinetics of metal uptake. Published data on uptake of rubidium, cadmium, and manganese by the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile grown at different rates in open system sea water was interpreted using the model. Differences in exposure time to sea water of relatively old and relatively young thalli were responsible for significant decreases in algal rubidium and cadmium concentrations with increases in specific growth rate. The biomass-specific growth rates of uptake of these two metals did not vary with growth rate. Both algal concentrations and specific rates of uptake of manganese increase significantly with increasing growth rate, thus indicating a distinct link between the kinetics of manganese uptake and metabolic rate. Under some circumstances, seaweed bioassay coupled with an interpretive model may provide the only reasonable approach to the study of chemical uptake-growth phenomena. In practice, if the residence time of sea water in culture chambers is sufficiently low to preclude pseudo-closed system artifacts, differences in trace metal concentrations between input and output sea water may be difficult to detect. In the field and in situ experiments based on time-series monitoring of changes in the water chemistry would be technically difficult or perhaps impossible to perform. 13 references, 1 figure.

Rice, D.L.

1984-01-01

113

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl2(NH3)2), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH2)(NH3)2+) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: ? This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. ? Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. ? Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. ? Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. ? Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (

2011-01-01

114

Measuring the avoidance behaviour shown by the snail Hydrobia ulvae exposed to sediment with a known contamination gradient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study tested the hypothesis that the snail Hydrobia ulvae will recognise differences in the contamination levels of sediment and avoid the more contaminated zones. Instead of testing avoidance behaviour in a two-compartment system, a linear contamination gradient has been devised in which several zones containing sediment with different contamination levels could be "chosen". A sediment of known severe contamination was collected and mixed with a non-toxic sediment to comprise a linear gradient with four concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 100% contamination. Thus, the individuals were free to move between fields of different concentration (unforced conditions). During 24 h of exposure, the distribution of the organisms on fields was recorded and organisms' percentage that avoided each field was calculated for each concentration. At 30 and 60% of contamination, avoidance was around 50% for all periods of exposure. Avoidance at 100% contamination ranged between 11 and 56% (rates lower than expected). Organisms that did not avoid the 100% contamination revealed that they were inactive, indicating either that non-mobility and retraction within their shell may be alternative defence strategies, or else the high contamination may have impaired their ability to escape. The percentage of preference shown to the uncontaminated sediment ranged between 64 and 74%. The initial hypothesis was supported: H. ulvae avoids the more contaminated sediment. The assay proposed has been shown to be simple, rapid and effective; in addition, it is considered ecologically useful since the effects resulting from the avoidance are similar to the extinction of the population.

Araújo CV; Blasco J; Moreno-Garrido I

2012-04-01

115

Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

2007-04-15

116

Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

2007-04-15

117

Freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) as a bioaccumulator of selected heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) and alkaline earth metals (Ca and Mg).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the ability of freshwater taxa of the genus Ulva (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) to serve as bioindicators of metal in lakes and rivers. Changes in heavy metal (Ni, Cd and Pb) and alkaline earth metal (Ca and Mg) concentrations in freshwater Ulva thalli were investigated during the period from June to August 2010. The study was conducted in two ecosystems in Western Poland, the Malta lake (10 sites) and the Nielba river (six sites). Three components were collected for each sample, including water, sediment and Ulva thalli. The average concentrations of metals in the water sample and in the macroalgae decreased in the following order: Ca>Mg>Ni>Pb>Cd. The sediment revealed a slightly altered order: Ca>Mg>Pb>Ni>Cd. Ca and Mg were found at the highest concentrations in thalli due to the presence of carbonate on its surface. Among the examined heavy metals in thalli, Ni was in the highest concentration, and Cd found in the lowest concentration. There were statistically significant correlations between the levels of metals in macroalgae, water and sediment. Freshwater populations of Ulva exhibited a greater efficiency to bioaccumulate nickel as compared to species derived from marine ecosystems.

Rybak A; Messyasz B; ??ska B

2012-11-01

118

Acyl-homoserine lactones modulate the settlement rate of zoospores of the marine alga Ulva intestinalis via a novel chemokinetic mechanism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacteria utilize quorum sensing to regulate the expression of cell density-dependant phenotypes such as biofilm formation and virulence. Zoospores of the marine alga Ulva intestinalis exploit the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing system to identify bacterial biofilms for preferential settlement. Here, we demonstrate that AHLs act as strong chemoattractants for Ulva zoospores. Chemoattraction does not involve a chemotactic orientation towards the AHL source. Instead, it occurs through a chemokinesis in which zoospore swimming speed is rapidly decreased in the presence of AHLs. The chemoresponse to AHLs was dependant on the nature of the acyl side chain, with N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (30-C12-HSL) being the most effective signal molecule. Mean zoospore swimming speed decreased more rapidly over wild-type biofilms of the marine bacteria Vibrio anguillarum relative to biofilms of the vanM mutant, in which AHL synthesis is disrupted. These data implicate a role for AHL-mediated chemokinesis in the location and preferential settlement of Ulva zoospores on marine bacterial assemblages. Exposure to AHLs did not inhibit the negative phototaxis of Ulva zoospores, indicating that chemoattraction to bacterial biofilms does not preclude the response to a light stimulus in substrate location.

Wheeler GL; Tait K; Taylor A; Brownlee C; Joint I

2006-04-01

119

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2006-05-15

120

Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Chlorophycean seaweeds Ulva, Caulerpa and Spongomorpha sps. against clinical and phytopathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites. As a result of evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for newer antibiotics, the present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial potentiality of the marine Chlorophycean algae Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa taxifolia and Spongomorpha indica against six strains of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and Fungal organisms that cause diseases and disorders in man, animals and plants. Crude extracts revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and further bacterial strains were more sensitive to the seaweed extracts when compared to the fungal organisms. The overall antimicrobial activity assessed from the above results indicates the presence of active constituents in the extractions of seaweeds which can be exploited for the production of lead molecules which are of use in pharmaceutical industry.

G.Subba Rangaiaha, P. Lakshmi* a , K. Sruthikeerthia

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of El Niño on beds of Ulva lactuca along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of El Niño 1997-1998 on the biomass and size of beds of the green alga Ulva lactuca L., along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California across the Canal de Ballenas, was evaluated in May 1998 and compared with May 1995, 1996 and 2000. The El Niño event (97-98) had a significant negative effect on size and biomass. The percent cover area was reduced by 70%, and biomass by 80%, with respect to previous years. A complete recovery was observed in 2000. Growth of the algae was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. No significant effect of irradiance was detected, but temperature did have a significant effect on growth. Optimum growth was found at 18°C. Temperatures of 14°, 22° and 26°C caused reduced growth. A temperature of 30°C was lethal to U. lactuca.

I. Pacheco-Ruíz; F. Becerril-Bobadilla; J. A. Zertuche-González; A. Chee Barragán; A. Gálvez-Telles; R. Blanco-Betancourt

2003-01-01

122

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

2006-01-01

123

In vivo anti-radiation activities of the Ulva pertusa polysaccharides and polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polysaccharides with different molecular weights were extracted from Ulva pertusa and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Iron(III) complex of the low molecular-weight U. pertusa polysaccharides were synthesized. Atomic absorption spectrum showed that the iron content of iron(III)-polysaccharide complex was 27.4%. The comparison between U. pertusa polysaccharides and their iron(III) complex showed that iron chelating altered the structural characteristics of the polysaccharides. The bioactivity analysis showed that polysaccharide with low molecular weight was more effective than polysaccharide with high molecular weight in protecting mice from radiation induced damages on bone marrow cells and immune system. Results also proved that the anti-radiation and anti-oxidative activity of iron(III) complex of low molecular-weight polysaccharides were not less than that of low molecular-weight polysaccharides.

Shi J; Cheng C; Zhao H; Jing J; Gong N; Lu W

2013-09-01

124

Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of {Delta}H{sup o} and the negative value of {Delta}G{sup o} show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy {Delta}S{sup o} shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

Rathinam, Aravindhan [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Zou, Linda, E-mail: linda.zou@unisa.edu.au [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

2010-12-15

125

Comparative studies on phosphorus uptake and growth kinetics of the microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis and the macroalga Ulva pertusa  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term uptake experiments and long-term semicontinuous culture experiments were performed under the condition of phosphorus (P) limitation to estimate and compare the P uptake and growth kinetics of the microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis and the macroalga Ulva pertusa. Two new parameters, the maximum specific uptake rate ( V {m/sp}) and the maximal growth efficiency (?), are introduced to achieve uniformity for the comparison of nutrient uptake and growth efficiency between microalgae and macroalgae. T. subcordiformis possesses 3 times lower half saturation uptake constant, 4 times higher maximal growth rate and 20 times higher maximum specific uptake rate than U. pertusa, while U. pertusa possesses 4 times higher maximal growth efficiency than T. subcordiformis.

Nan, Chunrong; Dong, Shuanglin

2004-04-01

126

Activities of principal photosynthetic enzymes in green macroalga Ulva linza: functional implication of C? pathway in CO? assimilation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The green-tide-forming macroalga Ulva linza was profiled by transcriptome sequencing to ascertain whether the alga carries both C3 and C4 photosynthesis genes. The key enzymes involved in C4 metabolism including pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) were found. When measured under normal and different stress conditions, expression of rbcL was higher under normal conditions and lower under the adverse conditions, whereas that of PPDK was higher under some adverse conditions, namely desiccation, high salinity, and low salinity. Both ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) and PPDK were found to play a role in carbon fixation, with significantly higher PPDK activity across the stress conditions. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity alters carbon metabolism in U. linza leading to partial operation of the C4 carbon metabolism, a pathway that, under stress conditions, probably contributes to the hardy character of U. linza and thus to its wide distribution.

Xu J; Zhang X; Ye N; Zheng Z; Mou S; Dong M; Xu D; Miao J

2013-06-01

127

Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-01

128

Effects of ingestion of a green seaweed, Ulva lactuca, upon caecal and colonic mucosas in the germ-free rat and in the heteroxenic rat harbouring a human bacterial flora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effect of ingestion of green seaweed, Ulva lactuca, (70g kg(-1)) during a 6-week period on caecal and colonic mucosas was studied in germ-free (GF) rats and in heteroxenic (HE) rats harbouring a human bacterial flora (GF rats associated with a human flora). The pH and sulphide concentration of the caecal contents, crypt morphometry, mitotic index and mucin types in the caecal and distal colonic mucosas were determined. In the GF caecum, Ulva strongly increased crypt depth and mucin-containing cells irrespective of the mucin type studied (neutral, acidic or sulphated) compared to the control diet but had no significant effect on mitotic index. The crypt depth and mucin-containing cells in the caecum were higher in HE than in GF control rats. They were slightly but significantly increased by Ulva. In the distal colon mucosa of GF rats, Ulva decreased crypt depth and cell number as well as sulphomucin-containing cells. Conversely, in the HE rats, it increased crypt depth and reduced the number of neutral mucin-containing cells. These results show that Ulva lactuca exerts an intrinsic effect on mucosal morphometry and on mucin biosynthesis in GF rats. No pathological alteration was observed in the mucosas and no significant modification of the mitotic index or sulphide production was observed in HE rats.

Meslin JC; Andrieux C; Hibert A; Bensaada M; Szylit O

1999-04-01

129

Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long) were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 ?mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

Rapeeporn Ruangchuay; Sofhanee Dahamat; Anong Chirapat; Masahiro Notoya

2012-01-01

130

Effects of Five Antifouling Biocides on Settlement and Growth of Zoospores from the Marine Macroalga Ulva lactuca L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antifouling biocides are found in the marine ecosystem were they can affect non-target organisms. In this study the effects of five antifouling biocides on the settlement and growth of Ulva lactuca zoospores were investigated. The biocides investigated were copper (Cu(2+)), 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP), tolylfluanid and medetomidine. Full concentration-response curves where determined for each compound. EC50 values were determined for copper, DCOIT, TPBP and tolylfluanid, all of which inhibited settlement and growth in a concentration dependent manner with the following toxicity ranking; tolylfluanid (EC50 80 nmol L(-1)) ~ DCOIT (EC50 83 nmol L(-1)) > TPBP (EC50 400 nmol L(-1)) > Cu(2+) (EC50 2,000 nmol L(-1)). Medetomidine inhibited settlement and growth only at the extreme concentration of 100,000 nmol L(-1) (93 % effect). The low toxicity is possibly a consequence of a lack of receptors that medetomidine can bind to in the U. lactuca zoospores.

Wendt I; Arrhenius A; Backhaus T; Hilvarsson A; Holm K; Langford K; Tunovic T; Blanck H

2013-07-01

131

THE PERFORMANCE OF SPRAY-IRRIGATED ULVA LACTUCA (ULVOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA) AS A CROP AND AS A BIOFILTER OF FISHPOND EFFLUENTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The seaweed Ulva lactuca L. was spray cultured by mariculture effluents in a mattress-like layer, held in air on slanted boards by plastic netting. Air-agitated seaweed suspension tanks were the reference. Growth rate, yield, and ammonia-N removal rate were 11.8% · d?¹, 171 g fresh weight (fwt) · m?² · d?¹, and 5 g N · m?² · d?¹, respectively, by the spray-cultured U. lactuca, and 16.9% · d?¹, 283 g fwt · m?² · d?¹, and 7 g N · m?² · d?¹, respectively, by the tank U. lactuca. Biomass protein content was similar in both treatments. Dissolved oxygen in the fishpond effluent water was raised by >3 mg · L?¹ and pH by up to half a unit, upon passage through both culture systems. The data suggest that spray-irrigation culture of U. lactuca in this simple green-mattress-like system supplies the seaweed all it needs to grow and biofilter at rates close to those in standard air-agitated tank culture.

Msuya FlowerE; Neori Amir

2010-08-01

132

[Effects of Ulva pertusa and Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture].  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects of fresh tissue and culture medium filtrate of two species of macroalgae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture. Both U. pertusa and G. lemaneiformis, and especially their fresh tissues, significantly impede the growth of H. akashiwo. Carbonate limitations and the presence of environment bacteria are not necessary for the negative effects of macroalgal on H. akashiwo. The simultaneous nutrient assays show that nitrate and phosphate are almost exhausted in the G. lemaneiformis co-culture system, but remain at acceptable levels in the U. pertusa system, when all cells of H. akashiwo are completely dead. When f/2 medium is supplied daily to G. lemaneiformis culture, the growth of H. akashiwo is greatly inhibited but not completely terminated. Furthermore, different amounts of fresh seaweed tissue, and culture medium filtrate prepared from different macroalgal concentrations are analyzed to determine their effects on the growth of H. akashiwo. The results show a positive correlation between the initial macroalgal concentration and the negative effects they exert on the co-cultured microalgae. Results suggest that the allelopathic effects of U. pertusa may be essential for negative effects on H. akashiwo; however, the combined roles of allelopathy and nutrient competition may be responsible for the negative effect of G. lemaneiformis the release of allelochemicals by U. pertusa. PMID:16686183

Wang, You; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Zhang, Shan-dong

2006-02-01

133

[Effects of Ulva pertusa and Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the effects of fresh tissue and culture medium filtrate of two species of macroalgae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture. Both U. pertusa and G. lemaneiformis, and especially their fresh tissues, significantly impede the growth of H. akashiwo. Carbonate limitations and the presence of environment bacteria are not necessary for the negative effects of macroalgal on H. akashiwo. The simultaneous nutrient assays show that nitrate and phosphate are almost exhausted in the G. lemaneiformis co-culture system, but remain at acceptable levels in the U. pertusa system, when all cells of H. akashiwo are completely dead. When f/2 medium is supplied daily to G. lemaneiformis culture, the growth of H. akashiwo is greatly inhibited but not completely terminated. Furthermore, different amounts of fresh seaweed tissue, and culture medium filtrate prepared from different macroalgal concentrations are analyzed to determine their effects on the growth of H. akashiwo. The results show a positive correlation between the initial macroalgal concentration and the negative effects they exert on the co-cultured microalgae. Results suggest that the allelopathic effects of U. pertusa may be essential for negative effects on H. akashiwo; however, the combined roles of allelopathy and nutrient competition may be responsible for the negative effect of G. lemaneiformis the release of allelochemicals by U. pertusa.

Wang Y; Yu ZM; Song XX; Zhang SD

2006-02-01

134

Dietary bioavailability of cadmium presented to the gastropod Peringia ulvae as quantum dots and in ionic form.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For quantum dots (QDs) synthesised in solvents that are immiscible in water, dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, is expected to be the primary route of uptake. The estuarine snail, Peringia ulvae, was presented with mats of simulated detritus spiked with oleic acid capped- CdS (3.1?±?0.4?nm) or CdSe (4.2?±?0.8?nm) nanoparticles, synthesised using a microfluidics method, or Cd(2+) (added as Cd(NO3 )2 ) as a control. A biodynamic modelling approach was used to quantify parameters that describe the dietary accumulation of the Cd forms. Ingestion rates decreased across treatments at higher exposure concentrations indicating a metal-induced stress response related to Cd dose rather than form. Although Cd was bioavailable from both CdS and CdSe QDs, uptake rate constants from diet were significantly lower than that of Cd(2+) (p?

Khan FR; Schmuecking K; Krishnadasan SH; Berhanu D; Smith BD; Demello JC; Rainbow PS; Luoma SN; Valsami-Jones E

2013-08-01

135

Antioxidant Potential of Ulva rigida Extracts: Protection of HeLa Cells Against H2O2 Cytotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rising demand for natural antioxidants instead of synthetic materials, especially in biomedical applications, has led to increased interest in the search for bioactive compounds with potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we tested the antioxidant effect of both a crude extract and an ethanol precipitate of Ulva rigida in HeLa cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HeLa cells treated with H2O2 (1 mmol l(-1) for 3 h) exhibited significant damage to their morphology, a significant decrease in cell survival, and a remarkable leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, the co-exposure of cells to H2O2 and the crude extract or ethanol precipitate of U. rigida induced fewer morphological cytotoxic effects, a significant increase in cell viability, and a significant decrease in LDH release. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that U. rigida extracts have a strong radicalscavenging activity and contain protein, sugar, and phenolic content. The overall results suggest that U. rigida extracts protect HeLa cells from death induced by oxidative stress, and it is likely that these effects are related to the phenolic, protein, and polysaccharide compounds contained in this alga. Hence, U. rigida can be used to treat diseases ascribed to oxidative disorders.

Mezghani S; Bourguiba I; Hfaiedh I; Amri M

2013-09-01

136

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model.

Hassan S; El-Twab SA; Hetta M; Mahmoud B

2011-10-01

137

The consumption of algae, Ulva lactuca, by the snail, Littorina littorea, in relation to colliery waste contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Colliery waste is a persistent contaminant of intertidal areas in north-east England where it can reduce biodiversity. In an attempt to understand the ways in which colliery waste exerts its effects, the authors tested how a common molluscan grazer (Littorina littorea) from a range of contaminated and uncontaminated sites reacts to a common macroalgal component of its diet (Ulva lactuca) from the same range of sites. It is hypothesised that algae that are exposed to colliery waste are rejected (eaten less) by snails than those algae that are not so exposed. It is also hypothesised that snails exposed to colliery waste would prefer (eat more) algae from contaminated sites and those animals not so exposed would prefer algae from uncontaminated sites. No differences in feeding were observed in relation to these hypotheses and it is concluded that the contamination of shores by colliery waste does not affect the feeding of L. littorea on U. lactuca. However, snails from contaminated sites ate significantly more algae than those from uncontaminated sites. This may be because of differential digestion or metabolism of the algae or because of a paucity of suitable macroalgae at contaminated sites, snails feeding heavily on the rare U. lactuca when it is encountered.

Davies, M.S.; Falconer, F. [University of Sunderland, Durham (United Kingdom). Centre of Ecology

2001-07-01

138

Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biomass yields from some species of macroalgae exceed the yields in traditional terrestrial production systems. This renewable carbon source possesses a potential for energy purposes and thus reduction in fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Previous experiments have indicated that nitrous oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2?) and nitrate (NO3?) and at a light intensity of 225?molphotonsm?2s?1. No emission of N2O was observed in darkness. The N2O emission increased in a Michaelis–Menten characteristic manner with increasing concentrations of both NO3? and NO2?. The light dependency indicated that the N2O emission was related to algal photosynthesis, and not bacterial activity. As algal NO3? reductase (NR) converts NO3? to NO2? in light, and N2O emissionwas observed from both NO3? and NO2?, it is proposed that NO2? reductase (NiR) activity may have generated the observed N2O, however the mechanism needs further investigation. This apparent N2O production by algae emphasizes the need for experiments under natural conditions in order to evaluate potential greenhouse gas balances associated with large-scale productions for energy purposes.

Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette

2013-01-01

139

Metabolic regulation of ammonium uptake by Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta): A compartmental analysis of the rate-limiting step for uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-linear time courses of ammonium (NH4+) depletion from the medium and internal accumulation of soluble nitrogen (N) in macroalgae imply that the rate-limiting step for ammonium uptake changes over time. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the time course of N accumulation in N-limited Ulva rigida C. Agardh. Total uptake was measured as removal of NH4+ from medium. Rates for the component processes (transport of NH4+ across the membrane = Rt, assimilation of tissue NH4+ into soluble N compounds = Ra, and incorporation of soluble N compounds into macromolecules = Ri) were determined by measuring the rate of labelling of the major tissue N pools after the addition of 15N-ammonium. The results indicate that nitrogen-specific rates (mass N taken up/mass N present/unit time) are ranked in the order of Rt > Ra > Ri. Absolute uptake rates (?mol N?mg dry wt-1?h-1) showed a different relationship. Membrane transport appears to be inhibited when NH4+ accumulates in the tissue. Maximum uptake rates occur when assimilation of NH4+ into soluble N compounds begins. Assimilation of NH4+ into soluble N compounds was initially faster than incorporation of soluble N compounds into macromolecules. Implications of rate limitations caused by differences in maximal rates and maximal pool sizes are discussed.

1988-01-01

140

Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. RESULTS: In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ?6 and C22:5 ?3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ?3 and ?6 fatty acids with a ratio of ?6/?3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes.

Tabarsa M; Rezaei M; Ramezanpour Z; Waaland JR

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. RESULTS: In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g?1 dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g?1 d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g?1 d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g?1 protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g?1 protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ?6 and C22:5 ?3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ?3 and ?6 fatty acids with a ratio of ?6/?3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02?11 380.06 mg 100 g?1 d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value?added products for human nutrition purposes.

Tabarsa M; Rezaei M; Ramezanpour Z; Waaland JR

2012-09-01

142

Evidence for abrasion and enhanced growth of Ulva lactuca L. in the presence of colliery waste particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have highlighted a reduction in occurrence and biomass of Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyceae) on shores where inputs of colliery waste occur. It was postulated that this was owing to an abrasive effect of colliery waste on macroalgal fronds. To test this, individual U. lactuca plants were exposed to colliery waste (three different grain size categories: {lt} 500 {mu}m, 500-2000 {mu}m, and 0-2000 {mu}m) in both shaken (turbulent) and still conditions in the laboratory. Over an 8-day period, U. lactuca plants lost weight when colliery waste was present and gained weight when no colliery waste was present. The results suggest that `large` grains of colliery waste act as a physical abrading agent on macroalgae when in turbulent conditions, and may be responsible for lowering of species richness of macroalgae where colliery waste inputs occur. However, by contrast, colliery waste in still conditions promotes the growth of U. lactuca, suggesting that, for example, rock pool flora may benefit from its presence.

Hyslop, B.T.; Davies, M.S. [University of Sunderland, Sunderland (United Kingdom). Northumbrian Water Ecology Centre

1998-12-01

143

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 ?g L?¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g?¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ?10?-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl? through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K? ion channels.

Turner A; Furniss O

2012-12-01

144

Identification of toxicity variations in a stream affected by industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water.

Yoo J; Ahn B; Oh JJ; Han T; Kim WK; Kim S; Jung J

2013-09-01

145

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr

2008-03-21

146

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (?Go, ?Ho and ?So) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

2008-03-21

147

Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents.

Salima A; Benaouda B; Noureddine B; Duclaux L

2013-06-01

148

Evidence of coexistence of C? and C? photosynthetic pathways in a green-tide-forming alga, Ulva prolifera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C? photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C? photosynthesis, so C? photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C? and C? photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C? metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). To investigate whether the alga operates a C?-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature). The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C?-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea.

Xu J; Fan X; Zhang X; Xu D; Mou S; Cao S; Zheng Z; Miao J; Ye N

2012-01-01

149

Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity.

