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Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile  

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This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

Afu, Carvalho; Mcc, Portela; Mb, Sousa; Fs, Martins; Fc, Rocha; Df, Farias; Jpa, Feitosa

2009-01-01

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Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial da alga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar. Foram realizadas a determinação do teor de fibra alimentar total e a descrição de algumas propriedades físico-químicas, e os efeitos fisiológicos da farinha da alga seca sobre ratos alimentados com dieta hipercolesterolemizante foram investigados. Esta alga pode ser considerada uma fonte alternativa potencial de fibra com cerca de 400 g.kg-1 (base seca e propriedades físico-químicas interessantes: uma capacidade de retenção de água de 8,74 g/água.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga e 0,90 (extrato de carboidratos, uma capacidade de adsorção de lipídeos de 4,52 g/óleo.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga e 5,70 (extrato de carboidratos, uma viscosidade intrínseca de 2,4 dl.g-1 (extrato de carboidrato da alga e capacidade de troca iônica de 3,51 Eq.kg-1 (extrato de carboidrato. A dieta contendo farinha de alga foi capaz de manter baixos os níveis de colesterol total de ratos sem causar aumento indesejável na fração LDL-C. Nenhuma evidência de componentes tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais na farinha de alga foi encontrada. Os ratos mostraram um volume fecal maior (13 g do que aqueles alimentados com dieta contendo celulose como fonte de fibra (7 g (p < 0,05. Essas propriedades conferem a alga o potencial de ser utilizada na tecnologia de alimentos para a aquisição de alimentos de baixas calorias, podendo ser importante para o controle do peso corporal, redução do colesterol sanguíneo total e da fração LDL-C, como também na prevenção de doenças gastrintestinais.

AFU. Carvalho

2009-08-01

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Enzymatic hydrolysis and production of bioethanol from common macrophytic green alga Ulva fasciata Delile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green seaweed Ulva which proliferates fast and occurs abundantly worldwide was used as a feedstock for production of ethanol following enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the different cellulases investigated for efficient saccharification, cellulase 22119 showed the highest conversion efficiency of biomass into reducing sugars than Viscozyme L, Cellulase 22086 and 22128. Pre-heat treatment of biomass in aqueous medium at 120°C for 1h followed by incubation in 2% (v/v) enzyme for 36 h at 45°C gave a maximum yield of sugar 206.82±14.96 mg/g. The fermentation of hydrolysate gave ethanol yield of 0.45 g/g reducing sugar accounting for 88.2% conversion efficiency. These values are substantially higher than those of reported so far for both agarophytes and carrageenophytes. It was also confirmed that enzyme can be used twice without compromising on the saccharification efficiency. The findings of this study reveal that Ulva can be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. PMID:24157682

Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2013-12-01

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Isolation and structure determination of algicidal compounds from Ulva fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven species of seaweeds including 10 Chlorophyta, 13 Phaeophyta, and 14 Rhodophyta collected from the coast of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, were screened for algicidal activity against the red-tide phytoplankton Heterosigma akashiwo. The green alga Ulva fasciata (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) showed the strongest algicidal activity among the seaweeds tested. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of U. fasciata led to isolation of three algicidal compounds whose structures were determined to be hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (HDTA), octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid (ODTA), and alpha-linolenic acid on the basis of spectroscopic information. These polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed potent algicidal activity against H. akashiwo (LC(50) 1.35 microg/ml, 0.83 microg/ml, and 1.13 microg/ml for HDTA, ODTA, and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively), and the result demonstrated the potential of these PUFAs for practical harmful algal bloom control. PMID:16306701

Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Hirao, Shotaro; Ishibashi, Fumito; Fujita, Yuji

2005-11-01

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In vivo release of lectins from the green alga Ulva fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green alga Ulva fasciata Delile (Ulvaceae), after thawing from storage at -20 degrees C, has been used to study the in vivo biosynthesis and release of lectins. The alga was made to resume viable growth by immersion in a PBS buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% w/v sodium azide and irradiating with a halophosphate lamp. The growing alga readily took up 14C leucine, when this was added to the buffer, as seen by a decrease in a sample count rate of approximately 8000 cpm over a period of twenty minutes. The transfer of the radioactivity fed algae into fresh PBS buffer resulted in 14C labeled proteins being subsequently released into solution. As well as observing changes in levels of radioactivity, the release of proteins was also monitored by UV absorption at 280 nm. Both techniques indicated an initial steady release over the first twelve hours, followed by a slower approach to a plateau value. Transfer of the algae that had undergone an initial period of protein release into a subsequent second and third volume of fresh PBS buffer produced similar UV absorption profiles, but the total quantities of material released were reduced. Identification of the released proteins was obtained from their ability to agglutinate red blood cells, which was inhibited by L-fucose, and their electrophoretic mobilities when compared with earlier isolated samples of the U. fasciata lectin. The reference lectin was obtained by affinity chromatography, following the selective precipitation of the water soluble algal proteins with ammonium sulfate. We postulate that the observed release profiles support the previously suggested concept that lectins have the ability to function as protection agents for living marine algae. PMID:20433081

Djabayan-Djibeyan, Pablo; Gibbs, Roslyn; Carpenter, Brian

2010-04-01

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Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus Atividade antiviral da alga verde marinha Ulva fasciata na replicação do metapneumovírus humano  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of different groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstrated that the majority...

Gabriella da Silva Mendes; Angélica Ribeiro Soares; Fernanda Otaviano Martins; Maria Carolina Maciel de Albuquerque; Sonia Soares Costa; Yocie Yoneshigue-Valentin; Lísia Mônica de Souza Gestinari; Norma Santos; Maria Teresa Villela Romanos

2010-01-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

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Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp) of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1) and higher (1.5 g kg-1) doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with var...

Joseph Selvin; Aseer Manilal; Suganthan Sujith; George Seghal Kiran; Aron Premnath Lipton

2011-01-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1 and higher (1.5 g kg-1 doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1 y más alto (1,5 g kg-1 dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01. Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

Joseph Selvin

2011-07-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases / Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón) de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens [...] bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1) y más alto (1,5 g kg-1) dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P Abstract in english Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp) of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of sh [...] rimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1) and higher (1.5 g kg-1) doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P

Selvin, Joseph; Manilal, Aseer; Sujith, Suganthan; Seghal Kiran, George; Premnath Lipton, Aron.

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Rapid attachment of spores of the fouling alga Ulva fasciata on biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attachment of spores of Ulva fasciata to natural biofilms was examined to probe the basis for specificity in settlement. Within 30 min from initial exposure in laboratory assays, spores attached to 1-, 3-, 6- or 9-day biofilms formed on acid-cleaned glass slides. The greatest number of spores attached to biofilms aged for 6-day (573.3 +/- 45 spores mm2, p<0.025). The Morisita Index (MI) was used to investigate relationships between the spatial pattern of spores on natural biofilms, and was found to be random for 1-, 3- and 6-day biofilms (MI = 0.93, 0.98 and 0.95, respectively), but non-random on 9-day biofilms (0.82). In addition to the attachment of spores to natural biofilms, experimentally manipulated biofilms that provided potentially specific receptor sites were studied. Epifluorescence microscopy of 1-day biofilms confirmed that experimental sugar was incorporated into natural biofilms. The Jacalin galactose specific probe showed a homogeneous pattem of galactose incorporation on biofilms, whereas Concanavalin Aprobe (mannose) showed a discrete pattem for this sugar. Similarly, the addition offetuin to a biofilm was detected as a heterogeneous pattern. Rapid spore attachment of U. fasciata found on natural biotilms was induced by fetuin (1-day: 1482 +/- 46.6 spores mm2); specific molecules similar to fetuin may play a role in triggering settlement Specific sugars and their analogs are important surface receptors and play an integral role in attachment of Ulva fasciata spores to aged biofilms. Biofilm age and the role of specific sugars on attachment are discussed. PMID:19195406

Shin, Hyun Woung

2008-07-01

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Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus / Atividade antiviral da alga verde marinha Ulva fasciata na replicação do metapneumovírus humano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, foi avaliada a atividade antiviral da alga marinha Ulva fasciata, coletada nas Praias do Forno e Rasa, em Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, sobre a replicação do metapneumovírus humano (HMPV). Os extratos desta alga foram preparados utilizando três diferentes metodologias, visando a comp [...] aração da atividade de diferentes grupos de compostos químicos que são obtidos dependendo da metodologia empregada. Quatro, do total de seis extratos foram capazes de inibir praticamente 100% da replicação viral. Os resultados demonstram também que a maioria dos extratos (cinco, dos seis), possui atividade virucida e, portanto, possuem a habilidade de interagir com a partícula viral extracelularmente impedindo a infecção. Por outro lado, apenas dois extratos (coletado da Praia do Forno e, preparado através de maceração e maceração do decocto) foram capazes de se ligar a receptores celulares, impossibilitando assim a entrada das partículas virais nas células. Finalmente, apenas o extrato que foi preparado por maceração da alga coletada na Praia do Forno, demonstrou atividade intracelular. Até onde sabemos, este é um estudo pioneiro sobre a atividade antiviral de algas marinhas sobre o HMPV. É também o primeiro estudo sobre atividade antiviral sobre HMPV realizado no Brasil. O estudo também mostra o efeito de diferentes condições ambientais e procedimentos químicos utilizados na preparação do extrato sobre suas propriedades biológicas. Abstract in english We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of differe [...] nt groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstrated that the majority of the extracts (five out of six) possess virucidal activity and therefore have the ability to interact with the extracellular viral particles and prevent the infection. On the other hand, only two extracts (from Forno beach, obtained by maceration and maceration of the decoction) were able to interact with cell receptors, hindering the viral entry. Finally, only the extract of algae collected at Forno beach, obtained by maceration presented intracellular activity. To our knowledge, this is a pioneer study on antiviral activity of marine algae against HMPV. It is also the first on antiviral activity against HMPV ever done in Brazil. The study also shows the effect of different environment factors and different chemical procedures used to obtain the extract on its biological properties.

Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Albuquerque, Maria Carolina Maciel de; Costa, Sonia Soares; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gestinari, Lísia Mônica de Souza; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela.

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Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus Atividade antiviral da alga verde marinha Ulva fasciata na replicação do metapneumovírus humano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV. The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of different groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstrated that the majority of the extracts (five out of six possess virucidal activity and therefore have the ability to interact with the extracellular viral particles and prevent the infection. On the other hand, only two extracts (from Forno beach, obtained by maceration and maceration of the decoction were able to interact with cell receptors, hindering the viral entry. Finally, only the extract of algae collected at Forno beach, obtained by maceration presented intracellular activity. To our knowledge, this is a pioneer study on antiviral activity of marine algae against HMPV. It is also the first on antiviral activity against HMPV ever done in Brazil. The study also shows the effect of different environment factors and different chemical procedures used to obtain the extract on its biological properties.Neste artigo, foi avaliada a atividade antiviral da alga marinha Ulva fasciata, coletada nas Praias do Forno e Rasa, em Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, sobre a replicação do metapneumovírus humano (HMPV. Os extratos desta alga foram preparados utilizando três diferentes metodologias, visando a comparação da atividade de diferentes grupos de compostos químicos que são obtidos dependendo da metodologia empregada. Quatro, do total de seis extratos foram capazes de inibir praticamente 100% da replicação viral. Os resultados demonstram também que a maioria dos extratos (cinco, dos seis, possui atividade virucida e, portanto, possuem a habilidade de interagir com a partícula viral extracelularmente impedindo a infecção. Por outro lado, apenas dois extratos (coletado da Praia do Forno e, preparado através de maceração e maceração do decocto foram capazes de se ligar a receptores celulares, impossibilitando assim a entrada das partículas virais nas células. Finalmente, apenas o extrato que foi preparado por maceração da alga coletada na Praia do Forno, demonstrou atividade intracelular. Até onde sabemos, este é um estudo pioneiro sobre a atividade antiviral de algas marinhas sobre o HMPV. É também o primeiro estudo sobre atividade antiviral sobre HMPV realizado no Brasil. O estudo também mostra o efeito de diferentes condições ambientais e procedimentos químicos utilizados na preparação do extrato sobre suas propriedades biológicas.

Gabriella da Silva Mendes

2010-02-01

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Effects of partial desulfation on antioxidant and inhibition of DLD cancer cell of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva fasciata belonging to the family Ulvaceae, commonly known as 'sea lettuce', is an abundantly growing green seaweed in coastal seashore of South China. Three different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2 and UFP3) were extracted and separated from U. fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. The three native UFP fractions had partial desulfurization by solvolytic desulfation respectively and the effect of sulfate content on the exhibition of the antioxidant and anti-tumor capacities had been evaluated and compared. The results showed that each native polysaccharide (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3) with high sulfate content exhibited better antioxidant activities compared with the partial desulfated polysaccharides (DS-UFP1, DS-UFP2, DS-UFP3). Specifically, UFP2 with relatively high sulfate content, molecular weight and uronic acid content had consistently excellent antioxidant performances. However, UFP2 demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of DLD intestinal cancer cells. Instead, DS-UFP3 with the lowest sulfate content but highest uronic acid content and molecular weight exhibited the best antitumor activity. PMID:24463264

Shao, Ping; Pei, Yaping; Fang, Zhongxian; Sun, Peilong

2014-04-01

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Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of different groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstrated that the majority of the extracts (five out of six) possess virucidal activity and therefore have the ability to interact with the extracellular viral particles and prevent the infection. On the other hand, only two extracts (from Forno beach, obtained by maceration and maceration of the decoction) were able to interact with cell receptors, hindering the viral entry. Finally, only the extract of algae collected at Forno beach, obtained by maceration presented intracellular activity. To our knowledge, this is a pioneer study on antiviral activity of marine algae against HMPV. It is also the first on antiviral activity against HMPV ever done in Brazil. The study also shows the effect of different environment factors and different chemical procedures used to obtain the extract on its biological properties. PMID:20305948

Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Albuquerque, Maria Carolina Maciel de; Costa, Sonia Soares; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gestinari, Lísia Mônica de Souza; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela

2010-01-01

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Norisoprenoids from Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five norisoprenoids were isolated from the green marine alga Ulva lactuca. Two new compounds were assigned to (3R,5R,6R,7E)3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (1) and (3S,5R,6S,7E)3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (2). The structures and absolute configurations of the five compounds were determined by analyses of NMR, MS and circular dichroism (CD). PMID:17613616

Sun, Y; Zhan, Y-C; Sha, Y; Pei, Y-H

2007-01-01

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Determinants of territorial recruitment in Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN]Recruitment is an essential component of the life history and population dynamics of bird species. We provide comprehensive information on the determinants of territorial recruitment in populations of the endangered Bonelli’s Eagle (Aquila fasciata). Field work was based on a long-term study of two populations located in the northwest of this species’ range, one in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) and the other in Provence and Languedoc-Roussillon (southeastern France). Nestlings wer...

Herna?ndez-mati?as, Antonio; Real, Joan; Pradel, Roger; Ravayrol, Alain; Vincent-martin, Nicolas; Bosca, Fabrice; Cheylan, Gilles

2010-01-01

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Photosynthetic properties of three Brazilian seaweeds Propriedades fotossintéticas de três macroalgas marinhas brasileiras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Photosynthetic performance of distinct marine macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile (green alga), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (brown alga), and Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (red alga), were compared using a pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometer. The maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) ranged from 0.80 to 0.51, and the lowest value was found in P. brasiliensis. Under 400 µmol photons m-2 s-1 irradiance, the highest value of photochemic...

Chaloub, Ricardo M.; Fernanda Reinert; Nassar, Cristina A. G.; Fleury, Beatriz G.; Mantuano, Dulce G.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

2010-01-01

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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae.The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

Gupta Satish Chand

2012-07-01

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Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

2011-11-15

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Effects of salinity on leaf growth and survival of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aim of this study was to estimate the effects of salinity variation on the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and its attached epiphytes. Leaf growth and survival of this plant were tested in several short-term (15 days) mesocosms experiments under controlled conditions between February 2001 and November 2001. Plants collected from

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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'Ulva lactuca' as a Bioindicator of Coastal Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to develop methods that capitalize on the capacity of the green alga Ulva lactica L. (Ulva), known as Sea Lettuce, to function as a bioindicator for coastal waters. Preliminary studies evaluated growth of Ulva discs and germlings as ...

H. G. Levine R. T. Wilce

1980-01-01

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Description of Atrocalopteryx fasciata spec. nov. from Yunnan, China (Odonata: Calopterygidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Atrocalopteryx fasciata Yang, Hämäläinen & Zhang, spec. nov. (holotype ?, from China, Yunnan, Dehong, Yingjiang, deposited at Odonata Collection of College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan, China) is described and illustrated from the male sex. It is compared with Atrocalopteryx laosica (Fraser, 1933). PMID:24871733

Yang, Guo-Hui; Hämäläinen, Matti; Zhang, Hao-Miao

2014-01-01

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Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Ulva prolifera and Ulva linza to Cadmium Stress  

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Responses of Ulva prolifera and Ulva linza to Cd2+ stress were studied. We found that the relative growth rate (RGR), Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (Yield) of two Ulvaspecies were decreased under Cd2+ treatments, and these reductions were greater in U. prolifera than in U. linza. U. prolifera accumulated more cadmium than U. linza under Cd2+ stress. While U. linza showed positive osmotic adjustment ability (OAA) at a wider Cd2+ range than U. prolifera. U. linza had greate...

Jiang, He-ping; Gao, Bing-bing; Li, Wen-hui; Zhu, Ming; Zheng, Chun-fang; Zheng, Qing-song; Wang, Chang-hai

2013-01-01

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Estructura poblacional y tasa de crecimiento individual de Homonota fasciata (squamata: Gekkonidae en San Juan, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde 1997 a 2000 se estudió la estructura y el crecimiento individual de una población de Homonota fasciata de San Juan, Argentina. El método usado fue el de captura-marcado y recaptura. Se definieron dos grupos etarios, se calcularon y compararon las tasas de crecimiento de cada uno de ellos, se relacionó dicha tasa con el tamaño corporal y se analizó la variación estacional del tamaño poblacional. Los grupos etarios presentaron diferencias significativas en su crecimiento. La tasa de crecimiento se correlacionó negativamente con el tamaño corporal y el tamaño poblacional varió con las estaciones. Los parámetros biológicos obtenidos se comparan con otros estudios similares realizados en el género.

P. F. Gomez

2001-01-01

25

Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L. Delile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in the leaf, stem and root were analyzed. In general salt stress resulted in a decrease of plant growth, nodulation and percent tissue nitrogen in A. nilotica plants. Root-shoot ratio showed gradual increase with increasing sea water concentrations. Nitrogen contents decreased in leaf and stem, whereas it increased in roots. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape with increasing salinity. A. nilotica accumulated NaCl in the xylem of the roots that may be considered as a preliminary salt tolerant mechanism adopted by the plant.

Ahmad Mahmood

2012-10-01

26

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POECILIOPSIS FASCIATA IN NEAR-SHORE HABITAT OF THE HIGH ELEVATION LAKE, LAGO DE ACHICHILCA, PUEBLA, MEXICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution of organisms within a pond or lake can reflect the result of a variety of factors. We examined the distribution and abundance of the fish, Poecilioposis fasciata, in Lago de Achichilca, Puebla, Mexico, as well as how the distribution and abundance varied among months. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity varied among months. The abundance of P. fasciata peaked in December and February. For the months when fish were observed, their abundances were positively related to ...

Woolrich-Piña G. A.; Smith Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal Julio A; Montoya-Ayala Raymundo; Ávila-Bocanegra Luis E

2012-01-01

27

Utilization of Inorganic Carbon by Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thalli discs of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca were given inorganic carbon in the form of HCO(3) (-), and the progression of photosynthetic O(2) evolution was followed and compared with predicted O(2) evolution as based on calculated external formation of CO(2) (extracellular carbonic anhydrase was not present in this species) and its carboxylation (according to the K(m)(CO(2)) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), at two different pHs, assuming a photosynthetic quotient of 1. The K(m)(inorganic carbon) was some 2.5 times lower at pH 5.6 than at the natural seawater pH of 8.2, whereas V(max) was similar under the two conditions, indicating that the unnaturally low pH per se had no adverse effect on U. lactuca's photosynthetic performance. These results, therefore, could be evaluated with regard to differential CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) utilization. The photosynthetic performance observed at the lower pH largely followed that predicted, with a slight discrepancy probably reflecting a minor diffusion barrier to CO(2) uptake. At pH 8.2, however, dehydration rates were too slow to supply CO(2) for the measured photosynthetic response. Given the absence of external carbonic anhydrase activity, this finding supports the view that HCO(3) (-) transport provides higher than external concentrations of CO(2) at the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase site. Uptake of HCO(3) (-) by U. lactuca was further indicated by the effects of potential inhibitors at pH 8.2. The alleged band 3 membrane anion exchange protein inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'disulphonate reduced photosynthetic rates only when HCO(3) (-) (but not CO(2)) could be the extracellular inorganic carbon form taken up. A similar, but less drastic, HCO(3) (-)-competitive inhibition of photosynthesis was obtained with Kl and KNO(3). It is suggested that, under ambient conditions, HCO(3) (-) is transported into cells at defined sites either via facilitated diffusion or active uptake, and that such transport is the basis for elevated internal [CO(2)] at the site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation. PMID:16668569

Drechsler, Z; Beer, S

1991-12-01

28

Microhabitat factors affecting nest site selection and breeding success of tree-nesting Bonelli's eagles (Aquila fasciata)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A nidificação arborícola é uma estratégia reprodutora pouco comum nas populações europeias de águia de Bonelli (Aquila fasciata). A selecção do habitat de nidificação desta espécie em meio florestal é pouco conhecida, tendo sido apenas divulgado um estudo sobre a nidificação da espécie em pinheiro da Calabria (Pinus brutia) no Chipre. Desta forma, o presente estudo pretendeu identificar as características das árvores mais relevantes na escolha do local de nidificação pela...

Ferreira, Ana Rita Dos Anjos Maia

2011-01-01

29

The feeding ecology of Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata) floaters in southern Spain: implications for conservation  

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Abstract Although many studies have investigated the feeding habits of Palaearctic raptors, few have analysed non-breeding populations during dispersal. Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata), a threatened species in Western Europe, has a relatively long and critical dispersal period. We studied feeding habits, prey selection, and the influence of prey density on floater abundance in this species during its dispersal period in southern Spain. Differences were found between the diet of...

2011-01-01

30

Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), espécie mais conhecida pela sinonímia Vernonia amygdalina Delile, é um pequeno arbusto empregado na medicina popular como antipirético, laxativo, antimalárico e anti-helmíntico. Estudos demonstraram que diferentes extratos do vegetal [...] possuem atividades antioxidante, antimicrobiana e antiparasitária. Entre os metabólitos bioativos presentes, citam-se lactonas sesquiterpenoides, saponinas, polifenóis e flavonoides. Este estudo investigou os caracteres microscópicos de folha e caule de G. amygdalinum, a fim de ampliar o conhecimento acerca dessa espécie medicinal e apontar estruturas anatômicas características. O material foi fixado e seccionado à mão livre e em micrótomo. Os cortes foram corados ou submetidos aos testes histoquímicos clássicos. Empregou-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura para investigar a ultraestrutura da superfície epidérmica. A folha é anfiestomática com estômatos anomocíticos. Há cutícula estriada, tricomas glandular e tector e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central e o pecíolo têm contorno plano-convexo. Ambos mostram vários feixes vasculares colaterais e poucos cristais de oxalato de cálcio. No caule, a epiderme permanece e o felogênio tem instalação periférica. São observadas endoderme típica e calotas esclerenquimáticas apostas ao floema. Os aspectos que fornecem elementos para a identificação da espécie são a ocorrência de estômatos em ambas as superfícies foliares, a organização da nervura central e do pecíolo, a endoderme e as calotas esclerenquimáticas no caule, além dos diferentes tipos de tricoma nos órgãos aéreos estudados. Abstract in english Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxida [...] nt, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; Silva, Ariane Gonçalves.

31

Resilience of Hydrobia ulvae populations to anthropogenic and natural disturbances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Mondego estuary (Portugal), several mitigation measures (nutrient loading reduction, seagrass bed protection and freshwater circulation enhancement) were implemented in 1998 to promote the recovery of the seagrass bed and the entire surrounding environment following a long period of eutrophication. In the present study we evaluate the success of this restoration project, by comparing the water nutrient concentrations, the seagrass-cover extent and the dynamics of Hydrobia ulvae, before...

2005-01-01

32

Microbial Colonization and Competition on the Marine Alga Ulva australis  

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Pseudalteromonas tunicata and Roseobacter gallaeciensis are biofilm-forming marine bacteria that are often found in association with the surface of the green alga Ulva australis. They are thought to benefit the plant host by producing inhibitory compounds that are active against common fouling organisms. We investigated factors that influence the ability of P. tunicata and R. gallaeciensis to attach to and colonize the plant surface and also the competitive interactions that occur between the...

Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2006-01-01

33

Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) for broiler chickens  

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The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca); T2 = 1....

Abudabos, Alaeldein M.; Okab, Aly B.; Aljumaah, Riyadh S.; Samara, Emad M.; Abdoun, Kalid A.; Al-haidary, Ahmad A.

2013-01-01

34

Epiphyte load on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile does not indicate anthropogenic nutrient loading in Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The epiphyte load on the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile was estimated at the end of summer in three sites and two depths (7 m and 17 m) of the Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate if epiphyte load could be used as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient loading in the shallow marine ecosystems of the park. Asymmetrical ANOVA was used to divide data variability into two components: the contrast b...

Terrados, Jorge; Medina-pons, Francisco Javier

2008-01-01

35

Effects of chronic dietary exposure to trace elements on banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Little currently is known about the accumulation or effects of contaminants on reptiles. To date, most studies examining reptile exposure to trace elements report tissue burdens of field-captured animals. but seldom provide insight into the dose, duration, or mode of exposure involved. For two years, juvenile banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) were fed with prey items collected from a coal ash-contaminated site that contained elevated levels of As, Cd, Cu, Se, Sr, and V. With the exception of Cu, snakes accumulated significant concentrations of elements, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Accumulation varied significantly among liver, kidney, and gonads, and in most cases between sexes. Selenium accumulation was most notable, greatly exceeding established toxicity thresholds for other vertebrates. Despite the high concentrations of pollutants accumulated, snakes exposed to the contaminated diet survived through the study and exhibited normal food consumption, growth. condition factor, overwinter survival and mass loss, metabolic rate, and gonadosomatic index. The results of this study confirm that diet can be a significant route of exposure to trace elements in snakes and indicate that further studies on snakes are warranted to better understand their responses to contaminants.

Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Staub, B.P.; Jackson, B.P.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

2002-07-01

36

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POECILIOPSIS FASCIATA IN NEAR-SHORE HABITAT OF THE HIGH ELEVATION LAKE, LAGO DE ACHICHILCA, PUEBLA, MEXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution of organisms within a pond or lake can reflect the result of a variety of factors. We examined the distribution and abundance of the fish, Poecilioposis fasciata, in Lago de Achichilca, Puebla, Mexico, as well as how the distribution and abundance varied among months. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity varied among months. The abundance of P. fasciata peaked in December and February. For the months when fish were observed, their abundances were positively related to dissolved oxygen concentration and were generally not related to temperature. Our results make it clear that there is substantial seasonal variation in the abundances of P. fasciata and that within months, their distributions are likely driven more by dissolved oxygen than either temperature or salinity.

Montoya-Ayala Raymundo

2012-04-01

37

Reproducción y dimorfismo sexual en una población de Homonota fasciata (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) del monte de San Juan, Argentina / Reproduction and sexual dimorphism in a population of Homonota fasciata (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from Mount of San Juan, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer y describir el ciclo reproductivo y el dimorfismo sexual morfométrico de Homonota fasciata en el monte de San Juan. Para analizar la reproducción, se midió en hembras la longitud y ancho de folículos yemados y/o huevos en oviducto; en machos se midió el ancho [...] y largo de testículos, con el fin de estimar sus volúmenes. El dimorfismo sexual se examinó midiendo 10 variables morfométricas en 49 individuos (26 hembras y 23 machos). Homonota fasciata inició su actividad reproductiva en primavera para los 2 años de registro. El tamaño de camada fue de un huevo. En hembras, se evidenció al menos una triple postura y el ciclo gonadal varió con las estaciones. En machos, el desarrollo testicular no exhibió variaciones, demostrando una condición reproductiva continua a través de la estación de actividad. Se halló dimorfismo sexual en 2 variables: longitud radio-cúbito, siendo mayor en hembras que en machos; y longitud tibia-fíbula, siendo esta variable mayor en machos y atribuyendo el dimorfismo encontrado a la marcada territorialidad de la especie. Este estudio es un valioso aporte al conocimiento de la biología de la especie, en un contexto tanto ecológico como de conservación. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to know and describe the reproductive cycle and sexual dimorphism of Homonota fasciata form the Mount of San Juan. To analyze reproduction, females were measured in the length and breadth of yemados follicles and/or eggs in the oviduct, in males testes length and width were [...] measured, in order to estimate their volumes. Sexual dimorphism was examined measuring 10 morphometric variables in 49 individuals (26 females and 23 males). Homonota fasciata started their reproductive activity in spring for 2 years recorded. The smallest size was 1 egg. Females, showed at least a triple posture and the gonadal cycle varied with seasons. In males, testicular development did not exhibit variations, showing a continuous reproductive condition through the activity season. We found sexual dimorphism in 2 variables: radio-ulna length, being higher in females than in males, and tibia-fibula length, being this variable major in males and attributing dimorphism found to the marked the territoriality of the species. This study is a valuable contribution to the knowledge of this species in a context of ecology and conservation.

Rodrigo A., Nieva; Graciela M., Blanco; Juan C., Acosta; Matías, Olmedo.

38

Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment with calcium is beneficial in relieving the pain and muscle spasms caused by Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata.

NP Dinamithra

2013-10-01

39

Potential of Ulva sp. in biofiltration and bioenergy production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to evaluate the effect of seaweeds in bio-filtration for removing nitrogen from marine aquaculture and in bioenergy production, Ulva sp. was used in this study. Experiments were triplicated and run in 3-day incubation at salinities with 30 psu, 10 psu and 5 psu in different initial ammonium nitrogen concentrations from 100 ?M to 10,000 ?M, equivalently to marine aquaculture conditions. The highest concentrations of ammonium removed were about 690 ?mol (12.42 mg) NH4+ at 30 psu, 41...

Dang, Thom Thi; Yasufumi, Mishima; Dang, Kim Dinh

2012-01-01

40

Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and carboxylating enzymes in Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the green marine alga, Ulva lactuca were carried out by employing 14CO2. They reveal that it exhibits, HSK pathway of carbon assimilation. The alga belongs to the asparatate former type. Aspartate which is the immediate product of photosynthetic carbon assimilation if further utilised for sucrose synthesis in light but not in dark. In order to confirm the operation of C4 type of photosynthetic pathway, carboxylating enzymes like RuDP and PEP carboxylases were isolated and tested for their activities. The results of these findings are discussed in this paper. (author)

1974-04-12

 
 
 
 
41

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Br...

2004-01-01

42

Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

Ryther, J.H.

1983-01-01

43

Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

Beata Messyasz

2013-06-01

44

Methods for the Induction of Reproduction in a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva  

Science.gov (United States)

The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3). The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies) was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C) for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filtered seawater under a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod at 25°C. The release of swarmers then peaked two days after initiation. In contrast, segmentation, dehydration, salinity or time of initiation of experiments had no effect of any magnitude on reproduction. The released swarmers were predominantly biflagellate (95%), negatively phototactic and germinated without complementary gametes. This indicates that Ulva sp. 3 has a simple asexual life history dominated by biflagellate zoids.

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Lawton, Rebecca J.; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

45

Methods for the induction of reproduction in a tropical species of filamentous ulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3). The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies) was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C) for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filtered seawater under a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod at 25°C. The release of swarmers then peaked two days after initiation. In contrast, segmentation, dehydration, salinity or time of initiation of experiments had no effect of any magnitude on reproduction. The released swarmers were predominantly biflagellate (95%), negatively phototactic and germinated without complementary gametes. This indicates that Ulva sp. 3 has a simple asexual life history dominated by biflagellate zoids. PMID:24824896

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Lawton, Rebecca J; Paul, Nicholas A

2014-01-01

46

Isolation Bacterial Symbiont from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa as Candidate of Antimicrobial Producer  

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Isolation of bacterial symbionts from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa was performed by crowded plate technique method using marine agar media. The purpose of this study was to search for antimicrobial-producing bacterial symbiont in green alga Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Coast, South Sulawesi. The isolates of bacterial symbiont were fermented in production media for seven days at 37oC. Antimicrobial activity was done by agar diffusion method using Bacillus subti...

Sartini; Suryadi; Nur Afni; Ayu Permata Sari

2013-01-01

47

Alterações na composição florística das algas da Praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Baía de Guanabara no decorrer da ocupação de suas margens sofreu uma continua degradação, levando-a a grandes modificações em seu entorno e a inúmeros danos ambientais. Além de uma significativa alteração paisagística, ocorreu também uma queda na qualidade de suas águas, devido ao lançamento de grande quantidade de efluentes não tratados (domésticos e industriais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo inventariar a flora algácea da praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ, compará-la com levantamentos realizados há três décadas. Os resultados mostraram desaparecimento de 30 táxons (49% outrora existentes no início da década de 70 e o aparecimento de 14 espécies (23%. A flora atual é dominada por Ulva fasciata Delile e Enteromorpha compressa (L. Nees, espécies potencialmente indicadoras de poluição orgânica. Tais resultados evidenciam que, ao longo dessas três décadas, uma série de impactos trouxe profundas alterações na comunidade de macroalgas.