Campana O; Rodríguez A; Blasco J

2013-05-01

150

Production changes and distribution of ulva rigida in Venice Lagoon; Decremento di produzione e cambio nella vegetazione macroalgale nella laguna di Venezia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of this work in supplying information on the Ulva rigida C. Ag. distribution and production changes recently monitored in the central part of the lagoon of Venice. This species from 1970s replaced the meadows of rhizophytes which in the past populated the lagoon and nowadays is declining. Estimations of the amounts of nutrients which were involved in the growth of this species before and after its decline are supplied. On the basis of data collected in field during the period 1989-1991, some hypotheses on the main causes promoting these progressive changes are presented.

Sfriso, A. [Venice Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali

1996-05-01

151

NMR spectroscopic characterisation of oligosaccharides from two Ulva rigida ulvan samples (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) degraded by a lyase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical structure and the sequence of repeating units in ulvans of similar compositions from two different Ulva rigida samples collected in the Canary Islands and in Brittany were studied after ulvan-lyase degradation and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products. Both ulvans were composed of ulvanobiuronic acid 3-sulfate type A[-4)-{beta}-d-GlcA-(1-4)-{alpha}-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] (symbolised as A{sub 3s}) and contained disaccharides composed of [-4)-{beta}-d-Xyl-(1-4)-{alpha}-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] and [-4)-{beta}-d-Xyl 2-sulfate-(1-4)-{alpha}-l-Rha 3-sulfate], respectively referred to as ulvanobiose 3-sulfate (U{sub 3s}) and ulvanobiose 2minutes or feet,3-disulfate (U{sub 2minutes or feets,3s}). In the Canary Islands sample, these U{sub 3s} and U{sub 2minutes or feets,3s} occurred dispersed among A{sub 3s} sequences and as short blocks of two or three units. In contrast, in the Brittany samples, these units were dispersed among A{sub 3s} structures and next to A{sub 3s} units branched at O-2 of {alpha}-l-Rha 3-sulfate by a terminal {beta}-d-GlcA and symbolised as A{sub 2g,3s}. However, more complex structures are likely to occur in the enzyme resistant fraction remaining from this ulvan. An average structure sequence of these two ulvans was proposed. The transposition of the {sup 13}C NMR data of the new identified structures to the parent polysaccharides was not possible, probably due to the different sequence distributions affecting the carbons chemical shifts. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Lahaye, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unite de Recherche sur les Polysaccharides, leurs Organisations et Interactions, BP 71627, F-44316- Nantes (France)

1998-12-21

152

NMR spectroscopic characterisation of oligosaccharides from two Ulva rigida ulvan samples (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) degraded by a lyase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical structure and the sequence of repeating units in ulvans of similar compositions from two different Ulva rigida samples collected in the Canary Islands and in Brittany were studied after ulvan-lyase degradation and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products. Both ulvans were composed of ulvanobiuronic acid 3-sulfate type A[-4)-?-d-GlcA-(1-4)-?-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] (symbolised as A3s) and contained disaccharides composed of [-4)-?-d-Xyl-(1-4)-?-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] and [-4)-?-d-Xyl 2-sulfate-(1-4)-?-l-Rha 3-sulfate], respectively referred to as ulvanobiose 3-sulfate (U3s) and ulvanobiose 2minutes or feet,3-disulfate (U2minutesorfeets,3s). In the Canary Islands sample, these U3s and U2minutesorfeets,3s occurred dispersed among A3s sequences and as short blocks of two or three units. In contrast, in the Brittany samples, these units were dispersed among A3s structures and next to A3s units branched at O-2 of ?-l-Rha 3-sulfate by a terminal ?-d-GlcA and symbolised as A2g,3s. However, more complex structures are likely to occur in the enzyme resistant fraction remaining from this ulvan. An average structure sequence of these two ulvans was proposed. The transposition of the 13C NMR data of the new identified structures to the parent polysaccharides was not possible, probably due to the different sequence distributions affecting the carbons chemical shifts. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-12-21

153

Evidence for abrasion and enhanced growth of Ulva lactuca L. in the presence of colliery waste particles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have highlighted a reduction in occurrence and biomass of Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyceae) on shores where inputs of colliery waste occur. It was postulated that this was owing to an abrasive effect of colliery waste on macroalgal fronds. To test this, individual U. lactuca plants were exposed to colliery waste (three different grain size categories: < 500 microm, 500-2000 microm, and 0-2000 microm) in both shaken (turbulent) and still conditions in the laboratory. Over an 8-day period, U. lactuca plants lost weight when colliery waste was present and gained weight when no colliery waste was present. Weight loss was most pronounced in U. lactuca exposed to colliery waste of 500-2000 microm grain sizes in shaken conditions (- 18.8% +/- 4.65 SE, n = 4). However, greatest weight gain (+ 26.8% +/- 6.26 SE, n = 4) also occurred in the presence of colliery waste (0-2000 microm), but in still conditions. Weight gain was also observed after 60 days in still conditions in the presence of colliery waste (grain sizes 0-2000 microm); U. lactuca showed significant growth (+ 69% +/- 67 SE of starting weight, n = 5) compared with controls (- 51% +/- 41 SE, n = 5). These results suggest that 'large' grains of colliery waste act as a physical abrading agent on macroalgae when in turbulent conditions, and may be responsible for lowering of species richness of macroalgae where colliery waste inputs occur. However, by contrast, colliery waste in still conditions promotes the growth of U. lactuca, suggesting that, for example, rock pool flora may benefit from its presence

Hyslop BT; Davies MS

1998-01-01

154

Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana) (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae), habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil/ Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana) (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae) from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857), in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723), this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The fo (more) llowing aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth) Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing) Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi) De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn) to 23ºC (summer), the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter) to 25ºC (summer) and the surface water salinity, from 29.3? (autumn) to 32.8? (winter). The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva) to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia) of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024).

Dubiaski-Silva, Janete; Masunari, Setuko

1998-01-01

155

Phylogenetic analyses of four species of Ulva and Monostroma grevillei using ITS, rbc L and 18S rDNA sequence data  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorophyta species are common in the southern and northern coastal areas of China. In recent years, frequent green tide incidents in Chinese coastal waters have raised concerns and attracted the attention of scientists. In this paper, we sequenced the 18S rDNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rbc L genes in seven organisms and obtained 536-566 bp long ITS sequences, 1 377-1 407 bp long rbc L sequences and 1 718-1 761 bp long partial 18S rDNA sequences. The GC base pair content was highest in the ITS regions and lowest in the rbc L genes. The sequencing results showed that the three Ulva prolifera (or U. pertusa) gene sequences from Qingdao and Nan'ao Island were identical. The ITS, 18S rDNA and rbc L genes in U. prolifera and U. pertusa from different sea areas in China were unchanged by geographic distance. U. flexuosa had the least evolutionary distance from U. californica in both the ITS regions (0.009) and the 18S rDNA (0.002). These data verified that Ulva and Enteromorpha are not separate genera.

Lin, Zhongheng; Shen, Songdong; Chen, Weizhou; Li, Huihui

2013-01-01

156

Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil/ Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer) e na Barra do Furado (Barra), norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do (more) método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m) em relação ao Píer (2,2 m). Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth) Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818), Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos estressante. As diferenças observadas na distribuição vertical dos organismos bênticos, principalmente na extensão das faixas superiores, evidenciam condições de exposição a ondas variáveis. Abstract in english The present study aims to compare the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic communities in two sites composed by granitic boulders with distint hydrodynamics due to different wave swells at Farol de São Tomé (Pier) and Barra do Furado beaches (Barra), both in northern state of Rio de Janeiro. Quadrats of 400 cm² were overlapped along three vertical profiles on each site and were sampled by the photoquadrat method from 0.2 m of the tide level to the upper limit of (more) Littorina spp. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at Barra site (3.8 m) than at Píer site (2.2 m). Nine species were common to both sites. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth) Fredericq, and Grateloupia sp. were unique to Barra, whereas Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818), Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie, and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) Lamouroux occurred only at Píer boulders. On both sites species richness and diversity were superior at the intermediate quadrats of the intertidal zone. The highest values were recorded at Barra. The most pronounced assemblage differences between equivalent areas of either site occurred on the lower upper eulittoral band followed by the lower eulittoral and the sub-littoral fringe, respectively. The littoral fringe assemblage was the only one that did not show significant differences among the studied sites, yet a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas, such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) on upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 on the sub-littoral fringe. At Píer, the intertidal zone showed an even distribution, reflecting a less stressful

Masi, Bruno P.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

2008-12-01

157

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in theother Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin

2011-01-01

158

Marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters show antifouling activity against the marine fouling bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis independent of bacteriocidal activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

Bernbom N; Ng YY; Kjelleberg S; Harder T; Gram L

2011-12-01

159

De novo sequencing and analysis of the Ulva linza transcriptome to discover putative mechanisms associated with its successful colonization of coastal ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The green algal genus Ulva Linnaeus (Ulvaceae, Ulvales, Chlorophyta) is well known for its wide distribution in marine, freshwater, and brackish environments throughout the world. The Ulva species are also highly tolerant of variations in salinity, temperature, and irradiance and are the main cause of green tides, which can have deleterious ecological effects. However, limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model and ecologically important species. Ulva linza is a species that inhabits bedrock in the mid to low intertidal zone, and it is a major contributor to biofouling. Here, we presented the global characterization of the U. linza transcriptome using the Roche GS FLX Titanium platform, with the aim of uncovering the genomic mechanisms underlying rapid and successful colonization of the coastal ecosystems. Results De novo assembly of 382,884 reads generated 13,426 contigs with an average length of 1,000 bases. Contiguous sequences were further assembled into 10,784 isotigs with an average length of 1,515 bases. A total of 304,101 reads were nominally identified by BLAST; 4,368 isotigs were functionally annotated with 13,550 GO terms, and 2,404 isotigs having enzyme commission (EC) numbers were assigned to 262 KEGG pathways. When compared with four other full sequenced green algae, 3,457 unique isotigs were found in U. linza and 18 conserved in land plants. In addition, a specific photoprotective mechanism based on both LhcSR and PsbS proteins and a C4-like carbon-concentrating mechanism were found, which may help U. linza survive stress conditions. At least 19 transporters for essential inorganic nutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur) were responsible for its ability to take up inorganic nutrients, and at least 25 eukaryotic cytochrome P450s, which is a higher number than that found in other algae, may be related to their strong allelopathy. Multi-origination of the stress related proteins, such as glutamate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and heat-shock proteins, may also contribute to colonization of U. linza under stress conditions. Conclusions The transcriptome of U. linza uncovers some potential genomic mechanisms that might explain its ability to rapidly and successfully colonize coastal ecosystems, including the land-specific genes; special photoprotective mechanism based on both LhcSR and PsbS; development of C4-like carbon-concentrating mechanisms; muti-origin transporters for essential inorganic nutrients; multiple and complex P450s; and glutamate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and heat-shock proteins that are related to stress resistance.

Zhang Xiaowen; Ye Naihao; Liang Chengwei; Mou Shanli; Fan Xiao; Xu Jianfang; Xu Dong; Zhuang Zhimeng

2012-01-01

160

Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

1985-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Winogradskyella ulvae sp. nov., an epiphyte of a Pacific seaweed, and emended descriptions of the genus Winogradskyella and Winogradskyella thalassocola, Winogradskyella echinorum, Winogradskyella exilis and Winogradskyella eximia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium that was motile by gliding, designated KMM 6390(T), was isolated from the coastal green alga Ulva fenestrata collected from the Sea of Japan. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KMM 6390(T) was a member of the genus Winogradskyella, with Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) as its closest relative (97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and other members of the genus Winogradskyella were 95.4-96.7%. DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolate and W. echinorum KMM 6211(T) was 27%. Strain KMM 6390(T) was able to grow with 0.5-4.0% NaCl and at 4-37 °C. The isolate decomposed casein, gelatin, starch and DNA and produced acid from galactose, D-glucose, lactose and maltose. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1), anteiso-C(15:0) and C(15:0). The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic investigations, strain KMM 6390(T) represents a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella ulvae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KMM 6390(T) (=KCTC 23626(T)=LMG 26444(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Winogradskyella and of W. thalassocola, W. echinorum, W. exilis and W. eximia are also provided. PMID:21841007

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kukhlevskiy, Andrey D; Zhukova, Natalia V

2011-08-12

162

Winogradskyella ulvae sp. nov., an epiphyte of a Pacific seaweed, and emended descriptions of the genus Winogradskyella and Winogradskyella thalassocola, Winogradskyella echinorum, Winogradskyella exilis and Winogradskyella eximia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium that was motile by gliding, designated KMM 6390(T), was isolated from the coastal green alga Ulva fenestrata collected from the Sea of Japan. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KMM 6390(T) was a member of the genus Winogradskyella, with Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) as its closest relative (97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and other members of the genus Winogradskyella were 95.4-96.7%. DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolate and W. echinorum KMM 6211(T) was 27%. Strain KMM 6390(T) was able to grow with 0.5-4.0% NaCl and at 4-37 °C. The isolate decomposed casein, gelatin, starch and DNA and produced acid from galactose, D-glucose, lactose and maltose. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1), anteiso-C(15:0) and C(15:0). The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic investigations, strain KMM 6390(T) represents a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella ulvae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KMM 6390(T) (=KCTC 23626(T)=LMG 26444(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Winogradskyella and of W. thalassocola, W. echinorum, W. exilis and W. eximia are also provided.

Nedashkovskaya OI; Kukhlevskiy AD; Zhukova NV

2012-07-01

163

Evaluation of three seaweeds Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, Ulva rigida and Gracilaria cornea as dietary ingredients in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of three seaweeds Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (GP), Ulva rigida (UR) and Gracilaria cornea (GC) as dietary ingredients on the performance, nutrient utilisation and body composition of European sea bass juveniles. Six experimental diets were formulated to replace 5% (GP-5, UR-5, and GC-5 Diets) and 10% (GP-10, UR-10 and GC-10 Diets) fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) by each of the three seaweeds. A control diet was used, without inclusion of any seaweed. Diets were fed to duplicate groups of 25 European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles (IBW = 4.7 g) for 10 weeks. Growth performance was only significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in fish fed the GC-10 diet, whereas the feed conversion ratio increased significantly in those fish. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter and lipid were significantly lower in fish fed diet GC-10 relative to those fed the control diet. Carcass composition was similar among treatments, although fish fed GC-10 exhibited significantly higher ash content. The results obtained in this study suggest that the inclusion of G. bursa-pastoris (GP) and U. rigida (UR), up to 10%, can be considered as very interesting ingredients in diets for sea bass juveniles, as no negative consequences on growth performance, nutrient utilization or body composition were observed. On the other hand, the inclusion of G. cornea (GC) should be limited to 5% of the diet.

Valente LMP; Gouveia A; Rema P; Matos J; Gomes FF; Pinto IS

2006-03-01

164

Allelopathic effects of Ulva pertusa, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii on the growth of the dinoflagellates Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium tamarense.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The allelopathic effects of fresh tissue, dry powder and aqueous extracts of three macroalgae, Ulva pertusa, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the growth of the dinoflagellates Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium tamarense were evaluated using coexistence culture systems in which concentrations of the three macroalga were varied. The results of the coexistence assay showed that the growth of the two microalgae was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissue, dry powder and aqueous extracts of the three macroalga; the allelochemicals were lethal to H. akashiwo at relatively higher concentrations of the three macroalga. The macroalgae showing the most allelopathic effect on H. akashiwo and A. tamarense using fresh tissue were U. pertusa and S. thunbergii, using dry powder were S. thunbergii and U. pertusa, and using aqueous extracts were U. pertusa and C. pilulifera. We also examined the potential allelopathic effect on the two microalgae of culture filtrate of the three macroalga; culture medium filtrate initially exhibited no inhibitory effects when first added but inhibitory effects became apparent under semi-continuous addition, which suggested that continuous release of small quantities of rapidly degradable allelochemicals from the fresh macroalgal tissue were essential to effectively inhibit the growth of the two microalgae.

Wang R; Xiao H; Zhang P; Qu L; Cai H; Tang X

2007-04-01

165

Allelopathic effects of Ulva pertusa, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii on the growth of the dinoflagellates Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium tamarense.  

Science.gov (United States)

The allelopathic effects of fresh tissue, dry powder and aqueous extracts of three macroalgae, Ulva pertusa, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the growth of the dinoflagellates Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium tamarense were evaluated using coexistence culture systems in which concentrations of the three macroalga were varied. The results of the coexistence assay showed that the growth of the two microalgae was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissue, dry powder and aqueous extracts of the three macroalga; the allelochemicals were lethal to H. akashiwo at relatively higher concentrations of the three macroalga. The macroalgae showing the most allelopathic effect on H. akashiwo and A. tamarense using fresh tissue were U. pertusa and S. thunbergii, using dry powder were S. thunbergii and U. pertusa, and using aqueous extracts were U. pertusa and C. pilulifera. We also examined the potential allelopathic effect on the two microalgae of culture filtrate of the three macroalga; culture medium filtrate initially exhibited no inhibitory effects when first added but inhibitory effects became apparent under semi-continuous addition, which suggested that continuous release of small quantities of rapidly degradable allelochemicals from the fresh macroalgal tissue were essential to effectively inhibit the growth of the two microalgae. PMID:19396350

Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Zhang, Peiyu; Qu, Liang; Cai, Hengjiang; Tang, Xuexi

2006-11-10

166

Preparation of novel alginate based anion exchanger from Ulva japonica and its application for the removal of trace concentrations of fluoride from water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A green seaweed, Ulva japonica, was modified by loading multivalent metal ions such as Zr(IV) and La(III) after CaCl2 cross-linking to produce metal loaded cross-linked seaweed (M-CSW) adsorbents, which were characterized by elemental analysis, functional groups identification, and metal content determination. Maximum sorption potential for fluoride was drastically increased after La(III) and Zr(IV) loading, which were evaluated as 0.58 and 0.95mmol/g, respectively. Loaded fluoride was quantitatively desorbed by using dilute alkaline solution for its regeneration. Mechanism of fluoride adsorption was inferred in terms of ligand exchange reaction between hydroxyl ion on co-ordination sphere of the loaded metal ions of M-CSW and fluoride ion in aqueous solution. Application of M-CSW for the treatment of actual waste plating solution exhibited successful removal of fluoride to clear the effluent and environmental standards in Japan, suggesting high possibility of its application for the treatment of fluoride rich waste water. PMID:24055965

Paudyal, Hari; Pangeni, Bimala; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke; Ghimire, Kedar Nath; Alam, Shafiq

2013-09-03

167

Photoprotection in the green tidal alga Ulva prolifera: role of LHCSR and PsbS proteins in response to high light stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ulva prolifera, an intertidal macroalga, has to adapt to wide variations in light intensity, making this species particularly rewarding for studying the evolution of photoprotective mechanisms. Intense light induced increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and stimulated de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle components, while DTT-treated samples had lower NPQ capacity, indicating that the xanthophyll cycle must participate in photoprotection. In this work, we found that the PsbS-related NPQ was maintained in U. prolifera. According to analysed gene expression, both LhcSR and psbS were up-regulated in high light, suggesting that these two genes are light-induced. LHCSR and PsbS proteins were present at different light intensities and accumulated under high light conditions, and PsbS concentrations were higher than LHCSR, showing that the NPQ mechanism of U. prolifera is more dependent on PsbS protein concentration. Moreover, the level of both LHCSR and PsbS proteins was high even in the darkness, and neither the transcript level nor protein content of LhcSR and psbS genes varied significantly following short-term exposure to intense light. These findings suggest that this alga can modulate NPQ levels through regulation of the xanthophyll cycle and concentrations of PsbS and/or LHCSR.

Mou S; Zhang X; Dong M; Fan X; Xu J; Cao S; Xu D; Wang W; Ye N

2013-07-01

168

Occurrence of the PsbS and LhcSR products in the green alga Ulva linza and their correlation with excitation pressure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To avoid photoinhibition, plants have developed diverse photoprotection mechanisms. One of the short-term high light protection mechanisms in plants is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which dissipates the absorbed light energy as thermal energy. In the green alga, Ulva linza, the kinetics of NPQ starts with an initial, quick rise followed by a decline, and then a second and higher rise at longer time periods. During the whole phase, NPQ is triggered and controlled by ?pH, then strengthened and modulated by zeaxanthin. Light-harvesting complex (LHC) family members are known to play crucial roles in this mechanism. The PSBS protein, a member of the LHC family that was thought to be present exclusively in higher plants, has been identified for the first time in U. linza. The expression of both PSBS and LHCSR was up-regulated during high light conditions, and LHCSR increased more than PSBS. Both LHCSR and PSBS-dependent NPQ may be important strategies for adapting to the environment, and they have undoubtedly played a role in their evolution.

Zhang X; Ye N; Mou S; Xu D; Fan X

2013-09-01

169

Occurrence of the PsbS and LhcSR products in the green alga Ulva linza and their correlation with excitation pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

To avoid photoinhibition, plants have developed diverse photoprotection mechanisms. One of the short-term high light protection mechanisms in plants is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which dissipates the absorbed light energy as thermal energy. In the green alga, Ulva linza, the kinetics of NPQ starts with an initial, quick rise followed by a decline, and then a second and higher rise at longer time periods. During the whole phase, NPQ is triggered and controlled by ?pH, then strengthened and modulated by zeaxanthin. Light-harvesting complex (LHC) family members are known to play crucial roles in this mechanism. The PSBS protein, a member of the LHC family that was thought to be present exclusively in higher plants, has been identified for the first time in U. linza. The expression of both PSBS and LHCSR was up-regulated during high light conditions, and LHCSR increased more than PSBS. Both LHCSR and PSBS-dependent NPQ may be important strategies for adapting to the environment, and they have undoubtedly played a role in their evolution. PMID:23811776

Zhang, Xiaowen; Ye, Naihao; Mou, Shanli; Xu, Dong; Fan, Xiao

2013-05-31

170

Preparation of novel alginate based anion exchanger from Ulva japonica and its application for the removal of trace concentrations of fluoride from water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A green seaweed, Ulva japonica, was modified by loading multivalent metal ions such as Zr(IV) and La(III) after CaCl2 cross-linking to produce metal loaded cross-linked seaweed (M-CSW) adsorbents, which were characterized by elemental analysis, functional groups identification, and metal content determination. Maximum sorption potential for fluoride was drastically increased after La(III) and Zr(IV) loading, which were evaluated as 0.58 and 0.95mmol/g, respectively. Loaded fluoride was quantitatively desorbed by using dilute alkaline solution for its regeneration. Mechanism of fluoride adsorption was inferred in terms of ligand exchange reaction between hydroxyl ion on co-ordination sphere of the loaded metal ions of M-CSW and fluoride ion in aqueous solution. Application of M-CSW for the treatment of actual waste plating solution exhibited successful removal of fluoride to clear the effluent and environmental standards in Japan, suggesting high possibility of its application for the treatment of fluoride rich waste water.

Paudyal H; Pangeni B; Inoue K; Kawakita H; Ohto K; Ghimire KN; Alam S

2013-11-01

171

Effect of dietary Ulva and Spirulina on weight loss and body composition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), during a starvation period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary algal supplementation on weight loss and proximate composition in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during starvation. An algae-free control diet (C) and four experimental diets, including varying levels of raw Ulva meal (5% = U5; 10% = U10) and Spirulina meal (5% = S5; 10% = S10) were formulated. Fish were fed to satiation for 12 weeks and then subjected to a 3-week starvation period. Body weight, viscerosomatic index (VSI, %), hepatosomatic index (HSI, %), dress-out (DO, %) and chemical composition of carcass were analysed at the end of each starvation week. The accumulated weight loss of the fish fed dietary algae was almost 50% less than the control group (p < 0.05) after 2 and 3 weeks starvation. No significant differences in weight loss were observed among the fish fed different algal diets during the starvation period. Total body protein and ash contents remained constant in all groups throughout the starvation period. Fish in all treatments lost a significant level of total lipids and changes of liver fatty acid profiles were also observed. Results indicate that low level inclusion of algae in aquafeeds may have economical advantages in terms of reducing weight loss in fish when subjected to a short-term fasting period, that sometimes is necessary after a heavy rainfall or when fish stocks are held back to meet market demand.

Güroy D; Güroy B; Merrifield DL; Ergün S; Tekinay AA; Yi?it M

2011-06-01

172

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

2013-01-04

173

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

Wang R; Paul VJ; Luesch H

2013-04-01

174

Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)/ Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO), fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (more) (PEPCK) y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC) en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii Abstract in english Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phospho (more) enolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchellii

CABELLO-PASINI, ALEJANDRO; ALBERTE, RANDALL S.