TAOUIL ANDRÉ

2002-01-01

48

Alterações na composição florística das algas da Praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ) / Changes in the marine flora of the Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Baía de Guanabara no decorrer da ocupação de suas margens sofreu uma continua degradação, levando-a a grandes modificações em seu entorno e a inúmeros danos ambientais. Além de uma significativa alteração paisagística, ocorreu também uma queda na qualidade de suas águas, devido ao lançamento de gr [...] ande quantidade de efluentes não tratados (domésticos e industriais). Este trabalho teve como objetivo inventariar a flora algácea da praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ), compará-la com levantamentos realizados há três décadas. Os resultados mostraram desaparecimento de 30 táxons (49%) outrora existentes no início da década de 70 e o aparecimento de 14 espécies (23%). A flora atual é dominada por Ulva fasciata Delile e Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, espécies potencialmente indicadoras de poluição orgânica. Tais resultados evidenciam que, ao longo dessas três décadas, uma série de impactos trouxe profundas alterações na comunidade de macroalgas. Abstract in english During the past three decades, the Guanabara Bay suffered continuous degradation, leading to severe changes in the surrounding area and environmental damages. Besides significant loss of its natural landscape, the quality of its water decreased with continuous disposal of non-treated domestic organi [...] c sewage and industrial effluents. The present study aimed to survey the algal flora of Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ) and to compare it with information gathered three decades ago. Results showed a decrease of 30 taxa (49%) of the algal species and an increase of 14 species (23%) in comparison with algal flora recorded three decades ago. The actual algal flora is dominated by Ulva fasciata Delile and Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, species indicative of organic pollution. These results elucidate the environmental impacts caused upon the macroalgae community of the Guanabara Bay during throughout the period.

ANDRÉ, TAOUIL; YOCIE, YONESHIGUE-VALENTIN.

49

Kinetics of stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus in Ulva Pertusa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dechlorane Plus (DP) has been detected extensively in both biotic and abiotic matrices, and stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers has also been observed in organisms. In this laboratory study, Ulva pertusa were firstly exposed to known Dechlorane Plus concentrations for 21d (uptake period), and then transferred to clean seawater for 14d (depuration period) to investigate the kinetics of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa. Dechlorane Plus isomers reached steady-state after 21d of exposure. The mean fractional abundance of syn-DP (fsyn) exceeded than that of 0d (0.23±0.02) during uptake, but decreased during depuration. This study is the first to define the kinetics of stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa using two-box kinetic model. The uptake rate constants of the syn- and anti-DP were 0.164±0.056d(-1) and 0.083±0.071d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constants were 0.337±0.057d(-1) (syn-DP) and 0.236±0.095d(-1) (anti-DP), suggesting that syn-DP is eliminated quicker than anti-DP by U. pertusa. These results are consistent with observation of fsyn and stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa. PMID:24997969

Zhao, Lei; Gong, Ning; Mi, Dong; Luan, Chundi; Shao, Kuishuang; Jia, Hongliang; Sun, Yeqing

2014-09-01

50

Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P green seaweed (U. lactuca.

Ahmad A. Al-Haidary

2013-04-01

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The effects of the nitrofuran furaltadone on Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pharmaceuticals in the food production industry as prophylatic and therapeutic agents is necessary to promote animal health, but may entail significant consequences to natural ecosystems, especially in the cases of overdosing and use of banned pharmaceuticals. The vast effects that antibiotics released into the environment have on non-target organisms are already under the scope of researchers but little attention has been given to primary producers such as macroalgae. The present study assessed furaltadone's, an antibacterial agent illegally used for veterinary purposes, uptake capacity by Ulva lactuca and its effect in the growth of this cosmopolitan macroalgae. Differences in macroalgal growth were shown when submitted to prophylactic and therapeutic concentrations of furaltadone in the water (16 and 32 ?g mL?¹, respectively). The therapeutic concentration caused higher growth impairment than the prophylactic treatment did, with 87.5% and 58% reductions respectively. Furthermore, together with data collected from the accumulation assays, with values of internal concentrations as high as 18.84 ?g g?¹ WW, suggest that the macroalgae U. lactuca should be included in field surveys as a biomonitor for the detection of nitrofurans. PMID:21109284

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Lemos, Marco F L; Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel A

2011-02-01

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Elevated trace element concentrations and standard metabolic rate in banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) exposed to coal combustion wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trace element concentrations in banded water snakes, Nerodia fasciata, and representative prey items from a site polluted by coal combustion wastes were compared with concentrations in conspecifics from a nearby reference site. Water snakes accumulated high concentrations of trace elements, especially arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), in the polluted habitat. In addition to being exposed to contaminants in water and sediments, snakes in the polluted site are exposed to contaminants by ingesting prey items that have elevated whole-body concentrations of trace elements, including As, cadmium (Cd), and Se. Snakes from the polluted site exhibited mean standard metabolic rates (SMR) 32% higher than snakes from the reference site. As a result, snakes from the polluted site appear to have elevated allocation of energy to maintenance and theoretically should have less energy available for growth, reproduction, and storage. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to coal ash-derived trace elements and the resultant accumulation of some elements are responsible for observed increases in SMR.

Hopkins, W.A.; Rowe, C.L.; Congdon, J.D. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

1999-06-01

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Population-level history of the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata): implications for comparative phylogeography in the California Floristic Province.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogeography of a variety of species has been studied within the California Floristic Province; however, few studies have examined genetic variation in bird species across the entire region. This study uses mitochondrial DNA data to investigate the phylogeography of the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a sedentary bird native to scrub and chaparral habitats of this region. Analysis of molecular variance shows geographic structure, and maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and parsimony analyses consistently identify six main clades that are each restricted geographically. Nested clade phylogeographic analyses infer an overall range expansion for the entire cladogram, and a range expansion is also inferred from the mismatch distribution. Thus, our results suggest that the wrentit was isolated into southern refugia during the Pleistocene and has undergone a recent range expansion. Southern refugia and a range expansion were also identified in a previous study of the California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum). The wrentit did not show marked divergence between northern and southern California defined by the Transverse Ranges, a pattern seen in a variety of other taxa within this region, including some birds. PMID:16129629

Burns, Kevin J; Barhoum, Dino N

2006-01-01

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Inter-annual variation of shoot density and biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the leaves, and epiphyte load of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile off Mallorca, western Mediterranean  

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[EN]The epiphyte load, the ash content of the epiphytes, the leaf biomass, the nitrogen and phosphorus content of the leaves, and the density of shoots of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile were monitored yearly from 2003 to 2008 in two shallow meadows off Mallorca (western Mediterranean) with the aim of identifying the responses of P. oceanica meadows to mid-term environmental variability. Inter-annual variability of P. oceanica meadows was significant for most of the ...

Terrados, Jorge; Medina-pons, Francisco Javier

2011-01-01

55

Microbial colonization and competition on the marine alga Ulva australis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudalteromonas tunicata and Roseobacter gallaeciensis are biofilm-forming marine bacteria that are often found in association with the surface of the green alga Ulva australis. They are thought to benefit the plant host by producing inhibitory compounds that are active against common fouling organisms. We investigated factors that influence the ability of P. tunicata and R. gallaeciensis to attach to and colonize the plant surface and also the competitive interactions that occur between these organisms and other isolates from U. australis during biofilm formation on the plant surface. A surprisingly high number of P. tunicata cells, at least 10(8) cells ml(-1), were required for colonization and establishment of a population of cells that persists on axenic surfaces of U. australis. Factors that enhanced colonization of P. tunicata included inoculation in the dark and pregrowth of inocula in medium containing cellobiose as the sole carbon source (cellulose is a major surface polymer of U. australis). It was also found that P. tunicata requires the presence of a mixed microbial community to colonize effectively. In contrast, R. gallaeciensis effectively colonized the plant surface under all conditions tested. Studies of competitive interactions on the plant surface revealed that P. tunicata was numerically dominant compared with all other bacterial isolates tested (except R. gallaeciensis), and this dominance was linked to production of the antibacterial protein AlpP. Generally, P. tunicata was able to coexist with competing strains, and each strain existed as microcolonies in spatially segregated regions of the plant. R. gallaeciensis was numerically dominant compared with all strains tested and was able to invade and disperse preestablished biofilms. This study highlighted the fact that microbial colonization of U. australis surfaces is a dynamic process and demonstrated the differences in colonization strategies exhibited by the epiphytic bacteria P. tunicata and R. gallaeciensis. PMID:16885308

Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2006-08-01

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The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day?1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m?1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m?1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m?1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m?1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

57

The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous ulva for algal biomass production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m-1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m-1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m-1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m-1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems. PMID:24897115

Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

2014-01-01

58

Biomethanation potential of macroalgae Ulva spp. and Gracilaria spp. and in co-digestion with waste activated sludge  

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Biochemical methane potential of four species of Ulva and Gracilaria genus was assessed in batch assays at mesophilic temperature. The results indicate a higher specific methane production (per volatile solids) for one of the Ulva sp. compared with other macroalgae and for tests running with 2.5% of total solids (196 ± 9 L CH4 kg?1 VS). Considering that macroalgae can potentially be a post treatment of municipal wastewater for nutrients removal, co-digestion of macroalgae with waste activa...

2012-01-01

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Effects of Ulva rigida on the Growth, Feed Intake and Body Composition of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

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Full Text Available This study is the first trial to evaluate algae meal, Ulva rigida, as an inexpensive and locally available feed ingredient in the diet of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Five experimental diets were supplemented with Ulva meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% (C0, U5, U10, U15 and U20, respectively to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat meal by Ulva meal for common carp, Cyprinus carpio during a 112-day growth trial. Carp fingerlings, each initially weighing 3.1 g, were stocked into 60 l-glass tanks and were fed to apparent satiation three times daily. Performances of fish fed the test diets were evaluated in terms of survival, final mean weight, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and body composition. Poorest growth performance was recorded from fish fed the diet with 20% Ulva meal supplementation (U20 (p< 0.05. Fish group fed with 5% Ulva meal inclusion (U5 achieved the best growth performance (p>0.05. Results suggested that the dietary Ulva meal inclusion of 5 to 15% replacing wheat meal in carp diets could be acceptable.

Ibrahim Diler

2007-01-01

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Tracking the algal origin of the Ulva bloom in the Yellow Sea by a combination of molecular, morphological and physiological analyses  

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Abstract In 2008, Qingdao (36°06? N, 120°25? E, P. R. China) experienced the world largest drifting macroalgal bloom composed of the filamentous macroalga Ulva prolifera. No convincing biological evidence regarding the algal source is available so far. A series of field collections of both Ulva sp. and waters in various sites along Jiangsu coasts were conducted in March to May of 2009. Density of microscopic Ulva germlings in the waters sampled from different sites ranged fro...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The function of oscillatory tongue-flicks in snakes: insights from kinematics of tongue-flicking in the banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tongue-flicking is an important sensory behavior unique to squamate reptiles in which chemical stimuli gathered by the tongue are delivered the vomeronasal organ situated in the roof of the mouth. Because tongue-flick numbers can easily be quantified, this behavior has been widely used as a measure of vomeronasal sampling in snakes using related variables such as tongue-flick rate or tongue-flick/attack score. Surprisingly, the behavior itself and especially the function of the oscillatory tongue-flicks remains poorly understood. To describe the overall kinematics of tongue-flicking in the colubrid snake Nerodia fasciata and to test predictions on the function of oscillatory tongue-flicks, we filmed the tongue-flicks of 8 adult Nerodia fasciata using 4 synchronized high-speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematic and performance variables were extracted from the videos in order to quantify tongue movements. Based on the kinematic analysis, we demonstrate the existence of 2 functional and behavioral tongue-flick categories. Tongue-flicks with oscillations meet all the criteria for being adapted to the collection of odorants; simple downward extensions appear better suited for the rapid pick up of nonvolatile chemical stimuli from the substrate or a food item. External stimuli such as tactile and/or vomeronasal stimulation can induce a shift between these categories. PMID:22942105

Daghfous, Gheylen; Smargiassi, Maïté; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Bels, Vincent

2012-11-01

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An alternative evaluation method for accumulated dead leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile on the beaches. Removal of uranium from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an important endemic sea plant in the Mediterranean Sea. Its dead leaves are accumulated in the beaches and cause bad view and also odour in the touristical beaches. Therefore, these dead leaves accumulated on the beaches are collected and then burned in some beaches in Turkey. In the present study, the adsorption between dead leaves and uranium were studied in the aqueous solutions. The adsorption data obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetics. Among the studied isotherms, the data were well in line with the Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduschkevich models and the maximum adsorption capacities obtained from these models were found as 5.67 and 9.81 mg g-1, respectively. Negative values of Gibbs free energy showed that the adsorption was in spontaneous nature. In conclusion, the dead leaves of P. oceanica from touristic beaches might be collected and evaluated as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions. (author)

2012-08-01

63

Avaliação da ação da macroalga marinha Ulva lactuca em animais de experimentação  

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Full Text Available Ulva lactuca é uma macroalga verde marinha comum em ambientes de temperatura elevada e com grandes variações de salinidade. A flora ficológica marinha vem sendo objeto de estudo por apresentar propriedades farmacoterapêuticas sobre o metabolismo animal, além de oferecer uma alternativa viável no tratamento de patologias que acometem o ser humano e afeta a sua qualidade de vida, ela é bastante utilizada na culinária, como iogurte, sushi. Objetivando avaliar a toxicidade aguda da Ulva lactuca foram utilizados camundongos albinos Swiss (Mus musculus, durante os estudos foi evidenciado que a alga tem efeitos estimulante do sistema nervoso central e periférico, e que em doses elevadas como 2000 a 3750 mg/kg/ip podem causar alterações na morfologia dos órgão comprometendo seu funcionamento,já que foram observado na analise macroscópica dos órgãos que os vasos do trato gastrointestinal estavam dilatados, os rins hipertrofiados,o fígado isquêmico , pulmões hemorrágicos,e a bexiga cheia.

Carla Andrea de Moura

2013-09-01

64

Spore release by the green alga Ulva: a quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040mgL(-1))>Cd (0.095mgL(-1))>Pb (0.489mgL(-1))>Zn (0.572mgL(-1)). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63microgL(-1). The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788microlL(-1)) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. PMID:17954005

Han, Taejun; Han, Young-Seok; Park, Chin Young; Jun, Yong Sung; Kwon, Mun Ju; Kang, Sung-Ho; Brown, Murray T

2008-06-01

65

Chemical study and biological activity evaluation of two Azorean Macroalgae: Ulva rigida and Gelidium microdon.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The green macroalga Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Chlorophyta) and the red macroalga Gelidium microdon Kützing (Rhodophyta), collected from the Azorean archipelago, were investigated for their secondary metabolites and their in vitro growth inhibitory effect on three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and A375-C5 (melanoma), as well as for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The methanol extract of U. rigida furnished isofucostero...

Silva, Madalena; Vieira, Lui?s M.; Almeida, Ana Paula; Silva, Artur M. S.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Barreto, Maria Do Carmo; Neto, Ana I.; Pedro, Madalena; Pinto, Euge?nia; Kijjoa, Anake

2013-01-01

66

Interacting effects of Hydrobia ulvae bioturbation and microphytobenthos on the erodibility of mudflat sediments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microphytobenthos-macrofauna sediment interactions and their effects on sediment erodability were examined in laboratory experiments. Sediment beds were manipulated in a tidal mesocosm to produce diatom mats in exponential or in stationary phases of development after 6, 8 or 11 d of culture. These sediment beds were used in flume experiments to investigate the influence of bioturbation by the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae on both sediment and pigment resuspension as a function of the physiological...

Orvain, Francis; Sauriau, Pierre-guy; Sygut, A.; Joassard, Lucette; Le Hir, Pierre

2004-01-01

67

Recruitment Potential of a Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development  

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The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva flexuosa Wulfen zoospores to survive darkness were tested under different conditions in the present study. The dark preserved zoospore was cultured under a two-factor experimental design to test the effect of salinity and nitrate, effect of salinity and phosphate, effect of light and salinity, and effect of light and phosphate. The recruitment (germination and growth) of zoospores was significantly affected by light and salinity. The nitrate c...

Imchen, Temjensangba

2012-01-01

68

Low Densities of Epiphytic Bacteria from the Marine Alga Ulva australis Inhibit Settlement of Fouling Organisms?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 (formerly Roseobacter gallaeciensis) are marine bacteria often found in association with the alga Ulva australis and produce a range of extracellular in...

Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Holmstro?m, Carola; Case, Rebecca; Low, Adrian; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2007-01-01

69

Colonization potential of the genus Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales in Comodoro Rivadavia Harbor (Chubut, Argentina  

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Full Text Available Temporal and spatial changes in the coverage of five Ulva L. species (U. prolifera O.F. Müller, U. intestinalis L., U. hookeriana (Kützing Hayden et al., U. compressa L. and U. linza L. were analyzed on rocky substrata experimentally immersed in Comodoro Rivadavia Harbor (Argentina. Colonization was studied during an annual period at three levels: upper intertidal, middle intertidal and subtidal. Coverage was significantly higher in the middle intertidal and subtidal levels than in the upper intertidal level, where all species of Ulva were absent. Seasonal changes were also significant: coverage in summer and spring was significantly higher than in autumn and winter. Most species showed high spatial variability among replicates from the same level and season. Zonation patterns within the harbor differed from those observed in natural areas, probably due to low wave exposure and its interaction with herbivory and desiccation stress. Colonization patterns observed in this study indicate niche segregation in closely related species of the genus Ulva.

2005-01-01

70

Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040 mg L-1) > Cd (0.095 mg L-1) > Pb (0.489 mg L-1) > Zn (0.572 mg L-1). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 ?g L-1. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788 ?l L-1) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests

2008-06-01

71

Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC{sub 50} of 0.040 mg L{sup -1}) > Cd (0.095 mg L{sup -1}) > Pb (0.489 mg L{sup -1}) > Zn (0.572 mg L{sup -1}). The EC{sub 50} for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC{sub 50} of 0.788 {mu}l L{sup -1}) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests.

Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Han, Young-Seok [Institute of Green Technology, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin Young; Jun, Yong Sung; Kwon, Mun Ju [Marine Research Division, Incheon Health and Environment Institute, Incheon 400-102 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2008-06-15

72

Comparison of the effectiveness of four organic chemoattractants towards zoospores of Ulva pertusa and macrofouling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algal spores respond to many environmental variables, especially to chemical "cues". This chemotactic response can be utilized to attract spores, thereby colonization of a new substrata is possible to be influenced. In this attempt, four chemoattractant candidates were screened against spores of Ulva pertusa to reveal their efficiencies. Attachment and subsequent germination of Ulva spores were effectively influenced by these chemoattractant candidates. In particular 100 microg cm2 of D-glucose coating was found to enhance spore attachment by > 150%. Furthermore, field investigations carried out with test panels, clearly indicate the chemoattractive properties of test coatings. In recent years, various anthropogenic activities and natural hazards cause detrimental impacts on the benthic algae and other fishery resources. Artificial reefs have been laid on many coastal regions to increase or restore marine resources. Chemoattractant coatings can be applied on artificial surfaces to increase the colonization of benthic forms. It also can be used in the mariculture devices. Influence of chemoattractants on Ulva spores and fouling biomass estimated on test panels are discussed. PMID:19195407

Lee, Ji Hyun; Sidharthan, M; Jung, Sang Mok; Jo, Qtae; Rahman, Mohammad M; Shin, Hyun Woung

2008-07-01

73

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Liliana de O. Rocha

2004-12-01

74

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil / Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em [...] 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos. Abstract in english The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20) (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile) (20), that were purchased in drugstores and mar [...] kets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Liliana de O., Rocha; Maria Magali S. R., Soares; Cristiana Leslie, Corrêa.

75

Effect of marine bacterial isolates on the growth and morphology of axenic plantlets of the green alga Ulva linza.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green marine macroalga, Ulva linza, adopts an "atypical" form when grown in the absence of bacteria. Twenty unique strains of periphytic bacteria, isolated from three species of Ulva, were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. These isolates were assessed for their effect on the growth and morphological development of axenic plantlets of U. linza. Results showed that the effect of bacterial strains was strain- but not taxon-specific. Thirteen isolates returned the aberrant morphology to normal and of these, five also significantly increased growth rate. One isolate increased growth, but had no effect on morphology. Biofilms of some of these isolates stimulated the settlement of Ulva zoospores but there was no correlation between bacterial isolates that stimulated zoospore settlement and those that initiated changes in morphology and/or growth of the cultured alga. PMID:16897307

Marshall, Katrina; Joint, Ian; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

2006-08-01

76

Influence of five organic antifouling candidates on spore attachment and germination of a fouling alga Ulva pertusa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening of test chemicals or formulations for antifouling (AF) activity is important to get first hand information on their nontoxic repelling activities. Especially spores of a fouling alga, Ulva pertusa were used in this study to test the AF efficiency of five organic chemicals. Coatings made with 100 microg cm2 of citral and eugenol significantly inhibited the spore attachment. A low concentration (1 microg cm2) of solanesol exhibited effective AF activity against spore attachment. Spore germination was sensitive to different AF candidates screened in this study. Based on the attachment and germination response of Ulva pertusa spores, AF efficiency of five organic AF candidates is discussed. PMID:17717983

Sidharthan, M; Shin, H W

2007-01-01

77

Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- to high-nutrient supplies. We carried out N and P enrichment field experiments on Ulva spp. in seven coastal systems, with one of these systems represented by three different subestuaries, for a total of nine sites. We showed that rate of growth of Ulva spp. was directly correlated to annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, where growth increased with increasing DIN concentration. Internal N pools of macroalgal fronds were also linked to increased DIN supply, and algal growth rates were tightly coupled to these internal N pools. The increases in DIN appeared to be related to greater inputs of wastewater to these coastal waters as indicated by high ?15N signatures of the algae as DIN increased. N and P enrichment experiments showed that rate of macroalgal growth was controlled by supply of DIN where ambient DIN concentrations were low, and by P where DIN concentrations were higher, regardless of latitude or geographic setting. These results suggest that understanding the basis for macroalgal blooms, and management of these harmful phenomena, will require information as to nutrient sources, and actions to reduce supply of N and P in coastal waters concerned.

Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E; Olsen, Ylva S; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Iribarne, Oscar; Muto, Elizabeti Yuriko; Petti, Monica A V; Corbisier, Thais N; Soto-Jimenez, Martin; Paez-Osuna, Federico; Castro, Paula; Freitas, Helena; Zitelli, Andreina; Cardinaletti, Massimo; Tagliapietra, Davide

2010-01-01

78

Effect of extraction conditions on the yied and purity of ulvan extracted from Ulva lactuca  

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A study of the influence of extraction conditions (pH: 1.5 and 2; temperature: 80 °C and 90 °C; extraction time: 1-3 h), on the yield, chemical composition and purity of the sulphated cell wall polysaccharides ulvan, extracted from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca and precipitated by alcohol is carried out. The alcohol precipitate yields varied from 21.68% to 32.67% (%dw/dw) depending on the pH. At pH 2, the alcohol precipitate yields and the uronic acid recovery from extract juice are higher...

Yaich, Hela; Garna, Haikel; Besbes, Souhail; Paquot, Michel; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

2013-01-01

79

Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides  

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Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

2005-12-01

80

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS  

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Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +/- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +/- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequ...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from a multicellular green alga, Ulva pertusa, and two brown algae, Eisenia bicyclis and Sargassum fulvellum.  

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The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a multicellular green alga Ulva pertusa, and multicellular brown algae Eisenia bicyclis and Sargassum fulvellum, have been determined. The 5S rRNA from Ulva is composed of 120 nucleotides, and those from Eisenia and Sargassum have 118 nucleotides. The nucleotide sequence of Ulva 5S rRNA is rather similar to 5S rRNAs from unicellular green algae and higher plants, while those of Eisenia and Sargassum 5S rRNAs are unique.

Lim, B. L.; Hori, H.; Osawa, S.

1983-01-01

82

The effects of nitric oxide in settlement and adhesion of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that elevated nitric oxide (NO) reduces adhesion in diatom, bacterial and animal cells. This article reports experiments designed to investigate whether elevated NO reduces the adhesion of zoospores of the green alga Ulva, an important fouling species. Surface-normalised values of NO were measured using the fluorescent indicator DAF-FM DA and parallel hydrodynamic measurements of adhesion strength were made. Elevated levels of NO caused by the addition of the exogenous NO donor SNAP reduced spore settlement by 20% and resulted in lower adhesion strength. Addition of the NO scavenger cPTIO abolished the effects of SNAP on adhesion. The strength of attachment and NO production by spores in response to four coatings (Silastic T2; Intersleek 700; Intersleek 900 and polyurethane) shows that reduced adhesion is correlated with an increase in NO production. It is proposed that in spores of Ulva, NO is used as an intracellular signalling molecule to detect how conducive a surface is for settlement and adhesion. The effect of NO on the adhesion of a range of organisms suggests that NO-releasing coatings could have the potential to control fouling. PMID:19927239

Thompson, Stephanie E M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

2010-01-01

83

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS  

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Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

Mauffret, A., E-mail: aourell.mauffret@icman.csic.e [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Rico-Rico, A. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Temara, A. [The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels (Belgium); Blasco, J. [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

2010-02-15

84

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 ± 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 ± 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

2010-02-01

85

Anaerobic digestion of Ulva sp 3. liquefaction juices extraction by pressing and a technico-economic budget  

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In many countries, the algae of "green tides" are harvested in the fight against pollution. Ulva often represents the main component of the tide, and intensive research has been conducted on the possibility to use the algae as a methanisation substrate. However, methanisation is hampered by various practical obstacles, which requires a compromise between productivity and biological yield.

2006-01-01

86

Influence of environment factors on bacterial ingestion rate of the deposit-feeder Hydrobia ulvae and comparison with meiofauna  

Science.gov (United States)

Deposit feeders are able to process a considerable volume of sediment, containing large quantities of associated bacteria. However, conclusions concerning the trophic role played by benthic bacteria in marine sediments are still not fully elucidated. This study deals with bacterivory by the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae, one of the most abundant deposit-feeding species in intertidal mudflats in Western Europe. Ingestion rates of bacteria were determined during grazing experiments using 15N pre-enriched bacteria. Grazing experiments were performed in order to measure effects of abiotic (temperature, salinity and luminosity) and biotic (bacterial and algal abundances) factors on ingestion rates of bacteria by H. ulvae of an intertidal mudflat (Brouage, Marennes-Oléron, France). The mean ingestion rate of bacteria by H. ulvae was 1149 ng C ind - 1 h - 1 . The general trend showed a temperature effect with an optimum around 30 °C, and the assimilation rate was significantly lower at 5 °C. Bacterial assimilation did not significantly differ between salinity 18 and salinity 31. Ingestion was the same in light and in dark conditions. Results were compared with those of other grazing experiments conducted simultaneously in similar conditions with two other grazers with different size and feeding modes: the foraminifera Ammonia tepida and a nematode community from the superficial sediment of the Brouage mudflat. H. ulvae and nematodes presented a feeding behavior less influenced by environmental changes than A. tepida. H. ulvae ingested bacteria at a higher rate than smaller meiofaunal grazers and seemed to have a lower ability to selectively ingest diatoms than meiofaunal grazers.

Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Dupuy, Christine; Richard, Pierre; Haubois, Anne-Gaelle; Niquil, Nathalie

2008-10-01

87

Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India. PMID:23933168

Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Rathore, Gaurav; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Raj; Jena, J K

2013-12-01

88

Allometry of skull morphology, gape size and ingestion performance in the banded watersnake (Nerodia fasciata) feeding on two types of prey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small body size imposes limitations on the feeding capabilities of juveniles, particularly in species that consume their prey whole. It has been hypothesized that juveniles exhibit exceptional performance measures to compensate for their small size. However, few studies have examined whether juveniles have better feeding performance relative to adults and investigations of snake feeding ontogeny have not shown enhanced performance in smaller snakes. I tested the hypothesis that juvenile snakes have better feeding performance by comparing maximum gape circumference and ingestion performance (time and number of pterygoid protractions) in a series of banded watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) of different sizes fed fish and frogs. I also measured several external and osteological dimensions of the head and used Akaike's information criterion to determine which morphological measurements were the strongest predictors of relative gape. All skull measurements and maximum gape circumference showed negative allometry relative to snout-vent length (SVL). Given the available models, Akaike information criterion (AIC) analysis indicated that both skull length and mandible length were the strongest predictors of gape circumference for both external and osteological measurements. Multiple regression analysis of ingestion performance indicated SVL was negatively correlated with the time and number of pterygoid protractions required to consume fish or frogs, indicating that juveniles do not have a higher ingestion performance than adults. While exaggerated morphology in juvenile snakes does not appear to improve ingestion performance, a larger gape should increase the ability of juvenile snakes to consume a wide range of encountered prey shapes and sizes. PMID:24143025

Hampton, Paul M

2014-02-01

89

Seasonal variation of antibacterial activities in the green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was performed to screen out the extracts of algae and assess the seasonal variation in antimicrobial activity of Ulva pertusa against Gardnerella vaginalis. Seasonal variation in antibacterial activity was observed, with the extracts showing no activity during summer and autumn, and showing antibacterial activity from early winter (December) to middle spring (April). The maximum value of antimicrobial activity (6.5 mm inhibition zone at 5 mg disk(-1)) of U. pertusa against G. vaginalis was observed in April. Otherwise, for both chlorophyll a and b, the highest content (2.87 mg g(-1) and 1.37 mg g(-1)) was observed in March 2009. These results may reflect variation in cellular chemical compositions such as secondary metabolite(s) rather than chlorophyll and biological activities according to season. PMID:24665759

Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

2014-03-01

90

Inhibitory activities of Ulva lactuca polysaccharides on digestive enzymes related to diabetes and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alga Ulva lactuca polysaccharides (ULPS) on key enzymes related to diabetes and obesity. This marine natural product, ULPS, exerted potential inhibition on key enzymes related to starch digestion and absorption in both plasma and small intestine mainly ?-amylase by 53% and 34% and maltase by 97 and 164% respectively, leading to a significant decrease in blood glucose rate by 297%. Moreover, ULPS potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption as lipase activity in both plasma and small intestine by 235 and 287% respectively, which led to a notable decrease of blood LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and in the counterpart an increase in HDL-cholesterol level in surviving diabetic rats. Additively, ULPS significantly protected the liver-kidney functions, by decreasing of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and creatinine, urea and albumin rates in plasma. PMID:23638862

BelHadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hamden, Khaled

2013-05-01

91

A model that predicts the attachment behavior of Ulva linza zoospores on surface topography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A predictive model for the attachment of spores of the green alga Ulva on patterned topographical surfaces was developed using a constant refinement approach. This 'attachment model' incorporated two historical data sets and a modified version of the previously-described Engineered Roughness Index. Two sets of newly-designed surfaces were used to evaluate the effect of two components of the model on spore settlement. Spores attached in fewer numbers when the area fraction of feature tops increased or when the number of distinct features in the design increased, as predicted by the model. The model correctly predicted the spore attachment density on three previously-untested surfaces relative to a smooth surface. The two historical data sets and two new data sets showed high correlation (R(2) = 0.88) with the model. This model may be useful for designing new antifouling topographies. PMID:20191401

Long, Christopher J; Schumacher, James F; Robinson, Paul A C; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2010-05-01

92

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +/- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +/- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. PMID:19766366

Mauffret, A; Rico-Rico, A; Temara, A; Blasco, J

2010-02-01

93

Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and fluctuating levels of nitrogen sources. Our understanding of the influences of this varying condition on the uptake and growth responses of U. lactuca is limited. In this present work, we examined the growth response of U. lactuca exposed to different sources of nitrogen (NH4+; NO3â??; and the combination NH4NO3) by using photo-scanning technology for monitoring the growth kinetics of U. lactuca. The images revealed differential increases of the surface area of U. lactuca disks with time in response to different N-nutrient enrichments. The results showed a favorable growth response to ammonium as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 μM of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4â??±â??0.18% dayâ??1 and 9.4â??±â??0.72% dayâ??1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5â??±â??0.24 mg DW mâ??2·dayâ??1. The presence of ammonium apparently discriminated the nitrate uptake by U. lactuca when exposed to NH4NO3. Apart from showing the significant differential growth response of U. lactuca to different nitrogen sources, the work exhibits the applicability of a photo-scanning approach for acquiring precise quantitative growth data for U. lactuca as exemplified by assessment of the growth response to two different N-sources.

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

2011-01-01

94

Settlement of Ulva zoospores on patterned fluorinated and PEGylated monolayer surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various designs for coatings that resist the attachment of marine organisms are based on the concept of "ambiguous" surfaces that present both hydrophobic and hydrophilic functionalities as surface domains. In order to facilitate the optimal design of such surfaces, information is needed on the scale of the domains that the settling stages of marine organisms are able to distinguish. Previous experiments showed that Ulva zoospores settle (attach) in high numbers onto fluorinated monolayers compared to PEGylated monolayers. The main aim of the present study was to determine, when zoospores of the green alga Ulva are presented with a choice of fluorinated or PEGylated surfaces, what the minimum dimensions of the two types of surface are that zoospores can detect and consequently settle on. Silicon wafers were chemically modified to produce a pattern of squares containing alternating fluorinated and PEGylated stripes of different widths on either a uniform fluorinated or PEGylated background. Each 1 cm x 1 cm square contained stripes with widths of 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 5, or 2 microm as well as an unpatterned square with a chemistry opposite that of the background. Spores were selective in choosing where to settle, settling at higher densities on fluorinated stripes compared to PEGylated stripes. However, the magnitude of response, and the consequences for settlement on patterned areas overall, was dependent on both the width of the stripes and the chemistry of the background. The data are discussed in relation to the ability of spores to "choose" favorable sites for settlement and the implications for the development of novel antifouling coatings. PMID:18081330

Finlay, John A; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Dong, Rong; Asgill, Nicola; Wong, Kaiming; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

2008-01-15

95

A Strategy for the Proliferation of Ulva prolifera, Main Causative Species of Green Tides, with Formation of Sporangia by Fragmentation  

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Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised fr...

Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yi, Qianqian; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Lin, Apeng; Peng, Guang

2010-01-01

96

Evidence of Coexistence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in a Green-Tide-Forming Alga, Ulva prolifera  

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Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C3 photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C4 photosynthesis, so C4 photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C3 and C4 p...

Xu, Jianfang; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

97

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.  

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Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

Ganapathy Selvam G.

2013-01-01

98

Biomasa de Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) en tres localidades del malecón de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México / Biomass of Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) in three locations along the bayfront of La Paz, Baja California Sur, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la distribución, biomasa y potencial cosechable de Ulva spp. en tres localidades del malecón de La Paz, Baja California Sur, durante 2001 y 2002. Algunas especies de este género, antes en el género Enteromorpha, tienen una buena demanda en otros países para consumo humano. Se realizó un [...] muestreo sistemático utilizando como unidad de muestreo cuadros de 25 x 25 cm colocados cada 10 m a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la línea de costa trazados cada 40 m. En ambos años la mayor biomasa promedio se encontró en El Palmar. La mayor biomasa de Ulva spp. se registró durante mayo de 2001 y en febrero de 2002. La biomasa promedio fue de 351 g m-2 en 2001, mientras que en 2002 fue de 537 g m-2. Los máximos valores de biomasa cosechable se encontraron en El Kiwi en ambos años. El gran incremento en substrato que se presentó en 2002 podría explicar los altos volúmenes de cosecha estimados de 115 t húmedas. Recomendamos investigar si hay mercado para esta biomasa que permita su explotación sostenida Abstract in english Distribution and standing crop of Ulva spp. were measured in three localities along the bayfront of La Paz, Baja California Sur, during 2001 and 2002. Some species of Ulva, formerly in the genus Enteromorpha, are utilized in some countries for human consumption. We utilized a systematic sampling met [...] hod, using as sampling unit a 25 x 25 cm square placed every 10 m throughout transects perpendicular to the coastline which were drawn every 40 m. In both years the greatest average biomass was found at El Palmar. The largest biomass of Ulva spp. was recorded during May 2001 and February 2002. The average biomass was 351 g m-2 in 2001 and 537 g m-2 in 2002. The maximum values of the standing crop were found at El Kiwi in both years. The great increase in substratum in 2002 may explain the large volumes of the standing crop, estimated as 115 t wet. We recommend investigation to see if there is a market for this biomass leading to its sustainable exploitation

Ruth N, Aguila-Ramírez; Margarita, Casas-Valdez; Claudia J, Hernández-Guerrero; Alejandro, Marín-Álvarez.

99

Epibacterium ulvae gen. nov., sp. nov., epibiotic bacteria isolated from the surface of a marine alga.  

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Two Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated strains U82 and U95(T), were isolated from the marine alga Ulva australis collected at Sharks Point, Clovelly, a rocky intertidal zone near Sydney, Australia. Both strains were oxidase- and catalase-positive, formed brown- to black-pigmented colonies and required NaCl for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA genes of both strains were identical across the sequenced 1326 nt, but showed differences in the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16S and the 23S rRNA genes. At the genomic level the DNA G+C contents of strains U82 and U95(T) were identical (52.6?mol%) and they had a DNA-DNA hybridization value of 83.7%, suggesting that these strains belong to the same species. The closest described phylogenetic neighbour to strains U82 and U95(T) was Thalassobius aestuarii DSM 15283(T) with 95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Other close relatives include further species of the genera Thalassobius and Shimia. Strains U82 and U95(T) were negative for bacteriochlorophyll a production, showed antibacterial activity towards other marine bacteria, were resistant to the antibiotics gentamicin and spectinomycin and were unable to hydrolyse starch or gelatin. The major fatty acids (>1%) were 18?:?1?7c, 16?:?0, 18?:?2, 10?:?0 3-OH, 12?:?0, 20?:?1 2-OH and 18?:?0. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified phospholipids. Both strains produced ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the sole respiratory lipoquinone. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is suggested that strains U82 and U95(T) are members of a novel species within a new genus for which the name Epibacterium ulvae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is U95(T) (?=?DSM 24752(T)?=?LMG 26464(T)). PMID:22904216

Penesyan, Anahit; Breider, Sven; Schumann, Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Egan, Suhelen; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

2013-05-01

100

Allelopathic interactions between the opportunistic species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides.  

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Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L(-1) significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L(-1) (p0.05). Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community. PMID:22496758

Xu, Dong; Gao, Zhengquan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Desiccation Induces Accumulations of Antheraxanthin and Zeaxanthin in Intertidal Macro-Alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)  

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For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax) and zeaxanthin (Zx) at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx). This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air.

Xie, Xiujun; Gao, Shan; Gu, Wenhui; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

2013-01-01

102

Use of Ulva lactuca to identify ammonia toxicity in marine and estuarine sediments.  

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Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods are being developed for use with whole sediments. Although a phase I TIE method has been developed to characterize ammonia toxicity in aqueous samples using the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca, the relationship between amphipod and mysid mortality and uptake by U. lactuca of bedded sediment ammonia had not been explored. Additionally, it was not known how interactions in whole sediments between metal and organic contaminants with U. lactuca and ammonia would affect TIE interpretation. The current study showed that ammonia toxicity to amphipods and mysids was reduced significantly in marine sediments in the presence of U. lactuca. The alga slightly affected metal concentrations but did not alter the concentration of organic contaminants in either overlying or interstitial waters. Conversely, ammonia uptake by U. lactuca was not affected by the presence of metal or organic contaminants in the sediments. When used with other TIE manipulations, U. lactuca can be utilized in a whole-sediment, phase I TIE to remove toxicity due to ammonia. PMID:11764171

Pelletier, M C; Ho, K T; Cantwell, M; Kuhn-Hines, A; Jayaraman, S; Burgess, R M

2001-12-01

103

Polaribacter reichenbachii sp. nov.: a new marine bacterium associated with the green alga Ulva fenestrata.  

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A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 6Alg 8(T), was isolated from the common Pacific green alga Ulva fenestrata. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Polaribacter, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 97.6 % to Polaribacter dokdonensis DSW-5(T) and 92.8-96.1 % to other recognized Polaribacter species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 6Alg 8(T) were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1), iso-C(15:0) 2-OH, C(15:0) and C(15:1)?6. The polar lipid profile consisted of the major lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content of the type strain is 31.6 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Polaribacter were readily distinguished based on a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Polaribacter, for which the name Polaribacter reichenbachii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6Alg 8(T) (= KCTC 23969(T) = KMM 6386(T) = LMG 26443(T)). PMID:23053482

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kukhlevskiy, Andrey D; Zhukova, Natalia V

2013-01-01

104

Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai  

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From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2011-05-01

105

Composition, uniqueness and variability of the epiphytic bacterial community of the green alga Ulva australis.  

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Green Ulvacean marine macroalgae are distributed worldwide in coastal tidal and subtidal ecosystems. As for many living surfaces in the marine environment, little is known concerning the epiphytic bacterial biofilm communities that inhabit algal surfaces. This study reports on the largest published libraries of near full-length 16S rRNA genes from a marine algal surface (5293 sequences from six samples) allowing for an in-depth assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacterial community on a green Ulvacean alga. Large 16S rRNA gene libraries of surrounding seawater were also used to determine the uniqueness of this bacterial community. The surface of Ulva australis is dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes, especially within the Rhodobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Sapropiraceae families. Seawater libraries were also dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes sequences, but were shown to be clearly distinct from U. australis libraries through the clustering of sequences into operational taxonomic units and Bray-Curtis similarity analysis. Almost no similarity was observed between these two environments at the species level, and only minor similarity was observed at levels of sequence clustering representing clades of bacteria within family and genus taxonomic groups. Variability between libraries of U. australis was relatively high, and a consistent sub-population of bacterial species was not detected. The competitive lottery model, originally derived to explain diversity in coral reef fishes, may explain the pattern of colonization of this algal surface. PMID:21048801

Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Lewis, Matt; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2011-04-01

106

Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta).  

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For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax) and zeaxanthin (Zx) at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx). This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air. PMID:24039824

Xie, Xiujun; Gao, Shan; Gu, Wenhui; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

2013-01-01

107

Anomalous settlement behavior of Ulva linza zoospores on cationic oligopeptide surfaces.  

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Identification of settlement cues for marine fouling organisms opens up new strategies and methods for biofouling prevention, and enables the development of more effective antifouling materials. To this end, the settlement behaviour of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza onto cationic oligopeptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been investigated. The spores interact strongly with lysine- and arginine-rich SAMs, and their settlement appears to be stimulated by these surfaces. Of particular interest is an arginine-rich oligopeptide, which is effective in attracting spores to the surface, but in a way which leaves a large fraction of the settled spores attached to the surface in an anomalous fashion. These 'pseudo-settled' spores are relatively easily detached from the surface and do not undergo the full range of cellular responses associated with normal commitment to settlement. This is a hitherto undocumented mode of settlement, and surface dilution of the arginine-rich peptide with a neutral triglycine peptide demonstrates that both normal and anomalous settlement is proportional to the surface density of the arginine-rich peptide. The settlement experiments are complemented with physical studies of the oligopeptide SAMs, before and after extended immersion in artificial seawater, using infrared spectroscopy, null ellipsometry and contact angle measurements. PMID:18589494

Ederth, T; Nygren, P; Pettitt, M E; Ostblom, M; Du, C -X; Broo, K; Callow, M E; Callow, J; Liedberg, B

2008-01-01

108

Inhibition of growth of Ulva expansa (chlorophyta) by ultraviolet-B radiation  

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We examined the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) on the growth rate of the intertidal marine alga Ulva expansa (Setch.) S ampersand G. (Chlorophyta). Segments of thallus collected from a natural population were grown in outdoor seawater tanks. Combinations of UV-B-opaque screens, UV-B transparent screens, and UV-B lamps were used to investigate the effects of solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B on the growth of these segments. Growth was measured by changes in segment surface area, damp weight, and dry weight. Growth rates of segments were inhibited under both solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B treatments. Growth rates were also inhibited by high levels of photosynthetically active radiation, independent of UV-B fluence. These results indicate that increases in UV-B resulting from further ozone depletion will have a negative impact on the growth of this alga. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

1994-10-01

109

Inhibition of growth of Ulva expansa (chlorophyta) by ultraviolet-B radiation  

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We examined the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) on the growth rate of the intertidal marine alga Ulva expansa (Setch.) S & G. (Chlorophyta). Segments of thallus collected from a natural population were grown in outdoor seawater tanks. Combinations of UV-B-opaque screens, UV-B transparent screens, and UV-B lamps were used to investigate the effects of solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B on the growth of these segments. Growth was measured by changes in segment surface area, damp weight, and dry weight. Growth rates of segments were inhibited under both solar UV-B and solar plus supplemental UV-B treatments. Growth rates were also inhibited by high levels of photosynthetically active radiation, independent of UV-B fluence. These results indicate that increases in UV-B resulting from further ozone depletion will have a negative impact on the growth of this alga. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Grobe, C.W.; Murphy, T.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

110

Influences of marine sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by green alga (Ulva pertusa)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution of radionuclides (60Co, 137Cs, 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60Co, followed by 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60Co and 137Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60Co, 7 days for 137Cs, 26 days for 95Zr-95Nb and 24 days for 106Ru-106Rh. (auth.)

1975-01-01

111

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment spiked with LAS congeners.  

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The lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of LAS congeners to the mollusc gastropod Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in spiked sediment bioassays. This complements the little knowledge available to date on mixture effects in the sediment compartment. The LAS homologues joint effect was concentration additive ([summation operator]TU(i) = 0.8-1). As opposed to the 10-d LC10 based on the sediment associated LAS concentration (91-330 mg/kg) which was independent of the homologue chain length, the LC10 based on the dissolved LAS fraction (0.804-0.068 mg/L) decreased as the homologue chain length increased from 10 to 13 carbons. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) derived from these data was log (1/LC10 (mol/L)) = 0.64 log K(ow) + 4.40 (n = 5; r(2) = 0.76; s = 0.24). It showed an apparent higher toxicity compared to the typical QSAR for polar narcosis in water-only systems probably due to the simultaneous exposure of the snail to LAS through the dissolved and the sediment associated fractions. The egestion rate of the surviving snails recovered after few days' exposure (1-d NOEC: 40-107 mg/kg, 9-d NOEC: 65-190 mg/kg) which suggests that the organisms were able to acclimate to LAS during the exposure. PMID:20236677

Mauffret, A; Temara, A; Blasco, J

2010-05-01

112

A LC-MS/MS methodology to determine furaltadone residues in the macroalgae Ulva lactuca.  

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Presently, the rise of new contaminants in the environment has widened the scope of pharmaceutical analyses as to face the demanding new challenges. An increasing tendency for the interconnection and overlap of research fields, such as ecology and biochemistry, is intensifying the demand for new methodologies to be applied to the survey of drugs in unconventional matrices. Integrated in this group are macrophytes, such as the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca, which are under study as to ascertain their ability as indicators of contamination for many substances. Nonetheless, methodologies for extraction and determination of drugs in such matrices are scarce and new studies on the subject are pressing. A new methodology for the determination of the antibiotic furaltadone in U. lactuca by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was developed, optimized and validated following the guidelines of the EC Decision 2002/657. The calibration curves showed linearity above 0.99 (R(2)). The relative standard deviations obtained for repeatability, expressed as CV, were between 15.3 and 20.5 and for reproducibility 25.3 and 28.2 whereas accuracy was in the interval of 88.9-95.5 (%). The limit of decision (CC?) and the detection capability (CC?) were respectively 5.57 ?g kg(-1) and 10.97 ?g kg(-1). The method was successfully applied to experimental samples. PMID:22105023

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

2011-12-15

113

Ocorrência de Ulva spp., Polysiphonia sp., e Microcystis aeruginosa nas praias do Saco do Laranjal, Pelotas, RS  

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Full Text Available O trabalho relata a ocorrência de algas indicadoras de processos de eutrofização no Saco do Laranjal (Lagoa dos Patos no período compreendido entre 2005 e 2012. A ocorrência de grandes quantidades da alga macroscópica verde Ulva L. (Chlorophyta, formando marés verde, foram registradas nos verão de 2008, 2009 e 2012. A cianofícea potencialmente tóxica, Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz. Kütz. foi observada em quase todos os anos, nos meses de verão e, em floração massiva, no verão de 2010. São fornecidas ilustrações dos eventos de crescimento massivos observados. Os resultados sugerem que o Saco do Laranjal provavelmente apresenta-se em processo de eutrofização.

Vanessa Correa da Rosa

2013-10-01

114

Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca  

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The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L-1). The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L-1 was the same as 20 and 30 mg L-1

Hanan Hafez Omar

2008-01-01

115

Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata in a packed column.  

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Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata were investigated in a packed bed up-flow column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, the metal-uptake capacity of U. reticulata for copper, cobalt and nickel was found to be 56.3+/-0.24, 46.1+/-0.07 and 46.5+/-0.08 mgg(-1), respectively. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data. The computed sorption capacity per unit bed volume (N0) was 2580, 2245 and 1911 mgl(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The rate constant (K(a)) was recorded as 0.063, 0.081 and 0.275 lmg(-1)h(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. In flow rate experiments, the results confirmed that the metal uptake capacity and the metal removal efficiency of U. reticulata decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model was used to fit the column biosorption data at different flow rates and model constants were evaluated. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the biosorbent was 0.1 M CaCl2 at pH 3 adjusted using HCl. For all the metal ions, a decreased breakthrough time and an increased exhaustion time were observed as the regeneration cycles progressed, which also resulted in a broadened mass transfer zone. The pH variations during both sorption and desorption process have been reported. PMID:15924962

Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J; Palanivelu, K; Velan, M

2005-07-01

116

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

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The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

117

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH approximately 1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g(-1) for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater. PMID:17360109

El-Sikaily, Amany; El Nemr, Ahmed; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola

2007-09-01

118

Distributions of radionuclides among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distributions of radionuclides ("6"0Co, "1"3"7Cs, "9"5Zr-"9"5Nb and "1"0"6Ru-"1"0"6Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for "6"0Co, followed by "9"5Zr,-"9"5Nb, "1"0"6Ru-"1"0"6Rh and "1"3"7Cs in this order. The activity ratios of "9"5Zr-"9"5Nb and "1"0"6Ru-"1"0"6Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of "6"0Co and "1"3"7Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of "6"0Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for "6"0Co, 7 days for "1"3"7Cs, 26 days for "9"5Zr-"9"5Nb and 24 days for "9"5Zr-"9"5Nb and 24 days for "1"0"6Ru-"1"0"6Rh. (auth.)

1976-09-01

119

Differential responses to cadmium induced oxidative stress in marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes various biochemical processes involved in the mitigation of cadmium toxicity in green alga Ulva lactuca. The plants when exposed to 0.4 mM CdCl(2) for 4 days showed twofold increase in lipoperoxides and H(2)O(2) content that collectively decreased the growth and photosynthetic pigments by almost 30% over the control. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enhanced by twofold to threefold and that of catalase (CAT) diminished. Further, the isoforms of these enzymes, namely, Mn-SOD (approximately 85 kDa), GR (approximately 180 kDa) and GPX (approximately 50 kDa) responded specifically to Cd(2+) exposure. Moreover, the contents of reduced glutathione (3.01 fold) and ascorbate (1.85 fold) also increased substantially. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity increased by two fold coupled with the induction of two new isoforms upon Cd(2+) exposure. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, although n - 3 PUFAs and n - 6 PUFAs (18:3n - 6 and C18:2n - 6) showed relatively higher contents than control, the latter ones showed threefold increase indicating their prominence in controlling the cadmium stress. Both free and bound soluble putrescine increased noticeably without any change in spermidine. In contrast, spermine content reduced to half over control. Among the macronutrients analysed in exposed thalli, the decreased K content was accompanied by higher Na and Mn with no appreciable change in Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn. Induction of antioxidant enzymes and LOX isoforms together with storage of putrescine and n - 6 PUFAs in cadmium exposed thallus in the present study reveal their potential role in Cd(2+) induced oxidative stress in U. lactuca. PMID:20112049

Kumar, Manoj; Kumari, Puja; Gupta, Vishal; Anisha, P A; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2010-04-01

120

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH {approx}1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g{sup -1} for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater.

El-Sikaily, Amany [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt); Nemr, Ahmed El [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedmoustafaelnemr@yahoo.com; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)

2007-09-05

 
 
 
 
121

Identification of copper-induced genes in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify genes/proteins involved in copper tolerance, the marine alga Ulva compressa was cultivated with 10 ?M copper for 3 days. The activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (AP), peroxiredoxin (PRX), thioredoxin (TRX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the level of lipoperoxides were determined in the alga cultivated with and without copper addition. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipoperoxides level increased in response to copper excess, indicating that the alga was under oxidative stress. A cDNA library was prepared using U. compressa cultivated with 10 ?M copper for 3 days. A total of 3?×?10(4) clones were isolated and 480 clones were sequenced, resulting in 235 non-redundant ESTs, of which 104 encode proteins with known functions. Among them, we identified proteins involved in (1) antioxidant metabolism such as AP, PRX, TRX, GST, and metalothionein (MET), (2) signal transduction, such as calmodulin (CAM), (3) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), (4) gene expression, (5) protein synthesis and degradation, and (6) chloroplast and mitochondria electron transport chains. Half of the identified proteins are potentially localized in organelles. The relative level of 18 genes, including those coding for AP, PRX, TRX, GST, MET, CAM, CDPK, and NDK were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in the alga cultivated with 10 ?M copper for 0 to 7 days. Transcript levels increased in response to copper stress and most of them reached a maximum at days 3 and 5. Thus, the selected genes are induced by copper stress and they are probably involved in copper acclimation and tolerance. PMID:20936320

Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Dennett, Geraldine; González, Alberto; Vergara, Eva; Medina, Cristóbal; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-06-01

122

Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen dark preserved zoospore and its development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva flexuosa Wulfen zoospores to survive darkness were tested under different conditions in the present study. The dark preserved zoospore was cultured under a two-factor experimental design to test the effect of salinity and nitrate, effect of salinity and phosphate, effect of light and salinity, and effect of light and phosphate. The recruitment (germination and growth) of zoospores was significantly affected by light and salinity. The nitrate concentration of 20 µmol.l(-1) was found to initiate the process of germination and its subsequent growth and, its effect appeared greatest under 25 psu condition. While nitrate enhances the growth of biomass more than phosphate, both show a positive interactive effect on biomass increase when crossed with salinity. The combined effect of 25 psu salinity and 8 µmol.l(-1) phosphate exhibited higher biomass growth. There was a significant effect of light and salinity on the biomass of zoospore, though there was no significant interaction between the two factors. There was an increase in biomass of growing zoospores to increase in light intensity and 80 µmol.m(-2).s(-1) of light intensity was considered optimal. Similarly, high light intensity condition favored higher biomass growth and there was significant interaction between light (80 µmol. m(-2). s(-1)) and phosphate (4 µmol. l(-1)) in high salinity (35 psu) condition. The result of this study showed that dark preserved zoospores of U. flexuosa have the potential for recruitment and it gives us an understanding how different factors play a role in the process of recruitment. PMID:22403690

Imchen, Temjensangba

2012-01-01

123

Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga Ulva reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The batch removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions using Ulva reticulata was investigated in this study. The copper (II) uptake was dependent on initial pH and initial copper concentration, with pH 5.5 being the optimum value. The equilibrium data wer [...] e fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, with the maximum copper (II) uptake of 74.63 mg/g determined at a pH of 5.5. The Freundlich model regression resulted in high correlation coefficients and the model parameters were largely dependent on initial solution pH. At various initial copper (II) concentrations (250 to 1000 mg/L), sorption equilibrium was attained between 30 and 120 min. The copper (II) uptake by U. reticulata was best described by Pseudo-second order rate model and the rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were also reported. The elution efficiency for copper-desorption from U. reticulata was determined for 0.1 M HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and CaCl2 at various Solid-to-Liquid ratios (S/L). The solution CaCl2 (0.1 M) in HCl at pH 3 was chosen to be the most suitable copper-desorbing agent. The biomass was also employed in three sorption-desorption cycles with 0.1 M CaCl2 (in HCl, pH 3) as the elutant.

Vijayaraghavan, Kuppusamy; Raj Jegan, Joseph; Palanivelu, Kandasamy; Velan, Manickam.

124

Copper-induced synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and phytochelatins in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to analyze the synthesis of antioxidant and heavy metal-chelating compounds in response to copper stress, the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) was exposed to 10 ?M copper for 7 days and treated with inhibitors of ASC synthesis, lycorine, and GSH synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The levels of ascorbate, in its reduced (ASC) and oxidized (DHA) forms, glutathione, in its reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, and phytochelatins (PCs) were determined as well as activities of enzymes involved in ASC synthesis, L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-galactono 1,4 lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), and in GSH synthesis, ?-glutamylcysteine synthase (?-GCS) and glutathione synthase (GS). The level of ASC rapidly decreased to reach a minimum at day 1 that remained low until day 7, DHA decreased until day 1 but slowly increased up to day 7 and its accumulation was inhibited by lycorine. In addition, GSH level increased to reach a maximal level at day 5 and GSSG increased up to day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Activities of GDH and GLDH increased until day 7 and GLDH was inhibited by lycorine. Moreover, activities of ?-GCS and GS increased until day 7 and ?-GCS was inhibited by BSO. Furthermore, PC2, PC3 and PC4, increased until day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Thus, copper induced the synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and PCs in U. compressa suggesting that these compounds are involved in copper tolerance. Interestingly, U. compressa is, until now, the only ulvophyte showing ASC, GSH and PCs synthesis in response to copper excess. PMID:22153245

Mellado, Macarena; Contreras, Rodrigo A; González, Alberto; Dennett, Geraldine; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-02-01

125

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH ?1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g-1 for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater

2007-09-05

126

Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Sediment and Macroalgae (Ulva Sp. and Enteromorpha Sp. on the Mersin Coast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mersin ili s?n?rlar? içerisinde halk taraf?ndan yo?un olarak kullan?lan dört plajda makroskobik ye?il algler(Ulva sp. ve Enteromorpha sp. ve sedimentte a??r metallerin birikiminin belirlenmesi amac?yla, Alüminyum(Al, Krom (Cr, Mangan (Mn, Demir (Fe, Nikel (Ni, Bak?r (Cu, Çinko (Zn, Kur?un (Pb, veKadmiyum (Cd düzeyleri ayl?k olarak tespit edilmi?tir. Yap?lan analizler sonucunda Cu ve Zn istasyon 1,Cd istasyon 2 ve Al, Mn, Fe ve Ni ise istasyon 4’de alglerde en yüksek birikimi gösteren a??r metallerolmu?lard?r. A??r metallerin birikim düzeylerinin alglerde ve sedimentte s?ralanmas?, Ulva sp.’de Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd; Enteromorpha sp.’de Fe>Al>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd;sediment örneklerinde ise Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>Cr>Zn>Pb>Cd>Cu ?eklinde tespit edilmi?tir.

Mehmet Tahir ALP

2012-03-01

127

Alternative Electron Transports Participate in the Maintenance of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase Activity of Ulva sp. under Low Irradiance  

Science.gov (United States)

The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ?pH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA) to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration) could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG)) were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ?pH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

2013-01-01

128

Disruption of quorum sensing in seawater abolishes attraction of zoospores of the green alga Ulva to bacterial biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoospores of the eukaryotic green seaweed Ulva respond to bacterial N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal molecules for the selection of surface sites for permanent attachment. In this study we have investigated the production and destruction of AHLs in biofilms of the AHL-producing marine bacterium, Vibrio anguillarum and their stability in seawater. While wild type V. anguillarum NB10 was a strong attractor of zoospores, inactivation of AHL production in this strain by either expressing the recombinant Bacillus lactonase coding gene aiiA, or by mutating the AHL biosynthetic genes, resulted in the abolition of zoospore attraction. In seawater, with a pH of 8.2, the degradation of AHL molecules was temperature-dependent, indicating that the AHLs produced by marine bacterial biofilms have short half-lives. The Ulva zoospores sensed a range of different AHL molecules and in particular more zoospores settled on surfaces releasing AHLs with longer (>six carbons) N-linked acyl chains. However, this finding is likely to be influenced by the differential diffusion rates of AHLs from the experimental surface matrix. Molecules with longer N-acyl chains, such as N-(3-oxodecanoyl)- L-homoserine lactone, diffused more slowly than those with shorter N-acyl chains such as N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl)- L-homoserine lactone. Image analysis using GFP-tagged V. anguillarum biofilms revealed that spores settle directly on bacterial cells and in particular on microcolonies which we show are sites of concentrated AHL production. PMID:15658990

Tait, Karen; Joint, Ian; Daykin, Mavis; Milton, Debra L; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel

2005-02-01

129

Engineered antifouling microtopographies: kinetic analysis of the attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva to silicone elastomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microtopography has been demonstrated as an effective deterrent to biofouling. The majority of published studies are fixed-time assays that raise questions regarding the kinetics of the attachment process. This study investigated the time-dependent attachment density of zoospores of Ulva, in a laboratory assay, on a micropatterned and smooth silicone elastomer. The attachment density of zoospores was reduced on average 70-80% by the microtopography relative to smooth surfaces over a 4 h exposure. Mapping the zoospore locations on the topography revealed that they settled preferentially in specific, recessed areas of the pattern. The kinetic data fit, with high correlation (r(2) > 0.9), models commonly used to describe the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. The grouping of spores on the microtopography indicated that the pattern inhibited the ability of attached spores to recruit neighbors. This study demonstrates that the antifouling mechanism of topographies may involve disruption of the cooperative effects exhibited by fouling organisms such as Ulva. PMID:21882899

Cooper, Scott P; Finlay, John A; Cone, Gemma; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2011-09-01

130

Acyl-homoserine lactones modulate the settlement rate of zoospores of the marine alga Ulva intestinalis via a novel chemokinetic mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria utilize quorum sensing to regulate the expression of cell density-dependant phenotypes such as biofilm formation and virulence. Zoospores of the marine alga Ulva intestinalis exploit the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing system to identify bacterial biofilms for preferential settlement. Here, we demonstrate that AHLs act as strong chemoattractants for Ulva zoospores. Chemoattraction does not involve a chemotactic orientation towards the AHL source. Instead, it occurs through a chemokinesis in which zoospore swimming speed is rapidly decreased in the presence of AHLs. The chemoresponse to AHLs was dependant on the nature of the acyl side chain, with N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (30-C12-HSL) being the most effective signal molecule. Mean zoospore swimming speed decreased more rapidly over wild-type biofilms of the marine bacteria Vibrio anguillarum relative to biofilms of the vanM mutant, in which AHL synthesis is disrupted. These data implicate a role for AHL-mediated chemokinesis in the location and preferential settlement of Ulva zoospores on marine bacterial assemblages. Exposure to AHLs did not inhibit the negative phototaxis of Ulva zoospores, indicating that chemoattraction to bacterial biofilms does not preclude the response to a light stimulus in substrate location. PMID:17080611

Wheeler, Glen L; Tait, Karen; Taylor, Alison; Brownlee, Colin; Joint, Ian

2006-04-01

131

Low densities of epiphytic bacteria from the marine alga Ulva australis inhibit settlement of fouling organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 (formerly Roseobacter gallaeciensis) are marine bacteria often found in association with the alga Ulva australis and produce a range of extracellular inhibitory compounds against common fouling organisms. P. tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 biofilms with cell densities ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) cells cm(-2) were established on polystyrene petri dishes. Attachment and settlement assays were performed with marine fungi (uncharacterized isolates from U. australis), marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonas gracilis, Alteromonas sp., and Cellulophaga fucicola), invertebrate larvae (Bugula neritina), and algal spores (Polysiphonia sp.) and gametes (U. australis). Remarkably low cell densities (10(2) to 10(3) cells cm(-2)) of P. tunicata were effective in preventing settlement of algal spores and marine fungi in petri dishes. P. tunicata also prevented settlement of invertebrate larvae at densities of 10(4) to 10(5) cells cm(-2). Similarly, low cell densities (10(3) to 10(4)cells cm(-2)) of Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 had antilarval and antibacterial activity. Previously, it has been shown that abundance of P. tunicata on marine eukaryotic hosts is low (<1 x 10(3) cells cm(-2)) (T. L. Skovhus et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:2373-2382, 2004). Despite such low numbers of P. tunicata on U. australis in situ, our data suggest that P. tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 are present in sufficient quantities on the plant to inhibit fouling organisms. This strongly supports the hypothesis that P. tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 can play a role in defense against fouling on U. australis at cell densities that commonly occur in situ. PMID:17965210

Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S; Holmström, Carola; Case, Rebecca; Low, Adrian; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2007-12-01

132

A preliminary study on the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Ulva lactuca in rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-inflammatory drugs presently available for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders have diverse and undesirable side effects. In recent years; active principles of varied chemical structures have been isolated from plants possessing anti-inflammatory activity. Sulfated polysaccharides present in algae were shown to posses anti-inflammatory properties. Ulva lactuca the green alga available in Tuticorin coast was found to show anti-inflammatory effect as evidenced by the reduction in the inhibition of oedema at the 4th day of the experiment compared with the positive control drug and control. Microscopic examination of the elite organs did not show any alteration compared with the control and reference group. Moreover the hematological parameters were found normal compared with the control. The present study suggests the need for further studies for the development of anti-inflammatory drug of marine origin with proper clinical trials. PMID:20143726

Margret, R Jothibai; Kumaresan, S; Ravikumar, S

2009-09-01

133

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2006-05-15

134

Engineered antifouling microtopographies - effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on the settlement of zoospores of the ship fouling alga Ulva was evaluated using engineered microtopographies in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. The topographies studied were designed at a feature spacing of 2 microm and all significantly reduced spore settlement compared to a smooth surface. An indirect correlation between spore settlement and a newly described engineered roughness index (ERI) was identified. ERI is a dimensionless ratio based on Wenzel's roughness factor, depressed surface fraction, and the degree of freedom of spore movement. Uniform surfaces of either 2 mum diameter circular pillars (ERI=5.0) or 2 microm wide ridges (ERI=6.1) reduced settlement by 36% and 31%, respectively. A novel multi-feature topography consisting of 2 mum diameter circular pillars and 10 microm equilateral triangles (ERI=8.7) reduced spore settlement by 58%. The largest reduction in spore settlement, 77%, was obtained with the Sharklet AF topography (ERI=9.5). PMID:17453729

Schumacher, James F; Carman, Michelle L; Estes, Thomas G; Feinberg, Adam W; Wilson, Leslie H; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Finlay, John A; Brennan, Anthony B

2007-01-01

135

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. PMID:16289726

Muse, J O; Carducci, C N; Stripeikis, J D; Tudino, M B; Fernández, F M

2006-05-01

136

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

2006-05-01

137

Effects of El Niño on beds of Ulva lactuca along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico  

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Full Text Available The effect of El Niño 1997-1998 on the biomass and size of beds of the green alga Ulva lactuca L., along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California across the Canal de Ballenas, was evaluated in May 1998 and compared with May 1995, 1996 and 2000. The El Niño event (97-98 had a significant negative effect on size and biomass. The percent cover area was reduced by 70%, and biomass by 80%, with respect to previous years. A complete recovery was observed in 2000. Growth of the algae was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. No significant effect of irradiance was detected, but temperature did have a significant effect on growth. Optimum growth was found at 18°C. Temperatures of 14°, 22° and 26°C caused reduced growth. A temperature of 30°C was lethal to U. lactuca.

R. Blanco-Betancourt

2003-04-01

138

Identification and characterization of a ferritin gene and its product from the multicellular green alga Ulva pertusa.  

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Iron is an essential element for virtually all kingdoms of life, and especially for primary producers in ocean ecosystems. To date, the molecular mechanism of iron utilization by macroalgae remains largely unknown. To elucidate the strategy of iron acquisition and storage in macroalgae, we focused on the function of the iron storage protein ferritin in the sea lettuce, Ulva pertusa, which has abundant iron content. Judging from the primary structure, U. pertusa ferritin (UpFer) can be classified as a land-plant-type ferritin, which is usually found in plastids. The gene of UpFer was expressed in the peripheral, central and rhizoid parts. Western blot analysis showed that UpFER was present and functioned in processed 26- and 22-kDa forms. Furthermore, recombinant UpFER had iron incorporation activity comparable to other ferritins. These results suggest that ferritin also functions as an iron storage protein as in unicellular algae and land plants. PMID:23047107

Morimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Masuda, Taro; Sugihara, Itaru; Toyohara, Haruhiko

2012-01-01

139

Zeta potential of motile spores of the green alga Ulva linza and the influence of electrostatic interactions on spore settlement and adhesion strength.  