2001-06-01

175

Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta) Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO), fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK) y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC) en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI; RANDALL S. ALBERTE

2001-01-01

176

Inter- and intra-annual patterns of Ulva prolifera green tides in the Yellow Sea during 2007-2009, their origin and relationship to the expansion of coastal seaweed aquaculture in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The large green-tide events that occurred in the Yellow Sea in 2008 (3489km(2)) and 2009 (4994km(2)) are shown to be novel events preceded only once by a much smaller event in 2007 (82km(2)). The blooms originated in the coastal area of Jiangsu province and spread north-east towards the Shandong Peninsula. The blooms grew at different rates and mesoscale variability in surface winds explained the differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of blooms in 2008 and 2009. The 2009 bloom was tracked to its origin immediately offshore of extensive intertidal flats between Yancheng and Nantong where recent rapid expansion of Porphyra aquaculture has occurred. We review published hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the occurrence of blooms and in light of our findings, we conclude that the accumulation and disposal of waste Ulva prolifera from Porphyra aquaculture rafts is the most likely cause of the blooms.

Keesing JK; Liu D; Fearns P; Garcia R

2011-06-01

177

In vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities of different sulfated polysaccharides isolated from three algae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three sulfated polysaccharides(Ulva fasciata (UFP), Gloiopeltis furcata (GFP), Sargassum henslouianum (SHP))were isolated from three algae including green alga Ulva fasciata, red alga Gloiopeltis furcata and brown alga Sargassum henslouianum by ultrasonic extraction and radial flow chromatography. Their in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, UFP, with relatively lower sulfate content, exhibited excellent antioxidant activities in superoxide radical assay, ABTS assay and DPPH assay; however, it demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of MKN45 gastric cancer cells and DLD intestinal cancer cells. SHP with the lowest sulfate content gained relatively lower radical scavenging rates but showed significantly higher antitumor activities. These results indicated that the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides may be related to combined effects of sulfate content and uronic acid content.

Shao P; Chen X; Sun P

2013-08-01

178

Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead biomasses of green alga Ulva lactuca and the development of a sustainable matrix for adsorption implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many industries have high heavy metals concentrations in their effluents that should be treated before disposal in drains or natural watercourses. When adsorption process is evaluated to generate and implement an efficient, economical and sustainable method suitable for heavy metals removal from contaminated effluents, it is necessary to develop an experimental setup that contains the adsorbent. Ulva lactuca, a marine green alga, was studied as a natural biosorbent for heavy metals at acid pH conditions. Adsorption experiments were carried out in glass columns and in batch where the alga was suspended or fixed in an agar matrix. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to the experimental results. Langmuir model best describes the adsorption isotherms in all analyzed cases. The adsorption capacity increases with pH. Kinetic studies demonstrate that, in most studied cases, the adsorption follows a pseudo second order kinetics model. Removal efficiencies of the biomaterial supported in agar or fixed in columns were: fixed in columns>suspended in batch mode>fixed in agar. Finally, the effect of the presence of two sorbates, Cd and Pb, in the solution was measured and results demonstrate that adsorption of both metals are diminished by co/adsorption. PMID:22342902

Areco, María Mar; Hanela, Sergio; Duran, Jorge; Afonso, María dos Santos

2012-01-30

179

Water-stable diblock polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) and diblock polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) cylindrical patterned surfaces inhibit settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanopatterned surfaces with hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains were produced using the diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). The PS-b-P2VP diblock copolymer, mixed with the cross-linker benzophenone and spin-coated onto silicon wafers, showed self-assembled cylindrical structures, which were retained after UV treatment for cross-linking. The thin films displayed cylindrical domains after immersion in water. This study shows that pattern retention in water is possible for a long period of time, at least for two weeks in pure water and three weeks in artificial seawater. The PS-b-PMMA diblock showed self-assembled cylindrical structures. PS-b-P2VP and PS-b-PMMA cylindrical patterned surfaces showed reduced settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva compared to unpatterned surfaces. The copolymers were investigated using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:19296654

Grozea, Claudia M; Gunari, Nikhil; Finlay, John A; Grozea, Daniel; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Walker, Gilbert C

2009-04-13

180

Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea) dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil/ Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea) from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May) to 23ºC (March), surface water temperature from 17ºC (August) to 25ºC (March) and the salinity from 29.3? (May) to 32.8? (August). Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long), 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long) and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long) were removed with a spatula from the rocky (more) surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing) Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi) De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth) Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea). Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea). Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced the temporal distribution of the Amphipoda density, due to the distinct time of air exposition in eaeh collection data. Most Amphipoda did not show specific algal substratum colonization: only Sunampithoe pelagica occurred solely in Sargassum. Four species occurred in different branched algae: J. falcata. S. pelagica. C. danilevskii and C. penantis. H. media had Sargassum, Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus as the best algal substrata, whereas Caprellidea, the Pterocladia and Pterosiphonia phytals. High sediment weight in Padina was the main reason for high densities of Hyale sp.l in this phytal. The occurrence of males, females (including ovigerous ones) and juveniles of most Amphipoda species found in the present study indicates a complete life cycle whithin these phytals and corroborates with the assumption of the complexity of this marine coastal ecosystem.

Dubiaski-Silva, Janete; Masunari, Setuko

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle) e as suas sobrevivência e c (more) rescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico. Abstract in english The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolitho (more) n significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.

Villas Bôas, Alexandre Bigio; Figueiredo, Marcia A. de O.

2004-03-01

182

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle) e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico.

Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas; Marcia A. de O. Figueiredo

2004-01-01

183

Feeding habits of Hyale media (Dana, 1853) (Crustacea-Amphipoda)  

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Full Text Available Feeding of males and females of the Gammaridea Hyate media at mature and immature stages were tested in laboratory experiments. Macro and microscopic algae as well as dead or alive animals were utilized as food. This gammarid is omnivorous, feeding by predation, scavenging, browsing and scraping. Feeding behaviour was discontinuous. Padina vickersiae was more utilized in winter and Ulva fasciata in summer. The feeding activity of all the animals showed great variability in relation to the type of food. Higher temperatures probably account for the higher consumption observed in summer.

Airton Santo Tararam; Yoko Wakabara; Hilda de Sousa Lima Mesquita

1985-01-01

184

Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

2003-03-01

185

Active fractions from four species of marine algae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A bioassay-directed is utilized to detect substances with biological activity from Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Sargassum fluitans. In a preliminary assessment, polar and non polar extracts of four species of marine protoctist form were screened for antibacterial and antifungal properties against seven microorganisms by the diffusion method, non polar extracts of Sargassumfluitans,and polar extracts of Gracilaria tikvahiae inhibited the growth of (more) more than four microorganisms. Extracts were separated using chromatography column and fractions were tested againstStapylococcusaureus andCandida albicans. The eighty fraction of petroleum ether of S. fluitans exhibited high activity against C.albicans, MIC 0.16 µg/mL.

Oranday, MA; Verde, MJ; Martínez-Lozano, SJ; Waksman, NH

2004-12-01

186

Distribution and ecological conditions of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in La Maddalena National Park (Sardinia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The La Maddalena Archipelago became National Park in 1996 and together with the southern part of Corsica it forms the Bocche di Bonifacio International Park. Posidonia oceanica beds widely distributed in the area play an important role in dividing La Maddalena National Park (MNP) into zones w...

Cossu, Andrea Vito Luigi; Ragazzola, Federica; Demelas, Simone

187

Nucleoli, rRNA genes and ITS region in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The maximum number of nucleoli was counted in interphase nuclei of Posidonia oceanica, and a restriction pattern of nuclear rDNA was obtained after digestion with four restriction endonucleases and Southern hybridization. P. oceanica has only one type of ribosomal gene whose size was estimated to be 18.5 kbp long. The nucleotide sequence of the entire ITS region was also determined by direct sequencing of PCR amplified DNA fragments. The sequence of the ITS region was aligned with those of homologous regions of other monocots available in literature, and phylogenetic trees were obtained.

Tucci GF; De Dominicis RI; Ficca AG; Celi M; Gregori C

1998-01-01

188

Influence of microhabitat on seedling survival and growth of the mediterranean seagrass posidonia oceanica (l.) Delile  

Science.gov (United States)

Early life history phases are crucial stages limiting species distribution and abundance, thus influencing assemblage composition in marine benthic environments. In seagrass systems the period between seed germination and establishment is one of the most vulnerable phases for plant development. This study analyzes the influence of microhabitat structure, in terms of substrate nature and algal canopy, on the persistence and growth over two years of seedlings of Posidonia oceanica, the dominant Mediterranean seagrass. Long time persistence of seedlings only occurred on microhabitats providing vegetated rocky substrates, with a maximum value of 81% on rock covered by Cystoseira spp. No seedling was found on unvegetated sand and gravel after the first year. Seedling growth resulted increased on rock covered by Halopteris spp. and Dilophus spp. than on rock covered by Cystoseira spp. Results suggest that high canopy onto a stable substrate enhances seedling persistence, probably because these allow the best anchorage by roots while hampering water flow. In contrast, turf algal cover promotes better seedling growth, possibly through higher light irradiance and nutrient availability. Our findings support the view that the understanding of the factors controlling early life processes is a necessary prerequisite for the comprehension of seagrass species distribution patterns, colonization and recovery potentials, which, in turn, can guide sound strategies for seagrass management and restoration.

Alagna, Adriana; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Terlizzi, Antonio; Badalamenti, Fabio

2013-03-01

189

A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) WILLD. EX. DELILE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic)-glucoside (1) was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS), and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

Zakia Khanam; Farook Adam; Ompal Singh; Jamal Ahmad

2011-01-01

190

Phenology of Posidonia Oceanica (Linneaus) Delile in the West Coast of Algeria  

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Full Text Available The Posidonia oceanica seagrass in the western coast of Algeria on the subject of annual monitoring from November 2008 to November 2009.Two sites are selected and each are represented by a station located 10meters deep. The first is Cap Carbon which is polluted site subject to various major releases, and the second one is Ain Franin considered as a reference site relatively far from sources of pollution other than pollution considered sporadic during the summer where there is a rare attendance of holidaymakers. A study of the phenology of Posidonia oceanica meadows, on the leaf biometry, the coefficient "A" and the surface shows that these parameters are strongly influenced by seasonal factors and not by the depth as our samples were made at same depth.

F. Chahrour; S .Boumaza; R .Semroud; Z.Boutiba

2013-01-01

191

Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

192

Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile)  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana

2013-09-01

193

An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (?13C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

2002-01-01

194

Application of a suite of biomarkers in Posidonia oceanica (L.) delile to assess the ecotoxicological impact on the coastal environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to develop and validate a suite of sensitive responses (biomarkers) for monitoring conservation status and ecotoxicological impact in Posidonia oceanica meadows. Analytical methods were developed for NADPH cytochrome c reductase, ethoxycoumarin-o-deethylase (ECOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays. A preliminary proteomic approach using 2-D electrophoresis was also proposed as a biomarker. These techniques were initially tested on samples of posidonia exposed experimentally to various contaminants. Once validated, this approach was applied to posidonia in a field study. Samples of the seagrass were collected at four sites with potentially different environmental impact along the northern Tyrrhenian coast. The results showed that reductase activity was significantly induced in the various sampling areas with respect to the reference site. GPOX and SOD showed a similar trend; the highest activities were found in samples collected off a chlor-alkali plant and near a river estuary. Analysis of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in posidonia leaves showed differences between sites. A significant correlation was found between Hg concentrations and GPOX activity and between Cr, Al and As concentrations and reductase activity. The results validated these biomarkers in posidonia for the assessment of ecotoxicological impact on the coastal ecosystem. PMID:16762406

Bucalossi, Daniela; Leonzio, Claudio; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Ancora, Stefania; Wang, Wei; Scali, Monica

2006-04-07

195

Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control salinity (37), while mortality was lowest for this treatment. However, no significant differences were detected with other salinity levels (39-49). In contrast, salinity appears to play an important role in seedling development. The number of blades, the length of the primary root and the maximum length of leaves of seedlings were significantly reduced with increased salinities. The results observed in the present study are consistent with those obtained for mature P. oceanica shoots, and suggest that hypersalinities, such as those associated with brine discharge of a desalination plant, may limit P. oceanica seedling recruitment, affecting the expansion and recovery of Posidonia meadows.

Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

2013-03-01

196

Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica. PMID:16199100

Maserti, B E; Ferrillo, V; Avdis, O; Nesti, U; Garbo, A Di; Catsiki, A; Maestrini, P L

2005-09-30

197

In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.Ex Delile Bark and Leaves  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fractions both of bark and leaves exhibited higher anthelmintic effects compared with chloroform, petroleum spirit and aqueous fractions. Crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME) of bark (LC50= 201.0032 µg/ml) had higher inhibitory effects compared with that of leaves (LC50= 769.2485 µg/ml) on egg hatching. Likewise, chloroform and ethyle acetate fractions of A. nilotica bark exhibited higher ovicidal activity. In vivo, maximum reduction (72.01%) in fecal egg counts was recorded for CAME of bark followed by CAME of leaves (63.44%) @ 8 g/kg at day 12 post-treatment. Results suggest lipophilic nature of the active principles having anthelmintic efficacy in A. nilotica bark and leaves.

Nadeem Badar, Zafar Iqbal*, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar

2011-01-01

198

Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica.

Maserti, B.E. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: bianca.elena.maserti@pi.ibf.cnr.it; Ferrillo, V. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Avdis, O. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Nesti, U. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Central Institute for Marine Research (I.C.R.A.M.), Via di Casalotti, 300-00166 Rome (Italy); Di Garbo, A. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Catsiki, A. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Maestrini, P.L. [University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

2005-11-10

199

Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio/ Macroalgas marinas tropicales atlánticas con actividad biológica contra vibrios virulentos y resistentes a antimicrobianos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se investigó la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos de etanol, metanol, hexano y acetona de las macroalgas Padina gymnospora (PG), Hypnea musciformes (HM), Ulva fasciata (UF) y Caulerpa prolifera (CP). Se utilizó el método de difusión en disco para evaluar el efecto antimicrobiano de las algas contra cepas patrón de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Salmonella enterica y cinco cepas virulentas y resistent (more) es a los antimicrobianos: V. brasiliensis, V. xuii y V. navarrensis (aislado de la hemolinfa de Litopenaeus vannamei). Los extractos de etanol de PG y HM inhibieron todas las cepas de Vibrio. E. coli y P. aeruginosa solo eran susceptibles a los extractos de etanol de PG. Entre los extractos de metanol, solo UF fue bioactivo, inhibiendo V. navarrensis. El efecto antibacteriano de los extractos de etanol de PG, HM y UF contra bacterias virulentas y resistentes a los antimicrobianos sugiere que estas especies de macroalgas constituyen una fuente potencial de compuestos bioactivos. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG), Hypnea musciformes (HM), Ulva fasciata (UF) and Caulerpa prolifera (CP) was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant str (more) ains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei). Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

Silva, Giselle Cristina; Albuquerque-Costa, Renata; Oliveira-Peixoto, Jackson R; Pessoa-Nascimento, Fernando E; de Macedo-Carneiro, Pedro B; Silva dos Fernandes-Vieira, Regine H

2013-03-01

200

Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola/ Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor) e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia) de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K), calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata) e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e (more) 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L) foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p Abstract in english A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia) in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K), bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, (more) 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L) significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p

Wordell Filho, João Américo; Martins, Daniel A; Stadnik, Marciel J.

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Benthic Community zonation in a breakwater on the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um esquema de zonação vertical de organismos bênticos da região entremarés em blocos graníticos na praia do Farol de São Tomé (22º02'S, 41º03'W) na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 20 x 20 cm foram sobrepostos em quatro perfis e utilizado o método por foto quadrat com 100 pontos de interseção. A análise de agrupamento e a porcentagem de cobertura de organismos bênticos indicadores sugerira (more) m um padrão na distribuição vertical da região entremarés com quatro faixas: Franja do Supralittoral caracterizado por espaço vazio e Littorina ziczac; Médiolitoral Superior ocupado por Chthamalus spp e espaço vazio; médiolitoral inferior caracterizado por Chthamalus spp, Phragmatopoma lapidosa, Ulva fasciata e Centroceras clavulatum; e Franja do Infralitoral caracterizado por U. fasciata, P. lapidosa e Hypnea musciformis. A alta variabilidade na abundância relativa das espécies dominantes entre os perfis na zona Médiolitoral é atribuída a alta irregularidade topográfica do substrato, refletindo em diferentes intensidades de exposição às ondas em uma mesma altura, o que favorece o estabelecimento de diferentes espécies. A alternância freqüente do tipo de substrato de rocha granítica para recifes arenosos de P. lapidosa pode ter contribuído para a variabilidade espacial em pequena escala. Este estudo preenche uma lacuna referente à comunidade bêntica e sua distribuição vertical no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A adição do molhe em uma área caracterizada pela ausência de substrato consolidado natural possibilitou o estudo da zonação da comunidade bêntica entremarés, oferecendo uma base de dados para futuros trabalhos experimentais. Abstract in english The present study presents the vertical zonation pattern of the intertidal benthic organisms on granitic boulders in the Farol de São Tomé beach (22º02'S, 41º03'W), Rio de Janeiro State. Four sampling profiles using 20 x 20 cm quadrats through a photo quadrat technique revealed four horizontal bands: (1) Littoral Fringe characterized by empty space and Littorina; (2) Upper eulittoral mainly occupied by Chthamalus and bare rock; (3) Lower eulittoral characterized by Ch (more) thamalus, Phragmatopoma, Ulva and Centroceras; and (4) Sublittoral Fringe characterized by Ulva, Phragmatopoma and Hypnea. The high variability in the relative abundance of the dominant species among the profiles may be attributed to the high topographic irregularity, reflecting in different wave action intensity at the same height, and consequently favoring the establishment of different species. The frequent substrate alternation from granitic rock to Phragmatopoma sandy reefs might contribute to the small-scale spatial variability. The implantation of a breakwater on an area without natural rocky shores allowed the study of intertidal benthic communty zonation, and provide a baseline for the experimental studies.

Masi, Bruno Pereira; Macedo, Isabela Maria; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

2009-06-01

202

Benthic Community zonation in a breakwater on the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study presents the vertical zonation pattern of the intertidal benthic organisms on granitic boulders in the Farol de São Tomé beach (22º02'S, 41º03'W), Rio de Janeiro State. Four sampling profiles using 20 x 20 cm quadrats through a photo quadrat technique revealed four horizontal bands: (1) Littoral Fringe characterized by empty space and Littorina; (2) Upper eulittoral mainly occupied by Chthamalus and bare rock; (3) Lower eulittoral characterized by Chthamalus, Phragmatopoma, Ulva and Centroceras; and (4) Sublittoral Fringe characterized by Ulva, Phragmatopoma and Hypnea. The high variability in the relative abundance of the dominant species among the profiles may be attributed to the high topographic irregularity, reflecting in different wave action intensity at the same height, and consequently favoring the establishment of different species. The frequent substrate alternation from granitic rock to Phragmatopoma sandy reefs might contribute to the small-scale spatial variability. The implantation of a breakwater on an area without natural rocky shores allowed the study of intertidal benthic communty zonation, and provide a baseline for the experimental studies.O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um esquema de zonação vertical de organismos bênticos da região entremarés em blocos graníticos na praia do Farol de São Tomé (22º02'S, 41º03'W) na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 20 x 20 cm foram sobrepostos em quatro perfis e utilizado o método por foto quadrat com 100 pontos de interseção. A análise de agrupamento e a porcentagem de cobertura de organismos bênticos indicadores sugeriram um padrão na distribuição vertical da região entremarés com quatro faixas: Franja do Supralittoral caracterizado por espaço vazio e Littorina ziczac; Médiolitoral Superior ocupado por Chthamalus spp e espaço vazio; médiolitoral inferior caracterizado por Chthamalus spp, Phragmatopoma lapidosa, Ulva fasciata e Centroceras clavulatum; e Franja do Infralitoral caracterizado por U. fasciata, P. lapidosa e Hypnea musciformis. A alta variabilidade na abundância relativa das espécies dominantes entre os perfis na zona Médiolitoral é atribuída a alta irregularidade topográfica do substrato, refletindo em diferentes intensidades de exposição às ondas em uma mesma altura, o que favorece o estabelecimento de diferentes espécies. A alternância freqüente do tipo de substrato de rocha granítica para recifes arenosos de P. lapidosa pode ter contribuído para a variabilidade espacial em pequena escala. Este estudo preenche uma lacuna referente à comunidade bêntica e sua distribuição vertical no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A adição do molhe em uma área caracterizada pela ausência de substrato consolidado natural possibilitou o estudo da zonação da comunidade bêntica entremarés, oferecendo uma base de dados para futuros trabalhos experimentais.

Bruno Pereira Masi; Isabela Maria Macedo; Ilana Rosental Zalmon

2009-01-01

203

Descriptors from Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in coastal waters of Valencia, Spain, in the context of the EU Water Framework Directive  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluations are provided of 21 descriptors of Posidonia oceanica meadows along the coast of Valencia, Spain, with a view to using these in implementing the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The descriptors selected are known to respond to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Data were co...

Fernández Torquemada, Yolanda; Díaz Valdés, Marta; Colilla, Francisco; Luna i Pérez, Beatriz; Sánchez Lizaso, José Luis

204

Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers. and Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and macroalgae of the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mean concentrations of Aluminium ({+-}SE) in two seagrasses, four Chlorophytes, three Chromophytes and seven Rhodophyte species from the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece) decreased in the order: Chlorophyta > Chromophyta > Rhodophyta > P. oceanica > C. nodosa. This area is of particular interest because of the bauxite composition of the substrate and of the wate discharge from an aluminium factory in the Gulf. Aluminium concentrations in the two seagrasses were evenly distributed at the Gulf stations. Only the concentrations of Al in C. nodosa displayed significant seasonal variation. The mean concentrations increased from spring to summer, at which point they reached their maxima. This pattern is discussed in relation to the leaf-age of the seagrass. Regarding the amount of Al accumulated by the macroalgae of each division, there were interspecific differences which were attributed to differences in the structure, the ecology and the binding sites offered by the plants. The dependence of Al concentrations in the macrophytes on the concentrations in the sediment and the correlation of Al concentrations with the concentrations of some other metals in the plants were also investigated. (orig.)

Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany

1993-12-31

205

Evaluation of a temporal trend heavy metals contamination in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, (1813) along the western coastline of Sicily (Italy).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of biological species in the monitoring of marine environmental quality allows the evaluation of biologically available levels of contaminants in the ecosystem and the effects of contaminants on living organisms. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is a useful bioindicator because through the lepidochronology technique it is possible to obtain a historical contamination trend of a given area. This study aims to assess the temporal trend contamination by heavy metal investigations on dead sheaths of 100 samples of P. oceanica collected in the Protected Marine Area of "Plemmirio" (Sicily) and in the Siracusa bay. Important results were obtained because data show a significant negative temporal trend for the metals analysed especially for As, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, U and V that in the past had higher concentrations, with a stronger contamination in the Plemmirio area, the site much more exposed to the pollution of the nearby petrochemical complex. This study confirms the relevance of the use of P. oceanica as a biological indicator of metal contamination in coastal ecosystems. Thus the usefulness of P. oceanica as a tracer of spatial metal contamination and as a good tool for water quality evaluation is reinforced.

Copat C; Maggiore R; Arena G; Lanzafame S; Fallico R; Sciacca S; Ferrante M

2012-01-01

206

Effects of climate, invasive species and anthropogenic impacts on the growth of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight shallow water Posidonia oceanica meadows were sampled in June 1999 along 300 km of the Ligurian coast and were compared through shoot density and lepidochronology. The growth of the seagrass was examined in the light of climate fluctuations and local stresses, colonisation by alien, invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia, and effects of the oil spill from the tanker "Haven", and other anthropogenic impacts. Both shoot density and lepidochronology pointed to a generalised state of regression of all the meadows. The analysis of long-term growth curves of the rhizomes showed a positive trend parallel to the increase of air temperature. Two main groups of meadows were individuated on the basis of growth curve similarity. The first included four meadows, namely Ventimiglia, Imperia, Noli and Prelo, that were characterised by average values of rhizome growth of 8-9.1 mmyear(-1) and shoot density greater than 200 shootsm(-2). Although the Imperia meadow was the only one where the alien invasive alga C. taxifolia was found, it did not show differences for rhizome growth in comparison to the other meadows. The second group was formed by meadows that had suffered past anthropogenic impacts: Arenzano and Monterosso al Mare. They showed higher rhizome growth rates (9.4-10.6 mmyear(-1)) and shoot densities between 200 and 100 shootsm(-2). At Arenzano, where "Haven" oil was stranded in April 1991, no rhizome older than 8 years was found, thus confirming the shoot mortality induced by the oil spill event. The two last meadows exhibited growth curves very different from all the others: Portovenere, is a shallow meadow where P. oceanica merely survives in an extremely degraded situation with highest rhizome growth rate (12 mmyear(-1)), the other, Riva Trigoso, is the only meadow implanted on rock and had the lowest growth rates (7.1 mm year(-1)). PMID:16115499

Peirano, Andrea; Damasso, Valentina; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2005-03-16

207

Assessment of Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile conservation status by standard and putative approaches: the case study of Santa Marinella meadow (Italy, W Mediterranean)  

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Full Text Available The conservation status of the Posidonia oceanica meadow at Santa Marinella (Rome) was evaluated through both standard (bed density, leaf biometry, "A" coefficient, Leaf Area Index, rhizome production) and biochemical/genetic approaches (total phenol content and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker). The bio-chemical/genetic results are in agreement with those obtained by standard approaches. The bed under study was ranked as a disturbed one, due to its low density, and high heterogeneity in leaf biometry, LAI values, "A" coefficient and primary production. This low quality ranking is confirmed by both mean phenol content in plants, quite high and scattered, and by the low genetic variability in the meadow, with a very high similarity of specimen at a local scale. Hence, these two putative approaches clearly identify the endangered conservation status of the meadow. They link plant biodiversity and ecophysiology to ecosystem 'health'. Furthermore, they are repeatable and standardizable and could be usefully introduced in meadows monitoring to check environmental quality.