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The zeta potential of the motile spores of the green alga (seaweed) Ulva linza was quantified by video microscopy in combination with optical tweezers and determined to be -19.3+/-1.1 mV. The electrostatic component involved in the settlement and adhesion of spores was studied using electret surfaces consisting of PTFE and bearing different net charges. As the surface chemistry remains the same for differently charged surfaces, the experimental results isolate the influence of surface charge and thus electrostatic interactions. Ulva spores were demonstrated to have a reduced tendency to settle on negatively charged surfaces and when they did settle the adhesion strength of settled spores was lower than with neutral or positively charged surfaces. These observations can be ascribed to electrostatic interactions. PMID:20408711

Rosenhahn, Axel; Finlay, John A; Pettit, Michala E; Ward, Andy; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Callow, Maureen E; Grunze, Michael; Callow, James A

2009-01-01

140

The influence of surface energy on the wetting behaviour of the spore adhesive of the marine alga Ulva linza (synonym Enteromorpha linza)  

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The environmental scanning electron microscope has been used to image the adhesive pads secreted by zoospores of the marine alga Ulva linza as they settle on a range of self-assembled and grafted monolayers of different wettability, under natural, hydrated conditions. Results reveal that the diameter of the adhesive pad is strongly influenced by surface wettability, the adhesive spreading more (i.e. wetting the surface better) on the more hydrophilic surfaces. This is in direct contrast to pr...

Callow, J. A.; Callow, M. E.; Ista, L. K.; Lopez, G.; Chaudhury, M. K.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Copper-induced calcium release from ER involves the activation of ryanodine-sensitive and IP3-sensitive channels in Ulva compressa  

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The marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) showed a triphasic release of intracellular calcium with maximal levels at 2, 3 and 12 h and a biphasic accumulation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide with peaks at 3 and 12 h when cultivated with copper excess. Intracellular hydrogen peroxide originated exclusively in organelles. In this work, we analyzed the intracellular origin of calcium release and the type of calcium channels activated in response to copper excess. U. compressa was treated w...

Gonza?lez, Alberto; Trebotich, Jovanka; Vergara, Eva; Medina, Cristo?bal; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2010-01-01

142

Molecular phylogenetic evidence for a reversible morphogenetic switch controlling the gross morphology of two common genera of green seaweeds, Ulva and Enteromorpha.  

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Ulva and Enteromorpha are two of the most common, ubiquitous, and environmentally important genera of green seaweeds. They are widely regarded as easily distinguishable because of their dramatically different morphologies: Ulva species are flat, lettucelike blades two cell layers thick, and Enteromorpha species form hollow liquid- or gas-filled tubes one cell thick, which may also be highly branched. We present molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS sequences from 39 samples representing 21 purported species within these two genera. The results clearly indicate that the two genera are not respectively monophyletic and that the characteristic Ulva and Enteromorpha morphologies have arisen independently several times throughout the evolutionary diversification of the group. The analyses demonstrate that this radical change in gross morphology can also happen within clades exhibiting sequence divergence typical of conspecific assemblages of this group. We suggest that this morphological flexibility is the result of some form of developmental switch that results in either blades or tubes, but that this putative switch must be activated relatively infrequently, since there is evidence that some lineages have retained their form for significant periods. This discovery suggests a possible new model system for study of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interplay between environmental stimuli and plant development. PMID:10474897

Tan, I H; Blomster, J; Hansen, G; Leskinen, E; Maggs, C A; Mann, D G; Sluiman, H J; Stanhope, M J

1999-08-01

143

Comparison of the fouling release properties of hydrophobic fluorinated and hydrophilic PEGylated block copolymer surfaces: attachment strength of the diatom Navicula and the green alga Ulva.  

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To understand the role of surface wettability in adhesion of cells, the attachment of two different marine algae was studied on hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer surfaces. Adhesion of cells of the diatom Navicula and sporelings (young plants) of the green macroalga Ulva to an underwater surface is mainly by interactions between the surface and the adhesive exopolymers, which the cells secrete upon settlement and during subsequent colonization and growth. Two types of block copolymers, one with poly(ethylene glycol) side-chains and the other with liquid crystalline, fluorinated side-chains, were used to prepare the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The formation of a liquid crystalline smectic phase in the latter inhibited molecular reorganization at the surface, which is generally an issue when a highly hydrophobic surface is in contact with water. The adhesion strength was assessed by the fraction of settled cells (Navicula) or biomass (Ulva) that detached from the surface in a water flow channel with a wall shear stress of 53 Pa. The two species exhibited opposite adhesion behavior on the same sets of surfaces. While Navicula cells released more easily from hydrophilic surfaces, Ulva sporelings showed higher removal from hydrophobic surfaces. This highlights the importance of differences in cell-surface interactions in determining the strength of adhesion of cells to substrates. PMID:16677026

Krishnan, Sitaraman; Wang, Nick; Ober, Christopher K; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Hexemer, Alexander; Sohn, Karen E; Kramer, Edward J; Fischer, Daniel A

2006-05-01

144

Tracking the algal origin of the Ulva bloom in the Yellow Sea by a combination of molecular, morphological and physiological analyses.  

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In 2008, Qingdao (36 degrees 06'N, 120 degrees 25'E, PR China) experienced the world largest drifting macroalgal bloom composed of the filamentous macroalga Ulva prolifera. No convincing biologic evidence regarding the algal source is available so far. A series of field collections of both Ulva sp. and waters in various sites along Jiangsu coasts were conducted in March to May of 2009. Density of microscopic Ulva germlings in the waters sampled from different sites ranged from 7 to 3140 individuals L(-1), indicating the wide-spreading and long-term existence of the algae in the investigated region. Morphological and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS nrDNA and the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene comparisons of 26 algal samples revealed that the algae collected from land-based animal aquaculture ponds mostly resembled the dominating blooming alga in 2008. Mismatch of Porphyra farming period with the occurrence of the green tide bloom, as well as the negative identification results of the sampled green algae from the Porphyra rafts eliminated Porphyra rafts as the principal and original source of the dominating blooming alga. PMID:19896707

Pang, Shao Jun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Ti Feng; Xu, Na; Zhang, Zhi Huai; Gao, Su Qin; Chopin, Thierry; Sun, Song

2010-05-01

145

Isolation and characterization of a single-copy actin gene from a sterile mutant of Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).  

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We constructed a cDNA library from sterile Ulva pertusa (Ulvales, Chlorophyta), and isolated and characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding actin. The actin (ACT) cDNA consisted of 1487 nucleotides (nt) and had an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 377 amino acid (AA) residues. The ACT gene had one intron in the 5'-untranslated region and three introns in the coding region. Transcription started 26 nt downstream of the putative TATA box. A potential polyadenylation signal, TGTAG, was located 100 nt downstream of the terminator codon, TAG. Amino acid alignment with actins from various algae and land plants showed that sterile U. pertusa actin was more similar to actins from Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Euglenophyta, and higher plants (over 76.9%) than to actins from Rhodophyta. Southern blot analysis indicated that the sterile U. pertusa genome has only a single actin-encoding gene. Thalli grown on a 12D/12L photoperiod increased in surface area some two-fold over 24 h regardless of the nutritional conditions. The growth rate of thalli during the light period was significantly higher than that during the dark period. Northern hybridization indicated that the expression of actin mRNA was induced and repressed by the light and dark treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the U. pertusa cell division cycle has a periodicity of 24 h and that the ACT gene is highly transcribed during cell growth and development in the light period. PMID:15256264

Kakinuma, Makoto; Coury, Daniel A; Inagaki, Eri; Itoh, Sayaka; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Amano, Hideomi

2004-06-01

146

Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta  

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Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 ?mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

2012-11-01

147

Dietary bioavailability of cadmium presented to the gastropod Peringia ulvae as quantum dots and in ionic form.  

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For quantum dots (QDs) synthesized in solvents that are immiscible in water, dietary, rather than aqueous, exposure is expected to be the primary route of uptake. The estuarine snail Peringia ulvae was presented with mats of simulated detritus spiked with oleic acid capped cadmium sulfide (CdS; 3.1?±?0.4?nm) or cadmium selenide (CdSe; 4.2?±?0.8?nm) nanoparticles, synthesized using a microfluidics method, or Cd(2+) (added as Cd[NO3 ]2 ) as a control. A biodynamic modeling approach was used to quantify parameters that describe the dietary accumulation of the Cd forms. Ingestion rates decreased across treatments at higher exposure concentrations, indicating a metal-induced stress response related to Cd dose rather than form. Although Cd was bioavailable from both CdS and CdSe QDs, uptake rate constants from diet were significantly lower than that of Cd(2+) (p?nanoparticles and its apparent in vivo persistence will lead to bioaccumulation. The implications of this are discussed. PMID:23939873

Khan, Farhan R; Schmuecking, Katarina; Krishnadasan, Siva H; Berhanu, Deborah; Smith, Brian D; Demello, John C; Rainbow, Philip S; Luoma, Samuel N; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2013-11-01

148

The validity of a reference gene is highly dependent on the experimental conditions in green alga Ulva linza.  

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Normalization based on inappropriate reference gene may lead to the reduction of the accuracy of RT-qPCR. Although determination of suitable reference genes is essential to RT-qPCR studies, reports on the evaluation of reference genes in Ulva linza, a ubiquitous green-tide forming alga, are lacking. The expression levels of ten candidate reference genes were analyzed in U. linza across different experimental treatments, and the best-ranked reference genes differed across the treatments. The most suitable reference genes were tubulin2 (TUB2) among different salinity and UV treatments. Histone 2 (H2) was stably expressed in different temperature and desiccation stress treatments. 18S rRNA exhibited better expression stability in different light intensity treatments. While all tested samples were considered, none of single gene was widely applicable as a reference gene. Moreover, using a combination of two genes as reference genes might improve the reliability of gene expression by RT-qPCR, and the combination of TUB1 and TUB2 was selected as ideal for all tested samples. The results suggest that assessing the stability of reference gene expression patterns, determining candidates, and testing their suitability are required for each experimental investigation. The results will guide the selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in U. linza. PMID:22205301

Dong, Meitao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Mou, Shanli; Xu, Jianfang; Xu, Dong; Wang, Wenqi; Ye, Naihao

2012-02-01

149

Conditioning of surfaces by macromolecules and its implication for the settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza.  

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Conditioning, ie the adsorption of proteins and other macromolecules, is the first process that occurs in the natural environment once a surface is immersed in seawater, but no information is available either regarding the conditioning of surfaces by artificial seawater or whether conditioning affects data obtained from laboratory assays. A range of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different chemical terminations was used to investigate the time-dependent formation of conditioning layers in commercial and self-prepared artificial seawaters. Subsequently, these results were compared with conditioning by solutions in which zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza had been swimming. Spectral ellipsometry and contact angle measurements as well as infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) were used to reveal the thickness and chemical composition of the conditioning layers. The extent that surface preconditioning affected the settlement of zoospores of U. linza was also investigated. The results showed that in standard spore settlement bioassays (45-60 min), the influence of a molecular conditioning layer is likely to be small, although more substantial effects are possible at longer settlement times. PMID:22594397

Thome, Isabel; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Grunze, Michael; Rosenhahn, Axel

2012-01-01

150

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass  

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The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (?Go, ?Ho and ?So) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics

2008-03-21

151

Pseudozobellia thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata.  

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Two novel aerobic, dark-orange-pigmented, Gram-negative bacterial strains, designated KMM 3531(T) and KMM 3953, were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains represented a novel lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae. The most closely related genera with validly published names were Costertonia, Flagellimonas, Kriegella, Maribacter, Muricauda and Zobellia, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 93.3-91.8 %. Cells of strains KMM 3531(T) and KMM 3953 were rod-shaped, motile by gliding and grew at temperatures up to 49 degrees C. They produced acid from carbohydrates and possessed oxidase, catalase, beta-galactosidase and agarase activities. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0,) iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G, summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-capital ES, Cyrillic(15 : 0) 2-OH), iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c and iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 47-49 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strains KMM 3531(T) and KMM 3953 represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Pseudozobellia thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3531(T) (=DSM 19858(T)=JCM 11733(T)=KCTC 22016(T)). PMID:19329611

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Suzuki, Makoto; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Shevchenko, Lyudmila S; Mikhailov, Valery V

2009-04-01

152

Membrane recycling and calcium dynamics during settlement and adhesion of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza.  

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Recruitment of individuals of the marine alga Ulva linza on to a suitable habitat involves the settlement of motile zoospores on to a substratum during which a preformed adhesive is secreted by vesicular exocytosis. The fluorescent styryl dye FM 1-43 and fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators were used to follow membrane cycling and changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) associated with settlement. When swimming zoospores were exposed continuously to FM 1-43, the plasma membrane was preferentially labelled. During settlement, FM 1-43-labelled plasma membrane was rapidly internalized reflecting high membrane turnover. The internalized membrane was focused into a discrete region indicating targeting of membrane to an endosome-like compartment. Acetoxymethyl (AM)-ester derivatives were found to be unsuitable for monitoring [Ca(2+)](cyt) because the dyes were rapidly sequestered from the cytoplasm into sub-cellular compartments. [Ca(2+)](cyt) was, however, reliably measured using dextran-conjugated calcium indicators delivered into cells using a biolistic technique. Cells loaded with Oregon Green BAPTA-1 dextran (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK) showed diffuse cytosolic loading and reliably responded to imposed changes in [Ca(2+)](cyt). During settlement, zoospores exhibited both localized and diffuse increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) implying a role for [Ca(2+)](cyt) in exocytosis of the adhesive. PMID:17470149

Thompson, S E M; Callow, J A; Callow, M E; Wheeler, G L; Taylor, A R; Brownlee, C

2007-06-01

153

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass  

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The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr

2008-03-21

154

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.  

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Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

2011-10-01

155

Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024.

Janete Dubiaski-Silva

1998-01-01

156

Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer) e na Barra do Furado ( [...] Barra), norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m) em relação ao Píer (2,2 m). Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth) Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818), Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos estressante. As diferenças observadas na distribuição vertical dos organismos bênticos, principalmente na extensão das faixas superiores, evidenciam condições de exposição a ondas variáveis. Abstract in english The present study aims to compare the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic communities in two sites composed by granitic boulders with distint hydrodynamics due to different wave swells at Farol de São Tomé (Pier) and Barra do Furado beaches (Barra), both in northern state of Rio de Janeiro. [...] Quadrats of 400 cm² were overlapped along three vertical profiles on each site and were sampled by the photoquadrat method from 0.2 m of the tide level to the upper limit of Littorina spp. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at Barra site (3.8 m) than at Píer site (2.2 m). Nine species were common to both sites. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth) Fredericq, and Grateloupia sp. were unique to Barra, whereas Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818), Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie, and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) Lamouroux occurred only at Píer boulders. On both sites species richness and diversity were superior at the intermediate quadrats of the intertidal zone. The highest values were recorded at Barra. The most pronounced assemblage differences between equivalent areas of either site occurred on the lower upper eulittoral band followed by the lower eulittoral and the sub-littoral fringe, respectively. The littoral fringe assemblage was the only one that did not show significant differences among the studied sites, yet a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas, such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) on upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 on the sub-littoral fringe. At Píer, the intertidal zone showed an even distr

Masi, Bruno P.; Zalmon, Ilana R..

157

A method for genotype validation and primer assessment in heterozygote-deficient species, as demonstrated in the prosobranch mollusc Hydrobia ulvae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In studies where microsatellite markers are employed, it is essential that the primers designed will reliably and consistently amplify target loci. In populations conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, screening for unreliable markers often relies on the identification of heterozygote deficiencies and subsequent departures from HWE. However, since many populations naturally deviate from HWE, such as many marine invertebrates, it can be difficult to distinguish heterozygote deficiencies resulting from unreliable markers from natural processes. Thus, studies of populations that are suspected to deviate from HWE naturally would benefit from a method to validate genotype data-sets and test the reliability of the designed primers. Levels of heterozygosity are reported for the prosobranch mollusc Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant together with a method of genotype validation and primer assessment that utilises two primer sets for each locus. Microsatellite loci presented are the first described for the species Hydrobia ulvae; the five loci presented will be of value in further study of populations of H. ulvae. Results We have developed a novel method of testing primer reliability in naturally heterozygote deficient populations. After the design of an initial primer set, genotyping in 48 Hydrobia ulvae specimens using a single primer set (Primer set_A revealed heterozygote deficiency in six of the seven loci examined. Redesign of six of the primer pairs (Primer set_B, re-genotyping of the successful individuals from Primer set_A using Primer set_B, and comparison of genotypes between the two primer sets, enabled the identification of two loci (Hulv-06 & Hulv-07 that showed a high degree of discrepancy between primer sets A and B (0% & only 25% alleles matching, respectively, suggesting unreliability in these primers. The discrepancies included changes from heterozygotes to homozygotes or vice versa, and some individuals who also displayed new alleles of unexpected sizes. Of the other four loci examined (Hulv-01, Hulv-03, Hulv-04, & Hulv-05, all showed more than 95% agreement between primer sets. Hulv-01, Hulv-03, & Hulv-05 displayed similar levels of heterozygosity with both primer sets suggesting that these loci are indeed heterozygote deficient, while Hulv-08 showed no deficiency in either primer set. Conclusion The simple method described to identify unreliable markers will prove a useful technique for many population studies, and also emphasises the dangers in using a single primer set and assuming marker reliability in populations shown to naturally deviate from HWE.

Brownlow Robert J

2008-08-01

158

Copper-induced intracellular calcium release requires extracellular calcium entry and activation of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in Ulva compressa  

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The marine alga Ulva compressa exposed to 10 µM copper showed a triphasic increase of intracellular calcium with maximal levels at 2, 3 and 12 h involving the activation of ryanodine-, Ins(1,4,5)P3- and NAADP-sensitive calcium channels. In order to analyze the requirement of extracellular calcium entry for intracellular calcium release as well as the activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) and phospholipase C, U. compressa was treated with EGTA, a non-permeable calcium chelat...

Gonza?lez, Alberto; Los A?ngeles Cabrera, Mari?a; Mellado, Macarena; Cabello, Susana; Ma?rquez, Sebastia?n; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-01-01

159

Arenibacter palladensis sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, and emended description of the genus Arenibacter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic position of three novel, marine, heterotrophic, aerobic, pigmented, gliding bacteria, isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata in the Sea of Japan, was determined. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains belong to the genus Arenibacter. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments supported by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data showed that the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter palladensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 3961T (= LMG 21972T = CIP 108849T). PMID:16403881

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Vancanneyt, Marc; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Snauwaert, Cindy; Kim, Seung Bum; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Shevchenko, Lyudmila S; Lee, Kang Hyun; Park, Myung Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook; Swings, Jean

2006-01-01

160

A Strategy for the Proliferation of Ulva prolifera, Main Causative Species of Green Tides, with Formation of Sporangia by Fragmentation  

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Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised from U. prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1.00 mm in diameter were optimal for the formation of sporangia, but there was a small amount of spore release in these. The highest percentage of area of spore release occurred in disks that were 2.50 mm in diameter. In contrast, sporangia were formed only at the cut edges of larger disks (3.00 mm, 3.50 mm, and 4.00 mm in diameter). Additionally, the majority of spores liberated from the disks appeared vigorous and developed successfully into new individuals. These results implied that fragments of the appropriate size from the U. prolifera thalli broken by a variety of factors via producing spores gave rise to the rapid proliferation of the seaweed under field conditions, which may be one of the most important factors to the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of U. prolifera in the green tide that occurred in Qingdao, 2008.

Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yi, Qianqian; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Lin, Apeng; Peng, Guang

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

An in situ study of photosynthetic oxygen exchange and electron transport rate in the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct comparisons between photosynthetic O(2) evolution rate and electron transport rate (ETR) were made in situ over 24 h using the benthic macroalga Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), growing and measured at a depth of 1.8 m, where the midday irradiance rose to 400-600 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1). O(2) exchange was measured with a 5-chamber data-logging apparatus and ETR with a submersible pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer (Diving-PAM). Steady-state quantum yield ((F(m)'-F(t))/F(m)') decreased from 0.7 during the morning to 0.45 at midday, followed by some recovery in the late afternoon. At low to medium irradiances (0-300 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)), there was a significant correlation between O(2) evolution and ETR, but at higher irradiances, ETR continued to increase steadily, while O(2) evolution tended towards an asymptote. However at high irradiance levels (600-1200 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)) ETR was significantly lowered. Two methods of measuring ETR, based on either diel ambient light levels and fluorescence yields or rapid light curves, gave similar results at low to moderate irradiance levels. Nutrient enrichment (increases in [NO(3) (-)], [NH(4) (+)] and [HPO(4) (2-)] of 5- to 15-fold over ambient concentrations) resulted in an increase, within hours, in photosynthetic rates measured by both ETR and O(2) evolution techniques. At low irradiances, approximately 6.5 to 8.2 electrons passed through PS II during the evolution of one molecule of O(2), i.e., up to twice the theoretical minimum number of four. However, in nutrient-enriched treatments this ratio dropped to 5.1. The results indicate that PAM fluorescence can be used as a good indication of the photosynthetic rate only at low to medium irradiances. PMID:16245139

Longstaff, Ben J; Kildea, Tim; Runcie, John W; Cheshire, Anthony; Dennison, William C; Hurd, Catriona; Kana, Todd; Raven, John A; Larkum, Anthony W D

2002-01-01

162

Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data  

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Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

2010-07-01

163

Preliminary study on the responses of three marine algae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to nitrogen source and its availability  

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An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates. Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH{4/+} and NO{3/-}. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH{4/+} than using NO{3/-}. U. pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200µmolL-1, but it has lower economical value. G. amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200 µmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. enerve is higher than that of G. amansii at 200µmolL -1, but the former’s increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species. Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

Liu, Dongyan; Amy, Pickering; Sun, Jun

2004-04-01

164

Meiobenthic Communities Associated with the Seasonal Cycle of Growth and Decay of Ulva rigidaAgardh in the Palude Della Rosa, Lagoon of Venice  

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Eutrophication in the Palude della Rosa, in the Lagoon of Venice, results from agricultural runoff giving rise to a seasonal cycle of proliferation and subsequent decomposition of the green alga Ulva rigidaduring the summer months, with a dramatic fall in oxygen levels. A survey of the meiofauna at 42 stations in the Palude in December 1991 showed that there were two distinct associations of nematodes and total meiofauna (nematodes plus copepods), one associated with that part of the Palude where Ulvaattains a high biomass, and another where Ulvabiomass is low or absent. Species characteristic of the Ulvaregion include nematodes of the genus Diplolaimellaand copepods of the genus Tisbe, both of which are known from elsewhere to be associated with decaying plant material and implicated in the decomposition process. In the Ulvaregion both diversity (as evidenced from k-dominance curves) and species composition (using non-metric MDS) varied considerably from season to season, associated with the seasonal cycle of growth and decay of Ulva, but diversity and species composition were more stable seasonally in the non- Ulvaregion. For the copepods alone, differences between the Ulvaand non- Ulvaregions were not as evident and species composition in both regions changes seasonally in the same way, although diversity was only reduced markedly in the summer at the Ulvastations. We conclude that it is not only likely that the Ulvacycle controls seasonal changes in meiobenthic community composition, but in turn the meiobenthic community has some control over the Ulvacycle.

Villano, N.; Warwick, R. M.

1995-08-01

165

Marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters show antifouling activity against the marine fouling bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis independent of bacteriocidal activity.  

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The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity. PMID:22003011

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

2011-12-01

166

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

2011-01-01

167

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in theother Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin

2011-01-01

168

Toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids on the green seaweed Ulva lactuca: oxidative stress and DNA damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green credentials of ionic liquids (ILs) are being increasingly questioned due to the growing evidence of their toxicity to aquatic ecosystems, although the mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. This study provides insights into the mechanism of toxicity and biological effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C(n)mim]Br (n = 4 to 16) on the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca. The cell viability of this alga during IL exposure was found to be negatively correlated to the chain length of the alkyl group. The IL ([C(12)mim]Br) exposure triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS viz. O(2)(•-), H(2)O(2), and OH(•)), damage of the membrane and DNA, and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the alga. The enhanced production of ROS and lipid peroxidation in the alga subjected to LC(50) concentration for 4 days was largely attributed to lipoxygenase (LOX) activity coupled with the induction of two LOX isoforms (~80 kDa and ~55 kDa). Pretreatment of the algal thallus with enzyme inhibitors such as diphenylene iodonium, sodium azide, cantharidin, and oxadiazoloquinoxalin-1-one, prior to [C(12)mim]Br exposure showed the regulation of ROS by the activation of membrane bound NADPH-oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. The IL exposure resulted in the accumulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 0.5 LC(50) concentration indicating the induction of desaturase enzymes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were enhanced by 1.3-2.0-fold, while glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) diminished, together with a higher regeneration rate of reduced ascorbate and glutathione. The isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, namely, Mn-SOD (~85 kDa), APX (~125 and 45 kDa), and GR (~135 kDa) regulated differentially to IL exposure. The comet assay performed for the first time for seaweeds revealed the significant induction of DNA damage (>50-70% increase in % tail DNA over control) in alga exposed to ? LC(50) concentration. PMID:21932789

Kumar, Manoj; Trivedi, Nitin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2011-11-21

169

A screening procedure for the solubilization of chloroplast membrane proteins from the marine green macroalga Ulva lactuca using RP-HPLC-MALDI-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A protocol for purification and analysis of chloroplast membrane proteins in the green macroalga Ulva lactuca has been developed, including reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Five different solvents were evaluated for extraction of membrane proteins by three methods. The highest protein yield was achieved when proteins were extracted directly from the chloroplasts using the solvent hexafluoroisopropanol. A range of proteins of increasing hydrophobicity was separated by HPLC. Analysis of both HPLC fractions and non-separated samples by MALDI-TOF-MS revealed proteins with molecular weights spanning between 1 and 376 kDa. PMID:16442611

Redeby, Theres; Carr, Herman; Björk, Mats; Emmer, Asa

2006-08-15

170

The influence of surface energy on the wetting behaviour of the spore adhesive of the marine alga Ulva linza (synonym Enteromorpha linza).  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental scanning electron microscope has been used to image the adhesive pads secreted by zoospores of the marine alga Ulva linza as they settle on a range of self-assembled and grafted monolayers of different wettability, under natural, hydrated conditions. Results reveal that the diameter of the adhesive pad is strongly influenced by surface wettability, the adhesive spreading more (i.e. wetting the surface better) on the more hydrophilic surfaces. This is in direct contrast to previous observations on the spreading of marine bioadhesives and is in apparent contradiction to the predictions of the Young-Dupre equation for three-phase systems. In this paper, we attempt an explanation based upon thermodynamic analysis of the wetting properties of hydrophilic proteins. PMID:16849189

Callow, J A; Callow, M E; Ista, L K; Lopez, G; Chaudhury, M K

2005-09-22

171

Winogradskyella ulvae sp. nov., an epiphyte of a Pacific seaweed, and emended descriptions of the genus Winogradskyella and Winogradskyella thalassocola, Winogradskyella echinorum, Winogradskyella exilis and Winogradskyella eximia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium that was motile by gliding, designated KMM 6390(T), was isolated from the coastal green alga Ulva fenestrata collected from the Sea of Japan. A comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KMM 6390(T) was a member of the genus Winogradskyella, with Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) as its closest relative (97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and other members of the genus Winogradskyella were 95.4-96.7%. DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolate and W. echinorum KMM 6211(T) was 27%. Strain KMM 6390(T) was able to grow with 0.5-4.0% NaCl and at 4-37 °C. The isolate decomposed casein, gelatin, starch and DNA and produced acid from galactose, D-glucose, lactose and maltose. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1), anteiso-C(15:0) and C(15:0). The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic investigations, strain KMM 6390(T) represents a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella ulvae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is KMM 6390(T) (=KCTC 23626(T)=LMG 26444(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Winogradskyella and of W. thalassocola, W. echinorum, W. exilis and W. eximia are also provided. PMID:21841007

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kukhlevskiy, Andrey D; Zhukova, Natalia V

2012-07-01

172

Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced the temporal distribution of the Amphipoda density, due to the distinct time of air exposition in eaeh collection data. Most Amphipoda did not show specific algal substratum colonization: only Sunampithoe pelagica occurred solely in Sargassum. Four species occurred in different branched algae: J. falcata. S. pelagica. C. danilevskii and C. penantis. H. media had Sargassum, Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus as the best algal substrata, whereas Caprellidea, the Pterocladia and Pterosiphonia phytals. High sediment weight in Padina was the main reason for high densities of Hyale sp.l in this phytal. The occurrence of males, females (including ovigerous ones and juveniles of most Amphipoda species found in the present study indicates a complete life cycle whithin these phytals and corroborates with the assumption of the complexity of this marine coastal ecosystem.

Janete Dubiaski-Silva

1995-01-01

173

A Combinatorial Approach to the Discovery of Biocidal Six-Residue Cyclic D, L-?-Peptides Against Bacteria MRSA and E. coli. and the Biofouling Algae Ulva linza and Navicula perminuta  

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A combinatorial approach has been used to rapidly identify cyclic D, L-?-peptide hexamer sequences that exert biocidal activity towards both MRSA and E. coli. bacteria, as well as the marine algae Ulva linza and Navicula perminuta. Evaluation of the effects against marine algae was facilitated by the development of a reliable, automated assay for marine toxicity that should be of general utility for biofouling investigations. While the selective toxicity of cyclic D, L-?-peptides towards ba...

Fletcher, James T.; Finlay, John A.; Callow, Maureen E.; Callow, James A.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

2007-01-01

174

Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.  

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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). PMID:19897016

Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

2010-01-14

175

Effect of contact angle hysteresis on the removal of the sporelings of the green alga Ulva from the fouling-release coatings synthesized from polyolefin polymers.  

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Wettability is one of the surface characteristics that is controlled by the chemical composition and roughness of a surface. A number of investigations have explored the relationship between water contact angle and surface free energy of polymeric coatings with the settlement (attachment) and adhesion strength of various marine organisms. However, the relationship between the contact angle hysteresis and fouling-release property is generally overlooked. In the present work, coatings were prepared by using commercial hydrophobic homopolymer and copolymer polyolefins, which have nearly the same surface free energy. The effects of contact angle hysteresis, wetting hysteresis, and surface free energy on the fouling-release properties for sporelings of the green alga Ulva from substrates were then examined quantitatively under a defined shear stress in a water channel. The ease of removal of sporelings under shear stress from the polymer surfaces was in the order of PP>HDPE>PPPE>EVA-12 and strongly and positively correlated with contact angle and wetting hysteresis; i.e., the higher the hysteresis, the greater the removal. PMID:21171721

Ucar, Ikrime O; Cansoy, C Elif; Erbil, H Yildirim; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

2010-09-01

176

Evaluation of the marine alga Ulva rigida as a food supplement: effect of intake on intestinal, hepatic, and renal enzyme activities in rats.  

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The use of seaweeds as a food is more widespread in Eastern than in Western countries, although demand for these plants has increased in the West because their possible usefulness as dietary supplements. However, very little is known about the effects of regular consumption of algae. The aim of the present study was to determine the composition of Ulva rigida and to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of the diet with 10% alga for 4 weeks on dietary intake, growth, protein efficiency ratio, diet conversion ratio, and some organ weights in growing male rats. We also studied the effect of inclusion of the alga in the diet on intestinal, hepatic, and renal enzymatic activities. U. rigida was found to be a good source of protein and carbohydrates. Food intake was higher in the U. rigida group than in the control group, but ingestion of alga did not have any effect on the other trophic parameters. The intestinal disaccharidase and leucine aminopeptidase activities were lower in rats fed with alga than in control rats, but ?-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was higher in the kidneys of alga-fed rats than in control rats. U. rigida contains high amounts of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals and low amounts of lipids. Analysis of the amino acid composition revealed good-quality protein. The addition of alga to the diet inhibited disaccharidase activities, which suggested that alga consumption could be useful in some chronic disorders associated with pertubations of glucose homeostasis caused by carbohydrate absorption. PMID:21128822

Taboada, Cristina; Millán, Rosendo; Míguez, Isabel

2011-01-01

177

Copper-induced intracellular calcium release requires extracellular calcium entry and activation of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in Ulva compressa.  

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The marine alga Ulva compressa exposed to 10 µM copper showed a triphasic increase of intracellular calcium with maximal levels at 2, 3 and 12 h involving the activation of ryanodine-, Ins(1,4,5)P3- and NAADP-sensitive calcium channels. In order to analyze the requirement of extracellular calcium entry for intracellular calcium release as well as the activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) and phospholipase C, U. compressa was treated with EGTA, a non-permeable calcium chelating agent, with verapamil, nipfedipine and diltiazem, inhibitors of L-type VDCC, and with neomycin and U731222, inhibitors of phospholipase C. The release of intracellular calcium was partially inhibited with EGTA at 2 and 3 h and completely inhibited at 12 h of copper exposure and decreased with inhibitors of L-type VDCC and phospholipase C. Thus, copper-induced intracellular calcium release depends on calcium entry and activation of L-type VDCC and phospholipase C. An integrative model of copper-induced cellular responses in U. compressa is presented. PMID:22751323

González, Alberto; Cabrera, María de los Angeles; Mellado, Macarena; Cabello, Susana; Márquez, Seabastián; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-07-01

178

Occurrence of the PsbS and LhcSR products in the green alga Ulva linza and their correlation with excitation pressure.  

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To avoid photoinhibition, plants have developed diverse photoprotection mechanisms. One of the short-term high light protection mechanisms in plants is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which dissipates the absorbed light energy as thermal energy. In the green alga, Ulva linza, the kinetics of NPQ starts with an initial, quick rise followed by a decline, and then a second and higher rise at longer time periods. During the whole phase, NPQ is triggered and controlled by ?pH, then strengthened and modulated by zeaxanthin. Light-harvesting complex (LHC) family members are known to play crucial roles in this mechanism. The PSBS protein, a member of the LHC family that was thought to be present exclusively in higher plants, has been identified for the first time in U. linza. The expression of both PSBS and LHCSR was up-regulated during high light conditions, and LHCSR increased more than PSBS. Both LHCSR and PSBS-dependent NPQ may be important strategies for adapting to the environment, and they have undoubtedly played a role in their evolution. PMID:23811776

Zhang, Xiaowen; Ye, Naihao; Mou, Shanli; Xu, Dong; Fan, Xiao

2013-09-01

179

Copper-induced calcium release from ER involves the activation of ryanodine-sensitive and IP(3)-sensitive channels in Ulva compressa.  