Alice Rotini; Carla Micheli; Luigi Valiante; Luciana Migliore

2011-01-01

208

Extracts from the Mongolian traditional medicinal plants Dianthus versicolorFisch. and Lilium pumilum Delile stimulate bile flow in an isolated perfused rat liver model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Dianthus versicolor (Caryophyllaceae) and Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) are two medicinal plants used in traditional Mongolian medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study aqueous (AE) and methanolic (ME) extracts of Dianthus versicolor and Lilium pumilum were investigated for their influence on the bile flow. The aqueous extracts of both plants were tested in absence and presence of 10 ?M taurocholic acid at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The aqueous extract of Dianthus versicolor was further purified in order to locate the active principles. Two resulting fractions, one enriched in flavonoids and the other in sugars, were investigated for their influence on the bile flow in absence of taurocholic acid at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L. The aqueous extracts of both plants were analysed qualitatively by LC-MS(n) and quantitatively by UV-spectrophotometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bile flow experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rat liver. The compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS(n) and TLC using references. The UV-spectrophotometric analysis was based on the monograph "Passiflorae herba" of the European Pharmacopoeia, and the total flavonoid contents were calculated and expressed as vitexin. RESULTS: AE and ME of both plants increased the bile flow dose-dependently (between 9% and 30%), and no hepatotoxic effect was seen even during longer perfusions. Stimulation of bile secretion was comparable in the presence and in the absence of taurocholic acid. The flavonoid fraction of Dianthus versicolor increased the bile flow by 18% (p<0.05) at 40 mg/L, which was comparable to the positive control cynarin. The phytochemical investigations of the Dianthus versicolor AE (total flavonoid content 1.78%) revealed the presence of the isovitexin derivative saponarin. In the AE of Lilium pumilum (total flavonoid content 1.04%) the flavonoids rutoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that choleresis under extract application is due to a stimulation of the bile-salt-independent bile flow which might be caused by the osmotic power of the extracts (hydrocholeresis). The flavonoids seem to contribute to the bile-flow-stimulating effect of Dianthus versicolor. Both plants exhibit a considerable choleretic effect that contributes to their use in traditional Mongolian medicine against gastrointestinal disorders.

Obmann A; Tsendayush D; Thalhammer T; Zehl M; Vo TP; Purevsuren S; Natsagdorj D; Narantuya S; Kletter C; Glasl S

2010-10-01

209

?-, ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura/ ?- and ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de ?- e ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram ?- e ?-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de ?-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e ?-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais eleva (more) do em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram ?-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. ?-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas ?-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, ?-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram ?-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, ?-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximu (more) m in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

Sousa, Márcia Barbosa de; Pires, Kelma Maria dos Santos; Alencar, Daniel Barroso de; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana

2008-12-01

210

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP) são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG) (Rio de janeiro, Brasil). Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marin (more) as em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle). Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG. Abstract in english Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from (more) sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.

Paradas, Wladimir C.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

2007-03-01

211

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP) são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG) (Rio de janeiro, Brasil). Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle). Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG.

Wladimir C. Paradas; Gilberto M. Amado Filho

2007-01-01

212

?-, ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura ?- and ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de ?- e ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram ?- e ?-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de ?-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e ?-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram ?-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. ?-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas ?-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, ?-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram ?-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, ?-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires; Daniel Barroso de Alencar; Alexandre Holanda Sampaio; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

2008-01-01

213

Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil)  

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Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight), Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight) and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight). Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60%) released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil). O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida), Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida) e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida). Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de liberação de minério, sendo a maior percentagem do particulado liberada na primeira troca de água (40 a 60%).

Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar; Yocie Yoneshigue-Valentin

2006-01-01

214

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

1996-01-01

215

Synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of acetylated derivative of ulvan from Ulva pertusa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, acetylated ulvan (AU) was prepared with acetic anhydride in N,N-dimethylacetamide, and the antihyperlipidemic activity of natural ulvan and its acetylated ulvan derivative (AU) in mice was determined. Obvious differences in antihyperlipidemic activity between natural ulvan and its derivative were observed, moreover, AU showed stronger antihyperlipidemic activity on triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).

Qi H; Liu X; Zhang J; Duan Y; Wang X; Zhang Q

2012-01-01

216

LC-ICP-MS analysis of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece).  

Science.gov (United States)

The content of total arsenic and arsenic compounds in the dominant seaweed species in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea was determined in samples collected in different seasons. Total arsenic was determined by acid digestion followed by ICP-MS. Arsenic speciation was analyzed by water extraction followed by LC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations in the seaweeds ranged from 1.39 to 55.0mgkg(-1). Cystoseira species and Codium fragile showed the highest total As contents, while Ulva species (U. intestinalis, U. rigida,U. fasciata) had the lowest Arsenosugars, the most common arsenic species in seaweeds, were found in all samples, and glycerol-arsenosugar was the most common form; however, phosphate-arsenosugar and sulfate-arsenosugar were also present. Inorganic arsenic was measured in seven algae species and detected in another. Arsenate was the most abundant species in Cystoseira barbata (27.0mgkg(-1)). Arsenobetaine was measured in only one sample. Methylated arsenic species were measured at very low concentrations. The information should contribute to further understanding the presence of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf. PMID:24016626

Pell, Albert; Kokkinis, Giannis; Malea, Paraskevi; Pergantis, Spiros A; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

2013-09-07

217

Screening of marine algae of Oman gulf for bio sorption of Cobalt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Batch experiments were conducted to study the ability of marine algae collected from Oman Gulf, Iran, for sorption of cobalt from the metal nitrate solution. The bio sorption experiments were performed using native and chemically pretreated sun-dried biomass of marine algae. Our finding indicated that MgCl2 pretreated Cystoseria indica, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina australis had more sorption capacities, while the CaCl2 pretreated ones showed lower capacity (comparing with non-treated native biomass). Also, a fall in the cobalt uptake capacity of Nizimuddinia zanardini, Gracilaria corticata, G. arcuata, Botryocladia leptopoda, Scinaia carnosa, Hypnea valentiae, Ulva fasciata and Codium sp. took place after treatment with chemicals, including CaCl2 (0.1 M), MgCl2 (0.1M), CaCl2 (0.1 M)/HCL (pH2) and HCl(0.1 M). Bio sorption of cobalt was rapidly took place onto algal bio sorbents and most of the sorbed metal ion was bound in the first minutes of contact. Uptake of cobalt was pH-dependent and the most cobalt removal occurred at pH 4. In our screening investigations, brown algae (Dictyota indica, N. zanardini, P. australis, S.glaucescens, and C. indica) removed cobalt most efficiently from aqueous solution, respectively. The capability of marine algae for separation of 60Co removal was demonstrated

2005-01-01

218

LC-ICP-MS analysis of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The content of total arsenic and arsenic compounds in the dominant seaweed species in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea was determined in samples collected in different seasons. Total arsenic was determined by acid digestion followed by ICP-MS. Arsenic speciation was analyzed by water extraction followed by LC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations in the seaweeds ranged from 1.39 to 55.0mgkg(-1). Cystoseira species and Codium fragile showed the highest total As contents, while Ulva species (U. intestinalis, U. rigida,U. fasciata) had the lowest Arsenosugars, the most common arsenic species in seaweeds, were found in all samples, and glycerol-arsenosugar was the most common form; however, phosphate-arsenosugar and sulfate-arsenosugar were also present. Inorganic arsenic was measured in seven algae species and detected in another. Arsenate was the most abundant species in Cystoseira barbata (27.0mgkg(-1)). Arsenobetaine was measured in only one sample. Methylated arsenic species were measured at very low concentrations. The information should contribute to further understanding the presence of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf.

Pell A; Kokkinis G; Malea P; Pergantis SA; Rubio R; López-Sánchez JF

2013-09-01

219

Inhibitory effect of extracts of Brazilian marine algae on human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from four species of Brazilian marine algae collected from the Rio de Janeiro State coast were screened to determine the inhibitory effect on HTLV-1-induced syncytium formation. Before performing the syncytium inhibition assay the 50% cytotoxic dose (CyD50) of the algal extracts was evaluated. The antiviral test was carried out in HeLa cells co-cultured with HTLV-I infected T-cell line (C91/PL cells) in the presence of marine algal extracts in the concentration inferior to that corresponding to the CyD50. It was observed that co-cultured cells exposed to Ulva fasciata extract showed 60.2% syncytium inhibition at a concentration of 2.5%. At 5% concentration, Sargassum vulgare and Vidalia obtusiloba extracts presented 78.8 and 76% syncytium inhibition, respectively. The best inhibitory activity was observed with Laminaria abyssalis that presented 100% syncytium inhibition at a concentration of 2.5%. This work shows that extracts of marine algae, mainly L. abyssalis extract, are able to inhibit the cell-to-cell contact essential for the spreading of the virus and could be useful to prevent the infection. PMID:11853002

Romanos, MariaTeresaVillela; Andrada-Serpa, Maria José; dos, SantosMartaGonçalvesMatos; Ribeiro, AnaCristinaF; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Costa, S?nia Soares; Wigg, Marcia Dutra

2002-01-01

220

Inhibitory effect of extracts of Brazilian marine algae on human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracts from four species of Brazilian marine algae collected from the Rio de Janeiro State coast were screened to determine the inhibitory effect on HTLV-1-induced syncytium formation. Before performing the syncytium inhibition assay the 50% cytotoxic dose (CyD50) of the algal extracts was evaluated. The antiviral test was carried out in HeLa cells co-cultured with HTLV-I infected T-cell line (C91/PL cells) in the presence of marine algal extracts in the concentration inferior to that corresponding to the CyD50. It was observed that co-cultured cells exposed to Ulva fasciata extract showed 60.2% syncytium inhibition at a concentration of 2.5%. At 5% concentration, Sargassum vulgare and Vidalia obtusiloba extracts presented 78.8 and 76% syncytium inhibition, respectively. The best inhibitory activity was observed with Laminaria abyssalis that presented 100% syncytium inhibition at a concentration of 2.5%. This work shows that extracts of marine algae, mainly L. abyssalis extract, are able to inhibit the cell-to-cell contact essential for the spreading of the virus and could be useful to prevent the infection.

Romanos M; Andrada-Serpa MJ; dos S; Ribeiro A; Yoneshigue-Valentin Y; Costa SS; Wigg MD

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus  

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Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta) from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV). Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1%) than for HSV-2 (55.5%). The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9%) against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5%) and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (-)-elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta) and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta) were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%). Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

Angélica Ribeiro Soares; Marcela C. S. Robaina; Gabriella S. Mendes; Thalia S. L. Silva; Lísia M. S. Gestinari; Odinéia S. Pamplona; Yocie Yoneshigue-Valentin; Carlos R Kaiser; Maria Teresa Villela Romanos

2012-01-01

222

EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea); and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria ) collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL) (as % of total lipid) were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7%) followed by L. popillose (22.5 %). GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05%) and L. popillose (5.8%), and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid), ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%). GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4) and m/z 337 (C21H58O3), were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml), comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml). On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities against both breast (MCF7) and liver human (HepG2) cancer cells, with an IC50 values ranging from 0.47 to 2.89 µg/ml.

El Baroty Gamal S; El-Baz; Farouk K; Abd-Elmoein Ibtisam; Abd El Baky Hanaa H; Ali Mohamed M; Ibrahim Eman A

2011-01-01

223

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

1996-08-01

224

Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Chlorophycean seaweeds Ulva, Caulerpa and Spongomorpha sps. against clinical and phytopathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites. As a result of evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for newer antibiotics...

G.Subba Rangaiaha, P. Lakshmi* a , K. Sruthikeerthia

225

Variations of morphology and photosynthetic performances of Ulva prolifera during the whole green tide blooming process in the Yellow Sea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 2007, the world's largest macroalgal blooms have occurred along the coastal area of the Yellow Sea for 6 consecutive years. In 2012, shipboard surveying and satellite remote sensing were used to monitor the whole blooming process. The blooms originated in Rudong sea area of the South Yellow Sea where bloom patches were of dark green and filamentous thalli were the dominant morphology. The scale of the blooms reached its peak size in Rizhao sea area of the North Yellow Sea, and decreased promptly and became insignificant in Qingdao coast where the blooms turned yellow, mostly with air sac blades. Meanwhile, vegetative cells of the green tide algae changed into cytocysts gradually from which germ cells were released as the blooms drifted northward. Additionally, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence activity of free-floating thalli in the North Yellow Sea were both significantly lower than that in the South Yellow Sea. Those studies presented here contributed to increasing our understanding about how the green tide declined gradually in the North Yellow Sea.

Zhang JH; Huo YZ; Zhang ZL; Yu KF; He Q; Zhang LH; Yang LL; Xu R; He PM

2013-08-01

226

Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción/ Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etap (more) a de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 ), amonio (N-NH4-) y nitrato (N-NO3) fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%), turbidez (97,1%) sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%), clorofila-a (99,1%), amonio (54,1%), nitrito (58,0%), nitrato (69,2%) y fosfato (52,9%), presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei. Efficiency in removing particulate matter and dissolved nutrients from the effluents of reproductive tanks of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated on the laboratory scale using three treatments sedimentation, filtration by Crassostrea rhizophorae and absorption by Ulva fasciata. For each treatment, we used a six-hour water residence time. For the sedimentation stage, tanks were filled with 90 L of the effluent. For the filtration stage, tanks were filled with 20 L of the supernatant resulting from the effluent after sedimentation. For the absorption stage, tanks were filled with 15 L of the supernatant resulting from the effluent after filtration. At the end of each treatment we collected 500 mL to analyze the water quality. During sedimentation, turbidity, chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids were reduced in 93.8%, 94.5% and 65.9%, respectively. The filtration treatment, achieved high levels of efficiency for removing bacteria (89.3%) and chlorophyll-a (100%). The absorption treatment reduce orthophosphate (PO4-3 ), ammonia (N-NH4-) and nitrate (N-NO3) in 53.6%, 49.6%, and 70.2%, respectively, compared to the control tanks. Combined sedimentation, filtration and absorption treatments reduced total bacteria (95.1%), turbidity (97.1%) total suspended solids (81.3%), chlorophyll-a (99.1%), ammonia (54.1%), nitrite (58.0%), nitrate (69.2%) and orthophosphate (52.9%); these are highly efficient rates considering the values of the untreated effluent. Finally, the combination of sedimentation, filtration and absorption significantly, improved the water quality of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture effluents.

Ramos, Roberto; Vinatea, Luis; Santos, Julia; Da Costa, Rejane

2010-01-01

227

Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs) in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea), one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria) were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose) to 11.82% (in D. fasciola) of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21%) were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0), which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 ?g mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 ?g mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7).Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL) a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria) y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea) que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa) al 11,82% (en D. fasciola). Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato observado entre todas estas especies de algas (desde 0,13 hasta 0,21%). Todos los SL se caracterizaron por un alto contenido de ácido palmítico (C16:0), que osciló entre 30,91% en G. cylindriea a 63,11% en T. atomatia. Sulfoquinovosyl-di-acilglicerol y acilglicerol sulfoquinovosyl fueron identificados como los principales constituyentes de los sulfolípidos de estas algas. Los sulfolípidos de las diferentes especies de algas estudiadas mostraron una notable actividad antiviral contra el virus del herpes simple tipo 1 (VHS-1) con una IC50 que osciló entre 18,75 y 70. 2 g mL–1. Por otra parte, los sulfolípidos de estas algas inhibieron el crecimiento de células tumorales de mama y células de cáncer de hígado humano con valores de IC50 que van desde 0,40 hasta 0,67 g mL–1 para las células de adenocarcinoma de mama humano (MCF7).

El Baz, F. K.; El Baroty, G. S.; Abd El Baky, H. H.; Abd El-Salam, O. I.; Ibrahim, E. A.

2013-01-01

228

Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L.) Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil®) e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf), bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp). Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas.Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil®) and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final disease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl) as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp). Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P < 0.05). In most of the experimental cycles, significant differences were observed in the sanity and yield of the treatments compared to the control (plants treated with water). Overall, both preparations reduced the final disease severity (Yf and Yp (by 41-62% ) and the AUDPCs by 28-58%. Treatments of plants with silicate clay and seaweed extract increased the fresh weight of leaves by 46% and 32%, respectively. Although this study indicates that silicate clay and seaweed extract have the potential for disease control, further studies are needed to elucidate the control levels of these treatments in different edaphoclimatic conditions.

Isaac B. Araújo; Luiz A.M. Peruch; Marciel J. Stadnik

2012-01-01

229

Substrate selection of the caprellid Caprella dilatata (Crustacea, Amphipoda)/ Selección de sustrato del caprélido Caprella dilatata (Crustacea, Amphipoda)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La diversidad del espacio y la variabilidad de las condiciones ambientales que afectan la calidad del hábitat para los organismos son factores determinantes en la selección de un hábitat ideal. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la selección del sustrato del anfípodo caprélido Caprella dilatata, en ambientes naturales al largo de la costa del sur de Brasil y en condiciones de laboratorio. Se contabilizaron 31 sustratos biológicos distintos que alberg (more) aban a invertebrados, la mayoría fueron sustratos algales. C. dilatata fue registrada en once de estos sustratos, y resultó ser especie dominante únicamente en algas finamente ramificadas, ascidias, briozoos y en las superficies de las boyas y cuerdas. Los experimentos de laboratorio para selección de sustrato por C. dilatata se realizaron utilizando dos y cuatro especies de algas que tenían contrastante ramificación; Gracilaria cervicornis, Pterocladia capillacea, Sargassum cymosum y Ulva fasciata. En el primer experimento, caprélidos fueron trasladados a tres acuarios que contenían combinaciones variadas de dos sustratos de algas con un total de nueve combinaciones. Para el segundo experimento (cuatro algas), todas las especies de algas se combinaron en cada acuario. Los anfípodos obtenidos para experimentos en laboratorio mostraron el color del dermatoesqueleto siempre muy similar al color de las algas. Hubo una fuerte preferencia de caprélidos por el sustrato original. A pesar de la morfología cosmopolita de C. dilatata para la selección del sustrato, los individuos se encuentraron principalmente en sustratos estructuralmente complejos, y demostraron la importancia del camuflaje en estos caprélidos. Abstract in english The diversity of space and the variability of environmental conditions that affect habitat quality for organisms, are determining factors in the selection of an ideal habitat. The present study aimed to understand the substrate selectivity of a caprellid amphipod, Caprella dilatata, in natural environments along the southern Brazilian coast and in laboratory conditions. A total of 31 biological substrates sheltering invertebrates were collected across various localities. (more) C. dilatata was recorded in 11 substrate samples, and was a dominant species only in finely branched and softly surfaced algal substrate, ascidian and bryozoan colonies, and the surfaces of buoys and ropes. Laboratory experiments for substrate selection by C. dilatata were performed under two conditions: two-algal substrates and four-algal substrates. The phytals of Gracilaria cervicornis, Pterocladia capillacea, Sargassum cymosum and Ulva fasciata were selected for the experiments due to their contrasting degrees of ramification. In the first experiment (two-algal substrates), caprellids were transferred to three aquaria containing varied combinations of two algal substrates with a total of nine combinations. For the second experiment (four-algal substrates), all species of algae were combined together in each aquarium. Amphipods obtained for laboratory experiments always showed an exoskeleton color very close to that of the original algal substrate. Caprellids showed a strong preference for the original algal substrate. Despite the cosmopolitan morphology of C. dilatata for selection of the substrate, the individuals were mostly found in structurally complex substrates, and the experiments show the importance of camouflage for these caprellids.

Lacerda, Mariana B; Masunari, Setuko

2011-08-01

230

Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L.)/ Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil®) e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf), bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp). Na colheita, (more) determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil®) and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final disease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl) as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp). Length and fresh weight of (more) leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P

Araújo, Isaac B.; Peruch, Luiz A.M.; Stadnik, Marciel J.

2012-10-01

231

Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 ), amonio (N-NH4-) y nitrato (N-NO3) fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%), turbidez (97,1%) sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%), clorofila-a (99,1%), amonio (54,1%), nitrito (58,0%), nitrato (69,2%) y fosfato (52,9%), presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

Roberto Ramos; Luis Vinatea; Julia Santos; Rejane Da Costa

2010-01-01

232

Survey of the radioactive background of some specimens of the biota of Rio de Janeiro coastal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural radioactivity of components known to be bioconcentrators of artificial radionuclides in the coast of Rio de Janeiro was determined by means of sistematical gross alpha and beta radiometry. These data constitute the pre-operational survey, determining the radioactivity levels of these organisms and permiting to establish basic values and their temporal variations, which will serve as a referencial for the detection of eventual increases in the radioactivity introduced in the marine environment during the operational phase of nuclear power plants. Uranium and Potassium were also measured in some samples. The maximum and minimum values obtained after six years of experiment, analysing 14 species of algae and 4 species of animals were: for gross alpha radiometry (0,454 + - 0,162)Bq/g in the ashes of the phaeophita Padina vickersiae and (0,473 + - 0,106)Bq/g in the cnidaria Bunodosoma caissarum, (0,067 + - 0,031)Bq/g in the clorophita Ulva Fasciata and (0,091 + - 0,060)Bq/g in the soft tissues of the bivalve Perna perna. The byssus of this animal presented the highest gross alpha concentration : (1,770 + - 0,708)Bq/g, probably due to its high Uranium concentration, which contributes with 71%, complexed with its main constituent, a scleroprotein. The gross beta concentrations were highest in the algae Chetomorpha antennina (6,63 + - 1,80)Bq/g and in the species Bunodosoma caissarum, with a mean value of (2,60 + - 0,74)Bq/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations were obtained in the rodophita Plocamium brasiliense, (1,64 + - 0,36)Bq/g, and (1,04 + - 0,30)Bq/g in the byssus of Perna perna. By the theoretical concentration of 40K, calculated from potassium, the strong contribution of that radionuclide in the gross beta activity of the organisms is stressed. Seven samples of ashes were submitted to analyses by three different laboratories and the intercomparison results showed a reasonable agreement. (Author).

233

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacter...

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

234

Seagrass response to in situ trace element contaminations  

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The Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-seventies as bioindicator to monitor trace element (TE) coastal pollution. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding to that seagrass contamination and decontamination kinetics. For the first time, Pos...

Richir, Jonathan; Luy, Nicolas; Lepoint, Gilles; Biondo, Renzo; Vermeulen, Simon; Gobert, Sylvie

235

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)  

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SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxa...

Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio

236

A Summary of Reports of Ulvaceae (Chlorophyta) From Turkey*  

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Full Text Available A revised list of the taxa of the Ulvaceae occurring in Turkey is reported in this research. A total of 25 taxa of this family is herein reported from Turkey. Also, the transfers of four taxa of Enteromorpha to Ulva are proposed: Ulva intestinalis L. var. asexualis (Bliding) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding, 1963), Ulva intestinalis forma ramosa (Vinogradova) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma ramosa Vinogradova, 1974), Ulva intestinalis forma saprobia (Vinogradova) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma saprobia Vinogradova, 1974) and Ulva prolifera subsp. gullmariensis (Bliding) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha prolifera subsp. gullmariensis Bliding, 1963). A total of 25 taxa (species and intraspecific) reported from Turkey.

Ergun Taskin

2007-01-01

237

Anaerobic Digestion of Aquatic Plant Biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents the results of an experimental study on the methanic anaerobic fermentation of two algae (Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and one superior aquatic plant (Lemna sp.): analysis of the chemical characteristics of the biomass, ...

F. Brouard

1983-01-01

238

Mineral Content of Some Seaweeds from Sabah`s South China Sea  

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The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia) and contained high proportions ...

Duduku Krishnaiah; Rosalam Sarbatly; D.M.R. Prasad; Awang Bono Chemical Engineering Programme

239

The potential of algae blooms to produce renewable gaseous fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva lactuca (commonly known as sea letuce) is a green sea weed which dominates Green Tides or algae blooms. Green Tides are caused by excess nitrogen from agriculture and sewage outfalls resulting in eutrophication in shallow estuaries. Samples of U. lactuca were taken from the Argideen estuary in West Cork on two consecutive years. In year 1 a combination of three different processes/pretreatments were carried out on the Ulva. These include washing, wilting and drying. Biomethane potential (BMP) assays were carried out on the samples. Fresh Ulva has a biomethane yield of 183LCH4/kgVS. For dried, washed and macerated Ulva a BMP of 250LCH4/kgVS was achieved. The resource from the estuary in West Cork was shown to be sufficient to provide fuel to 264 cars on a year round basis. Mono-digestion of Ulva may be problematic; the C:N ratio is low and the sulphur content is high. In year 2 co-digestion trials with dairy slurry were carried out. These indicate a potential increase in biomethane output by 17% as compared to mono-digestion of Ulva and slurry. PMID:23850117

Allen, E; Browne, J; Hynes, S; Murphy, J D

2013-07-11

240

The potential of algae blooms to produce renewable gaseous fuel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ulva lactuca (commonly known as sea letuce) is a green sea weed which dominates Green Tides or algae blooms. Green Tides are caused by excess nitrogen from agriculture and sewage outfalls resulting in eutrophication in shallow estuaries. Samples of U. lactuca were taken from the Argideen estuary in West Cork on two consecutive years. In year 1 a combination of three different processes/pretreatments were carried out on the Ulva. These include washing, wilting and drying. Biomethane potential (BMP) assays were carried out on the samples. Fresh Ulva has a biomethane yield of 183LCH4/kgVS. For dried, washed and macerated Ulva a BMP of 250LCH4/kgVS was achieved. The resource from the estuary in West Cork was shown to be sufficient to provide fuel to 264 cars on a year round basis. Mono-digestion of Ulva may be problematic; the C:N ratio is low and the sulphur content is high. In year 2 co-digestion trials with dairy slurry were carried out. These indicate a potential increase in biomethane output by 17% as compared to mono-digestion of Ulva and slurry.

Allen E; Browne J; Hynes S; Murphy JD

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

New Oppiid Species (Acari, Oribatida, Oppiidae) from Romanian Caves  

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Full Text Available Three new species of the family Oppiidae Grandjean, 1951 are described inthis paper, as result of study of the faunistic material collected from some Romanian caves: Lasiobelba (Lasiobelba) pontica n. sp., Lauroppia incognita n. sp. and Moritzoppia guanicola n. sp. The genus Lasiobelba is recorded for the first time in Romanian fauna, as well as Ramusella (Rectoppia) fasciata sahariensis (Hammer, 1975), for which some complementary characters are given.

Neculai Alexandru Vasiliu; Otilia Ivan

2011-01-01

242

Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil/ New species and notes on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Pará and Brazilian norteastern  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini) and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini) from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq.) J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini) and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini) from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962) and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.

2003-09-01

243

Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ?-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ?-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time.

Pereira DM; Valentão P; Teixeira N; Andrade PB

2013-12-01

244

Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ?-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ?-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time. PMID:23870975

Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Teixeira, Natércia; Andrade, Paula B

2013-05-10

245

Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is required for cellular differentiation during plant development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 facilitates the formation of nucleosomes on newly replicated DNA in vitro. However, the role of CAF-1 in development is poorly understood because mutants are not available in most multicellular model organisms. Biochemical evidence suggests that FASCIATA1, FASCIATA2 and MSI1 form CAF-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because fasciata mutants are viable, CAF-1 is not essential for cell division in plants. Arabidopsis CAF-1 mutants have defects in shoot apical meristems; in addition, CAF-1 is required to establish seedling architecture, leaf size and trichome differentiation. CAF-1 is needed to restrict branching of trichomes on rosette leaves. Increased trichome branching in CAF-1 mutants is not strictly correlated with increased nuclear DNA content. In addition, fas2 glabra3 double mutants show an additive genetic interaction, demonstrating that CAF-1 acts genetically parallel to the GLABRA3-containing, endoreduplication-coupled trichome branching pathway. However, CAF-1 is often needed to restrict endoreduplication, because seedlings of most CAF-1 mutants have increased ploidy. Notably, in the Landsberg erecta background, loss of CAF-1 does not affect ploidy, demonstrating that loss of CAF-1 can be compensated in some Arabidopsis accessions. These results reveal that the functions of FAS1, FAS2 and MSI1 are not restricted to meristems, but are also needed to control genome replication at multiple steps of development. PMID:17021044

Exner, Vivien; Taranto, Patti; Schönrock, Nicole; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hennig, Lars

2006-10-04

246

Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 ?Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 ?Sv/year, respectively.

2011-01-01

247

Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. (131)I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10muGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10muSv/year, respectively.

Veliscek Carolan J; Hughes CE; Hoffmann EL

2009-11-01

248

Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)  

Science.gov (United States)

The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

1991-09-01

249

Antagonistic Effect of Epiphytic Bacteria from Marine Algae, Southeastern India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epibiotic bacteria from seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Dictyota dichotoma and Padina tetrastromatica against some potent human pathogens. The epibiotic bacteria of Ulva lactuca shows higher level of inhibition properties than the other species. The strain UL1 shows broad spectrum inhibitory activity against 7 pathogens. The inhibitory level of epibiotic bacteria ranged from low to moderate activity. The present investigation suggests that the epibiotic bacteria are good source for the isolation of antibacterial compounds of biomedical importance. The compounds can further be purified and can used to save mankind from dreadful diseases.

C. Chellaram; P. Raja; A. Alex John; S. Krithika

2013-01-01

250

Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2002-04-01

251

Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)(PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate)(PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: morphology and thermal-mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

252

Seasonal changes in an intertidal population of the amphipod Amphithoe valida smith, 1873  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A population of the amphipod Ampithoe valida inhabiting intertidal pools dominated by the chlorophyte Ulva rigida C.Ag. was studied monthly at Quequen, Argentina. Large changes in abundance were observed, with maximum values during the summer and a minimum during the winter.

Alonso, G.; Tablado, A.; Lopez Gappa, J.; Magaldi, N. [Museo Argentino de Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1995-12-31

253

The Effects of Environmental Conditions and Mercury on Common Estuarine Species. An Integrated Ecological and Toxicological Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of the present thesis was to assess the effects of the environmental conditions and mercury on estuarine species. In order to achieve this purpose, different approaches were performed using different categories of organisms: a primary producer (the macroalgae Ulva lactuca) and two cons...

Costa, Sónia Isabel Almeida

254

THE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The temperature coefficient of photosynthesis in Ulva (between 17 degrees and 27 degrees C.) is 1.81. This may be explained by assuming that the process involves a light reaction with a low coefficient followed by an ordinary reaction with a high coefficient.

Osterhout WJ; Haas AR

1919-01-01

255

THE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The temperature coefficient of photosynthesis in Ulva (between 17° and 27°C.) is 1.81. This may be explained by assuming that the process involves a light reaction with a low coefficient followed by an ordinary reaction with a high coefficient.

Osterhout, W. J. V.; Haas, A. R. C.

256

Macroalgae from S. Miguel Island as a potential source of antiproliferative and antioxidant products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ulva compressa, Gelidium microdon, Osmundea pinnatifida, Fucus spiralis and Cystoseira abies-marina from the coast of S. Miguel Island were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa tumour cell line, antioxidant potential and total phenolic content. From each alga, the hexane fraction (H...

Barreto, Maria; Mendonça, Emanuel; Gouveia, Vera; Anjos, Carolina; Medeiros, Joana S.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Neto, Ana I.

257

Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae  

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Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP...

Michio Namikoshi; Takeshi Fujiwara; Teruaki Nishikawa; Kazuyo Ukai

258

Eufriesea nigrescens y E. Pretiosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini): un caso de oportunismo o simbiosis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Una colonia mixta se forma cuando un nido es ocupado por más de una especie (Michener 1974). En Bombus, este tipo de colonias son muy comunes de manera natural; la reina de una especie invade el nido de otra, mata a la reina hospedera y pone sus propias crías (Michener 1974). Este tipo de relaciones interespecíficas son raras en otros apidos y han sido registradas una sola vez entre dos especies de Meliponini: Melipona fuliginosa y M. panamica (= M. fasciata ) (Roubik 1981, Roubik, como pers.), y dos especies de Euglossini: Eulaema cingulata y E. polychroma (Roubik 1990).

González B. Victor Hugo; Ospina Torres Rodulfo

2000-01-01

259

Development of an immunoassay to measure progesterone using printed biosensors, and its application to the assessment of ovarian function in the numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A biosensor system was developed to measure progesterone levels in the urine of female numbats (Myrmecobius fasciata) as an index of ovarian function. Screen printed sensors were coated with a monoclonal progesterone antibody, and incubated in a mixture of sample/standard and progesterone-3-CMO-horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The difference in potential between the working and reference electrode was measured, after exposure to an HRP substrate. EIA and biosensor standard curves showed parallelism, and the biosensor gave values similar (r = 0.83) to the conventional EIA. Progesterone concentrations at different stages of the oestrus cycle were not significantly different to those obtained by EIA. PMID:19330648

Ditcham, Will; Palmer, Carly; Warren, Kristin; Monaghan, Cree; Kappelle, Wendy; Matson, Phillip

2009-01-01

260

Development of an immunoassay to measure progesterone using printed biosensors, and its application to the assessment of ovarian function in the numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biosensor system was developed to measure progesterone levels in the urine of female numbats (Myrmecobius fasciata) as an index of ovarian function. Screen printed sensors were coated with a monoclonal progesterone antibody, and incubated in a mixture of sample/standard and progesterone-3-CMO-horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The difference in potential between the working and reference electrode was measured, after exposure to an HRP substrate. EIA and biosensor standard curves showed parallelism, and the biosensor gave values similar (r = 0.83) to the conventional EIA. Progesterone concentrations at different stages of the oestrus cycle were not significantly different to those obtained by EIA.

Ditcham W; Palmer C; Warren K; Monaghan C; Kappelle W; Matson P

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Larvivorous capacity of some indigenous fish of Haryana state.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were undertaken to assess the role of some indigenous fish of Haryana state for the biological control of mosquitoes. Total of 28 fish species were encountered. Only six fresh water fish species Puntius ticto, Colisa fasciata, Aplocheilus panchax, Rasbora daniconius, Chanda nama, and Esomus danricus species possessed good feeding potential on mosquito larvae. The small size, well developed eyes and position of the mouth seem to be probably the important factors helping their voracity on mosquito larvae. These fish are either surface, subsurface or column feeders. PMID:7989674

Sharma, S N

1994-06-01

262

Larvivorous capacity of some indigenous fish of Haryana state.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were undertaken to assess the role of some indigenous fish of Haryana state for the biological control of mosquitoes. Total of 28 fish species were encountered. Only six fresh water fish species Puntius ticto, Colisa fasciata, Aplocheilus panchax, Rasbora daniconius, Chanda nama, and Esomus danricus species possessed good feeding potential on mosquito larvae. The small size, well developed eyes and position of the mouth seem to be probably the important factors helping their voracity on mosquito larvae. These fish are either surface, subsurface or column feeders.

Sharma SN

1994-06-01

263

In vitro culture of some Bromeliaceae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Micropropagation was studied of four bromeliad plants, Aechmea fasciata, Vriesea poelmanii, Cryptanthus zonatus and Neoregelia carolinae, cultured by stem explants. Induction medium of MS+NAA 0.5mg L~(-1)+BA 5 mg L~(-1) led to budding after one or two weeks of culture. MS+BA 1 mg L~(-1)+NAA 0.1 mg L~(-1) was the optimum medium in subculture. The optimum concentration of NAA was 0.5 mg L~(-1) in rooting. Plantlets transplanted on media contained coconut-bant:sand=1:1 or coconut-bant:turf:vermiculite (1:1:1) had better survival rate up to 95%.

Hong Yanping; Lin Shunquan; Lin Qingliang

2002-01-01

264

Bromeliads production in greenhouses associated to different shading screens/ Produção de bromélias sob malhas de sombreamento em casa de vegetação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A produção de bromélias em ambiente protegido é altamente influenciada pelo microclima, o qual afeta tanto o desenvolvimento como o crescimento das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nas variáveis microclimáticas e no crescimento da bromélia Aechmea fasciata em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente. Os tratamentos foram compostos por diferentes malhas (more) de sombreamento: termo-refletora (T1), testemunha sem malha (T2), vermelha (T3), azul (T4) e preta (T5), todas com 70% de sombreamento. Das 60 plantas dispostas em cada um dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas 24 delas obtidas aleatoriamente. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado para as variáveis biométricas. Um sistema automático de aquisição de dados micrometeorológicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo registros de temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e radiação solar. As variáveis das plantas avaliadas foram altura e diâmetro da planta, largura e comprimento das folhas e número de folhas por planta. O diâmetro da roseta e o comprimento das folhas foram as variáveis que apresentaram as maiores diferenças entre os tratamentos, em função das alterações na radiação solar causadas pelas malhas de sombreamento. A malha vermelha promoveu as melhores condições para a produção da bromélia A. fasciata. Abstract in english Bromeliads production in greenhouses is highly influenced by microclimate, which affects plants growth and development. Based on that, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of shading screens of different colors on microclimatic variables and Aechmea fasciata bromeliad growth in a greenhouse covered by transparent low-density polyethylene. The experiment had five treatments, with screens of different colors, inside a plastic greenhouse: thermo-reflective (T1); contro (more) l without screen (T2); red (T3); blue (T4); and black (T5) screens, all of them with 70% of shading. From the 60 plants arranged in each one of the treatments 24 were evaluated, which were obtained randomly. The statistical design was completely randomized for the biometric variables. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, recording temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The plant parameters evaluated weekly were plant diameter and height, leaf width and length, and number of leaves per plant. The rosette diameter and leaf length were the parameters that presented the highest differences among treatments, which was basically a function of changes in solar radiation caused by the shading screens. The red screen provided the best conditions for A. fasciata bromeliad production.

Holcman, Ester; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar

2013-09-01

265

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (delta15N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (delta13C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

Rogers KM

2003-07-01

266

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 13}C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

Rogers, Karyne M

2003-07-01

267

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (delta15N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (delta13C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months. PMID:12837300

Rogers, Karyne M

2003-07-01

268

HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA) HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1), Leptodactyllidae (5), Testudinidae (1), Gekkonidae (3), Teiidae (3), Tropiduridae (3), Polychrotidae (1), Amphisbaenidae (1), Boidae (1), Colubridae (4) y Viperidae (2). Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las QuijadasThe National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1), Leptodactyllidae (5), Testudinidae (1), Gekkonidae (3), Teiidae (3), Tropiduridae (3), Polychrotidae (1), Amphisbaenidae (1), Boidae (1), Colubridae (4) y Viperidae (2). The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

Analía Guerreiro; J. C. Baldoni; Ana M. Brigada

2005-01-01

269

HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA)/ HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1), Leptodactyllidae (5), T (more) estudinidae (1), Gekkonidae (3), Teiidae (3), Tropiduridae (3), Polychrotidae (1), Amphisbaenidae (1), Boidae (1), Colubridae (4) y Viperidae (2). Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas Abstract in english The National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1), Leptodactyllidae (5), Testudinidae (1), Gekkonidae (3), Teiid (more) ae (3), Tropiduridae (3), Polychrotidae (1), Amphisbaenidae (1), Boidae (1), Colubridae (4) y Viperidae (2). The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

Guerreiro, Analía; Baldoni, J. C.; Brigada, Ana M.

2005-01-01

270

[Ethology and phylogeny of the family Belontiidae (Anabantoidei, pisces)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. The behavioural patterns of the following species of the family Belontiidae were qualitatively examined and compared with each other: Colisa lalia, C. fasciata, C. chuna, Trichogaster trichopterus, T. leeri, T. microlepis, Macropodu, opercularis, Pseudosphromenus (Macropodus) cupanus cupanus, Betta splendens, Trichopsis pumilus, T. vittatus vittatus, T. vittatus schalleri, Belontia signata and the hybrids Colisa fasciata X lalia. 2. Among other points the paper puts some emphasis on the description of the reproductive behaviour of the various species (nest building, mating, parental behaviour). In addition aspects of feeding and fighting behaviour are described. 3. The subfamilies established by Liem (1963) on the basis of osteological characteristics can also be substantiated ethologically. 4. Liem's conception of the phylogeny of Belontiidae is criticized. His system conceiving phylogeny as a process of branching off successively is contrasted with a phylogenetic fan. The subfamilies Belontiinae, Trichogasterinae and Macropodinae differentiated almost at the same time. 5. The genus of Macropodus has a very isolated position within the sub-family of Macropodinae. The remaining genera are on a higher level of development regarding their reproductive behaviour. As a result of the paper Pseudosphromenus (Macropodus) cupanus has to be eliminated from the genus of Macropodus.

Vierke J

1975-09-01

271

[Abundance and species diversity of tabanids (Diptera) in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-Makokou (Gabon) during the rainy season].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The abundance and species diversity of tabanids were evaluated by trapping of insects using Vavoua traps, during the rainy season, from October 4 to November 30, 2009, in three different habitats: primary forest, secondary forest and village, in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-IRET Makokou in Gabon. Eight species belonging to three genera of tabanids have been identified for a total of 402 specimens caught. The tabanid species numerically the most abundant were: Tabanus secedens Walker, 1854 (55.2%), Tabanus obscurehirtus Ricardo, 1908 (13.9%), Chrysops dimidiatus Wulp, 1885 (11.2%) and Chrysops silaceus Austen, 1907 (10.7%). The less abundant species were Tabanus par Walker, 1854 (3.2%), Tabanus besti arbucklei Austen, 1912 (3%), Tabanus marmorosus congoicola Bequaert, 1930 (1%) and Ancala fasciata fasciata (Fabricius, 1775) (0.5%). Specimens of the genera Tabanus and Chrysops could not be identified, these insects represented respectively 0.7% and 0.5% of the insects trapped. The highest proportion of tabanids was trapped in secondary forest (75.1%) and the lower in primary forest (4.5%).

Mavoungou JF; Makanga BK; Acapovi-Yao G; Desquesnes M; M'Batchi B

2012-05-01

272

The influence of tissue handling on the flavonoid content of the aquatic plant Posidonia oceanica.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent times, more and more studies have focused on flavonoids as biomarkers of environmental quality in aquatic plants, in particular, Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile. It is therefore of interest to determine how different prehandling methods can affect flavonoid concentrations. The methods tested were (1) immediate extraction of fresh samples, (2) extraction after 48 hr chilling, (3) freeze-drying, and (4) oven drying. Chilling and freeze-drying considerably altered the quantity of flavonoids measured, but not their profile. The effect of oven drying was not significant. Chilling led to a loss of 57% of total (pro)anthocyanidins, 39% of total flavonols, and 48% of all simple flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol). Freeze-drying caused a loss of 71% of total (pro)anthocyanidins, 87% of total flavonols, and 95% of all simple flavonols. PMID:17404815

Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila; Barboni, Toussaint; Pergent, Gerard; Pasqualini, Vanina

2007-04-03

273

Effects of mercury on antioxidant mechanisms in the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biochemical markers of oxidative stress such as catalase activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and levels of lipid peroxidation evaluated in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the sheaths of the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile experimentally exposed to 0.01, 0.1 and 1 microgHg l(-1) for 48 h. Up to a threshold concentration of 0.1 microg Hg l(-1), an increase in catalase and GST activities and TBARS levels was observed, indicating that the antioxidant mechanisms were overtaxed and could not prevent membrane lipid peroxidation. Paradoxically, at 1 microg Hg l(-1), the damage seemed to decrease, as the lipid peroxidation levels of exposed sheaths were lower than those of controls and as catalase and GST activities were not different from those of controls. A possible rapid induction of phytochelatins detoxifying mercury could occur at this high level of mercury.

Ferrat L; Roméo M; Gnassia-Barelli M; Pergent-Martini C

2002-07-01

274

The effect of in situ shading on a Posidonia oceanica meadow situated within a fish farm induced moderately nutrient enriched environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this research was to explore the possibility of a successful and balanced integration of fish farming installations into an ecosystem dominated by Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile species. We selected light, temperature, seabed topography, sediment characteristics, meadow density, bottom coverage, maximum leaf length and lower depth limit as principle components in assessing the influence of the fish farm. All P. oceanica descriptors showed significant correlation with light deprivation effect while sediment organic matter content revealed slightly higher values than normal, increasing with distance from the cages. The results point to a conclusion that in such lightly nutrient enriched ecosystems, the seagrass growth and distribution are principally controlled by the shadow that cages cast on the seabed below, and that when carefully planned, fish farms do not necessarily degrade the health status of the surrounding area, but in fact facilitate a transition into a secondary stable state.

Puhr K; Pikelj K

2012-08-01

275

Unexpected response of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to a warm-water episode in the north western Mediterranean Sea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The response of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile to the warm-water episode of summer 1999 was studied by means of the technique of lepidochronology. Study sites include three sites affected by the mass mortality event of benthic invertebrates and one not affected. The results showed a significant decline in some parameters (number of leaves and/or rhizome growth) for the three sites affected by the mass mortality event for the year following the warm-water episode (1999-2000). A similar decline was not observed for the unaffected site. The fact that high temperatures could have a negative impact on deep Posidonia oceanica near its cold limit of distribution is an unexpected result.

Mayot N; Boudouresque CF; Leriche A

2005-03-01

276

Unexpected response of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to a warm-water episode in the north western Mediterranean Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile to the warm-water episode of summer 1999 was studied by means of the technique of lepidochronology. Study sites include three sites affected by the mass mortality event of benthic invertebrates and one not affected. The results showed a significant decline in some parameters (number of leaves and/or rhizome growth) for the three sites affected by the mass mortality event for the year following the warm-water episode (1999-2000). A similar decline was not observed for the unaffected site. The fact that high temperatures could have a negative impact on deep Posidonia oceanica near its cold limit of distribution is an unexpected result. PMID:15810553

Mayot, Nicolas; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Leriche, Agathe

2005-03-01

277

The influence of tissue handling on the flavonoid content of the aquatic plant Posidonia oceanica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent times, more and more studies have focused on flavonoids as biomarkers of environmental quality in aquatic plants, in particular, Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile. It is therefore of interest to determine how different prehandling methods can affect flavonoid concentrations. The methods tested were (1) immediate extraction of fresh samples, (2) extraction after 48 hr chilling, (3) freeze-drying, and (4) oven drying. Chilling and freeze-drying considerably altered the quantity of flavonoids measured, but not their profile. The effect of oven drying was not significant. Chilling led to a loss of 57% of total (pro)anthocyanidins, 39% of total flavonols, and 48% of all simple flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol). Freeze-drying caused a loss of 71% of total (pro)anthocyanidins, 87% of total flavonols, and 95% of all simple flavonols.

Cannac M; Ferrat L; Barboni T; Pergent G; Pasqualini V

2007-05-01

278

Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oil of Teclea nobilis Leaf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of Teclea nobilis Delile (Rutaceae) (TN), was investigated by using GC/MS. Out of fifty four peaks (representing 99.3% of the oil), twenty three components were identified, representing 62.3% of the total oil composition. The main components were Germacrene-d (19%), Ocimene isomer (13%), Guaiol (3.9%), Elemol (2.9%) and Bulnesol (2.5%). Analgesia was evident in both the acetic acid induced writhing and tail flick reaction time tests in mice. A significant antipyretic activity of oil was also observed in mice. A slow and gradual neuromuscular blocking effect was recorded on rat`s phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation. The oil showed no anti-microbial potential on various microorganisms tested. The oil showed sedative effect on behavioural tests without causing any side effect.

Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

2001-01-01

279

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF).  

Science.gov (United States)

SRTXRF WAS USED TO DETERMINE AS, BA, BR, CA, CO, CR, CS, CU, DY, FE, K, MN, MO, NI, PB, RB, SR, TI, V, AND ZN IN ELEVEN SEAWEED SPECIES COMMONLY FOUND IN FERNANDO DE NORONHA: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area. PMID:22505917

Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garla, Ricardo Clapis; Oliveira Filho, Eurico Cabral; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues

2012-02-08

280

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SRTXRF WAS USED TO DETERMINE AS, BA, BR, CA, CO, CR, CS, CU, DY, FE, K, MN, MO, NI, PB, RB, SR, TI, V, AND ZN IN ELEVEN SEAWEED SPECIES COMMONLY FOUND IN FERNANDO DE NORONHA: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area.