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The marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) showed a triphasic release of intracellular calcium with maximal levels at 2, 3 and 12 h and a biphasic accumulation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide with peaks at 3 and 12 h when cultivated with copper excess. Intracellular hydrogen peroxide originated exclusively in organelles. In this work, we analyzed the intracellular origin of calcium release and the type of calcium channels activated in response to copper excess. U. compressa was treated with thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ATPase, ryanodine, an inhibitor of ryanodine-sensitive channels, and xestospongin C, an inhibitor of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive channels. Thapsigargin induced the depletion of calcium stored in ER at 75 min and completely inhibited calcium release at 2, 3 and 12 h of copper exposure indicating that calcium release originated in ER. In addition, ryanodine and xestospogin C inhibited calcium release at 2 and 3 h of copper exposure whereas the peak at 12 h was only inhibited by ryanodine. Thus, copper induced the activation of ryanodine-sensitive and IP(3)-sensitive calcium channels in ER of U. compressa. PMID:21139437

González, Alberto; Trebotich, Jovanka; Vergara, Eva; Medina, Cristóbal; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2010-12-01

180

Co-occurring increases of calcium and organellar reactive oxygen species determine differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) exposed to copper excess.  

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In order to analyse copper-induced calcium release and (reactive oxygen species) ROS accumulation and their role in antioxidant and defense enzymes activation, the marine alga Ulva compressa was exposed to 10 µM copper for 7 d. The level of calcium, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (eHP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (iHP) and superoxide anions (SA) as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Calcium release showed a triphasic pattern with peaks at 2, 3 and 12 h. The second peak was coincident with increases in eHP and iHP and the third peak with the second increase of iHP. A delayed wave of SA occurred after day 3 and was not accompanied by calcium release. The accumulation of iHP and SA was mainly inhibited by organellar electron transport chains inhibitors (OETCI), whereas calcium release was inhibited by ryanodine. AP activation ceased almost completely after the use of OETCI. On the other hand, GR and GST activities were partially inhibited, whereas defense enzymes were not inhibited. In contrast, PAL and LOX were inhibited by ryanodine, whereas AP was not inhibited. Thus, copper stress induces calcium release and organellar ROS accumulation that determine the differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes. PMID:20444222

Gonzalez, Alberto; Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Dennett, Geraldine; Mellado, Macarena; Morales, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Photoprotection in the green tidal alga Ulva prolifera: role of LHCSR and PsbS proteins in response to high light stress.  

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Ulva prolifera, an intertidal macroalga, has to adapt to wide variations in light intensity, making this species particularly rewarding for studying the evolution of photoprotective mechanisms. Intense light induced increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and stimulated de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle components, while DTT-treated samples had lower NPQ capacity, indicating that the xanthophyll cycle must participate in photoprotection. In this work, we found that the PsbS-related NPQ was maintained in U. prolifera. According to analysed gene expression, both LhcSR and psbS were up-regulated in high light, suggesting that these two genes are light-induced. LHCSR and PsbS proteins were present at different light intensities and accumulated under high light conditions, and PsbS concentrations were higher than LHCSR, showing that the NPQ mechanism of U. prolifera is more dependent on PsbS protein concentration. Moreover, the level of both LHCSR and PsbS proteins was high even in the darkness, and neither the transcript level nor protein content of LhcSR and psbS genes varied significantly following short-term exposure to intense light. These findings suggest that this alga can modulate NPQ levels through regulation of the xanthophyll cycle and concentrations of PsbS and/or LHCSR. PMID:23865617

Mou, S; Zhang, X; Dong, M; Fan, X; Xu, J; Cao, S; Xu, D; Wang, W; Ye, N

2013-11-01

182

A mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA)-like pilus promotes attachment of Pseudoalteromonas tunicata cells to the surface of the green alga Ulva australis.  

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This study demonstrates that attachment of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata to the cellulose-containing surface of the green alga Ulva australis is mediated by a mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA-like) pilus. We have identified an MSHA pilus biogenesis gene locus in P. tunicata, termed msh/1/2JKLMNEGFBACDOPQ, which shows significant homology, with respect to its genetic characteristics and organization, to the MSHA pilus biogenesis gene locus of Vibrio cholerae. Electron microscopy studies revealed that P. tunicata wild-type cells express flexible pili peritrichously arranged on the cell surface. A P. tunicata mutant (SM5) with a transposon insertion in the mshJ region displayed a non-piliated phenotype. Using SM5, it has been demonstrated that the MSHA pilus promotes attachment of P. tunicata wild-type cells in polystyrene microtitre plates, as well as to microcrystalline cellulose and to the living surface of U. australis. P. tunicata also demonstrated increased pilus production in response to cellulose and its monomer constituent cellobiose. The MSHA pilus thus functions as a determinant of attachment in P. tunicata, and it is proposed that an understanding of surface sensing mechanisms displayed by P. tunicata will provide insight into specific ecological interactions that occur between this bacterium and higher marine organisms. PMID:17005969

Dalisay, Doralyn S; Webb, Jeremy S; Scheffel, André; Svenson, Charles; James, Sally; Holmström, Carola; Egan, Suhelen; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2006-10-01

183

Detecting massive green algae ( Ulva prolifera) blooms in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data  

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The historically massive bloom of the green macroalgae Ulva prolifera reported in June-August 2008 around the Qingdao, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and Japan coasts has recurred in a similar season and region. On June 13, 2011, around Qingdao, China, the world's first Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) detected an enormous bloom of floating green algae, which originated from the nearshore Subei Bank, China. The large floating green algae patches were observed along and across the Yellow Sea and in the East China Sea during 2011 summer by various oceanic cruises. To detect the massive macroalgae blooms from space, we analyzed their spectral characteristics from in situ optical measurements and satellite-derived green algae spectra. An "Index of floating Green Algae for GOCI" (IGAG) was developed from the multiple spectral band ratios using three wavelengths (555, 660, 745 nm), which the spectral response of green algae reflected at 555, 745, and 865 nm and absorbed at 660 and 680 nm. The results were compared with those obtained by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and Korea Ocean Satellite Center (KOSC) approaches. An advantage of the IGAG method was that muted or subtle signals of floating green algae were enhanced and separated from surrounding complex water signals. Although maps of floating green algae derived by the other approaches delineated dense green algae, they were less sensitive to subtle (less dense) features and in cases of nearby cloudy or complex water conditions. The floating green algae maps from IGAG provided a more robust estimate of wide floating green algae blooms than those derived using NDVI, EVI, or KOSC approaches. The IGAG approach should be useful for tracing and monitoring changes in green algae blooms on regional and global scales.

Son, Young Baek; Min, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Joo-Hyung

2012-09-01

184

Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and the composition of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments in the intertidal green alga Ulva lactuca L.  

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The effect of solar UV radiation on the physiology of the intertidal green macroalga Ulva lactuca L. was investigated. A natural Ulva community at the shore of Helgoland was covered with screening foils, excluding UV-B or UV-B + UV-A from the solar spectrum. In the sampled material, changes in the activity and concentration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), and the concentration of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments were determined. Exclusion of UV radiation from the natural solar spectrum resulted in an elevated overall activity of Rubisco, related to an increase in its cellular concentration. Among the photosynthetic pigments, lutein concentration was substantially elevated under UV exclusion. In addition, marked UV effects on the xanthophyll cycle were found: exclusion of solar UV radiation (and particularly UV-B) resulted in an increased ratio of zeaxanthin concentration to the total xanthophyll content, indicating adverse effects of UV-B on the efficiency of photoprotection under high irradiances of photosynthetically active radiation. The results confirm a marked impact of present UV-B levels on macroalgal physiology under field conditions. PMID:12111234

Bischof, Kai; Kräbs, Gudrun; Wiencke, Christian; Hanelt, Dieter

2002-07-01

185

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.  

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Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

2013-04-01

186

The antifouling and fouling-release performance of hyperbranched fluoropolymer (HBFP)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) composite coatings evaluated by adsorption of biomacromolecules and the green fouling alga Ulva.  

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Cross-linked hyperbranched fluoropolymer (HBFP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) amphiphilic networks with PEG weight percentages of 14% (HBFP-PEG14), 29% (HBFP-PEG29), 45% (HBFP-PEG45), and 55% (HBFP-PEG55) were prepared on 3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (3-APS) functionalized microscope glass slides for marine antifouling and fouling-release applications. The surface-free energies (gamma(s)), polar (gamma(s)(p) and gamma(s)(AB)), and dispersion (gamma(s)(d) and gamma(s)(LW)) components were evaluated using advancing contact angles by two-liquid geometric-mean and three-liquid Lifshitz-van der Waals acid-base approaches. The HBFP coating exhibited a low surface energy of 22 mJ/m(2), while the gamma(s) and gamma(s)(p) of the cross-linked HBFP-PEG coatings increased proportionally with the PEG weight percentages in the networks. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lectin from Codium fragile (CFL), lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli (LPSE) and Salmonella minnesota (LPSS) upon glass, APS-glass, HBFP, PEG, and the cross-linked HBFP-PEG network coatings were investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The marine antifouling and fouling-release properties of the cross-linked HBFP-PEG coatings were evaluated by settlement and release assays involving zoospores of green fouling alga Ulva (syn. Enteromorpha; Hayden, H. S.; Blomster, J.; Maggs, C. A.; Silva, P. C.; Stanhope, M. J.; Waaland, J. R. Eur. J. Phycol. 2003, 38, 277). The growth and release of Ulva sporelings were also investigated upon the HBFP-PEG45 coating in comparison to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard material. Of the heterogeneous cross-linked network coatings, the maximum resistances to protein, lipopolysaccharide, and Ulva zoospore adhesion, as well as the best zoospore and sporeling release properties, were recorded for the HBFP-PEG45 coating. This material also exhibited better performance than did a standard PDMSE coating, suggesting its unique applicability in fouling-resistance applications. PMID:15779983

Gudipati, Chakravarthy S; Finlay, John A; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Wooley, Karen L

2005-03-29

187

Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta  

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Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

2001-06-01

188

In vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities of different sulfated polysaccharides isolated from three algae.  

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Three sulfated polysaccharides(Ulva fasciata (UFP), Gloiopeltis furcata (GFP), Sargassum henslouianum (SHP))were isolated from three algae including green alga Ulva fasciata, red alga Gloiopeltis furcata and brown alga Sargassum henslouianum by ultrasonic extraction and radial flow chromatography. Their in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, UFP, with relatively lower sulfate content, exhibited excellent antioxidant activities in superoxide radical assay, ABTS assay and DPPH assay; however, it demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of MKN45 gastric cancer cells and DLD intestinal cancer cells. SHP with the lowest sulfate content gained relatively lower radical scavenging rates but showed significantly higher antitumor activities. These results indicated that the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides may be related to combined effects of sulfate content and uronic acid content. PMID:23994786

Shao, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Peilong

2013-11-01

189

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

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The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhib...

Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas; Figueiredo, Marcia A. O.

2004-01-01

190

Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae  

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The sulfolipid classes (SLs) in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea), one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria) were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% ...

El Baz, F. K.; El Baroty, G. S.; Abd El Baky, H. H.; Abd El-salam, O. I.; Ibrahim, E. A.

2013-01-01

191

Water-stable diblock polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) and diblock polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) cylindrical patterned surfaces inhibit settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanopatterned surfaces with hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains were produced using the diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). The PS-b-P2VP diblock copolymer, mixed with the cross-linker benzophenone and spin-coated onto silicon wafers, showed self-assembled cylindrical structures, which were retained after UV treatment for cross-linking. The thin films displayed cylindrical domains after immersion in water. This study shows that pattern retention in water is possible for a long period of time, at least for two weeks in pure water and three weeks in artificial seawater. The PS-b-PMMA diblock showed self-assembled cylindrical structures. PS-b-P2VP and PS-b-PMMA cylindrical patterned surfaces showed reduced settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva compared to unpatterned surfaces. The copolymers were investigated using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:19296654

Grozea, Claudia M; Gunari, Nikhil; Finlay, John A; Grozea, Daniel; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Walker, Gilbert C

2009-04-13

192

Inhibition of attachment of some fouling diatoms and settlement of Ulva lactuca zoospores by film-forming bacterium and their extracellular products isolated from biofouled substrata in Northern Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The biofouling of surfaces submerged in the marine environment includes primary colonization of the substrate by microorganisms including bacteria, microalgae, and microscopic reproductive propagules of macroorganisms such as algal zoospores. The present study reports the evaluation of the inhibitor [...] y potential of biofilms and extracellular products (EP) of the indigenous bacterium Alteromonas sp strain Ni1-LEM on the settlement of marine biofouling such as: (i) eight marine benthic diatoms and (ii) zoospores of the alga Ulva lactuca, as well as the germination of these zoospores and was compared with reference strains with proven antifouling properties, Halomonas marina (ATCC 25374) and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata. Highest antifouling activity was found for the indigenous strain. In attempts to better define the chemical nature of the antifouling substance in the EP of the Alteromonas sp strain Ni1-LEM, the culture filtrates were tested for activity after heat treatment, enzymatic treatments, dialysis through semipermeable membranes, and separation into polar (aqueous) and non-polar (organic) fractions. The results suggested that the antifouling substance in the culture filtrates to be protein or peptide in nature, thermostable, hydrophilic, and equal to or greater than 3500 daltons in molecular size. Antifouling substances from bacteria may lead to the development of novel antifouling agents in the future.

Silva-Aciares, Fernando; Riquelme, Carlos.

193

Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead biomasses of green alga Ulva lactuca and the development of a sustainable matrix for adsorption implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many industries have high heavy metals concentrations in their effluents that should be treated before disposal in drains or natural watercourses. When adsorption process is evaluated to generate and implement an efficient, economical and sustainable method suitable for heavy metals removal from contaminated effluents, it is necessary to develop an experimental setup that contains the adsorbent. Ulva lactuca, a marine green alga, was studied as a natural biosorbent for heavy metals at acid pH conditions. Adsorption experiments were carried out in glass columns and in batch where the alga was suspended or fixed in an agar matrix. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to the experimental results. Langmuir model best describes the adsorption isotherms in all analyzed cases. The adsorption capacity increases with pH. Kinetic studies demonstrate that, in most studied cases, the adsorption follows a pseudo second order kinetics model. Removal efficiencies of the biomaterial supported in agar or fixed in columns were: fixed in columns>suspended in batch mode>fixed in agar. Finally, the effect of the presence of two sorbates, Cd and Pb, in the solution was measured and results demonstrate that adsorption of both metals are diminished by co/adsorption. PMID:22342902

Areco, María Mar; Hanela, Sergio; Duran, Jorge; Afonso, María dos Santos

2012-04-30

194

Effects of conspecifics on feeding in Aplysia fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of other Aplysia in the environment increases the time spent feeding. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that a common arousal mechanism modulates feeding and reproductive behaviors. The arousal level is presumably increased by pheromones released by additional animals. PMID:1996941

Ziv, I; Botzer, D; Markovich, S; Susswein, A J

1991-01-01

195

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos d [...] e Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle) e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico. Abstract in english The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatu [...] m and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.

Alexandre Bigio, Villas Bôas; Marcia A. de O., Figueiredo.

196

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico.

Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

2004-03-01

197

Cross talk among calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide and activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases in Ulva compressa exposed to copper excess.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the copper-induced cross talk among calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the calcium-dependent activation of gene expression, the marine alga Ulva compressa was treated with the inhibitors of calcium channels, ned-19, ryanodine, and xestospongin C, of chloroplasts and mitochondrial electron transport chains, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and antimycin A, of pyruvate dehydrogenase, moniliformin, of calmodulins, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide, and of calcium-dependent protein kinases, staurosporine, as well as with the scavengers of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and of H(2)O(2), ascorbate, and exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 ?m) for 24 h. The level of NO increased at 2 and 12 h. The first peak was inhibited by ned-19 and 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and the second peak by ned-19 and antimycin A, indicating that NO synthesis is dependent on calcium release and occurs in organelles. The level of H(2)O(2) increased at 2, 3, and 12 h and was inhibited by ned-19, ryanodine, xestospongin C, and moniliformin, indicating that H(2)O(2) accumulation is dependent on calcium release and Krebs cycle activity. In addition, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoxglutarate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities of the Krebs cycle increased at 2, 3, 12, and/or 14 h, and these increases were inhibited in vitro by EGTA, a calcium chelating agent. Calcium release at 2, 3, and 12 h was inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and ascorbate, indicating activation by NO and H(2)O(2). In addition, the level of antioxidant protein gene transcripts decreased with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide and staurosporine. Thus, there is a copper-induced cross talk among calcium, H(2)O(2), and NO and a calcium-dependent activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases. PMID:22234999

González, Alberto; Cabrera, M de Los Ángeles; Henríquez, M Josefa; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-03-01

198

Cross Talk among Calcium, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Nitric Oxide and Activation of Gene Expression Involving Calmodulins and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Ulva compressa Exposed to Copper Excess1[C][W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the copper-induced cross talk among calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the calcium-dependent activation of gene expression, the marine alga Ulva compressa was treated with the inhibitors of calcium channels, ned-19, ryanodine, and xestospongin C, of chloroplasts and mitochondrial electron transport chains, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and antimycin A, of pyruvate dehydrogenase, moniliformin, of calmodulins, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide, and of calcium-dependent protein kinases, staurosporine, as well as with the scavengers of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and of H2O2, ascorbate, and exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 ?m) for 24 h. The level of NO increased at 2 and 12 h. The first peak was inhibited by ned-19 and 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and the second peak by ned-19 and antimycin A, indicating that NO synthesis is dependent on calcium release and occurs in organelles. The level of H2O2 increased at 2, 3, and 12 h and was inhibited by ned-19, ryanodine, xestospongin C, and moniliformin, indicating that H2O2 accumulation is dependent on calcium release and Krebs cycle activity. In addition, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoxglutarate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities of the Krebs cycle increased at 2, 3, 12, and/or 14 h, and these increases were inhibited in vitro by EGTA, a calcium chelating agent. Calcium release at 2, 3, and 12 h was inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and ascorbate, indicating activation by NO and H2O2. In addition, the level of antioxidant protein gene transcripts decreased with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide and staurosporine. Thus, there is a copper-induced cross talk among calcium, H2O2, and NO and a calcium-dependent activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases.

Gonzalez, Alberto; Cabrera, M. de los Angeles; Henriquez, M. Josefa; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-01-01

199

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

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Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial...

Paradas, Wladimir C.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

2007-01-01

200

Active fractions from four species of marine algae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english A bioassay-directed is utilized to detect substances with biological activity from Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Sargassum fluitans. In a preliminary assessment, polar and non polar extracts of four species of marine protoctist form were screened for antibacterial and antifun [...] gal properties against seven microorganisms by the diffusion method, non polar extracts of Sargassumfluitans,and polar extracts of Gracilaria tikvahiae inhibited the growth of more than four microorganisms. Extracts were separated using chromatography column and fractions were tested againstStapylococcusaureus andCandida albicans. The eighty fraction of petroleum ether of S. fluitans exhibited high activity against C.albicans, MIC 0.16 µg/mL.

MA, Oranday; MJ, Verde; SJ, Martínez-Lozano; NH, Waksman.

 
 
 
 
201

Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol (ME), butanol (BE) extracts and of two new saponins isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca bark were evaluated. The study was carried out in vivo and in vitro. The samples, extracts and pure substances, were intra-gastrically administered to animals. Two different animal models, the carrageenin-induced edema, in the rat, and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, were adopted. Moreover, the antioxidant power of extracts, fractions and individual constituents from Balanites aegyptiaca has been evaluated in vitro, using a method based on the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating reaction. Results obtained demonstrate that both ME or BE have a significant effect at the highest dose on the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid, with a 38 and 54% inhibition respectively, but no significant difference was observed for extracts at the lowest dose and for the pure compounds compared with control animals. The same extracts exhibit a significant reduction on the rat paw edema. The inhibition produced by ME is about the same (28+/-3% lowest dose, 32+/-3% highest dose) after administration. A more evident effect is obtained by BE (41+/-3% and 68+/-6% respectively) and single saponins B1 and B2 (62+/-5% and 59+/-6% respectively) after oral administration. The antioxidant activity obtained seems to be in good accordance with the pharmacological results. The histological sections of rat paw confirm the antiflogistic activity of the plant extracts. PMID:15763372

Speroni, E; Cervellati, R; Innocenti, G; Costa, S; Guerra, M C; Dall' Acqua, S; Govoni, P

2005-04-01

202

Phenology of Posidonia Oceanica (Linneaus Delile in the West Coast of Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Posidonia oceanica seagrass in the western coast of Algeria on the subject of annual monitoring from November 2008 to November 2009.Two sites are selected and each are represented by a station located 10meters deep. The first is Cap Carbon which is polluted site subject to various major releases, and the second one is Ain Franin considered as a reference site relatively far from sources of pollution other than pollution considered sporadic during the summer where there is a rare attendance of holidaymakers. A study of the phenology of Posidonia oceanica meadows, on the leaf biometry, the coefficient "A" and the surface shows that these parameters are strongly influenced by seasonal factors and not by the depth as our samples were made at same depth.

F. Chahrour

2013-01-01

203

A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L. WILLD. EX. DELILE.  

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Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic-glucoside (1 was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS, and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

Zakia Khanam

2011-07-01

204

Use of exergy to detect and measure perturbations affecting Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows: Characterization in the sedimentary compartment  

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Within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive, it seems important to characterize state and evolution of marine ecosystems in a global way. So, it is proposed to use both thermodynamic indicators called exergy (Ex) and specific exergy (Exsp) in Posidonia oceanica meadows. Aims of this project are to detect and measure perturbations owed to nutrients loading and mechanical spoiling in the Mediterranean coastal zone. It will be led in the Bay of Calvi, on the microbenthic loop (org...

Pete, Dorothe?e; Bouquegneau, Jean-marie; Gobert, Sylvie

2007-01-01

205

Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary intake of phytochemicals having antioxidant activity is associated with a lower risk of mortality from many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of leaves of Acacia nilotica by using various methods. The results of the present study revealed that ethanol extract was the most effective and IC(50) value was found to be 53.6??g?mL(-1) for Vero cell lines and 28.9??g?mL(-1) for Hela cell lines in cytotoxicity assays. The zone of color retention was 14.2?mm in ?-carotene bleaching assay, which was as significant as positive control, butylated hydroxy toluene. None of the tested extracts possessed any hemolytic activity against rat and human erythrocytes revealing their cytotoxic mechanism and non-toxicity. Thus, only the ethanol extract could be considered as a potential source of anticancer and antioxidant compounds. Further phytochemical studies will be performed for specification of the biologically active principles. PMID:21799676

Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Suthindhiran, K; Mathew, Lazar

2011-01-01

206

An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (?"1"3C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

2002-10-01

207

Modelling the spatial distribution of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 along the North African coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica is a seagrass species endemic to the Mediterranean sea, which is considered as an indicator of environment quality in coastal areas. This species forms large meadows, which are sensitive to several anthropogenic pressures, as a result the decrease in their extension of is considered a priority issue for the Mediterranean sea. The aim of this study was to develop a Species Distribution Model for P. oceanica, to be applied to the Mediterranean North African coast, in order to obtain an estimation of the potential distribution of this species in the region. As the study area is a data-poor zone with regard to seagrass distribution, the SDM was calibrated using data from 5 Mediterranean sites, located in Italy and Spain and validated using available data concerning the NA coast. The probability of presence of the species in a given area was modeled as a function of the bathymetry and some water characteristics (i.e. water transparency; dissolved organic matter; chlorophyll concentration) obtained from Earth Observations (EOs), mainly derived from MERIS imagery. Water transparency plays a major role, but also other variables, such as chlorophyll concentration (probably related to nutrients availability), are important in explaining meadows distribution. The availability of high resolution time-series of the input data allowed us to apply the validated model to the whole NA coast. These results (maps of potential distribution) are combined with the use of ecosystem service indicators in order to assess the importance of seagrass habitat within the NA coastal ecosystem.

Zucchetta, Matteo; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

2014-05-01

208

Human impact on a small barrier reef meadow of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile on the north Tyrrhenian coast (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

The health status of an emerging Posidonia oceanica meadow, subject to high human impact, was studied. Biometric variables, heavy metals, PAHs and C, N, P contents were determined in sediment and seagrass samples. The meadow was found to grow under oligotrophic conditions and an increase in nutrient content was only recorded in autumn. In sediment, Hg exceeded its ERL (effects range low) and sometimes also its ERM (effects range medium), and Cu was close to its ERL. In leaves, Hg and Cu were relatively high but below their respective ERLs. Sediments close to the meadow were heavily contaminated with pyrolytic PAHs, some of which exceeded their ERLs. P. oceanica did not show major accumulation of PAHs, lighter molecules predominating. Despite 40 years of intense human activity, meadow growth dynamics and contaminant accumulation did not suggest that the meadow was regressing. PMID:24229783

Mauro, Lenzi; Paola, Gennaro; Margherita, Volterrani; Rugiada, Roffilli; Francesca, Birardi; Primo, Micarelli; Duccio, Solari; Enrica, Franchi

2013-12-15

209

Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile)  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana

2013-09-01

210

Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta) do litoral catarinense (Brasil) / Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta) from southern Brazilian coast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna) foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de [...] 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes. Abstract in english The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna) collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of [...] linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

Melissa dos Santos, Raymundo; Paulo, Horta; Roseane, Fett.

211

Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

2004-12-01

212

Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion  

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Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

João Américo Wordell Filho

2007-12-01

213

Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio / Macroalgas marinas tropicales atlánticas con actividad biológica contra vibrios virulentos y resistentes a antimicrobianos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se investigó la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos de etanol, metanol, hexano y acetona de las macroalgas Padina gymnospora (PG), Hypnea musciformes (HM), Ulva fasciata (UF) y Caulerpa prolifera (CP). Se utilizó el método de difusión en disco para evaluar el efecto antimicrobiano de las algas [...] contra cepas patrón de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Salmonella enterica y cinco cepas virulentas y resistentes a los antimicrobianos: V. brasiliensis, V. xuii y V. navarrensis (aislado de la hemolinfa de Litopenaeus vannamei). Los extractos de etanol de PG y HM inhibieron todas las cepas de Vibrio. E. coli y P. aeruginosa solo eran susceptibles a los extractos de etanol de PG. Entre los extractos de metanol, solo UF fue bioactivo, inhibiendo V. navarrensis. El efecto antibacteriano de los extractos de etanol de PG, HM y UF contra bacterias virulentas y resistentes a los antimicrobianos sugiere que estas especies de macroalgas constituyen una fuente potencial de compuestos bioactivos. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG), Hypnea musciformes (HM), Ulva fasciata (UF) and Caulerpa prolifera (CP) was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against [...] standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei). Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

Silva, Giselle Cristina; Albuquerque-Costa, Renata; Oliveira-Peixoto, Jackson R; Pessoa-Nascimento, Fernando E; de Macedo-Carneiro, Pedro B; Silva dos Fernandes-Vieira, Regine H.

214

Common regulation of feeding and mating in Aplysia fasciata: pheromones released by mating and by egg cordons increase feeding behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether pheromones released by reproductive behaviors (mating and egg-laying) affect feeding behavior. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that the quantity of food eaten can be used to measure the effects of pheromones on feeding. Using this measure, we then showed that Aplysia that were prevented from mating, but that were in the same aquarium as mating conspecifics, eat more food than do Aplysia in a medium lacking mating animals. Mating and feeding were not temporally correlated, indicating that pheromones released by mating probably do not initiate feeding, but rather modulate feeding after it has begun. Aplysia that were in the same aquarium as freshly deposited egg cordons also ate more than did animals in a medium lacking eggs. PMID:1759945

Botzer, D; Blumberg, S; Ziv, I; Susswein, A J

1991-11-01

215

Benthic Community zonation in a breakwater on the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The present study presents the vertical zonation pattern of the intertidal benthic organisms on granitic boulders in the Farol de São Tomé beach (22º02'S, 41º03'W, Rio de Janeiro State. Four sampling profiles using 20 x 20 cm quadrats through a photo quadrat technique revealed four horizontal bands: (1 Littoral Fringe characterized by empty space and Littorina; (2 Upper eulittoral mainly occupied by Chthamalus and bare rock; (3 Lower eulittoral characterized by Chthamalus, Phragmatopoma, Ulva and Centroceras; and (4 Sublittoral Fringe characterized by Ulva, Phragmatopoma and Hypnea. The high variability in the relative abundance of the dominant species among the profiles may be attributed to the high topographic irregularity, reflecting in different wave action intensity at the same height, and consequently favoring the establishment of different species. The frequent substrate alternation from granitic rock to Phragmatopoma sandy reefs might contribute to the small-scale spatial variability. The implantation of a breakwater on an area without natural rocky shores allowed the study of intertidal benthic communty zonation, and provide a baseline for the experimental studies.O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um esquema de zonação vertical de organismos bênticos da região entremarés em blocos graníticos na praia do Farol de São Tomé (22º02'S, 41º03'W na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 20 x 20 cm foram sobrepostos em quatro perfis e utilizado o método por foto quadrat com 100 pontos de interseção. A análise de agrupamento e a porcentagem de cobertura de organismos bênticos indicadores sugeriram um padrão na distribuição vertical da região entremarés com quatro faixas: Franja do Supralittoral caracterizado por espaço vazio e Littorina ziczac; Médiolitoral Superior ocupado por Chthamalus spp e espaço vazio; médiolitoral inferior caracterizado por Chthamalus spp, Phragmatopoma lapidosa, Ulva fasciata e Centroceras clavulatum; e Franja do Infralitoral caracterizado por U. fasciata, P. lapidosa e Hypnea musciformis. A alta variabilidade na abundância relativa das espécies dominantes entre os perfis na zona Médiolitoral é atribuída a alta irregularidade topográfica do substrato, refletindo em diferentes intensidades de exposição às ondas em uma mesma altura, o que favorece o estabelecimento de diferentes espécies. A alternância freqüente do tipo de substrato de rocha granítica para recifes arenosos de P. lapidosa pode ter contribuído para a variabilidade espacial em pequena escala. Este estudo preenche uma lacuna referente à comunidade bêntica e sua distribuição vertical no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A adição do molhe em uma área caracterizada pela ausência de substrato consolidado natural possibilitou o estudo da zonação da comunidade bêntica entremarés, oferecendo uma base de dados para futuros trabalhos experimentais.

Bruno Pereira Masi

2009-06-01

216

Grazing on the epiphytic community of Posidonia oceanica (L.)Delile: An assessment of its relevance as a buffering process of eutrophication effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El incremento de disponibilidad de nutrientes produce cambios en la estructura y funcionamiento de los ecosistemas litorales. La eutrofización en los ecosistemas litorales mediterráneos favorece el predominio de algas epifitas de crecimiento rápido que compiten por la luz y los nutrientes con Posidonia oceanica. La herbivoría sobre los epifitos suministra la mayor parte del carbono que asimilan los consumidores primarios y secundarios asociados a la pradera. Esta tesis evalúa la importan...

Castejo?n Silvo, Ine?s

2011-01-01

217

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

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Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP. The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG (Rio de janeiro, Brasil. Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle. Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG.

Wladimir C. Paradas

2007-03-01

218

Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de liberação de minério, sendo a maior percentagem do particulado liberada na primeira troca de água (40 a 60%.

Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

2006-09-01

219

Environmental and behavioural factors affecting activity in the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laboratory microcosms were used to investigate the mud snail Hydrobia ulvac (Pennant) bioturbation activities and behavioural changes in response to snail density, algal food, sediment moisture content, light regime and water cover conditions. Density-dependent kinetics of bioturbated muddy areas were described by von Bertalanffy equations, which provided reliable estimates of mud surface covering rates by snail tracks (m(2) h(-1) snail(-1)), Snails need a wet habitat to be active either cove...

Orvain, Francis; Sauriau, Pierre-guy

2002-01-01

220

Biochemical Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of the Green Alga Ulva reticulata  

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U. reticulata belonging to the class of Chlorophyceae that had been collected from Vellar estuary, southeast coast of India. Water contents of the U. reticulata was found as 75.33%. Carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents have been estimated as 50.248, 8.484, 19.98 and 1.7% of the dry sample correspondingly. The analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography revealed the presence of m...

Annian Shanmugam; Chendur Palpandi

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Composition, uniqueness and variability of the epiphytic bacterial community of the green alga Ulva australis  

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Green Ulvacean marine macroalgae are distributed worldwide in coastal tidal and subtidal ecosystems. As for many living surfaces in the marine environment, little is known concerning the epiphytic bacterial biofilm communities that inhabit algal surfaces. This study reports on the largest published libraries of near full-length 16S rRNA genes from a marine algal surface (5293 sequences from six samples) allowing for an in-depth assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacte...

Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Lewis, Matt; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2011-01-01

222

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

1996-01-01

223

FRESHWATER ULVA (CHLOROPHYTA) AS A BIOACCUMULATOR OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN NIELBA RIVER (WIELKOPOLSKA REGION)  

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Human activities still increase and causes negative impact to environment and consequently lead to ecological degradation. Water pollution, whose source are pesticides and chemical fertilizers from catchment areas, in result enrich the aquatic environment in heavy metals. These water contamination is accumulated in tissues of living organisms. A high degree of accumulation of dissolved metals is noticeable in macroalgae. To the one of the most tolerant group to high levels of water contaminat...

Messyasz, Beata; Rybak, Andrzej; Pikosz, Marta

2012-01-01

224

Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus  

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Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

Angélica Ribeiro Soares

2012-08-01

225

Modello matematico-statistico per l'analisi della produttivita' primaria dell'alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia. (Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon).  

Science.gov (United States)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with...

G. Izzo V. Rizzo A. Bella M. Picci P. Giordano

1996-01-01

226

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

1996-08-01

227

Novel Antibacterial Proteins from the Microbial Communities Associated with the Sponge Cymbastela concentrica and the Green Alga Ulva australis? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The functional metagenomic screening of the microbial communities associated with a temperate marine sponge and a green alga identified three novel hydrolytic enzymes with antibacterial activities. The results suggest that uncultured alpha- and gammaproteobacteria contain new classes of proteins that may be a source of antibacterial agents.