Ferreira Lde S; Lopes RP; Ulbrich MN; Guaratini T; Colepicolo P; Lopes NP; Garla RC; Oliveira Filho EC; Pohlit AM; Zucchi OL

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) on seaweeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspecto (more) s morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos de análise de dados: comparação entre a perda de biomassa e as mudanças por autogenia, e a incorporação dos valores de autogenia à perda de biomassa por herbivoria. Em ambos os experimentos observou-se uma clara preferência de L. variegatus por certas espécies de macroalgas em relação a outras, em ordem decrescente de preferência: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. Além disso, constatou-se que os dois métodos de análise produziram resultados muito similares. De acordo com os resultados, a preferência alimentar de L. variegatus é provavelmente condicionada pela química defensiva produzida por P. brasiliense e D. menstrualis e aspectos morfológicos presentes em C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba e Sargassum sp. Abstract in english Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on (more) this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.

Souza, Camilla Ferreira; Oliveira, Aline Santos de; Pereira, Renato Crespo

2008-09-01

282

Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) on seaweeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos de análise de dados: comparação entre a perda de biomassa e as mudanças por autogenia, e a incorporação dos valores de autogenia à perda de biomassa por herbivoria. Em ambos os experimentos observou-se uma clara preferência de L. variegatus por certas espécies de macroalgas em relação a outras, em ordem decrescente de preferência: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. Além disso, constatou-se que os dois métodos de análise produziram resultados muito similares. De acordo com os resultados, a preferência alimentar de L. variegatus é provavelmente condicionada pela química defensiva produzida por P. brasiliense e D. menstrualis e aspectos morfológicos presentes em C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba e Sargassum sp.

Camilla Ferreira Souza; Aline Santos de Oliveira; Renato Crespo Pereira

2008-01-01

283

Metal and Phosphorus Uptake by Spontaneous Vegetation in an abandoned iron mine from a Semiarid Area in Center Morocco: Implications for Phytoextraction  

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Full Text Available Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 12 species, 10 genera, and 3 families) were analyzed to study the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and P in shoots and roots. The different plant species collected in Ait Amar iron mining site exhibited large differences in shoot and root accumulation of metals. Among the grass species (Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae), the highest shoot Cd, Cu, Zn concentrations were found in Echinops spinosus L (0.989, 29.190 and 175.347 mg Kg-1 respectively), Cr in Cladanthus arabicus (L) Class (9.241 mg Kg-1) and Pb, Fe and P in Leontodon hispidilus (Delile) Boiss (5.952, 1522.839  and 4612.795 mg Kg-1). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) were recorded for E. spinosus L and Zn (1.68). The highest soil-plant transfer factor (TF) of Cd was 1.24 (Stipa Capensis thumb), of Cr was 2.01 (C. arabicus (L) Class), of Cu was 8.40 (Carthamus lanatus L), of Zn was 2.52 (E. spinosus L), of Pb was 7.00 (Eryngium ilicifolium Lam), of P was 537.72 (E. ilicifolium Lam) and of Fe was 0.52 (L. hispidilus (Delile) Boiss). E. spinosus L showed the highest Zn phytoextraction capacity and other plant species demonstrated to grow well in metal contaminated soil taking up only low concentrations of metals, and, therefore they are good candidates for phytostabilization.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.3866

Mohamed Nouri; Fernando Gonçalves; Jausé Paulo Sousa; Jörg Jörg Römbke; Mohamed Ksibi; Ruth Pereira; Abdelmajid Haddioui

2013-01-01

284

Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL=44.0cm (SD 6.7cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

Santos RG; Martins AS; Farias Jda N; Horta PA; Pinheiro HT; Torezani E; Baptistotte C; Seminoff JA; Balazs GH; Work TM

2011-06-01

285

Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL=44.0cm (SD 6.7cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear. PMID:21450314

Santos, Robson G; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Torezani, Evelise; Baptistotte, Cecília; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Balazs, George H; Work, Thierry M

2011-03-29

286

Preparation and Analysis of Type II Xerogel Films with Antifouling/Foul Release Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to combat biofouling, xerogel coatings comprised of aminopropyl, fluorocarbon, and hydrocarbon silanes were prepared and tested for their antifouling/foul release properties against Ulva, Navicula, barnacles, and tubeworms. Many of the coatings showed settlement and removal of Ulva to be as good as or better than the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMSE) standard. Barnacle removal assays showed excellent results for some coatings while others did not fair so well. The best foul release coatings for barnacles were comprised of aminopropyl/hydrocarbon- and fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified silanes. For the majority of coatings tested, water wettability and surface energy did not play a role in the antifouling/ foul release properties of the coatings.

Sokolova, Anastasiya

287

Macroalgae fouling community as quality element for the evaluation of the ecological status in Vela Luka Bay, Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One year qualitative and quantitative study of communities of three major taxonomic groups has been carried out at test panles placed in the upper infarlittoral zone of coastal area of Vela Luka Bay, Croatia. A list of 44 taxa was recorded. Chaetomorpha sp., Ulva sp., Fosliella farinosa, Sphacelaria cirrosa, Polysiphonia scopulorum were the most frequent dominant taxa. Among 27 algal taxa with noticeable presence only three were classified as ESG (Ecological State Groups) I. Low diversity and species richness together with massive presence of the green algae (as Ulva sp.) and negligible presence of ESG I taxa, may lead to erroneous conclusion that Vela Luka Bay is eutrophicated area. Low values of biomass and R/P (Rhodophyceae by Phaeophyceae ratio) Index together with dominance of Phaeophyta also support conclusion that there is no negative impact of nutrient enrichment on macrophyta fouling community in Vela Luka Bay.

Gorana Jelic Mrcelic; Merica Sliskovic; Boris Antolic

2012-01-01

288

Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen (15N / 14N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon (13C / 12C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1999-01-01

289

Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

1986-01-01

290

Photosynthetic response of two seaweed species along an urban pollution gradient: evidence of selection of pollution-tolerant species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urbanization leads to the expansion of ephemeral seaweed species and the decline of important perennial, canopy-forming seaweed species. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to these changes is a current challenge. In the present study, laboratory assays and field transplantations were performed with two seaweed species: the perennial, canopy-forming seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum and the ephemeral seaweed Ulva lactuca. Photosynthetic efficiency was assessed using modulated chlorophyll fluorometry. Brief exposure to urban waters does not appear to be a major stressor to the photosynthetic efficiency of either species. However, after 26 days of transplantation in urban waters, S. stenophyllum declined, whereas U. lactuca had enhanced photosynthetic efficiency. This difference reflects their divergent abilities to regulate the energy distribution at the PSII and shows that urban stressors alter these mechanisms. Our results provide evidence of the physiological causes for the decline of Sargassum species and the expansion of Ulva species in impacted urban areas.

Scherner F; Bonomi Barufi J; Horta PA

2012-11-01

291

Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

Flagella, Maria Monia [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: flagella@szn.it; Verlaque, Marc [UMR 6540 DIMAR, COM, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)

2007-09-15

292

Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 ?mol photons m-2 s-1). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

2007-01-01

293

Antimicrobial Behavior of Semifluorinated-Quaternized Triblock Copolymers against Airborne and Marine Microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity.

Park, D.; Finlay, J; Ward, R; Weinman, C; Krishnan, S; Park, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; Callow, J; et. al.

2010-01-01

294

Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: refinement of an attachment model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA), PEGDMA-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-GMA), and PEGDMA-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-HEMA) hydrogels were polymerized using ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid as radical initiators. Surface energies of the hydrogels and a standard, poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSe), were characterized using captive bubble and sessile drop measurements, respectively (? = 52 mN/m, ?(0) = 19 mN/m). The chemical composition of the hydrogels was characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. All three hydrogel compositions reduced significantly (p = 0.05) initial attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza (up to 97%), cells of the diatom Navicula incerta (up to 58%) and the bacterium Cobetia marina (up to 62%), compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. A shear stress (45 Pa), generated in a water channel, eliminated up to 95% of the initially attached cells of Navicula from the smooth hydrogel surfaces relative to smooth PDMSe surfaces. Compared to the PDMSe standard, 79% of the cells of C. marina were removed from all smooth hydrogel compositions when exposed to a 50 Pa wall shear stress. Attachment of spores of the green alga Ulva to microtopographies replicated in PEGDMA-co-HEMA was also evaluated. The Sharklet AF microtopography patterned, PEGDMA-co-HEMA surfaces reduced attachment of spores of Ulva by 97% compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. The attachment densities of spores to engineered microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA were shown to correlate with a modified attachment model through the inclusion of a surface energy term. Attachment densities of spores of Ulva to engineered topographies replicated in a material other than PDMSe are now correlated with the attachment model (R(2) = 0.80). PMID:21401017

Magin, Chelsea M; Finlay, John A; Clay, Gemma; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2011-03-14

295

Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: refinement of an attachment model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA), PEGDMA-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-GMA), and PEGDMA-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-HEMA) hydrogels were polymerized using ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid as radical initiators. Surface energies of the hydrogels and a standard, poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSe), were characterized using captive bubble and sessile drop measurements, respectively (? = 52 mN/m, ?(0) = 19 mN/m). The chemical composition of the hydrogels was characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. All three hydrogel compositions reduced significantly (p = 0.05) initial attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza (up to 97%), cells of the diatom Navicula incerta (up to 58%) and the bacterium Cobetia marina (up to 62%), compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. A shear stress (45 Pa), generated in a water channel, eliminated up to 95% of the initially attached cells of Navicula from the smooth hydrogel surfaces relative to smooth PDMSe surfaces. Compared to the PDMSe standard, 79% of the cells of C. marina were removed from all smooth hydrogel compositions when exposed to a 50 Pa wall shear stress. Attachment of spores of the green alga Ulva to microtopographies replicated in PEGDMA-co-HEMA was also evaluated. The Sharklet AF microtopography patterned, PEGDMA-co-HEMA surfaces reduced attachment of spores of Ulva by 97% compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. The attachment densities of spores to engineered microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA were shown to correlate with a modified attachment model through the inclusion of a surface energy term. Attachment densities of spores of Ulva to engineered topographies replicated in a material other than PDMSe are now correlated with the attachment model (R(2) = 0.80).

Magin CM; Finlay JA; Clay G; Callow ME; Callow JA; Brennan AB

2011-04-01

296

Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine coastal ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary results are reported from field and laboratory studies on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms of Northwest Pacific coastal ecosystems. Chemical methods for the characterization of test solutions for specific hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, and heptodecane) were developed concurrently with population and community studies of the effects of short-term and chronic exposures. Results are reported from studies on algae (Ulva), clams (protothaca staminea), crustaceans (Anomyx and Neomysis) and burrowing worms.

1977-01-01

297

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

Krisler Alveal; Héctor Romo

1980-01-01

298

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as (more) Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis) Batters). The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata) had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

BRAVO-LINARES, C. M; MUDGE, S. M; LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA, R. H

2010-06-01

299

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis) Batters). The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata) had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

C. M BRAVO-LINARES; S. M MUDGE; R. H LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA

2010-01-01

300

Growth and biochemical composition of juvenile green abalone Haliotis fulgens fed rehydrated macroalgae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Under controlled laboratory conditions, juvenile green abalone Haliotis fulgens were fed rehydrated natural feeds to determine the effects on growth, survival, feed efficiency and biochemical composition of the digestive gland and muscle. Five macroalgae, Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta), Eisenia arborea, Macrocystis pyrifera, Egregia menziesii (Phaeophyta) and Porphyra perforata (Rhodophyta) were tested. The macroalgae promoted growth, although, depending on the species, there were considerable differences in growth, feed efficiency and biochemical composition of the digestive gland and muscle. Mean growth rate in length and weight and survival rate varied within the ranges 1.6-15.1 ?m day?¹, 1.4-8.1 mg day?¹ and 44-69%, respectively. Significantly, higher growth rates were obtained from Egregia menziesii, M. pyrifera and P. perforata. Feed conversion ratio ranged from 6.5 to 42.4 for P. perforata and Ulva sp. Protein, carbohydrates and lipid contents in the digestive gland ranged from 113 to 180, 98.3 to 448 and 17.2 to 23.3 mg g?¹ , respectively. In muscle, the ranges were 66.9-123, 9.5-23.2 and 2.8-3.9 mg g?¹, respectively. This study shows that rehydrated Egregia menziesii, M. pyrifera and, particularly, P. perforata are more efficient in promoting growth than Ulva sp. and E. arborea which match results reported by other authors when using the same fresh macroalgae.

PÉREZ-ESTRADA CJ; CIVERA-CERECEDO R; HERNÁNDEZ-LLAMAS A; SERVIERE-ZARAGOZA E

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Photosynthetic activity and community shifts of microphytobenthos covered by green macroalgae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Macroalgae blooms, a frequent consequence of eutrophication in coastal areas, affect the photosynthetic activity of sediments dominated by microphytobenthos (MPB). Light spectra, steady-state (after 1?h) microprofiles of O2 , gross photosynthesis (Pg ), community respiration in light (RL ) and net community photosynthesis (Pn ) were measured in diatom- and cyanobacteria-dominated communities below increasing layers of Ulva. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) decreased exponentially with increasing layers of algae and the light spectrum was increasingly enriched in the green and deprived in blue and red regions. Sediment Pg , Pn and RL decreased as the number of Ulva layers increased; however, 1.6 times higher macroalgal density was necessary to fully inhibit cyanobacteria Pg compared with diatoms, indicating that cyanobacteria were better adapted to this light environment. Long-term (3 weeks) incubations of diatom-dominated sediments below increasing layers of Ulva resulted in a shift in the taxonomic composition of the MPB towards cyanobacteria. Hence, changes in the light climate below macroalgal accumulations can negatively affect the photosynthetic activity of sediments. However, spectral niche differentiation of MPB taxonomic groups and concurrent changes in the MPB community may provide sediments with increased resilience to the detrimental effects of eutrophication.

García-Robledo E; Corzo A; Papaspyrou S; Morris EP

2012-06-01

302

Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 ?Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 ?Sv/year, respectively. PMID:22180886

Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

2011-10-01

303

Metal binding stoichiometry and isotherm choice in biosorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seaweeds that possess a high metal binding capacity may be used as biosorbents for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. The binding of Cu and Ni by three brown algae (Sargassum, Colpomenia, Petalonia) and one green alga (Ulva) was investigated at pH 4.0 and pH 3.0. The greater binding strength of Cu is reflected in a binding constant that is about 10 times as high as that of Ni. The extent of metal binding followed the order Petalonia {approximately} Sargassum > Colpomenia > Ulva. This was caused by a decreasing number of binding sites and by much lower metal binding constants for Ulva as compared to the brown algae. Three different stoichiometric assumptions are compared for describing the metal binding, which assume either that each metal ion M binds to one binding site B forming a BM complex or that a divalent metal ion M binds to two monovalent sites B forming BM{sub 0.5} or B{sub 2}M complexes, respectively. Stoichiometry plots are proposed as tools to discern the relevant binding stoichiometry. The pH effect in metal binding and the change in proton binding were well predicted for the B{sub 2}M or BM{sub 0.5} stoichiometries with the former being better for Cu and the latter preferable for Ni. Overall, the BM{sub 0.5} model is recommended because it avoids iterations.

Schiewer, S.; Wong, M.H.

1999-11-01

304

Biosorption of lanthanides using three kinds of seaweed biomasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the efficiency of seaweed biomass as sorbent for rare earth elements (REEs), sorption experiment from aqueous solutions containing known amount of lanthanide (La, Eu or Yb) using three kinds of Ca-loaded dried seaweeds (brown algae: Sargassum hemiphyllum, green algae: Ulva pertusa and red algae: Schizymenia dubyi) in single component system was explored. Furthermore, the sorption mechanism of these elements was investigated by applying Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to the data obtained. In addition, to confirm the characteristics of the seaweed biomasses, the surface morphology of the biomass before and after metal adsorption was determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The morphology of Sargassum hemiphyllum and Ulva pertusa surface has hardly changed even after exposing to metals. On the other hand, the change of the surface condition on Schizymenia dubyi after adsorption was observed. (2) Adsorption isotherms using the seaweed biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for lanthanide. These adsorption may have occurred mainly by monolayer reaction because of better-fitting for Langmuir model. (3) The seaweed biomasses could be an efficient sorbent for REEs. Particularly, Ulva pertusa is found to be a promising biosorbent for removing La. (4) Ion-exchange process is considered to be the main mechanism responsible for the sorption of lanthanide ion onto the seaweed biomass. (author)

2010-01-01

305

Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of {sup 131}I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. {sup 131}I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, {sup 131}I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from {sup 131}I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 {mu}Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing {sup 131}I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 {mu}Sv/year, respectively.

Veliscek Carolan, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.veliscek-carolan@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Hughes, Catherine E.; Hoffmann, Emmy L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

2011-10-15

306

Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137Cs, 129I, 6Co, 152Eu, 9Sr, and 99Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234U, 235U, and 238U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes.

2006-01-01

307

Changes in epiphytic bacterial communities of intertidal seaweeds modulated by host, temporality, and copper enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the factors involved in regulating the composition and structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on intertidal macroalgae, exploring their temporal variability and the role of copper pollution. Culture-independent, molecular approaches were chosen for this purpose and three host species were used as models: the ephemeral Ulva spp. (Chlorophyceae) and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae) and the long-living Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The algae were collected from two coastal areas in Northern Chile, where the main contrast was the concentration of copper in the seawater column resulting from copper-mine waste disposals. We found a clear and strong effect in the structure of the bacterial communities associated with the algal species serving as host. The structure of the bacterial communities also varied through time. The effect of copper on the structure of the epiphytic bacterial communities was significant in Ulva spp., but not on L. nigrescens. The use of 16S rRNA gene library analysis to compare bacterial communities in Ulva revealed that they were composed of five phyla and six classes, with approximately 35 bacterial species, dominated by members of Bacteroidetes (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) and ?-Proteobacteria, in both non-polluted and polluted sites. Less common groups, such as the Verrucomicrobiae, were exclusively found in polluted sites. This work shows that the structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on macroalgae is hierarchically determined by algal species > temporal changes > copper levels. PMID:20333374

Hengst, Martha B; Andrade, Santiago; González, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A

2010-03-24

308

Changes in epiphytic bacterial communities of intertidal seaweeds modulated by host, temporality, and copper enrichment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports on the factors involved in regulating the composition and structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on intertidal macroalgae, exploring their temporal variability and the role of copper pollution. Culture-independent, molecular approaches were chosen for this purpose and three host species were used as models: the ephemeral Ulva spp. (Chlorophyceae) and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae) and the long-living Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The algae were collected from two coastal areas in Northern Chile, where the main contrast was the concentration of copper in the seawater column resulting from copper-mine waste disposals. We found a clear and strong effect in the structure of the bacterial communities associated with the algal species serving as host. The structure of the bacterial communities also varied through time. The effect of copper on the structure of the epiphytic bacterial communities was significant in Ulva spp., but not on L. nigrescens. The use of 16S rRNA gene library analysis to compare bacterial communities in Ulva revealed that they were composed of five phyla and six classes, with approximately 35 bacterial species, dominated by members of Bacteroidetes (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) and ?-Proteobacteria, in both non-polluted and polluted sites. Less common groups, such as the Verrucomicrobiae, were exclusively found in polluted sites. This work shows that the structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on macroalgae is hierarchically determined by algal species > temporal changes > copper levels.

Hengst MB; Andrade S; González B; Correa JA

2010-08-01

309

Effective amino acid composition of seaweeds inducing food preference behaviors in Aplysia kurodai.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aplysia kurodai feeds on Ulva but rejects Gelidium and Pachydictyon with distinct patterned jaw movements. We previously demonstrated that these movements are induced by taste alone. Thus some chemicals may contribute to induction of these responses. We explored the amino acids composition of Ulva, Gelidium and Pachydictyon extracts used during our taste-induced physiological experiments. These solutions contained many constituents. The concentrations of six amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Phe, Tau) were obviously different in the three extract solutions. We explored patterned jaw movements following application of solutions containing a pure amino acid. We statistically compared the occurrence numbers of ingestion-like and rejection-like patterned jaw movements (positive and negative values, respectively) for each amino acid. Our results suggested that L-Asn tends to induce ingestion-like responses, likely resulting in a preference of Ulva. In contrast, L-Asp tends to induce rejection-like responses, likely resulting in aversion towards Pachydictyon. In addition, we demonstrated that L-Asn and L-Asp solutions were sufficient to induce muscle activity associated with ingestion-like or rejection-like responses in the jaw muscles of a semi-intact preparation. PMID:19447292

Nagahama, Tatsumi; Fujimoto, Kiyo; Takami, Shigemi; Kinugawa, Aiko; Narusuye, Kenji

2009-03-21

310

Effective amino acid composition of seaweeds inducing food preference behaviors in Aplysia kurodai.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aplysia kurodai feeds on Ulva but rejects Gelidium and Pachydictyon with distinct patterned jaw movements. We previously demonstrated that these movements are induced by taste alone. Thus some chemicals may contribute to induction of these responses. We explored the amino acids composition of Ulva, Gelidium and Pachydictyon extracts used during our taste-induced physiological experiments. These solutions contained many constituents. The concentrations of six amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Phe, Tau) were obviously different in the three extract solutions. We explored patterned jaw movements following application of solutions containing a pure amino acid. We statistically compared the occurrence numbers of ingestion-like and rejection-like patterned jaw movements (positive and negative values, respectively) for each amino acid. Our results suggested that L-Asn tends to induce ingestion-like responses, likely resulting in a preference of Ulva. In contrast, L-Asp tends to induce rejection-like responses, likely resulting in aversion towards Pachydictyon. In addition, we demonstrated that L-Asn and L-Asp solutions were sufficient to induce muscle activity associated with ingestion-like or rejection-like responses in the jaw muscles of a semi-intact preparation.

Nagahama T; Fujimoto K; Takami S; Kinugawa A; Narusuye K

2009-07-01

311

Macro algae as substrate for biogas production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition. The results show that the methane yield of Laminaria from mesophilic anaerobic digestion was fairly stable (average 138 L CH4/kgVSadded). Methane generation from thermophilic reactors both for Ulva and Laminaria, on the other hand, varied significantly, as the feeding rate varied. While the thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, itwas found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that subsequent can be used for fertilizer in organic farming. In the study the digested fertilizer product has been evaluated and it has a high quality in terms of nutrients.

MØller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu

312

Local adaptation in adult feeding preference and juvenile performance in the generalist herbivore Idotea balthica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Populations can respond to environmental heterogeneity by genetic adaptation to local conditions. Evidence for local adaptation in herbivores with relatively broad host breadth is scarce, either because generalists rarely locally adapt or because fewer studies have tested for local adaptation. The marine isopod Idotea balthica, a small (<3 cm) generalist herbivore common to estuaries of the northwestern Atlantic, is found on multiple macroalgae and sea grasses north of 42°N, while more southerly populations utilize sea grass-dominated and macroalgal-poor habitats. Feeding preference assays revealed a latitudinal shift in preference hierarchy that mirrors this geographic variation in host availability. Northern populations have higher feeding preference for fresh and freeze-dried tissue of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus and consumed more of its water-soluble and lipophilic extracts relative to southern populations. In contrast, southern populations have a relatively higher preference for the green macroalga Ulva linza and sea grass Zostera marina. The rank of hosts in feeding assays exhibited by northern adults (Fucus = Ulva > Zostera) and southern adults (Ulva > Fucus > Zostera) closely mirrored ranking of juvenile growth rates, suggesting that preference and performance are strongly correlated across these macrophytes. Several of our assays included isopods that had parents reared under uniform laboratory conditions, indicating that geographic differences are genetically mediated and unlikely to reflect phenotypic plasticity or maternal effects. Local adaptation in host use traits may be common in broadly distributed, generalist herbivores in marine and terrestrial systems, and will manifest itself as local shifts in the preference ranking of hosts.

Bell TM; Sotka EE

2012-10-01

313

Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry microalgae. SSF of the extracted solution obtained from ultrasonic treated microalgae at 30 min by glutase-AN and Saccahromyces cerevisiae AM12 provided 0.194 and 0.168 g-ethanol/g-dry microalgae with and without yeast extract, respectively, corresponding to 79.5 and 68.8% of theoretical ethanol yield.

Chikako Asada; Keita Doi; Chizuru Sasaki; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

2012-01-01

314

Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) From species of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile Piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera) de especies de las familias Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae E Icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) de Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 185 birds (nine captured alive and 176 preserved in a museum), belonging to the families Furnariidae (n=14), Tyrannidae (n=4), Turdidae (n=24) and Icteridae (n=143) (Aves: Passeriformes) were searched for lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae). The species collected and identified were: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 from Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817), and Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 from Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) from Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 and Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838) from Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino and Castro 1996 from Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 from Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro, 1996 and Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 from Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae). The species B. persimilis Cicchino 1987, M. eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 are new records for Chile. New host-louse records are G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) for P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), for M. psittaci and S. loyca for M. leistidis Carriker 1955 and S. loyca (Molina 1782) for M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Within Chile, the distribution of Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 was extended from the 4th to the 10th Regions, and for B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from the 4th to the 12th Regions.Se analizaron un total de 185 aves (nueve capturadas vivas y 176 preservadas en un museo) correspondientes a las familias Furnariidae (n= 14), Tyrannidae (n= 4), Turdidae (n=24) e Icteridae (n=143). Las especies de piojos aislados e identificados fueron: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 en Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817) y Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 en Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) en Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 y Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), en Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 en Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 y Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 en Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae). Las especies Brueelia persimilis Cicchino 1987, Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker, 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 corresponden a nuevas citas para Chile. Nuevos registros de hospedadores son G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) para P. cuniculariae Cicchino, 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), para M. psittaci Carriker 1955 y S. loyca (Molina 1782) para M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Se amplia la distribución de Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV hasta la X Región de Chile y la de B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV a la XII Región de Chile.

Daniel González-Acuña; Francisco Vergara; Lucila Moreno; Carlos Barrientos; Karen Ardiles; Armando Cicchino

2006-01-01

315

Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) From species of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile/ Piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera) de especies de las familias Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae E Icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizaron un total de 185 aves (nueve capturadas vivas y 176 preservadas en un museo) correspondientes a las familias Furnariidae (n= 14), Tyrannidae (n= 4), Turdidae (n=24) e Icteridae (n=143). Las especies de piojos aislados e identificados fueron: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 en Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817) y Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 en Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) (more) en Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 y Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), en Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 en Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 y Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 en Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae). Las especies Brueelia persimilis Cicchino 1987, Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker, 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 corresponden a nuevas citas para Chile. Nuevos registros de hospedadores son G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) para P. cuniculariae Cicchino, 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), para M. psittaci Carriker 1955 y S. loyca (Molina 1782) para M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Se amplia la distribución de Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV hasta la X Región de Chile y la de B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV a la XII Región de Chile. Abstract in english A total of 185 birds (nine captured alive and 176 preserved in a museum), belonging to the families Furnariidae (n=14), Tyrannidae (n=4), Turdidae (n=24) and Icteridae (n=143) (Aves: Passeriformes) were searched for lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae). The species collected and identified were: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 from Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817), and Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 from Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 18 (more) 60) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) from Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 and Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838) from Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino and Castro 1996 from Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 from Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro, 1996 and Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 from Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae). The species B. persimilis Cicchino 1987, M. eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 are new records for Chile. New host-louse records are G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) for P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), for M. psittaci and S. loyca for M. leistidis Carriker 1955 and S. loyca (Molina 1782) for M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Within Chile, the distribution of Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 was extended from the 4th to the 10th Regions, and for B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from the 4th to the 12th Regions.

González-Acuña, Daniel; Vergara, Francisco; Moreno, Lucila; Barrientos, Carlos; Ardiles, Karen; Cicchino, Armando

2006-12-01

316

Revista de Trabajos Regionales La fiebre amarilla en Zaraza por el doctor Vicente Peña  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión y análisis de las observaciones del doctor Vicente Peña sobre la epidemia de fiebre amarilla, de principios de año; desde los datos epidemiológicos, carácter estacionario de la Stogomia fasciata o calopus, y discriminación de los signos y síntomas observados o no en los pacientes, para terminar arengándolo a seguir observando la enfermedad.Upon revising and analysing the observations of Dr. Vicente Peña on the yellow fever epidemic, at the beginning of the year, from the epidemic data, stationary character of the Stegomia fasfaciata o calopus and discrimination of the signs and symptoms observed in patients or not, we concluded encouraging him to continue observing the illness.

Rafael Rangel

2006-01-01

317

Nematodes of armadillos in Paraguay: a description of a new species Aspidodera esperanzae (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve species of nematodes comprising 9 genera were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of 2 Euphractus sexcinctus and 2 Dasypus novemcinctus captured in the Department of San Pedro, Paraguay. All armadillos were infected with 1 or more species of nematode. The following nematodes were recovered: Mazzia mazzia, Spirura guianensis, Trichohelix tuberculata, Ancylostoma sp., Moennigia complexus, Moennigia pintoi, Ascaris dasypodina, Cruzia tentaculata, Aspidodera fasciata, Aspidodera scoleciformis, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., and Heterakinae gen. sp. This report describes a new species of the Aspidodera nematode, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., the first species to be reported bearing cephalic cordons made up of 7 longitudinal loops in the subfamily of Aspidoderinae. This study also documents a new host record for S. guianensis and shows a new geographical distribution in Paraguay for M. mazzia, S. guianensis, T. tuberculata, M. complexus, and M. pintoi. PMID:8544068

Fujita, O; Abe, N; Oku, Y; Sanabria, L; Inchaustti, A; Kamiya, M

1995-12-01

318

Nematodes of armadillos in Paraguay: a description of a new species Aspidodera esperanzae (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve species of nematodes comprising 9 genera were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of 2 Euphractus sexcinctus and 2 Dasypus novemcinctus captured in the Department of San Pedro, Paraguay. All armadillos were infected with 1 or more species of nematode. The following nematodes were recovered: Mazzia mazzia, Spirura guianensis, Trichohelix tuberculata, Ancylostoma sp., Moennigia complexus, Moennigia pintoi, Ascaris dasypodina, Cruzia tentaculata, Aspidodera fasciata, Aspidodera scoleciformis, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., and Heterakinae gen. sp. This report describes a new species of the Aspidodera nematode, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., the first species to be reported bearing cephalic cordons made up of 7 longitudinal loops in the subfamily of Aspidoderinae. This study also documents a new host record for S. guianensis and shows a new geographical distribution in Paraguay for M. mazzia, S. guianensis, T. tuberculata, M. complexus, and M. pintoi.

Fujita O; Abe N; Oku Y; Sanabria L; Inchaustti A; Kamiya M

1995-12-01

319

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Perú, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken off Chorrillos, Perú, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms. PMID:2134702

Oliva, M E; Luque, J L; Iannacone, J A

320

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Perú, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken off Chorrillos, Perú, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Oliva ME; Luque JL; Iannacone JA

1990-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Marcelo E. Oliva; Jose L. Luque; Jose A. Iannacone

1990-01-01

322

Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae) capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae), caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65). Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122). El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4). Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04%) mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33%) y 7 (6,66%) tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56) y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07). Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H') = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C) = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad.A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 females. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65). Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122) were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4). One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04%) showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33%) and seven (6.66%) had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07) were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H') = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C) = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

José Iannacone

2004-01-01

323

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, (more) include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Oliva, Marcelo E.; Luque, Jose L.; Iannacone, Jose A.

1990-09-01

324

Mercury Concentration of Four Dominant Species in the Bebar Peat Swampy Forest River, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Muscle, stomach and gill from four dominant fish species, Mytus nemurus, Pristolepis fasciata, Ompok bimaculatus and Osteochilus hasseltii, caught from Bebar peat swamp forest river were analyzed for mercury (Hg). The concentration of Hg was measured with a fast and sensitive Flow Injector Mercury Spectrometer (FIMS). The average Hg concentration of all species caught was 0.169 ?g g-1 dry weights, lower than a limit for human consumption recommended by the World Health Organization, 0.5 ?g g-1 dry weights. The mean concentration of Hg was relatively high in stomach (0.28x0.12 ?g g-1 dry weights) followed by gill (0.17x0.06 ?g g-1 dry weights) and lowest in muscle (0.05x0.02 ?g g-1 dry weights). The positive relationship of Hg with fish length and weight suggesting that the accumulation of Hg were formed in the fish.

B.Y. Kamaruzzaman; M.C. Ong; A.H. Khali

2007-01-01

325

Evaluación de germoplasma de achiote Bixa orellana L.: estudios básicos sobre asociaciones fenotípicas y biología floral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 150 Bixa genetic resources was collected by National University of Colombia for purposes of conservation, evaluation and utilization in genetic breeding program. 21 accessions was evaluated for color production, seed production per plant and color porcentaje. B-Col 12, B-Col 16 and B-Co156 accessions showed highest values for seed production per plant and color percentaje. The achiote flower is hermafrodite, regular, calix formed by 5 sepales, coro le formed by 5 petales, numerous estames, superior and unilocular ovary. Antesis is 5:30 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. range. Protandria is present in achiote: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata and Trigona sp. are the pollinizator insects. A methodoly for controlled polinization was carried out.En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, seccional de Palmira se formó una colección de achiote Bixa orellana L. con 70 introducciones nacionales y 80 extranjeras. En 21 introducciones se encontró amplia variación fenotípica para los caracteres rendimiento de colorante por árbol y rendimiento de semilla por árbol. La variabilidad del carácter porcentaje de colorante fue menor. Las introducciones B-Col 12, B-Col 16 y B-Col 56 presentaron valores altos para los caracteres rendimiento de semilla por árbol y porcentaje de colorante. La flor del achiote es hermafrodita, regular, cáliz compuesto de cinco sépalos, corola por cinco pétalos libres, numerosos estambres, gineceo constituido por un ovario súpero unilocular. La antesis floral ocurre entre las 5:30 a.m. y las 8:00 a.m. Se presenta el fenómeno de protandria. Los principales insectos polinizadores son: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata y Trigona sp. Se determinó una metodología para efectuar hibridación artificial en achiote.

Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

1991-01-01

326

Evaluation of spinning disc technology for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes against a foliar pest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two spinning disc spray application systems, the Micron Herbaflex and Micron Ulva+, were assessed for their potential for the application of infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The effect of initial concentration of IJs on subsequent infection was examined for three species of EPNs: Steinernema sp. (M87), Steinernema sp. (SSL85), and Heterorhabditis sp. Increasing the concentration of IJs generally resulted in a significant increase in both DBM mortality and the mean number of nematodes per larva following spray application with the Micron Herbaflex sprayer. Application with the Micron Ulva+ was examined using two different initial concentration of IJs, which generally resulted in an increase in DBM mortality and intensity of infection. The effect of changing the flow rate to the Ulva+ was also examined. This generally resulted in increased DBM mortality as flow rate was increased but there was little change in the mean number of nematodes per host larva. The effect of addition of a number of adjuvants to the spray solution on subsequent infection showed that DBM mortality by the IJs was not significantly affected but that the mean number of nematodes infecting was significantly enhanced by some of the adjuvants. Desiccation survival studies with IJs of Heterorhabditis sp. following application with both sprayers onto Chinese cabbage leaf discs, with or without the addition of an adjuvant, showed that the survival time of 50% of IJs was over 3 h. Infection of DBM larvae was also assessed following desiccation on Chinese cabbage leaf discs. High levels of infection were attainable, in terms of resultant DBM mortality, for at least 150 min following spray application.

Mason JM; Matthews GA; Wright DJ

1999-05-01

327

Evaluation of spinning disc technology for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes against a foliar pest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two spinning disc spray application systems, the Micron Herbaflex and Micron Ulva+, were assessed for their potential for the application of infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The effect of initial concentration of IJs on subsequent infection was examined for three species of EPNs: Steinernema sp. (M87), Steinernema sp. (SSL85), and Heterorhabditis sp. Increasing the concentration of IJs generally resulted in a significant increase in both DBM mortality and the mean number of nematodes per larva following spray application with the Micron Herbaflex sprayer. Application with the Micron Ulva+ was examined using two different initial concentration of IJs, which generally resulted in an increase in DBM mortality and intensity of infection. The effect of changing the flow rate to the Ulva+ was also examined. This generally resulted in increased DBM mortality as flow rate was increased but there was little change in the mean number of nematodes per host larva. The effect of addition of a number of adjuvants to the spray solution on subsequent infection showed that DBM mortality by the IJs was not significantly affected but that the mean number of nematodes infecting was significantly enhanced by some of the adjuvants. Desiccation survival studies with IJs of Heterorhabditis sp. following application with both sprayers onto Chinese cabbage leaf discs, with or without the addition of an adjuvant, showed that the survival time of 50% of IJs was over 3 h. Infection of DBM larvae was also assessed following desiccation on Chinese cabbage leaf discs. High levels of infection were attainable, in terms of resultant DBM mortality, for at least 150 min following spray application. PMID:10222182

Mason, J M; Matthews, G A; Wright, D J

1999-05-01

328

Responses of cerebral GABA-containing CBM neuron to taste stimulation with seaweed extracts in Aplysia kurodai.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aplysia kurodai distributed along Japan feeds well on Ulva pertusa but rejects Gelidium amansii with distinctive patterned movements of the jaws and radula. On the ventral side of the cerebral M cluster, four cell bodies of higher order neurons that send axons to the buccal ganglia are distributed (CBM neurons). We have previously shown that the dopaminergic CBM1 modulates basic feeding circuits in the buccal ganglia for rejection by firing at higher frequency after application of the aversive taste of seaweed such as Gelidium amansii. In the present experiments immunohistochemical techniques showed that the CBM3 exhibited gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity. The CBM3 may be equivalent to the CBI-3 involved in changing the motor programs from rejection to ingestion in Aplysia californica. The responses of the CBM3 to taste stimulation of the lips with seaweed extracts were investigated by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically introduced into a cell body of the CBM3 using a microelectrode. Application of Ulva pertusa or Gelidium amansii extract induced different changes in fluorescence in the CBM3 cell body, indicating that taste of Ulva pertusa initially induced longer-lasting continuous spike responses at slightly higher frequency compared with that of Gelidium amansii. Considering a role of the CBM3 in the pattern selection, these results suggest that elongation of the initial firing response may be a major factor for the CBM3 to switch the buccal motor programs from rejection to ingestion after application of different tastes of seaweeds in Aplysia kurodai.

Narusuye K; Kinugawa A; Nagahama T

2005-11-01

329

Responses of cerebral GABA-containing CBM neuron to taste stimulation with seaweed extracts in Aplysia kurodai.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aplysia kurodai distributed along Japan feeds well on Ulva pertusa but rejects Gelidium amansii with distinctive patterned movements of the jaws and radula. On the ventral side of the cerebral M cluster, four cell bodies of higher order neurons that send axons to the buccal ganglia are distributed (CBM neurons). We have previously shown that the dopaminergic CBM1 modulates basic feeding circuits in the buccal ganglia for rejection by firing at higher frequency after application of the aversive taste of seaweed such as Gelidium amansii. In the present experiments immunohistochemical techniques showed that the CBM3 exhibited gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity. The CBM3 may be equivalent to the CBI-3 involved in changing the motor programs from rejection to ingestion in Aplysia californica. The responses of the CBM3 to taste stimulation of the lips with seaweed extracts were investigated by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically introduced into a cell body of the CBM3 using a microelectrode. Application of Ulva pertusa or Gelidium amansii extract induced different changes in fluorescence in the CBM3 cell body, indicating that taste of Ulva pertusa initially induced longer-lasting continuous spike responses at slightly higher frequency compared with that of Gelidium amansii. Considering a role of the CBM3 in the pattern selection, these results suggest that elongation of the initial firing response may be a major factor for the CBM3 to switch the buccal motor programs from rejection to ingestion after application of different tastes of seaweeds in Aplysia kurodai. PMID:16114014

Narusuye, Kenji; Kinugawa, Aiko; Nagahama, Tatsumi

2005-11-01

330

The effect of stocking density and diet on the growth and survival of cultured Florida apple snails, Pomacea paludosa  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been interest in culturing the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa, for stock enhancement purposes in central and south Florida to help promote snail kite (Rostramus sociabilis) recovery. In 2007, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University began to research techniques necessary to culture Florida apple snails at a commercial scale (tens of thousands per year). This article reviews stocking density and diet experiments that have yielded a protocol for large-scale culture of Florida apple snails. The objectives of this research were to determine the stocking density that supports efficient production and to determine whether diet choice affects growth and survival and can improve captive growth rates at higher stocking densities. Juvenile apple snails were stocked at six densities (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 snails/m²) in recirculating aquaculture systems with a raised substrate. Although growth was faster in the lowest stocking density compared to the highest density during the first month, the difference subsided in the second month, and overall growth rates and final shell lengths were not statistically different. Survival was not affected by density. A second experiment testing higher densities (100, 175, and 250 snails/m²) showed that snails could be stocked as high as 250 snails/m² and confirmed that the lowest density is optimal for first-month growth. An initial diet study examining six diets (romaine lettuce, two combination diets of plant material and catfish chow, and three ingredient-only diets) showed shell length growth rates of 3mm/wk for snails fed the macroalgae Ulva Diet and Catfish Diet (catfish chow only) for two months. In a subsequent experiment, snails stocked at 250 snails/m² and fed the Ulva Diet grew faster than those at the same density fed the Catfish Diet. The greatest growth occurred in snails fed the Ulva Diet and stocked at 100 snails/m². Based on these results, it is recommended that the Florida apple snail be cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems with a raised substrate at 100 snails/m² and an artificial diet of Ulva macroalgae mixed with catfish chow. Snails cultured in this manner are suitable for release into the wild after three months when they reach adult size (25mm) and reproductive maturity.

Garr AL; Lopez H; Pierce R; Davis M

2011-02-01

331

Technology for cultivation of Porphyra and other seaweeds in land-based sea water ponds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides unique technology, systems and methods of cultivating different types of seaweeds, including, but not limited to, Porphyra (Nori), Laminaria, Undaria, Eucheuma, Gracillaria, Ulva, Sargassum, Codium, Cladophora, Ascophyllum, Palmaria, Furcellaria, Fucus or Enteromorpha, in land-based seawater ponds having a climatically suitable and nutrient controlled environment. These land-based ponds may be built in any part of the world with structural engineering and architectural modifications. The land based units for cultivation of seaweeds comprise phycological laboratory facilities, U-shaped sleeves, to allow the maturation of the sporelings; growth tanks, U-shaped cultivation tanks, a plurality of small inoculation tanks aerated with air, and a harvesting unit.

LEVY ISRAEL

332

TECHNOLOGY FOR CULTIVATION OF Porphyra AND OTHER SEAWEEDS IN LAND-BASED PONDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides unique technology, systems and methods of cultivating different types of seaweeds, including, but not limited to, Porphyra (Nori), Laminaria, Undaria, Eucheuma, Gracillaria, Ulva, Sargassum, Codium, Cladophqra, Ascophyllum, Palmaria, Furcellaria, Fucus or Enteromorpha, in land-based seawater ponds having a climatically suitable and nutrient controlled environment. These land-based ponds may be built in any part of the world with structural engineering and architectural modifications. The land based units for cultivation of seaweeds comprise phycological laboratory facilities, U-shaped sleeves, to allow the maturation of the sporelings; growth tanks, U-shaped cultivation tanks, a plurality of small inoculation tanks aerated with air, and a harvesting unit.

LEVY ISRAEL

333

Compositions of enriched seaweeds in land-based sea water ponds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides unique technology, systems and methods of cultivating different types of seaweeds, including, but not limited to, Porphyra (Nori), Laminaria, Undaria, Eucheuma, Gracillaria, Ulva, Sargassum, Codium, Cladophora, Ascophyllum, Palmaria, Furcellaria, Fucus or Enteromorpha, in land-based seawater ponds having a climatically suitable and nutrient controlled environment. A variety of enriched seaweeds compositions are developed including nitrogen enriched, protein-enriched, carbohydrate-enriched, mineral-enriched, metal-enriched or low in soduim, by using customized nutrient solutions in different stages of the growth of the seaweeds.

LEVY ISRAEL

334

Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes. The seagrass stations showed a mean species richness (28-30 S m(-2)), individual abundance (1854-4018 N m(-2)) and biomass (22.3-37.7 g m(-2) ash-free-dry-weight, AFDW) ca. 3-8 times higher than those populated by seaweeds (10-15 S m(-2), 494-1395 N m(-2) and 5.6-13.7 g m(-2) AFDW). Differences among seagrass or seaweed stations were much lower. The Ulva-dominated station showed a macrofauna completely different both from the other stations and the communities recorded ca. 30 years ago, before the prolific growth of Ulva. In this station, frequent biomass decompositions and anoxic crises created critical conditions for life favouring organisms with reduced life cycles, younger individuals and the epifaunal species instead of the infaunal ones. In particular, Ulva grazers and scrapers such as Gammarus aequicauda Stock and Gibbula adriatica Philippi were found to be by far the most abundant species, whereas the taxa characteristic of the associations found in the past, in the presence of seagrasses or seaweeds and typical of low eutrophicated environments, appear strongly reduced. Marked differences in the macrophyte dominance and in the bio-physico-chemical variables which characterise the main environmental conditions of the Venice lagoon support the different distribution and composition of macrofaunal communities. Seaweed stations appear mainly governed by the seasonal cycles of these un-rooted macrophytes which, by alternating periods of production and decomposition, are responsible for the drastic reduction of macrofauna biodiversity and biomass. Conversely, seagrass stations exhibit a better oxidisation of the environment and show conditions more favourable for macrofauna colonisation, especially in the presence of macrophytes which are characterised by very well developed below-ground systems such as Cymodocea nodosa.

Sfriso A; Birkemeyer T; Ghetti PF

2001-10-01

335

Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes. The seagrass stations showed a mean species richness (28-30 S m(-2)), individual abundance (1854-4018 N m(-2)) and biomass (22.3-37.7 g m(-2) ash-free-dry-weight, AFDW) ca. 3-8 times higher than those populated by seaweeds (10-15 S m(-2), 494-1395 N m(-2) and 5.6-13.7 g m(-2) AFDW). Differences among seagrass or seaweed stations were much lower. The Ulva-dominated station showed a macrofauna completely different both from the other stations and the communities recorded ca. 30 years ago, before the prolific growth of Ulva. In this station, frequent biomass decompositions and anoxic crises created critical conditions for life favouring organisms with reduced life cycles, younger individuals and the epifaunal species instead of the infaunal ones. In particular, Ulva grazers and scrapers such as Gammarus aequicauda Stock and Gibbula adriatica Philippi were found to be by far the most abundant species, whereas the taxa characteristic of the associations found in the past, in the presence of seagrasses or seaweeds and typical of low eutrophicated environments, appear strongly reduced. Marked differences in the macrophyte dominance and in the bio-physico-chemical variables which characterise the main environmental conditions of the Venice lagoon support the different distribution and composition of macrofaunal communities. Seaweed stations appear mainly governed by the seasonal cycles of these un-rooted macrophytes which, by alternating periods of production and decomposition, are responsible for the drastic reduction of macrofauna biodiversity and biomass. Conversely, seagrass stations exhibit a better oxidisation of the environment and show conditions more favourable for macrofauna colonisation, especially in the presence of macrophytes which are characterised by very well developed below-ground systems such as Cymodocea nodosa. PMID:11695653

Sfriso, A; Birkemeyer, T; Ghetti, P F

2001-10-01

336

In situ observations of the radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French coast from Banyuls to Menton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this preliminary work is to measure the gamma radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French Mediterranean coast line between Banyuls and Menton. The marine species measured are: mussels, sea urchins and ten species of seaweed, namely: Ulva sp., Codium sp., Zoostera marina, Corallina elongata, Stypocaulon scoparium, Cymodocee nodosa, Pterocladia pinnata, Asparagopsis armata, Cystoseira sp., Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. The sampling places are spread over twenty four stations, eight of which are maritime and six representative of coastal lakes west of the Rhone. This aggregate study allowed us to highlight certain particular points and to make a choice between the indicators for a subsequent study in the most interesting areas

1979-06-22

337

Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

Michio Namikoshi; Takeshi Fujiwara; Teruaki Nishikawa; Kazuyo Ukai

2006-01-01

338

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

Alveal, Krisler; Romo, Héctor

1980-12-01

339

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussflum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

Alveal, Krisler; Romo, Héctor

1980-01-01

340

Cerebral CBM1 neuron contributes to synaptic modulation appearing during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese species Aplysia kurodai feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium with distinctive rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. We have previously shown that the patterned jaw movements during the rejection of Gelidium might be caused by long-lasting suppression of the monosynaptic transmission from the multiaction MA neurons to the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons in the buccal ganglia and that the modulation might be directly produced by some cerebral neurons. In the present paper, we have identified a pair of catecholaminergic neurons (CBM1) in bilateral cerebral M clusters. The CBM1, probably equivalent to CBI-1 in A. californica, simultaneously produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the MA and JC neurons. Firing of the CBM1 reduced the size of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the JC neuron, evoked by the MA spikes, for >100 s. Moreover, the application of dopamine mimicked the CBM1 modulatory effects and pretreatment with a D1 antagonist, SCH23390, blocked the modulatory effects induced by dopamine. It could also largely block the modulatory effects induced by the CBM1 firing. These results suggest that the CBM1 may directly modulate the synaptic transmission by releasing dopamine. Moreover, we explored the CBM1 spike activity induced by taste stimulation of the animal lips with seaweed extracts by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically loaded into a cell body of the CBM1 using a microelectrode. Application of either Ulva or Gelidium extract to the lips increased the fluorescence intensity, but the Gelidium extract always induced a larger change in fluorescence compared with the Ulva extract, although the solution used induced the maximum spike responses of the CBM1 for each of the seaweed extracts. When the firing frequency of the CBM1 activity after taste stimulation was estimated, the Gelidium extract induced a spike activity of ~30 spikes/s while the Ulva extract induced an activity of ~20 spikes/s, consistent with the effective firing frequency (>25 spikes/s) for the synaptic modulation. These results suggest that the CBM1 may be one of the cerebral neurons contributing to the modulation of the basic feeding circuits for rejection induced by the taste of seaweeds such as Gelidium. PMID:12424312

Narusuye, Kenji; Nagahama, Tatsumi

2002-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cerebral CBM1 neuron contributes to synaptic modulation appearing during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Japanese species Aplysia kurodai feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium with distinctive rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. We have previously shown that the patterned jaw movements during the rejection of Gelidium might be caused by long-lasting suppression of the monosynaptic transmission from the multiaction MA neurons to the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons in the buccal ganglia and that the modulation might be directly produced by some cerebral neurons. In the present paper, we have identified a pair of catecholaminergic neurons (CBM1) in bilateral cerebral M clusters. The CBM1, probably equivalent to CBI-1 in A. californica, simultaneously produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the MA and JC neurons. Firing of the CBM1 reduced the size of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the JC neuron, evoked by the MA spikes, for >100 s. Moreover, the application of dopamine mimicked the CBM1 modulatory effects and pretreatment with a D1 antagonist, SCH23390, blocked the modulatory effects induced by dopamine. It could also largely block the modulatory effects induced by the CBM1 firing. These results suggest that the CBM1 may directly modulate the synaptic transmission by releasing dopamine. Moreover, we explored the CBM1 spike activity induced by taste stimulation of the animal lips with seaweed extracts by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically loaded into a cell body of the CBM1 using a microelectrode. Application of either Ulva or Gelidium extract to the lips increased the fluorescence intensity, but the Gelidium extract always induced a larger change in fluorescence compared with the Ulva extract, although the solution used induced the maximum spike responses of the CBM1 for each of the seaweed extracts. When the firing frequency of the CBM1 activity after taste stimulation was estimated, the Gelidium extract induced a spike activity of ~30 spikes/s while the Ulva extract induced an activity of ~20 spikes/s, consistent with the effective firing frequency (>25 spikes/s) for the synaptic modulation. These results suggest that the CBM1 may be one of the cerebral neurons contributing to the modulation of the basic feeding circuits for rejection induced by the taste of seaweeds such as Gelidium.