Yung, Pui Yi; Burke, Catherine; Lewis, Matt; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

2011-01-01

228

Novel antibacterial proteins from the microbial communities associated with the sponge Cymbastela concentrica and the green alga Ulva australis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functional metagenomic screening of the microbial communities associated with a temperate marine sponge and a green alga identified three novel hydrolytic enzymes with antibacterial activities. The results suggest that uncultured alpha- and gammaproteobacteria contain new classes of proteins that may be a source of antibacterial agents. PMID:21183639

Yung, Pui Yi; Burke, Catherine; Lewis, Matt; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

2011-02-01

229

Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae  

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Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 ?g mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 ?g mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato observado entre todas estas especies de algas (desde 0,13 hasta 0,21%. Todos los SL se caracterizaron por un alto contenido de ácido palmítico (C16:0, que osciló entre 30,91% en G. cylindriea a 63,11% en T. atomatia. Sulfoquinovosyl-di-acilglicerol y acilglicerol sulfoquinovosyl fueron identificados como los principales constituyentes de los sulfolípidos de estas algas. Los sulfolípidos de las diferentes especies de algas estudiadas mostraron una notable actividad antiviral contra el virus del herpes simple tipo 1 (VHS-1 con una IC50 que osciló entre 18,75 y 70. 2 g mL–1. Por otra parte, los sulfolípidos de estas algas inhibieron el crecimiento de células tumorales de mama y células de cáncer de hígado humano con valores de IC50 que van desde 0,40 hasta 0,67 g mL–1 para las células de adenocarcinoma de mama humano (MCF7.

El Baz, F. K.

2013-12-01

230

Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas / Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa) and their impact on the seedling quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental d [...] e Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A): a) testemunha; b) fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L); c) fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L); d) fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L); e) calda bordalesa (0,3%); f) calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g) extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume); h) extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%); i) extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%). Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B). A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16), calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes. Abstract in english This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to [...] July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A) were tested: a) control; b) fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L); c) potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L); d) foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L); e) Bordeaux mixture (0.3%); f) Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g) extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume); h) field horsetail (Equisetum arwense) extract (0.26%) and i) Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%). Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B). Leaf necrosis area (%) was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16), Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

Wordell Filho, João Américo; Stadnik, Marciel J.

231

Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa and their impact on the seedling quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A: a testemunha; b fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L; c fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L; d fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e calda bordalesa (0,3%; f calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume; h extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%; i extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%. Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B. A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes.This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A were tested: a control; b fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L; c potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L; d foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e Bordeaux mixture (0.3%; f Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume; h field horsetail (Equisetum arwense extract (0.26% and i Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%. Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B. Leaf necrosis area (% was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

João Américo Wordell Filho

2006-12-01

232

Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L.) / Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil®) e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. [...] Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf), bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp). Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil®) and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final dis [...] ease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl) as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp). Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P

Araújo, Isaac B.; Peruch, Luiz A.M.; Stadnik, Marciel J..

233

Survey of the radioactive background of some specimens of the biota of Rio de Janeiro coastal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural radioactivity of components known to be bioconcentrators of artificial radionuclides in the coast of Rio de Janeiro was determined by means of sistematical gross alpha and beta radiometry. These data constitute the pre-operational survey, determining the radioactivity levels of these organisms and permiting to establish basic values and their temporal variations, which will serve as a referencial for the detection of eventual increases in the radioactivity introduced in the marine environment during the operational phase of nuclear power plants. Uranium and Potassium were also measured in some samples. The maximum and minimum values obtained after six years of experiment, analysing 14 species of algae and 4 species of animals were: for gross alpha radiometry (0,454 + - 0,162)Bq/g in the ashes of the phaeophita Padina vickersiae and (0,473 + - 0,106)Bq/g in the cnidaria Bunodosoma caissarum, (0,067 + - 0,031)Bq/g in the clorophita Ulva Fasciata and (0,091 + - 0,060)Bq/g in the soft tissues of the bivalve Perna perna. The byssus of this animal presented the highest gross alpha concentration : (1,770 + - 0,708)Bq/g, probably due to its high Uranium concentration, which contributes with 71%, complexed with its main constituent, a scleroprotein. The gross beta concentrations were highest in the algae Chetomorpha antennina (6,63 + - 1,80)Bq/g and in the species Bunodosoma caissarum, with a mean value of (2,60 + - 0,74)Bq/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations were obtained in the rodophita Plocamium brasiliense, (1,64 + - 0,36)Bq/g, and (1,04 + - 0,30)Bq/g in the byssus of Perna perna. By the theoretical concentration of _4_0K, calculated from potassium, the strong contribution of that radionuclide in the gross beta activity of the organisms is stressed. Seven samples of ashes were submitted to analyses by three different laboratories and the intercomparison results showed a reasonable agreement. (Author)

234

Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta) Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl...

ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI; Alberte, Randall S.

2001-01-01

235

78 FR 72622 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 11 Tarantula...  

Science.gov (United States)

...threatened: Poecilotheria fasciata; P. formosa; P. hanumavilasumica; P. metallica...iri padethi divimakuluwa. Poecilotheria formosa........... beautiful India...summarized below. Indian Species P. formosa: This species is reported from...

2013-12-03

236

50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sturnella magna Western, Sturnella neglecta...Strix variaBoreal, Aegolius funereus...Columba fasciata Plain, Columba inornata...Bartramia longicaudaWestern, Calidris mauri...Columba inornata, Plain PigeonColumba...kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl...Aegolius funereus, Boreal...

2009-10-01

237

Raptors and "campo-cerrado" bird mixed flock led by Cypsnagra Hirundinacea (Emberizidae:Thraupinae) Predadores aéreos e bandos mistos de aves, em campo-cerrado, liderados por Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Emberizidae: Thraupinae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bird mixed flocks including Cypsnagra hirundinacea and Neothraupis fasciata as species with sentinels were studied in "campo-cerrado" in order to investigate the possible relationship between alertness and the mixed flock leadership. This study was conducted from March to September 1996 and mixed flocks were observed on average for 2:30h. The time with sentinels were recorded for C. hirundinacea and N. fasciata. The sentinels of Cypsnagra hirundinacea performed most of the vigilance (time wit...

Ragusa-netto, J.

2000-01-01

238

Biodegradable thermoplastic composites based on polyvinyl alcohol and algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algae constitute a largely available, low value material from renewable resources of marine origin to be used for the production of eco-compatible composites. Fibers of the green alga Ulva armoricana from the French coast were positively evaluated for the production of composites with a hydrophilic, eco-compatible polymer, such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as continuous matrix by casting of aqueous suspensions and compression molding. PVA, Ulva, and starch were also successfully processed by the melt in the presence of glycerol. Positive results were obtained for film-forming properties and mechanical characteristics also with limited amounts of PVA (40%) attesting for Ulva suitability to be introduced in composites (up to 30%). Degradation in soil of Ulva and an Ulva-based composites outlined a rapid mineralization of Ulva in the selected medium (over 80% in 100 days) while the composite samples underwent a mineralization rate affected by the different component propensity to degradation. PMID:18257530

Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Ilieva, Vassilka I; Martera, Martina

2008-03-01

239

A Summary of Reports of Ulvaceae (Chlorophyta) From Turkey*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A revised list of the taxa of the Ulvaceae occurring in Turkey is reported in this research. A total of 25 taxa of this family is herein reported from Turkey. Also, the transfers of four taxa of Enteromorpha to Ulva are proposed: Ulva intestinalis L. var. asexualis (Bliding) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding, 1963), Ulva intestinalis forma ramosa (Vinogradova) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha int...

Ergun Taskin

2007-01-01

240

Diversity in the seeds of Trigonella occulta Defile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dimorphism in the seeds of Trigonella occulta Delile of 4 studied seed provenances has been observed. The seeds of various origin show also diversity in their germination and imbibition behaviour, however low temperature of nearly 10°C is essential for germination in all cases. There is the correlation between morphological and physiological characteristics of some seed lots.

Ramesh C. Bhatia

1983-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrio...

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

2011-01-01

242

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrio...

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

2011-01-01

243

A Summary of Reports of Ulvaceae (Chlorophyta From Turkey*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A revised list of the taxa of the Ulvaceae occurring in Turkey is reported in this research. A total of 25 taxa of this family is herein reported from Turkey. Also, the transfers of four taxa of Enteromorpha to Ulva are proposed: Ulva intestinalis L. var. asexualis (Bliding E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding, 1963, Ulva intestinalis forma ramosa (Vinogradova E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma ramosa Vinogradova, 1974, Ulva intestinalis forma saprobia (Vinogradova E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma saprobia Vinogradova, 1974 and Ulva prolifera subsp. gullmariensis (Bliding E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha prolifera subsp. gullmariensis Bliding, 1963. A total of 25 taxa (species and intraspecific reported from Turkey.

Ergun Taskin

2007-01-01

244

Adiciones a la flora alicantina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se dan a conocer algunas de las últimas novedades de plantas encontradas en la provincia de Alicante, siendo muchas de ellas primera cita para este territorio. Biarum dispar (Schott) Talavera, Spergularia tangerina P. Monnier, Verbascum dentifolium Delile, Coleostephus myconis (L.) Reichenb. fil., Ononis laxiflora Desf., Vicia narbonensis L., Anthemis altissima L., destacan por su originalidad y rareza en la mitad oriental de la Península Ibérica.

1995-01-01

245

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Urease Inhibition Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants nati...

2013-01-01

246

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing)...

2012-01-01

247

Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia...

Migliore Luciana; Rotini Alice; Randazzo Davide; Albanese Nadia N; Giallongo Agata

2007-01-01

248

Assessment of the ecological status of P. oceanica meadow with a no destructive shoot method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a protected species, included in the Red list of marine threatened species of the Mediterranean. Because of its sensitivity to disturbance, P. oceanica is used as a bioindicator to define the health status of coastal waters. Monitoring methods generally require to sample plants, followed by measurements on picked shoots. This implies the total destruction of several tens of shoots. This study presents a method, “The Non Destructive Shoot Methodology”: NDS...

Gobert, Sylvie; Lejeune, Pierre; Che?ry, Aure?lia; Boissery, Pierre; Sartoretto, Ste?phane; Andral, Bruno; Lepoint, Gilles; Richir, Jonathan

2012-01-01

249

Ficus platyphylla promotes fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain: a preliminary study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Ficus platyphylla Delile (family- Moracea) commonly called gutta percha tree is a deciduous plant found in savannah areas. It grows widely in the Northern part of Nigeria, up to 60 ft. high and is known as 'gamji' by the Hausas. The seeds, bark and leaves have been used traditionally in combination to promote fertility. Scientifically, the plant has been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS effects. The present study was to validate ...

Ugwah-Oguejiofor Chinenye J; Bello Shaibu O; Okolo Raymond U; Etuk Emmanuel U; Ugwah Michael O; Igbokwe Vincent U

2011-01-01

250

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmari...

Bravo-linares, C. M.; Mudge, S. M.; Loyola-sepulveda, R. H.

2010-01-01

251

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. All species exhibited a DPPH radical scavenging activity, and among the species, Ulva clathrata demonstrated greater antioxidant potential with a low IC50 (0.881 mg mL-1) in comparison with those of the other species. Also the highest phenolic content (5.080 mg GAE g-1) and flavonoid content (33.094 mg RE g-1) were observed in U.clathrata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity (p < 0.01) and negative correlations with IC50 (p < 0.01).The results suggest that these edible green seaweeds possess antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements ,cosmetics or food industries.

Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

2014-01-01

252

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. All species exhibited a DPPH radical scavenging activity, and among the species, Ulva clathrata demonstrated greater antioxidant potential with a low IC50 (0.881 mg mL(-1)) in comparison with those of the other species. Also the highest phenolic content (5.080 mg GAE g(-1)) and flavonoid content (33.094 mg RE g(-1)) were observed in U.clathrata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity (p < 0.01) and negative correlations with IC50 (p < 0.01).The results suggest that these edible green seaweeds possess antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements ,cosmetics or food industries. PMID:24734068

Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

2014-01-01

253

Concise synthesis of (8Z,11Z,14Z)-8,11,14-heptadecatrienal, (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal, and (8Z,11Z)-8,11-heptadecadienal, components of the essential oil of marine green alga Ulva pertusa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-chain aldehydes, (8Z,11Z,14Z)-8,11,14-heptadecatrienal, (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal, and (8Z,11Z)-8,11-heptadecadienal, were concisely synthesized by using Grignard coupling, catalytic hydrogenation with the Lindlar catalyst, and oxidation with Dess-Martin periodinane as the key steps. Particularly, (8Z,11Z,14Z)-8,11,14-heptadecatrienal and (7Z,10Z,13Z)-7,10,13-hexadecatrienal both possessed a seaweed-like odor. PMID:16041141

Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Washizu, Kensuke; Matsui, Kenji; Kajiwara, Tadahiko

2005-07-01

254

Digenean diversity in labrid fish from the Bay of Bizerte in Tunisia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six species of digeneans (Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901), Helicometra fasciata (Odhner, 1902), Helicometra pulchella (Odhner, 1902), Macvicaria alacris (Looss, 1901), Peracreadium genu (Nicoll, 1909) and Zoogonus rubellus (Olson, 1868)) were found for the first time in labrid fish (Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758), Labrus merula (Linnaeus, 1758) and Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)) from the Bay of Bizerte. Except for P. maculatus and Z. rubellus, which are limited to the rectum, these helminths colonize the entire digestive tract. The study of the seasonal prevalence, abundance and mean intensity shows that three parasites, P. maculatus, H. fasciata and P. genu are present throughout the year while H. pulchella, M. alacris and Z. rubellus are less frequent and appear only in spring (H. pulchella and M. alacris) or in spring and summer (Z. rubellus). The levels of infection and digenean faunal diversity in labrid fish from the Tunisian coasts are generally lower than those from localities within the western Mediterranean. PMID:19580692

Gargouri Ben Abdalah, L; Elbohli, S; Maamouri, F

2010-03-01

255

A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran) is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet), E. aurantii (Howard), E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard), E. citrina (Craw), E. elegans (Masi), E. elongata (Dozier), E. fasciata (Malenotti), E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker), E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli), E. lutea ...

2011-01-01

256

Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry micr...

Chikako Asada; Keita Doi; Chizuru Sasaki; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

2012-01-01

257

Spider leg autotomy induced by prey venom injection: An adaptive response to “pain”?*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field observations showed orb-weaving spiders (Argiope spp.) to undergo leg autotomy if they are stung in a leg by venomous insect prey (Phymata fasciata). The response occurs within seconds, before the venom can take lethal action by spread to the body of the spiders. Autotomy is induced also by honeybee venom and wasp venom, as well as by several venom components (serotonin, histamine, phospholipase A2, melittin) known to be responsible for the pain characteristically elicited by venom inje...

Eisner, Thomas; Camazine, Scott

1983-01-01

258

Raptors and "campo-cerrado" bird mixed flock led by Cypsnagra Hirundinacea (Emberizidae:Thraupinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bird mixed flocks including Cypsnagra hirundinacea and Neothraupis fasciata as species with sentinels were studied in "campo-cerrado" in order to investigate the possible relationship between alertness and the mixed flock leadership. This study was conducted from March to September 1996 and mixed flocks were observed on average for 2:30h. The time with sentinels were recorded for C. hirundinacea and N. fasciata. The sentinels of Cypsnagra hirundinacea performed most of the vigilance (time with sentinel was on average 42 ± 17%, 41 ± 17% of which by C. hirundinacea, whereas only 1.2 % by N. fasciata and gave all the alarm calls recorded (54% of the encounters with raptors stimulated alarm calls. A relationship was verified between time with sentinel and the rate of encounters with raptor (ANOVA, F = 3.0, P < 0.05. The results of this study are an evidence for the anti-predatory function of mixed flocks, in campo-cerrado, and the alertness as a major feature of a leader species, since C. hirundinacea always led those flocks.

RAGUSA-NETTO J.

2000-01-01

259

Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not overlap that of A. californica. This finding suggests that other mollusks release attractin-related pheromones to form and maintain breeding aggregations. We describe four additional members of the attractin family: A. brasiliana, Aplysia fasciata, Aplysia depilans (which aggregates with A. fasciata aggregations), and Aplysia vaccaria (which aggregates with A. californica aggregations). On the basis of their sequence similarity with A. californica attractin, the attractin proteins fall into two groups: A. californica, A. brasiliana, and A. fasciata (91-95% identity), and A. depilans and A. vaccaria (41-43% identity). The sequence similarity within the attractin family, the conserved six cysteines, and the compact fold of the NMR solution structure of A. californica attractin suggest a common fold for this pheromone family containing two antiparallel helices. The second helix contains the IEECKTS sequence conserved in Aplysia attractins. Mutating surface-exposed charged residues within this heptapeptide sequence abolishes attractin activity, suggesting that the second helix is an essential part of the receptor-binding interface. PMID:15118100

Painter, Sherry D; Cummins, Scott F; Nichols, Amy E; Akalal, David-B G; Schein, Catherine H; Braun, Werner; Smith, John S; Susswein, Abraham J; Levy, Miriam; de Boer, Pamela A C M; ter Maat, Andries; Miller, Mark W; Scanlan, Cory; Milberg, Richard M; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Nagle, Gregg T

2004-05-01

260

Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not overlap that of A. californica. This finding suggests that other mollusks release attractin-related pheromones to form and maintain breeding aggregations. We describe four additional members of the attractin family: A. brasiliana, Aplysia fasciata, Aplysia depilans (which aggregates with A. fasciata aggregations), and Aplysia vaccaria (which aggregates with A. californica aggregations). On the basis of their sequence similarity with A. californica attractin, the attractin proteins fall into two groups: A. californica, A. brasiliana, and A. fasciata (91–95% identity), and A. depilans and A. vaccaria (41–43% identity). The sequence similarity within the attractin family, the conserved six cysteines, and the compact fold of the NMR solution structure of A. californica attractin suggest a common fold for this pheromone family containing two antiparallel helices. The second helix contains the IEECKTS sequence conserved in Aplysia attractins. Mutating surface-exposed charged residues within this heptapeptide sequence abolishes attractin activity, suggesting that the second helix is an essential part of the receptor-binding interface.

Painter, Sherry D.; Cummins, Scott F.; Nichols, Amy E.; Akalal, David-B. G.; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner; Smith, John S.; Susswein, Abraham J.; Levy, Miriam; de Boer, Pamela A. C. M.; ter Maat, Andries; Miller, Mark W.; Scanlan, Cory; Milberg, Richard M.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Nagle, Gregg T.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Trace metals in Mediterranean area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible use of six marine organisms as cosmopolitan bio monitors of trace metals in the Mediterranean area was evaluated. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the gastropod molluscs Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi. The selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. The potential of each species as trace metal bio monitor is discussed in view of its diffusion, reliable taxonomic identification and accumulation capability

2000-01-01

262

“Most likely you go your way and I’ll go mine”: A Rock Star’s Guide to Abandoning your Audience “Most likely you go your way and I’ll go mine”, ou comment abandonner son public lorsqu’on est une star du rock  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L’analyse du roman de Don DeLillo Great Jones Street constituera le fil conducteur de ce travail. Elle nous permettra de confronter la réclusion du personnage de Bucky Wunderlick et la retraite de Bob Dylan dans la maison appelée « Big Pink », à West Saugerties, New York, où l’auteur- compositeur-interprète enregistre avec The Band les fameuses Basement Tapes. À la recherche d’oubli et d’annihilation que motive le retrait de la scène rock protestataire du personnage de DeLill...

Adrian Smith

2009-01-01

263

[New additions to the marine algae of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella (C. Agardh) M.J. Wynne and Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne. Morphological and anatomical aspects of the specimens are described and illustrated. PMID:15264567

Silva, Soraida; Brito, Leonor; Lemus, Andrés

2003-06-01

264

Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

2014-01-01

265

Trace metals in Mediterranean area; Metalli in tracce nell'ambiente marino. Individuazione di bioindicatori per l'area mediterranea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible use of six marine organisms as cosmopolitan bio monitors of trace metals in the Mediterranean area was evaluated. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the gastropod molluscs Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi. The selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. The potential of each species as trace metal bio monitor is discussed in view of its diffusion, reliable taxonomic identification and accumulation capability. [Italian] Al fine di acquisire conoscenze utili a valutare il possibile utilizzo di una serie di organismi diffusi nelle zone costiere dei nostri mari come biondicatori cosmopoliti per l'area mediterranea, esemplari appartenenti a queste specie sono stati campionati in siti caratterizzati da diversi gradi di contaminazione ambientale sulle coste dell'isola di Favignana, la maggiore del comprensorio delle Egadi (Sicilia). Le specie studiate sono l'alga bruna Padina pavonica, Thivy, la fanerogama marina Posidonia oceania Delile e i gasteropodi Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born, Monodonta mutabilis Philippi.

Cubadda, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy); Conti, M. E. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Controllo e Gestione delle Merci e del loro impatto sull' Ambiente; Campanella, L. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

2000-12-01

266

Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2002-04-01

267

Sequences and phylogeny analysis of rbcL gene in marine chlorophyta  

Science.gov (United States)

The rbcL gene of Ulva pertusa, Enteromorpha prolifera and Monostroma grevillei was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. By comparing the rbcL sequences with seven other Ulvales species retrieved from GenBank, the sequence divergences and the phyletic evolution were analyzed and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. From the phylogenetic tree, it can be found that U. pertusa, E. prolifera and U. californica group in one branch, while E. compressa, U. rigida and U. fenestrata cluster in another clade. Obviously, unlike the Enteomorpha species, the Ulva species do not gather in one branch. Therefore Ulva and Enteomorpha might be affiliates of one genus. E. compressa and E. intestinalis gathered together, which coincided with the morphological characters. However, the thallus of U. pertusa is thick and with many holes, which is different from E. prolifera in morphology. They cluster together in the phylogenetic tree with a genetic distance of 0.005. The results indicate that Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinguished strictly.

Shen, Songdong; Li, Yanyan; Wu, Xunjian; Ding, Lanping

2010-06-01

268

Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity  

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The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzy...

Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; El-fayoumy, Eman A.

2011-01-01

269

Antioxidant Properties of two Edible Green Seaweeds From Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Ulva genus, an edible seaweed, and an important food source in many south-east Asian countries is also recognized by its synonymous name as Enteromorpha.Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics, and flavonoids of methanolic extracts of edible green seaweeds including Ulva clathrata (Roth C. Agardh and three samples of Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller grown at different parts of Bushehr Province along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf.Materials and Methods: The seaweeds were collected from Bordekhoun, Northern Ouli, Taheri and Kangan coasts in December 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. Total phenolics were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and flavonoid content was evaluated by colorimetric method.Results: All samples showed antioxidant activity to various degrees. Ulva clathrata exhibited a high DPPH radical scavenging activity with a low IC50 (the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (0.715 ± 0.078 mg. mL-1. The highest phenolic content (4.468 ± 0.379 mg GAE g-1 (gallic acid equivalent and flavonoid content (45.577 ± 0.949 mg RE g-1 (rutin equivalent were also observed in U .clathrata. The phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity and negative correlations with IC50 (P < 0.01. Besides, Results showed that there was a positive correlation between total phenolics and flavonoid content of extracts (P < 0.01.Conclusions: Strong positive and significant correlations between DPPH radical scavenging and phenolic and flavonoid contents showed that, phenolic compounds, including flavonoids are the main contributors of antioxidant activity in these Ulva species and variations in phenolics and flavonoid contents of the seaweed extracts may be due to the variation in physicochemical parameters such as salinity amongst the selected stations.

Massoumeh Farasat

2013-01-01

270

Antioxidant Properties of two Edible Green Seaweeds From Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Ulva genus, an edible seaweed, and an important food source in many south-east Asian countries is also recognized by its synonymous name as Enteromorpha. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics, and flavonoids of methanolic extracts of edible green seaweeds including Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh and three samples of Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller grown at different parts of Bushehr Province along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods The seaweeds were collected from Bordekhoun, Northern Ouli, Taheri and Kangan coasts in December 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. Total phenolics were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and flavonoid content was evaluated by colorimetric method. Results All samples showed antioxidant activity to various degrees. Ulva clathrata exhibited a high DPPH radical scavenging activity with a low IC50 (the half-maximal inhibitory concentration) (0.715 ± 0.078 mg. mL-1). The highest phenolic content (4.468 ± 0.379 mg GAE g-1) (gallic acid equivalent) and flavonoid content (45.577 ± 0.949 mg RE g-1) (rutin equivalent) were also observed in U .clathrata. The phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity and negative correlations with IC50 (P < 0.01). Besides, Results showed that there was a positive correlation between total phenolics and flavonoid content of extracts (P < 0.01). Conclusions Strong positive and significant correlations between DPPH radical scavenging and phenolic and flavonoid contents showed that, phenolic compounds, including flavonoids are the main contributors of antioxidant activity in these Ulva species and variations in phenolics and flavonoid contents of the seaweed extracts may be due to the variation in physicochemical parameters such as salinity amongst the selected stations.

Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

2013-01-01

271

Bromeliads production in greenhouses associated to different shading screens / Produção de bromélias sob malhas de sombreamento em casa de vegetação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A produção de bromélias em ambiente protegido é altamente influenciada pelo microclima, o qual afeta tanto o desenvolvimento como o crescimento das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nas variáveis microclimáticas e no cresc [...] imento da bromélia Aechmea fasciata em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente. Os tratamentos foram compostos por diferentes malhas de sombreamento: termo-refletora (T1), testemunha sem malha (T2), vermelha (T3), azul (T4) e preta (T5), todas com 70% de sombreamento. Das 60 plantas dispostas em cada um dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas 24 delas obtidas aleatoriamente. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado para as variáveis biométricas. Um sistema automático de aquisição de dados micrometeorológicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo registros de temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e radiação solar. As variáveis das plantas avaliadas foram altura e diâmetro da planta, largura e comprimento das folhas e número de folhas por planta. O diâmetro da roseta e o comprimento das folhas foram as variáveis que apresentaram as maiores diferenças entre os tratamentos, em função das alterações na radiação solar causadas pelas malhas de sombreamento. A malha vermelha promoveu as melhores condições para a produção da bromélia A. fasciata. Abstract in english Bromeliads production in greenhouses is highly influenced by microclimate, which affects plants growth and development. Based on that, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of shading screens of different colors on microclimatic variables and Aechmea fasciata bromeliad growth in a greenhouse co [...] vered by transparent low-density polyethylene. The experiment had five treatments, with screens of different colors, inside a plastic greenhouse: thermo-reflective (T1); control without screen (T2); red (T3); blue (T4); and black (T5) screens, all of them with 70% of shading. From the 60 plants arranged in each one of the treatments 24 were evaluated, which were obtained randomly. The statistical design was completely randomized for the biometric variables. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, recording temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The plant parameters evaluated weekly were plant diameter and height, leaf width and length, and number of leaves per plant. The rosette diameter and leaf length were the parameters that presented the highest differences among treatments, which was basically a function of changes in solar radiation caused by the shading screens. The red screen provided the best conditions for A. fasciata bromeliad production.

Ester, Holcman; Paulo Cesar, Sentelhas.

272

A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet, E. aurantii (Howard, E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard, E. citrina (Craw, E. elegans (Masi, E. elongata (Dozier, E. fasciata (Malenotti, E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker, E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, E. lutea (Masi, E. luteola Howard, E. mineoi Viggiani, E. perniciosi (Tower, and 4 Eretmocerus species (Eretmocerus cadabae Viggiani, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, Eretmocerus nikolskajae Myartseva, Eretmocerus serius Silvestre were collected.

Ghahari Hassan

2011-01-01

273

Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation  

Science.gov (United States)

Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.

1973-01-01

274

Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oil of Teclea nobilis Leaf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of Teclea nobilis Delile (Rutaceae (TN, was investigated by using GC/MS. Out of fifty four peaks (representing 99.3% of the oil, twenty three components were identified, representing 62.3% of the total oil composition. The main components were Germacrene-d (19%, Ocimene isomer (13%, Guaiol (3.9%, Elemol (2.9% and Bulnesol (2.5%. Analgesia was evident in both the acetic acid induced writhing and tail flick reaction time tests in mice. A significant antipyretic activity of oil was also observed in mice. A slow and gradual neuromuscular blocking effect was recorded on rat`s phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation. The oil showed no anti-microbial potential on various microorganisms tested. The oil showed sedative effect on behavioural tests without causing any side effect.

Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

2001-01-01

275

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF).  

Science.gov (United States)

SRTXRF WAS USED TO DETERMINE AS, BA, BR, CA, CO, CR, CS, CU, DY, FE, K, MN, MO, NI, PB, RB, SR, TI, V, AND ZN IN ELEVEN SEAWEED SPECIES COMMONLY FOUND IN FERNANDO DE NORONHA: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area. PMID:22505917

Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garla, Ricardo Clapis; Oliveira Filho, Eurico Cabral; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues

2012-01-01

276

Metal and Phosphorus Uptake by Spontaneous Vegetation in an abandoned iron mine from a Semiarid Area in Center Morocco: Implications for Phytoextraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 12 species, 10 genera, and 3 families were analyzed to study the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and P in shoots and roots. The different plant species collected in Ait Amar iron mining site exhibited large differences in shoot and root accumulation of metals. Among the grass species (Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae, the highest shoot Cd, Cu, Zn concentrations were found in Echinops spinosus L (0.989, 29.190 and 175.347 mg Kg-1 respectively, Cr in Cladanthus arabicus (L Class (9.241 mg Kg-1 and Pb, Fe and P in Leontodon hispidilus (Delile Boiss (5.952, 1522.839  and 4612.795 mg Kg-1. The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF were recorded for E. spinosus L and Zn (1.68. The highest soil-plant transfer factor (TF of Cd was 1.24 (Stipa Capensis thumb, of Cr was 2.01 (C. arabicus (L Class, of Cu was 8.40 (Carthamus lanatus L, of Zn was 2.52 (E. spinosus L, of Pb was 7.00 (Eryngium ilicifolium Lam, of P was 537.72 (E. ilicifolium Lam and of Fe was 0.52 (L. hispidilus (Delile Boiss. E. spinosus L showed the highest Zn phytoextraction capacity and other plant species demonstrated to grow well in metal contaminated soil taking up only low concentrations of metals, and, therefore they are good candidates for phytostabilization.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.3866

Mohamed Nouri

2013-07-01

277

[Abundance and species diversity of tabanids (Diptera) in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-Makokou (Gabon) during the rainy season].  

Science.gov (United States)

The abundance and species diversity of tabanids were evaluated by trapping of insects using Vavoua traps, during the rainy season, from October 4 to November 30, 2009, in three different habitats: primary forest, secondary forest and village, in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-IRET Makokou in Gabon. Eight species belonging to three genera of tabanids have been identified for a total of 402 specimens caught. The tabanid species numerically the most abundant were: Tabanus secedens Walker, 1854 (55.2%), Tabanus obscurehirtus Ricardo, 1908 (13.9%), Chrysops dimidiatus Wulp, 1885 (11.2%) and Chrysops silaceus Austen, 1907 (10.7%). The less abundant species were Tabanus par Walker, 1854 (3.2%), Tabanus besti arbucklei Austen, 1912 (3%), Tabanus marmorosus congoicola Bequaert, 1930 (1%) and Ancala fasciata fasciata (Fabricius, 1775) (0.5%). Specimens of the genera Tabanus and Chrysops could not be identified, these insects represented respectively 0.7% and 0.5% of the insects trapped. The highest proportion of tabanids was trapped in secondary forest (75.1%) and the lower in primary forest (4.5%). PMID:22550628

Mavoungou, J F; Makanga, B K; Acapovi-Yao, G; Desquesnes, M; M'Batchi, B

2012-05-01

278

Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae  

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Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.

Roger Beaver

2010-09-01

279

HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA  

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Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las QuijadasThe National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

Analía Guerreiro

2005-01-01

280

Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds  

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Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos de análise de dados: comparação entre a perda de biomassa e as mudanças por autogenia, e a incorporação dos valores de autogenia à perda de biomassa por herbivoria. Em ambos os experimentos observou-se uma clara preferência de L. variegatus por certas espécies de macroalgas em relação a outras, em ordem decrescente de preferência: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. Além disso, constatou-se que os dois métodos de análise produziram resultados muito similares. De acordo com os resultados, a preferência alimentar de L. variegatus é provavelmente condicionada pela química defensiva produzida por P. brasiliense e D. menstrualis e aspectos morfológicos presentes em C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba e Sargassum sp.

Camilla Ferreira Souza

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Preparation and Analysis of Type II Xerogel Films with Antifouling/Foul Release Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to combat biofouling, xerogel coatings comprised of aminopropyl, fluorocarbon, and hydrocarbon silanes were prepared and tested for their antifouling/foul release properties against Ulva, Navicula, barnacles, and tubeworms. Many of the coatings showed settlement and removal of Ulva to be as good as or better than the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMSE) standard. Barnacle removal assays showed excellent results for some coatings while others did not fair so well. The best foul release coatings for barnacles were comprised of aminopropyl/hydrocarbon- and fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified silanes. For the majority of coatings tested, water wettability and surface energy did not play a role in the antifouling/ foul release properties of the coatings.

Sokolova, Anastasiya

282

Engineered antifouling microtopographies: an energetic model that predicts cell attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a model for the prediction of cell attachment to engineered microtopographies based on two previous models: the attachment point theory and the engineered roughness index (ERI) model. The new surface energetic attachment (SEA) model is based on both the properties of the cell-material interface and the size and configuration of the topography relative to the organism. We have used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the SEA model's ability to predict relative attachment of the green alga Ulva linza to different locations within a unit cell. We have also compared the predicted relative attachment for Ulva linza, the diatom Navicula incerta, the marine bacterium Cobetia marina, and the barnacle cyprid Balanus amphitrite to a wide variety of microtopographies. We demonstrate good correlation between the experimental results and the model results for all tested experimental data and thus show the SEA model may be used as a powerful indicator of the efficacy for antifouling topographies. PMID:24044383

Decker, Joseph T; Kirschner, Chelsea M; Long, Christopher J; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2013-10-22

283

Antimicrobial behavior of semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers against airborne and marine microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity. PMID:20356271

Park, Daewon; Finlay, John A; Ward, Rebekah J; Weinman, Craig J; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Paik, Marvin; Sohn, Karen E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Handlin, Dale L; Willis, Carl L; Fischer, Daniel A; Angert, Esther R; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

2010-03-01

284

Antimicrobial Behavior of Semifluorinated-Quaternized Triblock Copolymers against Airborne and Marine Microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity.