Narusuye K; Nagahama T

2002-11-01

342

Anthelmintic potential of three plants used in Nigerian ethnoveterinary medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: The leaves of Irvingia gabonensis Baill. Ex Lanen (Irvingiaceae), Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae), and Vernonia amygdalina Delile (Asteraceae) are folklorically used in treating worm infestation in Eastern Nigeria. The anthelmintic potential of the ethanol extracts of the leaves of I. gabonensis, F. exasperata, and V. amygdalina was investigated. MATERIALS: Acute toxicity tests were done in mice using 10, 100, and 1000?mg/kg/bw of extracts. In vitro larval assays of Heligmosomoides bakeri larvae at various extract concentrations (125, 250, and 500?mg/kg) were done. Mice experimentally infected with H. bakeri were treated with F. exasperata extract (200, 400, 800?mg/kg). RESULTS: At concentrations of 500, 250, and 125?mg/ml F. exasperata caused 100% larval mortality. V. amygdalina extract caused 71.43, 57.14, and 57.14% larval deaths while I. gabonensis extract caused 71.43, 57.14, and 42.9% larval deaths at the same concentrations. There was no significant difference in the fecal egg output, packed cell volumes and body weights of the F. exasperata treated mice when compared with the infected untreated group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Leaf extracts of F. exasperata, V. amygdalina, and I. gabonensis exhibited varying degrees of larvicidal activities on the infective stage larvae of H. bakeri in vitro whereas F. exasperata showed no activity on the parasites in vivo.

Nweze NE; Ogidi A; Ngongeh LA; Ngongeh LA

2013-03-01

343

Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

Migliore Luciana; Rotini Alice; Randazzo Davide; Albanese Nadia N; Giallongo Agata

2007-01-01

344

What factors drive seasonal variation of phytoplankton, protozoans and metazoans on leaves of Posidonia oceanica and in the water column along the coast of the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hierarchical sampling design was used during two seasons (spring (May) and summer (August) 2006). Using this design, three regions of the Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia) were analyzed for the distribution of microalgal, protozoan and metazoan assemblages in two different habitats: (1) the water column; and (2) on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (P. oceanica) leaves in shallow meadows. A total of 85 species were obtained. In particular, the diatom family Naviculacea consistently dominated (both numerically and in their diversity) the micro-algae in all regions for the two seasons of the study and in both habitats. In the Chergui region, which is the closest area to a source of impact, fast growing centric diatoms (such as Thalassionema, Rhizosolenia, Striatella, and Skeletonema) were identified as indicators of high organic matter and nutrient enrichment in water bodies. Protozoan and metazoan species abundance in the different regions indicate a non-random spatial and temporal distribution of the epiphytic organisms on leaves of P. oceanica that correlated with phytoplankton. The results also indicate that (1) the abundance of micro- and macroorganisms in the three regions were higher on P. oceanica leaves than in the water column for the two seasons; (2) environmental factors such as currents and tide influenced assemblages; and (3) the highest abundance was due to direct exposure to the polluted coast of Sfax and the effect of tidal asymmetries generating nutrient-rich inputs from the city.

Mounir BB; Asma H; Sana BI; Lotfi M; Abderrahmen B; Lotfi A

2013-06-01

345

Chernobyl radionuclides in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, 1986-1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 26 April and 1 June 1986, the nuclear reactor accident of unit 4 at Cherobyl led to the release of a large quantity of radioactive material, part of which reached the Mediterranean environment. Radionuclides such as {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 141}Ce and {sup 144}Ce were immediately detected in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. A survey of this species showed a selective distribution amongst its tissues and a preferential contamination of the adult leaves. The rhizomes, which are perennial parts, recorded early contamination by {sup 110m}Ag, located by sectioning the annual segments (lepidochronology). Variations in the concentrations of several radionuclides found in adult leaves reveal the rapid decay and distribution of contamination in Mediterranean waters in 1986 and 1987, although the eastern part of the French coast had higher concentrations in 1986. Since adult leaves are continuously renewed and because of their rapid accumulation of radionuclides, they may be particularly interesting immediate sentinel accumulators in the event of a nuclear accident as well as in monitoring chronic contamination. It is suggested that a 'Posidonia Watch' could be set up around the Mediterranean Sea. (author).

Calmet, D.; Charmasson, S.; Gontier, G. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Station Marine de Toulon, La Seyne Sur Mer (France)); Meinesz, A. (Lab. d' Environnement Marin, Nice (France)); Boudouresque, C.F. (Luminy Univ., Marseille (France). Lab. d' Ecologie du Benthos)

1991-01-01

346

A promising evaluation method for dead leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) in the adsorption of methyl violet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile is an endemic species in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, dead leaves of P. oceanica (L.) which are accumulated on the beach seasonally were used as an alternative low cost biosorbent to remove methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. In order to explain the adsorption kinetics, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the pseudo second-order model was well in line with our experimental results. Equilibrium data were analyzed according to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Langmuir isotherm model corresponded well with equilibrium data than the others, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the biomass was found to be 119.05 mg g?¹ at 45°C. Thermodynamic parameters, ?G°, ?H°, and ?S°, were calculated according to van't Hoff equation. Negative values of Gibbs free energy imply that the process is spontaneous. Consequently, dried biomass of this species can be an alternative and low cost material for the removal of MV from wastewaters. Moreover, since the remarkable adsorption capacity of these dead leaves compared to other low cost adsorbents has been observed, this beach waste could provide an economic contribution to the countries in the Mediterranean region.

Cengiz S; Cavas L

2010-11-01

347

Isolation and expression of two aquaporin-encoding genes from the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seagrasses such as Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are marine phanerogams, widespread in various seas, where they form large prairies representing dynamic substrates exceeding the area of the sediment surface several times over and allowing settlement of epiphyte organisms. Studying mechanisms involved in water transport in marine plants, we isolated two aquaporin-encoding genes, PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1, showing high similarity to plasma membrane- and tonoplast-intrinsic protein-encoding genes, respectively. PoPIP1;1 is unique in the genome of P. oceanica, while PoTIP1;1 belongs to an aquaporin subfamily of at least four members. PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 encode functional proteins, as indicated by expression experiments in Xenopus oocytes. Both genes are constitutively expressed in the leaves, with higher levels of transcripts in young than in differentiated leaf tissues. Variations of salt concentration in aquarium determined different PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 transcript accumulation, indicating the existence of adaptation mechanisms related to gene expression also in marine plants, i.e. adapted to very high salt concentrations. Hyposalinity induced lower levels of PIP1 transcripts, while hypersalinity determined more PIP1 transcripts than normal salinity. TIP1 transcripts increased in response to both hypo- and hypersalinity after 2 days of treatment and went back to control levels after 5 d. PMID:15653802

Maestrini, Pierluigi; Giordani, Tommaso; Lunardi, Andrea; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

2004-12-01

348

What factors drive seasonal variation of phytoplankton, protozoans and metazoans on leaves of Posidonia oceanica and in the water column along the coast of the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia?  

Science.gov (United States)

A hierarchical sampling design was used during two seasons (spring (May) and summer (August) 2006). Using this design, three regions of the Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia) were analyzed for the distribution of microalgal, protozoan and metazoan assemblages in two different habitats: (1) the water column; and (2) on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (P. oceanica) leaves in shallow meadows. A total of 85 species were obtained. In particular, the diatom family Naviculacea consistently dominated (both numerically and in their diversity) the micro-algae in all regions for the two seasons of the study and in both habitats. In the Chergui region, which is the closest area to a source of impact, fast growing centric diatoms (such as Thalassionema, Rhizosolenia, Striatella, and Skeletonema) were identified as indicators of high organic matter and nutrient enrichment in water bodies. Protozoan and metazoan species abundance in the different regions indicate a non-random spatial and temporal distribution of the epiphytic organisms on leaves of P. oceanica that correlated with phytoplankton. The results also indicate that (1) the abundance of micro- and macroorganisms in the three regions were higher on P. oceanica leaves than in the water column for the two seasons; (2) environmental factors such as currents and tide influenced assemblages; and (3) the highest abundance was due to direct exposure to the polluted coast of Sfax and the effect of tidal asymmetries generating nutrient-rich inputs from the city. PMID:23498657

Mounir, Ben Brahim; Asma, Hamza; Sana, Ben Ismail; Lotfi, Mabrouk; Abderrahmen, Bouain; Lotfi, Aleya

2013-03-13

349

A promising evaluation method for dead leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) in the adsorption of methyl violet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile is an endemic species in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, dead leaves of P. oceanica (L.) which are accumulated on the beach seasonally were used as an alternative low cost biosorbent to remove methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. In order to explain the adsorption kinetics, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the pseudo second-order model was well in line with our experimental results. Equilibrium data were analyzed according to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Langmuir isotherm model corresponded well with equilibrium data than the others, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the biomass was found to be 119.05 mg g?¹ at 45°C. Thermodynamic parameters, ?G°, ?H°, and ?S°, were calculated according to van't Hoff equation. Negative values of Gibbs free energy imply that the process is spontaneous. Consequently, dried biomass of this species can be an alternative and low cost material for the removal of MV from wastewaters. Moreover, since the remarkable adsorption capacity of these dead leaves compared to other low cost adsorbents has been observed, this beach waste could provide an economic contribution to the countries in the Mediterranean region. PMID:20352274

Cengiz, Sevilay; Cavas, Levent

2010-03-30

350

Isolation and expression of two aquaporin-encoding genes from the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seagrasses such as Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are marine phanerogams, widespread in various seas, where they form large prairies representing dynamic substrates exceeding the area of the sediment surface several times over and allowing settlement of epiphyte organisms. Studying mechanisms involved in water transport in marine plants, we isolated two aquaporin-encoding genes, PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1, showing high similarity to plasma membrane- and tonoplast-intrinsic protein-encoding genes, respectively. PoPIP1;1 is unique in the genome of P. oceanica, while PoTIP1;1 belongs to an aquaporin subfamily of at least four members. PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 encode functional proteins, as indicated by expression experiments in Xenopus oocytes. Both genes are constitutively expressed in the leaves, with higher levels of transcripts in young than in differentiated leaf tissues. Variations of salt concentration in aquarium determined different PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 transcript accumulation, indicating the existence of adaptation mechanisms related to gene expression also in marine plants, i.e. adapted to very high salt concentrations. Hyposalinity induced lower levels of PIP1 transcripts, while hypersalinity determined more PIP1 transcripts than normal salinity. TIP1 transcripts increased in response to both hypo- and hypersalinity after 2 days of treatment and went back to control levels after 5 d.

Maestrini P; Giordani T; Lunardi A; Cavallini A; Natali L

2004-12-01

351

Chernobyl radionuclides in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, 1986-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 26 April and 1 June 1986, the nuclear reactor accident of unit 4 at Cherobyl led to the release of a large quantity of radioactive material, part of which reached the Mediterranean environment. Radionuclides such as 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 141Ce and 144Ce were immediately detected in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. A survey of this species showed a selective distribution amongst its tissues and a preferential contamination of the adult leaves. The rhizomes, which are perennial parts, recorded early contamination by 110mAg, located by sectioning the annual segments (lepidochronology). Variations in the concentrations of several radionuclides found in adult leaves reveal the rapid decay and distribution of contamination in Mediterranean waters in 1986 and 1987, although the eastern part of the French coast had higher concentrations in 1986. Since adult leaves are continuously renewed and because of their rapid accumulation of radionuclides, they may be particularly interesting immediate sentinel accumulators in the event of a nuclear accident as well as in monitoring chronic contamination. It is suggested that a 'Posidonia Watch' could be set up around the Mediterranean Sea. (author).

1986-06-01

352

Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.

Conti ME; Bocca B; Iacobucci M; Finoia MG; Mecozzi M; Pino A; Alimonti A

2010-01-01

353

Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas. PMID:19458990

Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

2009-05-21

354

Substitution and phase shift within the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows of NW Mediterranean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the conservation status and ecosystem substitution in six Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in 2002 along 300 km of the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). We studied the meadows by scuba transects and we compared the meadows state of health through in situ shoot density counts and computing the Conservation Index (CI), the latter measuring the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live P. oceanica. Both measures evidenced a generalised state of regression for most of the six meadows. We also reported the occurrence, within the meadows, of the other common Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, the Mediterranean green alga Caulerpa prolifera, and the invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. We measured the replacement of P. oceanica by these species using the Substitution Index (SI), related to the proportional cover of each substitutes. These were ranked in order of their colonisation potential with respect to P. oceanica. We identified and measured a community “phase shift” occurring within the Mediterranean seagrass meadows using a combined index, the Phase-Shift Index (PSI). The analysis of the three environmental indices (CI, SI and PSI) at regional scale allowed to introduce three “regional” ordinal scales to classify the conservation status, the degree of substitution and the level of phase shift in P. oceanica meadows.

Montefalcone, M.; Morri, C.; Peirano, A.; Albertelli, G.; Bianchi, C. N.

2007-10-01

355

Formação das castas no gênero Melípona (Illiger, 1806)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present work is destinated to prove that the castes : workers and queens, in Melipona bees are due to genetic factors and not to differences in food. 2) Material used: Hives of Melipona quadri-fasciata anthidioides (Lep. 1836), M. schenki schenki (Gribodo, 1893), M. fasciata rufiventris (Lep. 1836), M. quadri-fasciata vicina (Lep. 1836), M. marginata marginata (Lep. 1836), Apis mellifera (L. 1758). 3) It should be pointed out that in Melipona bees there are no royal c (more) ells for the queens, but all the cells are of the same size independently of being destinated for workers, queens or drones. The numerous queens which are born are killed soon after emerging from their cells. 4) Changes of feeding in quality and in quantity caused no variation of castes. The only variable factor is the size, which becomes bigger when the bee is well nourished. 5) The offsprings of 5 hives were examined : 3 of M. quadri-fasciata anthidioides (n.o 1, n.o 2 and n.o 3), 1 of M. quadri-fasciata vicina (n.o 4) and 1 of M. marginata marginata (n.o 5). Combs of about 40 cells were taken into laboratory and the type of bee registered immediately after emerging. The results of the counts were: BOX COMB WORKER QUEEN PERCENTAGE ? X2 to 12,5% Nº 1 1th 69 8 10,4% 0, 3139 " 1 2nd 144 18 11,1% 0, 2856 " 2 1th 52 8 13,3% 0, 0384 " 3 1th 45 10 18,2% 1, 6736 " 4 1th 56 4 6,7% 1, 8686 " 4 2nd 29 4 12,1% 0,00432 ? X2 to 25% " 5 1th 34 14 29,2% 0,44444 "5 2nd 83 27 24,5% 0, 0121 In the 4 first boxes there is a percentage of 11,63% queens and in the last there is a percentage of 25,95%. 6) These percentages are very near two genetical ratios: 12,5% or 7:1, and 25% or 3:1, which correspond to a trifactorial and a bifactorial back-cross. Carrying out a X² test no significant deviations were found ( X² to 12,5% and to 25% and table 1 to 4). 7) We suppose that the formula for the queen in the first case (11,65%) is: AaBbCc. Since the Melipona bees are arrhenotokous hymenopteres, the drones are haploid and may have any one of the following eight formulas, corresponding to the gonic segregation of the queem : ABC, ABc, Abc, Abc, AbC, aBC, aBc, abC, abc. Anyone combination of these males with the queen will give a segregation of 7 workers to 1 queen, since there is always only one triple heterozygote among the eight possible segregates (table 5). 8) In order to explain the second case, it is suffient to assume that in this species there are only two pairs of factors, the queen being the double heterozygote : AaBb, while the drones may have any one of the following constitutions: AB, Ab, aB and ab. Workers are again all diploids which are homozygous for one or both factors, for instance: AABB, AABb, AaBB, aaBb, AAbb, etc. (table 6). 9) It is suggested that the genus Melipona is an intermediary type between the solitary bees, where all females are fertile independently of their feeding, and the genera Apis and Trigona, where without special feeding all females are born sterile, while only specially fed females develop into fertile queens. 10) No speculations are put forward with regards to the evolutionary mechanism which may have been responsible for the development of the genetical determination of castes in Melipona, since it seems advisable point to extend the studies to other insects with complicated caste systems.

Kerr, Warwick E.

1946-01-01

356

Palatability of macroalgae that use different types of chemical defenses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared algal palatability and chemical defenses from subtropical green algae that may use different types of defense systems that deter feeding by the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. The potential defense systems present include (1) the terpenoid caulerpenyne and its activated products from Caulerpa spp., and (2) dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)-related defenses in Ulva spp. Secondary metabolites from these chemical groups have been shown to deter feeding by various marine herbivores, including tropical and temperate sea urchins. Live algal multiple-choice feeding assays and assays incorporating algal extracts or isolated metabolites into an artificial diet were conducted. Several green algae, including Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa prolifera, and Cladophora sp., were unpalatable. Nonpolar extracts from U. lactuca deterred feeding, whereas nonpolar extracts from C. prolifera had no effect on feeding. Polar extracts from both species stimulated feeding. Caulerpenyne deterred feeding at approximately 4% dry mass; however, dimethyl sulfide and acrylic acid had no effect at natural and elevated concentrations. E. lucunter is more tolerant than other sea urchins to DMSP-related defenses and less tolerant to caulerpenyne than many reef fish. Understanding the chemical defenses of the algae tested in this study is important because they, and related species, frequently are invasive or form blooms, and can significantly modify marine ecosystems. PMID:16906362

Erickson, Amy A; Paul, Valerie J; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Kwiatkowski, Lisa M

2006-08-12

357

Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Fluorine-Free Amphiphilic Non-Ionic Side Chains for Antifouling and Fouling-Release Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorine-free, amphiphilic, nonionic surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were synthesized through chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene triblock copolymer precursor with selected amphiphilic nonionic Brij and other surfactants. Amphiphilicity was imparted by a hydrophobic aliphatic group combined with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group-containing moiety. The surfaces were characterized by dynamic water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. In biofouling assays, settlement (attachment) of both spores of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula on SABCs modified with Brij nonionic side chains was significantly reduced relative to a PDMS standard, with a nonionic surfactant combining a PEG group and an aliphatic moiety demonstrating the best performance. Additionally, a fouling-release assay using sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula suggested that the SABC derived from nonionic Brij side chains also out-performed PDMS as a fouling-release material. Good antifouling and fouling-release properties were not demonstrated for the other two amphiphilic surfaces derived from silicone and aromatic group containing nonionic surfactants included in this study. The results suggest that small differences in chemical surface functionality impart more significant changes with respect to the antifouling settlement and fouling-release performance of materials than overall wettability behavior.

Y Cho; H Sundaram; C Weinman; M Paik; M Dimitriou; J Finlay; M Callow; J Callow; E Kramer; C Ober

2011-12-31

358

Fatty acid composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis tuberculata coccinea) fed formulated diets containing various n3 HUFA levels/ Composición de ácidos grasos en juveniles de abulón Haliotis tuberculata coccinea alimentados con dietas formuladas con diferentes contenidos de HUFA n3  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes niveles de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados (HUFAs, por sus siglas en inglés) n3 en el perfil de ácidos grasos de los tejidos blandos de juveniles de Haliotis tuberculata coccinea. Se formularon 5 dietas con diferentes fuentes de aceite (palma, colza, pescado, semilla de girasol y soya), que contenían de 2.52% a 12.33% de HUFA n3, usando Ulva rigida como dieta de referencia. Las diferentes dietas se suminitraron a grupos de 20 abu (more) lones durante 120 días por triplicado. Aunque no se registraron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento (P Abstract in english The effect of feeding different levels of n3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on the fatty acid profile was evaluated in soft tissue from juvenile Haliotis tuberculata coccinea. Five diets were formulated with different oil sources (palm, colza, fish, sunflower, and soybean), containing from 2.52% to 12.33% n3 HUFA, while fresh Ulva rigida was used as reference diet. The different diets were provided to groups of 20 abalone during 120 days in independent triplicates. (more) Though no significant differences in growth (P

Toledo-Agüero, P; Viana, MT

2009-03-01

359

Bioaccumulation dynamics and modeling in an estuarine invertebrate following aqueous exposure to nanosized and dissolved silver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predicting the environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasingly important owing to the prevalence of emerging nanotechnologies. We derived waterborne uptake and efflux rate constants for the estuarine snail, Peringia ulvae, exposed to dissolved Ag (AgNO(3)) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), using biodynamic modeling. Uptake rates demonstrated that dissolved Ag is twice as bioavailable as Ag in nanoparticle form. Biphasic loss dynamics revealed the faster elimination of Ag from Ag NPs at the start of depuration, but similar slow efflux rate constants. The integration of biodynamic parameters into our model accurately predicted Ag tissue burdens during chronic exposure with 85% of predicted values within a factor of 2 of observed values. Zeta potentials for the Ag NPs were lower in estuarine waters than in waters of less salinity; and uptake rates in P. ulvae were slower than reported for the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in similar experiments. This suggests aggregation of Ag NPs occurs in estuarine waters and reduces, but does not eliminate, bioavailability of Ag from the Ag NPs. Biodynamic modeling provides an effective methodology to determine bioavailable metal concentrations (originating from metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles) in the environment and may aid future ENM risk assessment.

Khan FR; Misra SK; García-Alonso J; Smith BD; Strekopytov S; Rainbow PS; Luoma SN; Valsami-Jones E

2012-07-01

360

Bioaccumulation dynamics and modeling in an estuarine invertebrate following aqueous exposure to nanosized and dissolved silver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasingly important owing to the prevalence of emerging nanotechnologies. We derived waterborne uptake and efflux rate constants for the estuarine snail, Peringia ulvae, exposed to dissolved Ag (AgNO(3)) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), using biodynamic modeling. Uptake rates demonstrated that dissolved Ag is twice as bioavailable as Ag in nanoparticle form. Biphasic loss dynamics revealed the faster elimination of Ag from Ag NPs at the start of depuration, but similar slow efflux rate constants. The integration of biodynamic parameters into our model accurately predicted Ag tissue burdens during chronic exposure with 85% of predicted values within a factor of 2 of observed values. Zeta potentials for the Ag NPs were lower in estuarine waters than in waters of less salinity; and uptake rates in P. ulvae were slower than reported for the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in similar experiments. This suggests aggregation of Ag NPs occurs in estuarine waters and reduces, but does not eliminate, bioavailability of Ag from the Ag NPs. Biodynamic modeling provides an effective methodology to determine bioavailable metal concentrations (originating from metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles) in the environment and may aid future ENM risk assessment. PMID:22697255

Khan, Farhan R; Misra, Superb K; García-Alonso, Javier; Smith, Brian D; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Rainbow, Philip S; Luoma, Samuel N; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2012-06-26