Park, D.; Finlay, J; Ward, R; Weinman, C; Krishnan, S; Park, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; Callow, J; et. al.

2010-01-01

285

Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL = 44.0 cm (SD 6.7 cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

Santos, Robson G.; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Antunes Paulo; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Baptistotte, Cecilia; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.

2011-01-01

286

Identification of cytokinin in a green algae extract  

Science.gov (United States)

Isopentenyladenosine (i6Ado) was identified, and trans-zeatin (trans-Z) and trans-zeatin riboside (trans-ZR) were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) but not verified with chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cytokinin from the extracts of green algae ( Ulva pertusa (Kjellm), Enteromopha compressa and Monostroma sp.). This indicated that the green algae mixture contained cytokinin—like substances.

de-Lin, Duan; Feng, Pan; Li, Shuai; Jun-Shun, Zhang; Xin-Tong, Liu; Xiu-Geng, Fei

1996-06-01

287

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le [...] Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis) Batters). The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata) had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

C. M, BRAVO-LINARES; S. M, MUDGE; R. H, LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA.

288

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus, Fucus serratus (Linnaeus, Laminaria digitata (Hudson Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus, Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus, formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis Batters. The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

C. M BRAVO-LINARES

2010-06-01

289

Dynamics of green algae and its associated fauna in the Ria Formosa: is herbivory important?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ria Formosa is a system of salt marshes and tidal flats, separated from the Atlantic by a belt of sand dunes that extends for 55 Km along the southern coast of Portugal. A striking phenomenon, which has been registered every winter since 1988, is an intense bloom of green macroalgae, mainly Ulvales (Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) These blooms appear the first rain falls in autumn and disappear gradually during the following spring (Sprung, 1994). A distinct community of benthic fauna is...

Ani?bal, J.; Sprung, Martin

1998-01-01

290

Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses  

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The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) a...

Kristensen, Erik; Neto, Joa?o Magalha?es; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel A?ngelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

2013-01-01

291

The Effects of Environmental Conditions and Mercury on Common Estuarine Species. An Integrated Ecological and Toxicological Approach  

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The main goal of the present thesis was to assess the effects of the environmental conditions and mercury on estuarine species. In order to achieve this purpose, different approaches were performed using different categories of organisms: a primary producer (the macroalgae Ulva lactuca) and two consumers (the crab Carcinus maenas and its parasite Sacculina carcini). The thesis is divided in four main chapters, focusing on: 1) the consequences of two distinct hydrological periods (non-droug...

Costa, So?nia Isabel Almeida

2011-01-01

292

Antimicrobial and antifouling activities achieved by extracts of seaweeds from Gulf of California, Mexico Actividades antimicrobiana y anti-incrustante obtenidas de los extractos de algas marinas del Golfo de California, México  

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Six species of common seaweed extracts were tested in laboratory assays: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile for potential industrial applications through evaluation of the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (5 strains) and the antifouling potency against the growth of key species of marine colonisers (7 bacteria, 5 fungi and 11 microalgae). The organic extract of L. johnstonii, U. lactuca and...

Ruth Noemí Águila-Ramírez; Anabel Arenas-González; Claudia Judith Hernández-Guerrero; Bárbara González-Acosta; José Manuel Borges-Souza; Benoit Véron; Josephine Pope; Claire Hellio

2012-01-01

293

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

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Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

Krisler Alveal

1980-12-01

294

Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae  

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Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

Michio Namikoshi; Takeshi Fujiwara; Teruaki Nishikawa; Kazuyo Ukai

2006-01-01

295

Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Increased Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and Bacterial Invasion Are Caused by Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms†  

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Most biofilms in their natural environments are likely to consist of consortia of species that influence each other in synergistic and antagonistic manners. However, few reports specifically address interactions within multispecies biofilms. In this study, 17 epiphytic bacterial strains, isolated from the surface of the marine alga Ulva australis, were screened for synergistic interactions within biofilms when present together in different combinations. Four isolates, Microbacterium phyllosph...

Burmølle, Mette; Webb, Jeremy S.; Rao, Dhana; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2006-01-01

296

Macroalgae from S. Miguel Island as a potential source of antiproliferative and antioxidant products  

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Ulva compressa, Gelidium microdon, Osmundea pinnatifida, Fucus spiralis and Cystoseira abies-marina from the coast of S. Miguel Island were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa tumour cell line, antioxidant potential and total phenolic content. From each alga, the hexane fraction (HF) of the methanol extract, the methanol residue (MF) and the dichloromethane extract (DE), were obtained and evaluated. The highest antiproliferative activity against HeLa cell line was found in C...

Barreto, Maria Do Carmo; Mendonc?a, Emanuel A.; Gouveia, Vera F.; Anjos, Carolina; Medeiros, Joana S.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Neto, Ana I.

2012-01-01

297

Isolation and characterisation of some antifouling agents from the brown alga Sargassum confusum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fats and phthalic acid derivatives were isolated and characterised based on their spectral analysis from the antifouling activity guided fractions of n-hexane and methanol extract of the brown alga Sargassum confusum. The fractions, as well as the isolated compounds, demonstrated significant antifouling activity against spores of a major fouling alga Ulva pertusa with 50-75% decrease of spore attachment on agar-coated slides. PMID:16864441

Ganti, V S; Kim, K H; Bhattarai, H D; Shin, H W

2006-06-01

298

Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: refinement of an attachment model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA), PEGDMA-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-GMA), and PEGDMA-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-HEMA) hydrogels were polymerized using ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid as radical initiators. Surface energies of the hydrogels and a standard, poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSe), were characterized using captive bubble and sessile drop measurements, respectively (? = 52 mN/m, ?(0) = 19 mN/m). The chemical composition of the hydrogels was characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. All three hydrogel compositions reduced significantly (p = 0.05) initial attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza (up to 97%), cells of the diatom Navicula incerta (up to 58%) and the bacterium Cobetia marina (up to 62%), compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. A shear stress (45 Pa), generated in a water channel, eliminated up to 95% of the initially attached cells of Navicula from the smooth hydrogel surfaces relative to smooth PDMSe surfaces. Compared to the PDMSe standard, 79% of the cells of C. marina were removed from all smooth hydrogel compositions when exposed to a 50 Pa wall shear stress. Attachment of spores of the green alga Ulva to microtopographies replicated in PEGDMA-co-HEMA was also evaluated. The Sharklet AF microtopography patterned, PEGDMA-co-HEMA surfaces reduced attachment of spores of Ulva by 97% compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. The attachment densities of spores to engineered microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA were shown to correlate with a modified attachment model through the inclusion of a surface energy term. Attachment densities of spores of Ulva to engineered topographies replicated in a material other than PDMSe are now correlated with the attachment model (R(2) = 0.80). PMID:21401017

Magin, Chelsea M; Finlay, John A; Clay, Gemma; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2011-04-11

299

Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50–80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

Namikoshi, Michio; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Teruaki; Ukai, Kazuyo

2006-01-01

300

Differential Effects of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, Dimethylsulfonioacetate, and Other S-Methylated Compounds on the Growth of Sinorhizobium meliloti at Low and High Osmolarities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An extract from the marine alga Ulva lactuca was highly osmoprotective in salt-stressed cultures of Sinorhizobium meliloti 102F34. This beneficial activity was due to algal 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which was accumulated as a dominant compatible solute and strongly reduced the accumulation of endogenous osmolytes in stressed cells. Synthetic DMSP also acted as a powerful osmoprotectant and was accumulated as a nonmetabolizable cytosolic osmolyte (up to a concentration of 1,400 nmol...

Pichereau, Vianney; Pocard, Jean-alain; Hamelin, Jack; Blanco, Carlos; Bernard, The?ophile

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of Substratum Surface Chemistry and Surface Energy on Attachment of Marine Bacteria and Algal Spores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ?-substituted alkanethiolates on gold were used to systematically examine the effects of varying substratum surface chemistry and energy on the attachment of two model organisms of interest to the study of marine biofouling, the bacterium Cobetia marina (formerly Halomonas marina) and zoospores of the alga Ulva linza (formerly Enteromorpha linza). SAMs were formed on gold-coated glass slides from solutions containing mixtures of methyl- and c...

Ista, Linnea K.; Callow, Maureen E.; Finlay, John A.; Coleman, Sarah E.; Nolasco, Aleece C.; Simons, Robin H.; Callow, James A.; Lopez, Gabriel P.

2004-01-01

302

Ecosystem quality and natural heritage preservation: the case of the littoral eutrophication and the wintering of Brent Geese Branta b. bernicla in the bay of Saint-Brieuc (France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The national nature reserve of Saint-Brieuc Bay, located in the north of Brittany, is a site of international importance for the wintering of the Black-bellied Brent goose Branta bernicla bernicla although its preferred food, eelgrass, is completely absent. Local monitoring points out that the green seaweeds Ulva armocicana represents 90% of the food eaten by the Brent geese. These algae are responsible for the spectacular green tides which greatly impact this bay each summer. The 400 odd ton...

Ponsero, Alain; Le Mao, Patrick; Yesou, Pierre; Allain, Jeremy; Vidal, Justine

2009-01-01

303

Mineral Content of Some Seaweeds from Sabah`s South China Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia) and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%). The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5%) was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%). The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>C...

Duduku Krishnaiah; Rosalam Sarbatly; Prasad, D. M. R.; Awang Bono Chemical Engineering Programme

2008-01-01

304

Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile) Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittoral: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I) curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory un...

RALF RAUTENBERGER; ANDRÉS MANSILLA; IVÁN GÓMEZ; CHRISTIAN WIENCKE; KAI BISCHOF

2009-01-01

305

Metal binding stoichiometry and isotherm choice in biosorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seaweeds that possess a high metal binding capacity may be used as biosorbents for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. The binding of Cu and Ni by three brown algae (Sargassum, Colpomenia, Petalonia) and one green alga (Ulva) was investigated at pH 4.0 and pH 3.0. The greater binding strength of Cu is reflected in a binding constant that is about 10 times as high as that of Ni. The extent of metal binding followed the order Petalonia {approximately} Sargassum > Colpomenia > Ulva. This was caused by a decreasing number of binding sites and by much lower metal binding constants for Ulva as compared to the brown algae. Three different stoichiometric assumptions are compared for describing the metal binding, which assume either that each metal ion M binds to one binding site B forming a BM complex or that a divalent metal ion M binds to two monovalent sites B forming BM{sub 0.5} or B{sub 2}M complexes, respectively. Stoichiometry plots are proposed as tools to discern the relevant binding stoichiometry. The pH effect in metal binding and the change in proton binding were well predicted for the B{sub 2}M or BM{sub 0.5} stoichiometries with the former being better for Cu and the latter preferable for Ni. Overall, the BM{sub 0.5} model is recommended because it avoids iterations.

Schiewer, S.; Wong, M.H.

1999-11-01

306

ABC triblock surface active block copolymer with grafted ethoxylated fluoroalkyl amphiphilic side chains for marine antifouling/fouling-release applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

An amphiphilic triblock surface-active block copolymer (SABC) possessing ethoxylated fluoroalkyl side chains was synthesized through the chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene polymer precursor. Bilayer coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC spray coated on a thick layer of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS) thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with the green alga Ulva and the diatom Navicula. Dynamic water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surfaces. Additionally, the effect of the Young's modulus of the coating on the release properties of sporelings (young plants) of the green alga Ulva was examined through the use of two different SEBS thermoplastic elastomers possessing modulus values of an order of magnitude in difference. The amphiphilic SABC was found to reduce the settlement density of zoospores of Ulva as well as the strength of attachment of sporelings. The attachment strength of the sporelings was further reduced for the amphiphilic SABC on the "low"-modulus SEBS base layer. The weaker adhesion of diatoms, relative to a PDMS standard, further highlights the antifouling potential of this amphiphilic triblock hybrid copolymer. PMID:19821626

Weinman, Craig J; Finlay, John A; Park, Daewon; Paik, Marvin Y; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Sundaram, Harihara S; Dimitriou, Michael; Sohn, Karen E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Handlin, Dale L; Willis, Carl L; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

2009-10-20

307

Analytic methods for predicting biosettlement on patterned surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine organism fouling of surfaces has significant impact on our environment and the economy. Increased fuel use due to drag costs approximately $600 million annually in the United States alone. The efficiency of marine vessels substantially decreases due to fouling. Toxins in some antifouling paints accumulate in the marine environment and produce negative effects on the marine ecology. There is a critical need for effective non-toxic, anti-fouling, marine coatings that reduce operational costs and the overall environmental impact of ocean vessels on the environment. Our approach is to investigate the interaction between the wettability of surfaces with the response of fouling organisms. One of the ways the wettability can be influenced is through the use of topography. Since the topographies have directionality, the direction dependence of the wettability was determined on several microscale topographies that have previously shown antifouling potential. Breaking microscale ridges into the discontinuous features in the antifouling topographies reduced the anisotropies in the contact angles, but did not eliminate anisotropy. The number of distinct features in the design and the area fraction of the topographic features were found to influence settlement of the fouling alga Ulva linza. A biosettlement model, refined from previous work, predicts the settlement of Ulva linza to three previously untested surfaces. These surfaces significantly reduced the settlement of these spores in vitro by up to 78%. The attachment of another species of fouler, the diatom Navicula perminuta, was reduced by approximately 35% on several surfaces that reduced Ulva linza settlement. The Navicula cells responded differently to the topographies than the Ulva linza spores. A mapping technique was developed to determine the two-dimensional settlement pattern of cells on the topographical surfaces. This technique revealed and quantified several preferential locations for Ulva linza settlement on engineered topographies. The characteristics of these locations can be further investigated to elucidate the driving factors for the interaction of these cells. Other applications, such as the medical devices and tissue scaffolds, could benefit from investigating the localized interactions between various cells and surface patterns.

Long, Christopher James

308

A conserved heptapeptide sequence in the waterborne attractin pheromone stimulates mate attraction in Aplysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mate attraction in the marine mollusk Aplysia involves long-distance waterborne chemical signaling via the release of the peptide pheromone attractin during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts conspecifics, reduces the latency to mating, and stimulates hermaphroditic mating. Four additional members of the Aplysia attractin family have recently been characterized from Aplysia brasiliana, Aplysia fasciata, Aplysia depilans, and Aplysia vaccaria. The five sequences differ significantly, but share six cysteine residues and the strictly conserved sequence Ile30-Glu-Glu-Cys-Lys-Thr-Ser36. Attractin is attractive to geographically and evolutionarily distant species, suggesting that the conserved heptapeptide region may be important for mate attraction. Consistent with this prediction, a synthetic constrained cyclic peptide that contains the conserved heptapeptide sequence is significantly attractive in T-maze bioassays. The attractins are the first family of waterborne peptide pheromones characterized in invertebrates and are unique in that family members are not species-specific pheromonal attractants. PMID:15062999

Cummins, Scott F; Nichols, Amy E; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Nagle, Gregg T

2004-02-01

309

Rediscovery of Clivina morio Dejean with the description of Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille, is established for C. americana Dejean and its relatives, whose collective geographical range includes the Western Hemisphere Nearctic Region and the Eastern Hemisphere Palaearctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical Regions. Previously, these taxa were included in the subgenus Reichardtula Whitehead, 1977, a taxon now confined to the Eastern Hemisphere. Members of Leucocara differ from those of other Nearctic Clivina by the presence of a small, apically truncate preapical protuberance on the mesotibia with its seta inserted apically. Clivina morio, previously known only from the holotype, is reported here from Louisiana and Texas, confirming its presence on the North American continent; the species is also included in Leucocara. The following new synonymies are proposed: C. dilutipennis Putzeys, 1866, C. insularis Jacquelin du Val, 1857, C. klugii Putzeys, 1846, C. sculptifrons Putzeys, 1846 with C. fasciata Putzeys, 1846 and C. morula LeConte, 1857 with C. americana Dejean, 1831.

Yves Bousquet

2009-10-01

310

Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) From species of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile / Piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera) de especies de las familias Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae E Icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se analizaron un total de 185 aves (nueve capturadas vivas y 176 preservadas en un museo) correspondientes a las familias Furnariidae (n= 14), Tyrannidae (n= 4), Turdidae (n=24) e Icteridae (n=143). Las especies de piojos aislados e identificados fueron: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 en Phleoc [...] ryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817) y Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 en Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) en Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 y Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), en Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 en Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 y Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 en Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae). Las especies Brueelia persimilis Cicchino 1987, Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker, 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 corresponden a nuevas citas para Chile. Nuevos registros de hospedadores son G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) para P. cuniculariae Cicchino, 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), para M. psittaci Carriker 1955 y S. loyca (Molina 1782) para M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Se amplia la distribución de Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV hasta la X Región de Chile y la de B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV a la XII Región de Chile. Abstract in english A total of 185 birds (nine captured alive and 176 preserved in a museum), belonging to the families Furnariidae (n=14), Tyrannidae (n=4), Turdidae (n=24) and Icteridae (n=143) (Aves: Passeriformes) were searched for lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae). The species collected and identifie [...] d were: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 from Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817), and Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 from Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) from Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 and Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838) from Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino and Castro 1996 from Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 from Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro, 1996 and Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 from Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae). The species B. persimilis Cicchino 1987, M. eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 are new records for Chile. New host-louse records are G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) for P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), for M. psittaci and S. loyca for M. leistidis Carriker 1955 and S. loyca (Molina 1782) for M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Within Chile, the distribution of Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 was extended from the 4th to the 10th Regions, and for B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from the 4th to the 12th Regions.

Daniel, González-Acuña; Francisco, Vergara; Lucila, Moreno; Carlos, Barrientos; Karen, Ardiles; Armando, Cicchino.

311

Variations in the fecundity and body size of digenean (Opecoelidae) species parasitizing fishes from Northern Chile / Variaciones en la fecundidad y tamaño corporal de especies digeneas (Opecoelidae) que parasitan peces del norte de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia de vida y estrategias de reproducción de los parásitos muestran una variabilidad significativa asociada con la identidad de hospedador y con factores ambientales. Este estudio evaluó la influencia de las especies hospedadoras sobre algunos rasgos de historia de vida de digeneos, como el [...] tamaño del cuerpo del parásito (PBL) y la fecundidad, de 3 especies: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia y Neoleburia georgenascimentoi. Además, se usaron marcadores moleculares (región V4 del gen 18S y CO-I)para confirmar la identidad específica de las especies parásitas en los diferentes hospedadores. Desde enero 2010 hasta junio 2012, 305 peces pertenecientes a Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus, Labrisomus philippii, Prolatilus jugularis y Pinguipes chilensis fueron capturados, por medio de buceo, desde la costa norte de Chile (24°S). En el laboratorio, los peces se midieron y se recolectaron todos sus parásitos. A cada parásito objetivo se le midió la longitud total y el ancho del cuerpo y todos sus huevos extraídos del útero se contabilizaron. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados (GLM) para identificar los factores que afectan la fecundidad de los digeneos. La fecundidad de H. nimia fue mayor en A. pictus y menor en L. philippii; la fecundidad de H. fasciata fue mayor en P. humeralis y menor en L. philippii y la fecundidad de N. georgenascimentoi fue mayor en P. chilensis. GLM mostraron que la fecundidad es afectada por el PBL y por la especie hospedadora. Las variaciones en PBL y fecundidad están aparentemente asociados con el tamaño de las especies hospedadoras: los parásitos más grandes (y con mayor fecundidad) se registraron en las especies de peces con mayores tamaños corporales (P. humeralis; A. pictus y P. chilensis). No obstante, los análisis moleculares mostraron que H. nimia presente en L. philippii difiere a las encontradas en A. pictus y P. humeralis, mientras que N. georgenascimentoi presente en P. jugularis es distinta a la encontrada en P. chilensis; por lo tanto, la identidad específica de los digeneos podría explicar la diferencia en su fecundidad entre especies de hospedadores. Abstract in english Parasite life history and reproductive strategies show considerable variability associated with host identity and/or environmental factors. In this study, we measured parasite body length (PBL) and fecundity of 3 digenean species: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia and Neoleburia georgenascim [...] entoi, in their different host species, to evaluate the host influence on these biological traits. Additionally, parasite identifications were confirmed using molecular markers (V4 region of 18S and CO-I genes). From January 2010 to June 2012, 305 fish belonging to Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus; Labrisomus philippii; Prolatilus jugularis and Pinguipes chilensis were captured, by diving, off the northern Chilean coast (24°S). In the laboratory, fish were measured and all their parasites collected. The total length and body width of each individual parasite were measured and all eggs were extracted from the parasites' uterus and counted. Generalized lineal models were used to identify factors affecting fecundity of digeneans. Fecundity of H. nimia was highest in A. pictus and lowest in individuals from L. philippii; fecundity of H. fasciata was highest in P. humeralis and lowest in L. philippii and fecundity of N. georgenascimentoi was highest in P. chilensis. GLM showed that variations in fecundity of digeneans are explained by host fish species and by PBL. Variations in PBL and fecundity are apparently associated with host species sizes: longer parasites (with more eggs per parasite) were recorded in larger fish species (P. humeralis, A. pictus and P. chilensis). However, molecular analyses showed that H. nimia from L. philippii should be considered a distinct species from specimens found in A. pictus and P. humeralis, while N. georgenascimentoi from P. jugularis should be co

M. Teresa, González; Vania, Henríquez; Zambra, López.

312

First toxin profile of ciguateric fish in Madeira Arquipelago (Europe).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a human foodborne intoxication caused by ingestion of tropical fishes contaminated with the potent polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins (CTXs). These toxins are issued from Gambierdiscus species of dinoflagellates. Herbivorous fish accumulate these toxins in their musculature and viscera after ingesting dinoflagellates. Epidemiological studies showed that CFP has been present in areas between 35 degrees North and 35 degrees South latitude, mainly, Indo-pacific and Caribbean areas, but not in waters closed to European and African continent. In the present paper, a specimen of Seriola dumerili weighing 70 kg and a smaller Seriola fasciata specimen, captured in waters belonging to Selvagens Islands (Madeira Arquipelago), were analyzed. Fishes from this genus were implicated in previous suspected ciguatera poisoning outbreaks in the Portuguese Madeira Arquipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis was performed by two approaches, a functional method using cerebellar granule cells and by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method. The study was carried out in one portion of the tail muscle of Seriola fasciata and five parts of the body of Seriola dumerili (tail muscle, head, ventral muscle, mid muscle, and liver). The functional method consisted in the modification of the inward sodium current in cerebellar granule cells and the chemical method was a high resolution chromatography, which allowed elucidating the toxin profile in the samples. In addition, UPLC-MS technique was optimized and used for detecting and quantifying CTXs for the first time. After fish extraction and clean up, the chromatograms revealed the presence of CTX-1B at 1111.6 m/z, CTX-3C at 1023.5 m/z, a CTX analogue at 1040.6 m/z, and a CTX from the Caribbean or Indic waters at 1141.6 m/z. Therefore, the results obtained in the present paper for both methods confirm, for the first time, the presence of CTX in fish from Madeira Arquipelago. PMID:20557036

Otero, Paz; Pérez, Sheila; Alfonso, Amparo; Vale, Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Gouveia, Neide N; Gouveia, Nuno; Delgado, João; Vale, Paulo; Hirama, Masahiro; Ishihara, Yuuki; Molgó, Jordi; Botana, Luis M

2010-07-15

313

Evaluación de germoplasma de achiote Bixa orellana L.: estudios básicos sobre asociaciones fenotípicas y biología floral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 150 Bixa genetic resources was collected by National University of Colombia for purposes of conservation, evaluation and utilization in genetic breeding program. 21 accessions was evaluated for color production, seed production per plant and color porcentaje. B-Col 12, B-Col 16 and B-Co156 accessions showed highest values for seed production per plant and color percentaje. The achiote flower is hermafrodite, regular, calix formed by 5 sepales, coro le formed by 5 petales, numerous estames, superior and unilocular ovary. Antesis is 5:30 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. range. Protandria is present in achiote: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata and Trigona sp. are the pollinizator insects. A methodoly for controlled polinization was carried out.En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, seccional de Palmira se formó una colección de achiote Bixa orellana L. con 70 introducciones nacionales y 80 extranjeras. En 21 introducciones se encontró amplia variación fenotípica para los caracteres rendimiento de colorante por árbol y rendimiento de semilla por árbol. La variabilidad del carácter porcentaje de colorante fue menor. Las introducciones B-Col 12, B-Col 16 y B-Col 56 presentaron valores altos para los caracteres rendimiento de semilla por árbol y porcentaje de colorante. La flor del achiote es hermafrodita, regular, cáliz compuesto de cinco sépalos, corola por cinco pétalos libres, numerosos estambres, gineceo constituido por un ovario súpero unilocular. La antesis floral ocurre entre las 5:30 a.m. y las 8:00 a.m. Se presenta el fenómeno de protandria. Los principales insectos polinizadores son: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata y Trigona sp. Se determinó una metodología para efectuar hibridación artificial en achiote.

Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

1991-12-01

314

Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de cápsulas e chás de plantas utilizadas na assistência ao tratamento da obesidade / Microbiological quality evaluation of herbal capsules and teas to assist the treatment of obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de plantas diuréticas e laxativas é uma alternativa medicamentosa para muitas pessoas que objetivam o emagrecimento com menores efeitos adversos. A avaliação microbiológica é um requisito essencial para a garantia de qualidade dos produtos. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade m [...] icrobiológica de cápsulas e chás de alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L.), centella asiática (Hydrocotile asiatica L.), fucus (Fucus vesiculosus L.), e sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile), através da contagem de micro-organismos viáveis totais e pesquisa de patógenos. Na contagem de micro-organismos viáveis, os chás analisados foram aprovados, pois apesar de apresentarem uma carga microbiana elevada, esta se encontrava dentro das especificações, entretanto, 16,66% e 66,66% das cápsulas analisadas foram reprovadas por apresentaram quantidades superiores de bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. Na pesquisa de patógenos, 76% das amostras (88% dos chás e 58% das cápsulas) apresentaram um ou mais de um tipo de micro-organismo. Salmonella sp. esteve presente em 33% das amostras evidenciando a qualidade microbiológica insatisfatória dos produtos encontrados no mercado. Estes resultados demonstram a necessidade da realização do controle de qualidade tanto das matérias-primas vegetais, quanto dos produtos acabados, através do controle e fiscalização rigorosa, com adoção de medidas regulamentadoras e educativas. Abstract in english The use of laxative and diuretic herbal drugs is an alternative therapy for many people looking for loosing weight with fewer side effects. The microbiological evaluation is an essential requirement for the quality assurance of products. This study aimed to evaluate the microbial quality of artichok [...] e (Cynara scolymus L.), centella (Hydrocotile asiatica L.), fucus (Fucus vesiculosus L.), and Senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile) capsules and teas, by counting the total viable aerobic microorganisms and through tests for specified microorganisms. On the total viable aerobic microorganisms count, the teas analyzed were approved, because although they had a high microbial load, this was in accordance with the specifications, however 16.66% and 66.66% of the capsules analyzed were rejected because they presented higher amounts of bacteria and fungi, respectively. In relation to the tests for specified microorganisms, 76% of the samples (88% of the teas and 58% of the capsules) presented one or more than one type of microorganisms. Salmonella sp. was present in 33% of the samples, showing the unsatisfactory microbial quality of the products in the market. These results demonstrate the necessity of performing quality control both on herbal raw material and finished products, through a rigorous control and inspection, adopting regulatory and educational measures.

Susana, Verdi; Salua, Younes; Charise D., Bertol.

315

Effect of Acacia nilotica Fruit Extract on Serum Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effects of Acacia nilotica Delile (Fabaceae fruit extract on serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in control and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: Normal Control Rats (NC, normal control rats administered A. nilotica (NC+AN, Diabetic Control rats (DC and diabetic rats administered A. nilotica (DC+AN. Each group comprised 10 to 14 rats. The methanolic extract A. nilotica fruit was orally administered at a concentration of 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. for 5 consecutive weeks. The A. nilotica fruit extract significantly (pA. nilotica fruit extract administration did not change significantly. The A. nilotica extract showed a strong hypolipidemic effect on diabetic rats and significantly decreased serum levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pA. nilotica fruit extract could be beneficial for treatment of diabetes related-complications and hyperlipidemia.

Abuelgassim O. Abuelgassim

2013-01-01

316

Chernobyl radionuclides in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, 1986-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 26 April and 1 June 1986, the nuclear reactor accident of unit 4 at Cherobyl led to the release of a large quantity of radioactive material, part of which reached the Mediterranean environment. Radionuclides such as 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 141Ce and 144Ce were immediately detected in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. A survey of this species showed a selective distribution amongst its tissues and a preferential contamination of the adult leaves. The rhizomes, which are perennial parts, recorded early contamination by 110mAg, located by sectioning the annual segments (lepidochronology). Variations in the concentrations of several radionuclides found in adult leaves reveal the rapid decay and distribution of contamination in Mediterranean waters in 1986 and 1987, although the eastern part of the French coast had higher concentrations in 1986. Since adult leaves are continuously renewed and because of their rapid accumulation of radionuclides, they may be particularly interesting immediate sentinel accumulators in the event of a nuclear accident as well as in monitoring chronic contamination. It is suggested that a 'Posidonia Watch' could be set up around the Mediterranean Sea. (author)

1986-06-01

317

Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas. PMID:19458990

Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

2010-01-01

318

Macro algae as substrate for biogas production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown ...

Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Bruhn, Anette; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

2012-01-01

319

Sorption of Yttrium and the Rare Earth Elements on Non-Living Macroalgal Tissue  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on tissue of the green macroalga Ulva lactuca, commonly known as sea lettuce. Due to its nearly worldwide distribution in coastal waters, very simple morphology, and prodigious capacity for trace metal uptake from seawater, members of the Ulva genus serve as a basic but representative model of marine organic substrates in this type of study. In order to exclude active biological uptake effects, allowing us to focus on passive chemical mechanisms, we performed our initial experiments with sea lettuce Certified Reference Material consisting of a dehydrated, powdered tissue homogenate. A small quantity of this powder was suspended in NaCl solutions containing all YREEs, except Pm, at pH 3 and T = 25°C. The extent of YREE sorption was determined as a function of pH at constant temperature by titrating the solution with dilute NaOH and measuring the YREE concentrations of 0.2-?m filtered aliquots with an ICP-MS at regular time intervals after each pH adjustment. In NaCl solutions with an ionic strength approaching that of seawater, distribution coefficients, which quantify the proportion of sorbed and dissolved metal concentrations, are a highly linear function of pH in the range 3-8. The slope of the line suggests a sorption mechanism that involves ion exchange with both H+ and Na+ on surface functional groups. The shape of solution YREE patterns indicates that these functional groups are probably carboxylates at low and intermediate pH, but that other groups may contribute at high pH. The identification of carboxylate functional groups appears to be confirmed by preliminary results from EXAFS spectroscopic analyses of individual REE sorbed on the surface of Ulva lactuca tissue under similar conditions, conducted at the ANL Advanced Photon Source. In dilute NaCl solutions the distribution coefficient is largely independent of pH. We believe that prolonged exposure of the tissue to a low ionic strength solution may modify the chemical structure of the cell wall and make it permeable to organic ligands that otherwise sequester the YREEs in the cell interior. Chemical extraction of filtered solutions from the low ionic strength experiment with silica-bonded C18, showing that a substantial fraction of dissolved YREEs is distinctly hydrophobic, seems to support this hypothesis. Additional experiments to clarify these observations, including acid-base titrations of the Ulva lactuca tissue to assess the number of different functional groups and their surface densities, are currently ongoing.

Schijf, J.; Straka, A. M.

2007-12-01

320

Rol de las macroalgas en el biomonitoreo de la contaminación en «Marchica», la laguna de Nador / Role of macroalgae in biomonitoring of pollution in «Marchica», the Nador lagoon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish La contaminación de los sistemas acuáticos por los contaminantes orgánicos y metales pesados es uno de los problemas más graves a los que están expuestos el medio ambiente y los organismos. La acumulación de estos contaminantes se debe a la actividad antropogénica, principalmente al uso intensivo de [...] fertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos en los cultivos. En este trabajo, hemos comparado los niveles de clorofila, proteínas y carbohidratos (glucosa y sacarosa) en algunas algas rojas (Alsidium sp. y Gracilaria sp.) y verdes (Ulva sp.) recogidas en Mohandis, cerca de Kariat y Bou Areg. Nuestros resultados indican que las algas recogidas cerca de Bou Areg, una zona bien conocida por su alta actividad agrícola, contienen altos niveles de pigmentos, proteínas y azúcares. A partir de los resultados de clorofila podemos concluir que Ulva sp. es un buen indicador para el registro de la eutroficación. No obstante, Gracilaria sp. puede ser utilizada en la fitorremediación debido a la alta tasa de síntesis de carbohidratos lo que la hace mucho más resistente a la contaminación. Abstract in english The Aquatic system contamination by organic pollutants and heavy metals is one of the most serious problems that might face the environment and organisms as a whole. Interestingly, the accumulation of these pollutants is due to the anthropogenic activity, namely the intensive use of fertilizers to o [...] btain high yields in crop production. In this paper, we compared the levels of chlorophylls, proteins, dry weight and sucrose in some red (Alsidium sp. and Gracilaria sp.) and green algae (Ulva sp.) collected from Mohandis, near Kariat and Bou Areg. Our results indicate that the algae collected nearby Bou Areg, an area well-known for its high agricultural activity, contained high levels of pigments, proteins and sugars. From the chlorophyll results, we conclude that Ulva sp. is the best indicator for eutrophication biomonitoring. Nevertheless, the Gracilaria sp. can be used in phytoremediation due to its high carbohydrate synthesis that makes it much more pollutant resistant.

K, Ben Chekroun; A, Moumen; N, Rezzoum; E, Sánchez; M, Baghour.

 
 
 
 
321

Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

Kazuyo Ukai

2006-11-01

322

Cytoglobosins A-G, cytochalasans from a marine-derived endophytic fungus, Chaetomium globosum QEN-14.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytoglobosins A-G (1-7), seven new cytochalasan derivatives, along with two structurally related known compounds, isochaetoglobosin D (8) and chaetoglobosin F(ex) (9), were isolated and identified from the cultures of Chaetomium globosum QEN-14, an endophytic fungus derived from the marine green alga Ulva pertusa. The structures of the new natural products as well as their relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRESIMS data. Cytoglobosins C and D (3 and 4) displayed cytotoxic activity against the A-549 tumor cell line. PMID:20225834

Cui, Chuan-Ming; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-Gui

2010-04-23

323

Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

1988-01-01

324

Bite force and feeding kinematics in the eastern North Pacific Kyphosidae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some fishes that feed on attached food items possess an intramandibular joint (IMJ), which is thought to increase maximum gape and facilitate contact between the tooth-bearing surface and the substrate. However, the mechanical consequences of using an IMJ to remove attached food items from the substrate are still poorly understood. We examined the most prominent eastern North Pacific kyphosid, the scraper: Girella nigricans and two other kyphosids, Medialuna californiensis and Hermosilla azurea, which occupy similar habitats. Of the three species, G. nigricans had the highest theoretical bite force per unit length. We examined the feeding mechanics of G. nigricans in two different feeding scenarios: a scraping behavior elicited on a block of brine shrimp gelatin and a picking behavior elicited on Ulva sp. We measured cranial elevation, lower jaw rotation, premaxillary protrusion, premaxillary rotation, gape maximum, and intramandibular rotation. Ulva treatments produced significantly greater cranial rotation, when compared to gelatin treatments. Gelatin treatments were associated with greater lower jaw rotation and larger gape. Premaxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion did not differ between treatments. Intramandibular rotation occurred only when G. nigricans physically contacted the gelatin, suggesting the IMJ is a passive joint with no associated musculature. We also noted that G. nigricans do not appear to use suction to draw food into the mouth. The lack of suction and the presence of the IMJ suggest that the jaws of G. nigricans are specialized for maximizing jaw force when scraping. PMID:24497484

Moran, Clinton Joseph; Ferry, Lara

2014-04-01

325

Composición de ácidos grasos en juveniles de abulón Haliotis tuberculata coccinea alimentados con dietas formuladas con diferentes contenidos de HUFA n3 / Fatty acid composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis tuberculata coccinea) fed formulated diets containing various n3 HUFA levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes niveles de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados (HUFAs, por sus siglas en inglés) n3 en el perfil de ácidos grasos de los tejidos blandos de juveniles de Haliotis tuberculata coccinea. Se formularon 5 dietas con diferentes fuentes de aceite (palma, colza, pescado, se [...] milla de girasol y soya), que contenían de 2.52% a 12.33% de HUFA n3, usando Ulva rigida como dieta de referencia. Las diferentes dietas se suminitraron a grupos de 20 abulones durante 120 días por triplicado. Aunque no se registraron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento (P Abstract in english The effect of feeding different levels of n3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on the fatty acid profile was evaluated in soft tissue from juvenile Haliotis tuberculata coccinea. Five diets were formulated with different oil sources (palm, colza, fish, sunflower, and soybean), containing from 2. [...] 52% to 12.33% n3 HUFA, while fresh Ulva rigida was used as reference diet. The different diets were provided to groups of 20 abalone during 120 days in independent triplicates. Though no significant differences in growth (P

P, Toledo-Agüero; MT, Viana.

326

Primer registro de Caprella scaura y Caprella penantis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) en la laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, México / First record of Caprella scaura and Caprella penantis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) in the Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se registran por primera vez los anfípodos caprélidos Caprella scaura y C. penantis en la laguna Madre de Tamaulipas. Ambas especies son cosmopolitas y con numerosos registros exóticos alrededor del mundo. El registro de C. scaura es también el primero en el suroeste del golfo de México. Este caprél [...] ido se recolectó entre mantos del alga verde Ulva lactuca adheridos en rocas de arenisca en la boca de Catán de esta laguna. Mientras que los especímenes de C. penantis se recolectaron entre el pasto marino Halodule wrightii. Abstract in english The caprellid amphipods Caprella scaura and C. penantis are recorded for first time in the Laguna Madre from Tamaulipas. Both species are cosmopolitan and with exotic numerous records worldwide. The finding of C. scaura is also the first record for the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. This caprellid was [...] collected among green-algae Ulva lactuca that colonized tidal inlets at Laguna Madre. While that specimens of C. penantis were collected between seagrass Halodule wrightii.

Gabino A., Rodríguez-Almaraz; Víctor M., Ortega-Vidales.

327

The role of surface energy and water wettability in aminoalkyl/fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogel surfaces in the control of marine biofouling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xerogel films with uniform surface topogrophy, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, were prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl- containing precursors. Young's modulus was determined from AFM indentation measurements. The xerogel coatings gave reduced settlement of zoospores of the marine fouling alga Ulva compared to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. Increased settlement correlated with decreased water wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), or with decreased polar contribution (gamma(P)) to the surface free energy (gamma(S)) as measured by comprehensive contact angle analysis. The strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings (young plants) of Ulva on several of the xerogels was similar to that on PDMSE although no overall correlation was observed with either theta(Ws) or gamma(S). For sporelings attached to the fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogels, the strength of attachment increased with increased water wettability. The aminopropyl-modified xerogels did not follow this trend. PMID:19960390

Bennett, Stephanie M; Finlay, John A; Gunari, Nikhil; Wells, David D; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Bright, Frank V; Detty, Michael R

2010-01-01

328

Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Fluorine-Free Amphiphilic Non-Ionic Side Chains for Antifouling and Fouling-Release Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorine-free, amphiphilic, nonionic surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were synthesized through chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene triblock copolymer precursor with selected amphiphilic nonionic Brij and other surfactants. Amphiphilicity was imparted by a hydrophobic aliphatic group combined with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group-containing moiety. The surfaces were characterized by dynamic water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. In biofouling assays, settlement (attachment) of both spores of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula on SABCs modified with Brij nonionic side chains was significantly reduced relative to a PDMS standard, with a nonionic surfactant combining a PEG group and an aliphatic moiety demonstrating the best performance. Additionally, a fouling-release assay using sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula suggested that the SABC derived from nonionic Brij side chains also out-performed PDMS as a fouling-release material. Good antifouling and fouling-release properties were not demonstrated for the other two amphiphilic surfaces derived from silicone and aromatic group containing nonionic surfactants included in this study. The results suggest that small differences in chemical surface functionality impart more significant changes with respect to the antifouling settlement and fouling-release performance of materials than overall wettability behavior.

Y Cho; H Sundaram; C Weinman; M Paik; M Dimitriou; J Finlay; M Callow; J Callow; E Kramer; C Ober

2011-12-31

329

Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1)) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1) of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

Angell, Alex R; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

2012-01-01

330

The potential of nano-structured silicon oxide type coatings deposited by PACVD for control of aquatic biofouling.  

Science.gov (United States)

SiO(x)-like coatings were deposited on glass slides from a hexamethylsiloxane precursor by plasma-assisted CVD (PACVD). Surface energies (23.1-45.7 mJ m(-1)) were correlated with the degree of surface oxidation and hydrocarbon contents. Tapping mode AFM revealed a range of surface topologies with Ra values 1.55-3.16 nm and RMS roughness 1.96-4.11 nm. Settlement of spores of the green alga Ulva was significantly less, and detachment under shear significantly more on the lowest surface energy coatings. Removal of young plants (sporelings) of Ulva under shear was positively correlated with reducing the surface energy of the coatings. The most hydrophobic coatings also showed good performance against a freshwater bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, significantly reducing initial attachment and biofilm formation, and reducing the adhesion strength of attached bacterial cells under shear. Taken together the results indicate potential for further investigation of these coatings for applications such as heat exchangers and optical instruments. PMID:18855197

Akesso, Laurent; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Stallard, Joanne; Teer, Dennis; Liu, Chen; Wang, Su; Zhao, Qi; D'Souza, Fraddry; Willemsen, Peter R; Donnelly, Glen T; Donik, Crtomir; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Jenko, Monika; Jones, Lathe A; Guinaldo, Patricia Calvillo

2009-01-01

331

Antifouling potential of Subtilisin A immobilized onto maleic anhydride copolymer thin films.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteinaceous nature of the adhesives used by most fouling organisms to attach to surfaces suggests that coatings incorporating proteolytic enzymes may provide a technology for the control of biofouling. In the present article, the antifouling (AF) and fouling release potential of model coatings incorporating the surface-immobilized protease, Subtilisin A, have been investigated. The enzyme was covalently attached to maleic anhydride copolymer thin films; the characteristics of the bioactive coatings obtained were adjusted through variation of the type of copolymer and the concentration of the enzyme solution used for immobilization. The bioactive coatings were tested for their effect on the settlement and adhesion strength of two major fouling species: the green alga Ulva linza and the diatom Navicula perminuta. The results show that the immobilized enzyme effectively reduced the settlement and adhesion strength of zoospores of Ulva and the adhesion strength of Navicula cells. The AF efficacy of the bioactive coatings increased with increasing enzyme surface concentration and activity, and was found to be superior to the equivalent amount of enzyme in solution. The results provide a rigorous analysis of one approach to the use of immobilized proteases to reduce the adhesion of marine fouling organisms and are of interest to those investigating enzyme-containing coating technologies for practical biofouling control. PMID:19387876

Tasso, Mariana; Pettitt, Michala E; Cordeiro, Ana L; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Werner, Carsten

2009-01-01

332

Spontaneous multiscale phase separation within fluorinated xerogel coatings for fouling-release surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four-component xerogel films consisting of 1 mole-% n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18) and 50 mole-% tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in combination with 1-24 mole-% tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltriethoxysilane (TDF) and 25-48 mole-% n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8) and a 1:49:50 mole-% C18/TDF/TEOS were prepared. Settlement of barnacle cyprids and removal of juvenile barnacles, settlement of zoospores of the alga Ulva linza, and strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings (young plants) of Ulva were compared amongst the xerogel formulations. Several of the xerogel formulations were comparable to poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer with respect to removal of juvenile barnacles and removal of sporeling biomass. The 1:4:45:50 and 1:14:35:50 C18/TDF/C8/TEOS xerogels displayed some phase segregation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) pre- and post-immersion in water. Imaging reflectance infrared microscopy showed the formation of islands of alkane-rich and perfluoroalkane-rich regions in these same xerogels both pre- and post-immersion in water. Surface energies were unchanged upon immersion in water for 48 h amongst the TDF-containing xerogel coatings. AFM measurements demonstrated that surface roughness on the 1:4:45:50 and 1:14:35:50 C18/TDF/C8/TEOS xerogel coatings decreased upon immersion in water. PMID:22303880

Sokolova, Anastasiya; Bailey, Joseph J; Waltz, Grant T; Brewer, Lenora H; Finlay, John A; Fornalik, Jill; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Bright, Frank V; Detty, Michael R

2012-01-01

333

Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620

Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

2002-04-01

334

Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6?3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

Hanan M. Khairy

2013-05-01

335

Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations  

Science.gov (United States)

In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and probably part of a single macromolecular scaffold. Fresh Ulva tissue appears to contain the same three functional groups but at lower concentrations, based on wet weight. The titration in natural seawater was largely dominated by the non-carbonate alkalinity of the solution and could not be robustly modeled. Results of fits with ionic strengths fixed at their experimental values indicate that the pKas of all three groups display prominent Debije-Hückel-type behavior, hence that these acid dissociation reactions involve a different mechanism than metal-proton exchange reactions on mineral surfaces, whose distribution coefficients (i.e., equilibrium constants) generally show a weak ionic strength dependence.

Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

2008-12-01

336

Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25% beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40% being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6 CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5 CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

Guilherme Prado

2009-10-01

337

Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais / Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama ( [...] 60Co) na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L.), Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina), Camomila (Matricaria recutita L.), Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli) e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile). A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25%) produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40%) produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6) UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5) UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g. Abstract in english The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the ef [...] fect of gamma irradiation (60Co) on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), boldo (Peumusboldus Molina), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli), and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile). The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25%) beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40%) being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6) CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5) CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

Prado, Guilherme; Andrade, Mabel Caldeira de; Oliveira, Marize Silva de; Leal, Alexandre Soares; Oliveira, Bibiane Rezende de; Batista, Luis Roberto.

338

Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-12-01

339

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Urease Inhibition Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants native to Soon Valley (home to an old civilization in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Methanol, acetone and water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against thirty four clinical isolates and two reference strains of H. pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the extracts were determined using the agar dilution method and compared with some standard antibiotics like amoxicillin (AMX, clarithromycin (CLA, tetracycline (TET and metronidazole (MNZ, used in the triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. H. pylori urease inhibition activity of the extracts was assessed by the phenol red method, wherein, Lineweaver-Burk plots were used to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for elucidating the mechanism of inhibition. Methanol and acetone extracts from Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera exhibited stronger anti-H. pylori activity than MNZ, almost comparable activity with TET, but were found to be less potent than AMX and CLT. The rest of the extracts exhibited lower activity than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, methanol and acetone extracts of Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera showed significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated a competitive mechanism for extract of Acacia nilotica, whereas extract of Calotropis procera exhibited a mixed type of inhibition.

Tahir Mehmood

2013-02-01

340

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of some traditional medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants native to Soon Valley (home to an old civilization) in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Methanol, acetone and water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against thirty four clinical isolates and two reference strains of H. pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts were determined using the agar dilution method and compared with some standard antibiotics like amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLA), tetracycline (TET) and metronidazole (MNZ), used in the triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. H. pylori urease inhibition activity of the extracts was assessed by the phenol red method, wherein, Lineweaver-Burk plots were used to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for elucidating the mechanism of inhibition. Methanol and acetone extracts from Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera exhibited stronger anti-H. pylori activity than MNZ, almost comparable activity with TET, but were found to be less potent than AMX and CLT. The rest of the extracts exhibited lower activity than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, methanol and acetone extracts of Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera showed significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated a competitive mechanism for extract of Acacia nilotica, whereas extract of Calotropis procera exhibited a mixed type of inhibition. PMID:23434867

Amin, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Naz, Fauqia; Mehmood, Tahir; Saari, Nazamid

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Influence of fuelwood trees on sodic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The persistent acute fuelwood shortage problem in India has necessitated having tree plantations on waste lands to obtain renewable energy. Fuelwood production screening trials initiated in 1981 at the Biomass Research Centre in Banthra, India identified babul, Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile, and mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC., to be the most promising and suitable leguminous trees in terms of biomass production on sodic sites. A study was carried out to assess soil enrichment due to the growth of these fuelwood trees planted a decade past on sordic soil that had had no other amendments. Results showed preferential nutrient accumulation and greater reduction in soil pH (from 9.5 to 7.9) and exchangeable sodium (from 30 to 8%) at the P. juliflora plantation compared with at the A. nilotica plantation. There was also a reduction in surface soil (0-15 cm) bulk density, but an enhancement in porosity and water holding capacity, making soil more friable. The P. juliflora plantation produced markedly more leaf litter than the A. nilotica plantation. Both the species had fibrous lateral root systems on the surface in the sodic soil. However, the penetration and spread of roots were almost 2-fold greater in P. juliflora than in A. nilotica. Thus, the potential magnitude of changes in soil properties was related to the distribution of roots and amount of litter falling on the soil surface. Prosopis juliflora appeared to be better than A. nilotica under adverse sodic soil conditions in establishing an enlarged plant-litter nutrient cycle relationship. This study also provides an assessment of soil amelioration by leguminous trees under short-rotation forestry practices. 16 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

1992-01-01

342

Occurrence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease in pet and exotic birds in 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1991, velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) was diagnosed in domestic psittacine birds in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Texas, California, and Nevada. In the first four states, the disease assumed outbreak proportions. The affected psittacine birds--yellow-headed Amazon parrots (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix), yellow-naped Amazon parrots (Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and conures (unknown species)--exhibited respiratory and/or central nervous system signs. The velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) was isolated from cloacal and tracheal swabs and various tissues, such as the lung, trachea, distal intestine, and spleen. The origin of the birds could not be established. The disease in the six states was promptly controlled, with no evidence that domestic poultry had been exposed. Also, VVNDV was isolated from quarantined birds intended for importation into the United States. Included were 53 moustached parakeets (Psittacula alexandri fasciata), a mynah (Gracula religiosa), a drongo (Dicrurus sp.), and three partridges (family Phasianidae). Groups of birds that yielded VVNDV were denied entry into the United States. Birds that are illegally imported and therefore not tested for the presence of foreign animal pathogens are a potential source of VVNDV and a threat to domestic poultry and caged birds. PMID:8452504

Panigrahy, B; Senne, D A; Pearson, J E; Mixson, M A; Cassidy, D R

1993-01-01

343

Molecular characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana PUF proteins--binding specificity and target candidates.  

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PUF proteins regulate both stability and translation through sequence-specific binding to the 3' UTR of target mRNA transcripts. Binding is mediated by a conserved PUF domain, which contains eight repeats of approximately 36 amino acids each. Found in all eukaryotes, they have been related to several developmental processes. Analysis of the 25 Arabidopsis Pumilio (APUM) proteins presenting PUF repeats reveals that 12 (APUM-1 to APUM-12) have a PUF domain with 50-75% similarity to the Drosophila PUF domain. Through three-hybrid assays, we show that APUM-1 to APUM-6 can bind specifically to the Nanos response element sequence recognized by Drosophila Pumilio. Using an Arabidopsis RNA library in a three-hybrid screening, we were able to identify an APUM-binding consensus sequence. Computational analysis allowed us to identify the APUM-binding element within the 3' UTR in many Arabidopsis transcripts, even in important mRNAs related to shoot stem cell maintenance. We demonstrate that APUM-1 to APUM-6 are able to bind specifically to APUM-binding elements in the 3' UTR of WUSCHEL, CLAVATA-1, PINHEAD/ZWILLE and FASCIATA-2 transcripts. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the APUM proteins may act as regulators in Arabidopsis through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, which may open up a new approach for investigating mRNA regulation in plants. PMID:19682068

Francischini, Carlos W; Quaggio, Ronaldo B

2009-10-01

344

Molluscan attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine mollusk Aplysia releases the water-borne pheromone attractin during egg laying. This small protein stimulates the formation and maintenance of mating and egg-laying aggregations. Attractin has been characterized from five Aplysia species: A. californica, A. brasiliana, A. fasciata, A. vaccaria, and A. depilans. We describe here the isolation of attractin from Bursatella leachii, and show that it belongs to the same protein family. The pattern of residue conservation, especially the six invariant cysteines, suggests that all of these attractins have a common fold. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of A. californica attractin contains two antiparallel alpha-helices, the second of which contains the heptapeptide sequence IEECKTS that has been implicated in attractin function. Synthetic peptides containing this IEECKTS region are attractive, and mutating surface exposed charged residues within this region of attractin abolishes attractin activity. This suggests that the second helix is an essential part of the receptor-binding interface. In contrast to the peptide pheromonal attractants in amphibians, which are species specific, the attractins are, to our knowledge, the first water-borne peptide or protein pheromone family in invertebrates and vertebrates that are not species specific. PMID:15626512

Cummins, Scott F; Schein, Catherine H; Xu, Yuan; Braun, Werner; Nagle, Gregg T

2005-01-01

345

Helicometra Odhner, 1902 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) in Australian waters: problems of species identification and a description of H. sprenti n. sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helicometra Odhner, 1902 is reported from temperate Australian marine teleosts in which it appears to be rare. Of 285 species of fishes from 84 families examined, only 10 species from 9 families were infected. One infection, that in Platycephalus speculator caught from off the coast of Western Australia, is highly distinctive and the name Helicometra sprenti n. sp. is proposed for this species. The other infections were from members of the Antennariidae, Apogonidae, Kyphosidae, Labridae, Paralichthyidae, Pinguipedidae, Scorpaenidae and Sparidae, all from off southern Queensland and New South Wales. There is no evidence that infections are common in any of these hosts, which have little relationship to each other. Measurements and figures are presented for representatives from all the host species. Only minor variation was found in features such as body dimensions and the extent of the vitelline follicles, and it is concluded that the specimens probably represent a single species with a very low host-specificity. We suspect that the general scarcity of the worm is consistent with the presence of only one species, although the possibility that a species-complex is present cannot be ruled out. The specimens are broadly consistent with H. fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819), a species first described from Europe, and they are tentatively identified as this species, although it seems likely that ultimately they will prove to represent a different taxon. Determination of the ultimate identity of this form will require the application of molecular and life-cycle studies of worms from different hosts and localities. PMID:16699924

Aken'Ova, Thelma O L; Cribb, Thomas H; Bray, Rodney A

2006-01-01

346

Ophiuroids (Echinodermata; Ophiuroidea) of biogenic habitats on the continental shelf of New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomy of ophiuroids collected in 2009 and 2011, from biogenic habitats across the New Zealand continental shelf, is reviewed. Ophionereis novaezelandiae Mortensen, 1936, and its junior synonym Ophionereis terba Baker & Devaney, 1981from South-Eastern Australia, is now recognised as a distinct species, and has been removed from synonymy with Ophionereis fasciata Hutton, 1872. Ophiacantha abyssicola var. otagoensis Fell, 1958 is also recognised as a distinct spe-cies and has been removed from synonymy with Ophiacantha brachygnatha Clark H L, 1928. Amphiura eugeniae var. latisquama Mortensen, 1924 is raised to species rank and Amphioplus longirima Fell, 1952 treated as a synonym of A. latisquama. Ophiolycus farquhari McKnight, 2003 is transferred to the genus Ophiologimus. The diagnostic characters of several other species are reviewed and colour descriptions and images are included where available. The tropical species Ophiacantha longidens Lyman, 1878, Ophiotreta valenciennesi (Lyman, 1879) and Ophiobyrsa intorta (Koehler, 1922) are reported from New Zealand waters for the first time. PMID:24698928

Mills, V Sadie; O'Hara, Timothy D

2013-01-01

347

Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

2004-12-01

348

Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov., and T. taura sp. nov. A key to the species groups and unplaced species is provided for Tolania males. The following species, previously placed in Tolania, are considered species incertae sedis: Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. One new synonymy is proposed: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858 = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry sp. rev., is reinstated from synonymy with T. femoralis. Lectotypes are designated for T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraterna, and T. scutata.O gênero de soldadinhos Tolania Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Nicomiinae, Nicomiini e 69 espécies válidas (59 novas espécies são descritos e ilustrados baseado na morfologia de adultos. Dez grupos informais de espécies são reconhecidos baseados em uma análise filogenética previamente publicada: (1 o grupo de espécies dira inclui T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov. e T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 grupo fasciata inclui T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov. e T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 grupo femoralis inclui T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål e T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 grupo furcata inclui T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov. e T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 grupo hispida inclui T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov. e T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 grupo malefica inclui T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker e T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 grupo obtusa inclui T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov. e T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 grupo opponens inclui T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. tri

Jesse L. Albertson

2006-12-01

349

Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O gênero de soldadinhos Tolania Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Nicomiinae, Nicomiini) e 69 espécies válidas (59 novas espécies) são descritos e ilustrados baseado na morfologia de adultos. Dez grupos informais de espécies são reconhecidos baseados em uma análise filogenética previamente publicada: (1 [...] ) o grupo de espécies dira inclui T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov. e T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2) grupo fasciata inclui T. fasciata (Walker), T. gracilis sp. nov. e T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3) grupo femoralis inclui T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål e T. roberti sp. nov.; (4) grupo furcata inclui T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov. e T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5) grupo hispida inclui T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov. e T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6) grupo malefica inclui T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker) e T. terencia sp. nov.; (7) grupo obtusa inclui T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov. e T. torosa sp. nov.; (8) grupo opponens inclui T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker), T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov. e T. xantha sp. nov.; (9) grupo peltacauda inclui T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov. e T. thyrea sp. nov.; e o (10) grupo semipellucida inclui T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov. e T. semipellucida Stål. As seguintes espécies novas não são incluídas em nenhum dos grupos acima mencionados: T. anomala sp. nov., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov. e T. taura sp. nov. Uma chave taxonômica para grupos de espécies e espécies não posicionadas é apresentada para machos de Tolania. As seguintes espécies previamente incluídas em Tolania são consideradas de posicionamento incerto (species incertae sedis): Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. Uma nova sinonímia é proposta: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858) = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry, 1890 sp. rev., previamente considerada sinônimo de T. femoralis, é revalidada. Lectótipos são designados para T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraternal e T. scutata. Abstract in english The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini) and 69 valid species (59 new) are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1) the dira species group compri [...] sing T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2) the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker), T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3) the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4) the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5) the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6) the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker), and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7) the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8) the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T.

Jesse L., Albertson; Christopher H., Dietrich.

350

How to produce a chemical defense: structural elucidation and anatomical distribution of aplysioviolin and phycoerythrobilin in the sea hare Aplysia californica.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously used bioassay-guided fractionation to identify phycoerythrobilin (1) and its monomethyl ester, aplysioviolin (2), as components in the ink secretion of a marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia californica, that act as chemical deterrents against predatory blue crabs. This was the first report of 1 as a natural product. Compound 2 was previously reported as a natural product from three species of Aplysia (A. fasciata, A. dactylomela, and A. parvula), but the reported structure and composition of stereoisomers of 2 are different among these species. Sea hares are thought to produce 2 from phycoerythrin, a photosynthetic pigment in their red-algal diet composed of a phycobiliprotein covalently linked to the chromophore 1, by cleavage of the covalent bond and methylation of 1, but neither the sequence nor the anatomical location of the cleavage and methylation is known. In this study, we clarify the structure of 1 and 2 in ink secretion of A. californica, and describe the distribution of 1 and 2 in the tissues of sea hares. We conclude that cleavage of the covalent bond in phycoerythrin occurs first, forming 1 in the digestive gland, followed by methylation of 1 to yield 2 in the ink gland. PMID:20491075

Kamio, Michiya; Nguyen, Linh; Yaldiz, Seymanur; Derby, Charles D

2010-05-01

351

Nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in squamate reptiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared with birds, mammals, fish, and even amphibians, very little is known about the effects of contaminants on reptiles. The current study experimentally evaluated the utility of shed skins, tail clips, and blood samples as nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in banded water snakes, Nerodia fasciata. For 13.5 months, snakes were either fed fish from a coal ash-contaminated site or uncontaminated food from a reference site. Snakes fed contaminated prey accumulated As, Cd, Se, Sr, and V in various organs (i.e. liver, kidney, and/or gonads). Moreover, non-parametric discriminant function analysis revealed that snakes could be placed in two groups that reliably reflected their experimental diet based upon Se, Sr, and As concentrations in tail clips, blood, and/or shed skins. It is suggested that nondestructive sampling techniques, particularly analyses of blood and tail clips, may be easily applied in evaluations of contaminant exposure in the field and laboratory and may prevent excessive destructive sampling of potentially threatened reptile species.

Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Jackson, B.P.; Kling, D.E.; Rowe, C.L.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

2001-07-01

352

The ATM-dependent DNA damage response acts as an upstream trigger for compensation in the fas1 mutation during Arabidopsis leaf development.  

Science.gov (United States)

During leaf development, a decrease in cell number often triggers an increase in cell size. This phenomenon, called compensation, suggests that some system coordinates cell proliferation and cell expansion, but how this is mediated at the molecular level is still unclear. The fugu2 mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exhibit typical compensation phenotypes. Here, we report that the FUGU2 gene encodes FASCIATA1 (FAS1), the p150 subunit of Chromatin Assembly Factor1. To uncover how the fas1 mutation induces compensation, we performed microarray analyses and found that many genes involved in the DNA damage response are up-regulated in fas1. Our genetic analysis further showed that activation of the DNA damage response and the accompanying decrease of cell number in fas1 depend on ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) but not on ATM AND RAD3 RELATED. Kinematic analysis suggested that the delay in the cell cycle leads to a decrease in cell number in fas1 and that loss of ATM partially restores this phenotype. Consistently, both cell size phenotypes and high ploidy phenotypes of fas1 are also suppressed by atm, supporting that the ATM-dependent DNA damage response leads to these phenotypes. Altogether, these data suggest that the ATM-dependent DNA damage response acts as an upstream trigger in fas1 to delay the cell cycle and promote entry into the endocycle, resulting in compensated cell expansion. PMID:23616603

Hisanaga, Tetsuya; Ferjani, Ali; Horiguchi, Gorou; Ishikawa, Naoko; Fujikura, Ushio; Kubo, Minoru; Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2013-06-01

353

Reestruturação do gênero Deois Fennah; descrição de um novo gênero e de novas espécies (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Restructure of the genus Deois Fennah; description of a new genus and new species (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae). The genus Deois Fennah is reviewed and some changes in the taxonomy are introduced. The genus and its four subgenera are redefined, having now the following composition: 1) subgen [...] us Deois (Deois) with: D. (D.) correntina (Berg, 1879), D. (D.) grandis Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D.) knoblauchii (Berg, 1879) (formerly in D. (Pandysia)), D. (D.) morialis (China & Myers, 1934), D. (D.) mourei Cavichioli & Sakakibara, 1994, D. (D.) piraporae Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D.) pseudoflavopicta (Lallemand, 1938) comb. nov. (formerly in Mahanarva) = D. (D.) similis Sakakibara, 1979 syn. nov., D. (D.) rubropicta Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D.) spinulata sp. nov., D. (D.) terrea (Germar, 1821), D. (D.) uniformis (Distant, 1909). 2) subgenus Deois (Pandysia) with: D. (P.) bergi sp. nov., D. (P.) crenulata sp. nov., D. (P.) schach (Fabricius, 1787) = Sphenorhyna transiens Walker, 1851 syn. nov.. 3) Deois (Fennahia) with: D. (F.) coerulea (Lallemand, 1924), D. (F.) flexuosa (Walker, 1851). 4) Deois (Acanthodeois) with: D. (A.) flavopicta (Stål, 1854), Deois (A.) incompleta (Walker, 1851). The genus Orodamnis Fennah, 1953 stat. nov. (formerly Deois (Orodamnis)) with: Orodamnis rhynchosporae (China & Myers, 1934) comb. nov. The genus Deoisella gen. nov. is described for: Deoisella fasciata sp. nov. (type species) and Deoisella picklesi (China & Myers, 1934) comb. nov.

Antonio Claudio Ferreira da, Costa; Albino Morimasa, Sakakibara.

354

Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore mudflat profile and model validation  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal mudflat under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal mudflats. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the mudflat over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further refinements at the upper shore where S. plana dominates the species assemblage, whereas there is still a need to include further formulations of biota effects to simulate the erosion experimental results at the lower shores where other molluscs and Annelids significantly contribute to the species assemblage.

Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sébastien

2012-08-01

355

Maribacter gen. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from marine habitats, containing the species Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six novel gliding, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacteria were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, sea water and a bottom sediment sample collected in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains studied were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacteria have been assigned to the new genus Maribacter gen. nov., as Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov., with the type strains KMM 3903T (=KCTC 12966T=CCUG 47098T), KMM 3947T (=KCTC 12967T=CCUG 48008T), KMM 3949T (=KCTC 12968T=CCUG 48009T) and KMM 3951T (=KCTC 12969T=DSM 15366T), respectively. PMID:15280264

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Falsen, Enevold; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook

2004-07-01

356

Mineral Content of Some Seaweeds from Sabah`s South China Sea  

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Full Text Available The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%. The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5% was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%. The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>Caulerpa> Sargassum> Eucheuma and its range was found to be 6.6-10.94 mg/100 g dry weight. The major seasonal deviation was found to be 9.25% Mg, 6.44% Ca and 5.3% Fe. This study was conducted to create a nutritional data for consumption and utilization in the industry.

Duduku Krishnaiah

2008-01-01

357

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

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Full Text Available The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA. Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA. Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway.

Bernard Dumas

2010-01-01

358

PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL  

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Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

2011-05-01

359

Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast / Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El erizo Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) es un recurso de gran importancia económica en los sistemas bentónicos costeros, y que se encuentra bajo una fuerte presión de explotación. Sin embargo, los antecedentes sobre diversos aspectos básicos de su biología trófica son aún escasos. Estudios de esta [...] naturaleza son importantes en razón a que constituyen la base para el desarrollo de técnicas de cultivo exitosas, alternativa a la explotación de poblaciones naturales. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: determinar cuantitativamente la composición dietaria de L. albus, el grado de selectividad trófica, y las tasas de asimilación de los componentes de su dieta. Especímenes adultos y juveniles fueron muestreados en la primavera de 1993 y el verano, otoño e invierno de 1994 en la zona submareal de Iquique, norte de Chile. No se detectaron diferencias en la composición de la dieta de adultos y juveniles entre las estaciones muestreadas. El principal ítem alimentario de los juveniles y adultos fueron el alga verde Ulva sp. y el alga parda Lessonia sp., respectivamente. En experimentos de selección trófica se observó que los juveniles y adultos prefieren el ítem que es más abundante en su dieta natural. Estos resultados muestran un cambio ontogenético en la dieta de esta especie, sugiriéndose una estrategia de forrajeo diferencial entre juveniles y adultos. Abstract in english The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the [...] successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine the assimilation efficieney of the most important dietary components, and to experimentally examine the species' trophic selectivity. Adult and juvenile specimens were sampled in spring 1993 and summer, fall and winter 1994 from the shallow subtidal zone of Iquique, northern Chile. Neither juveniles ñor adults showed significant seasonal differences in dietary composition. The main Ítems in the diet were the green alga Ulva sp. for juveniles and the kelp Lessonia sp. for adults. In adults, assimilation efficieney (as percentage of the total organic matter ingested) was not significantly different among individuals that consumed Lessonia sp. (48.7 %), Ulva sp. (44.6 %) and Macrocystis (38.1 %), whereas in juveniles assimilation efficieney was significantly higher for individuals fed on the chlorophyte Ulva sp. (55.4 %), followed by Lessonia sp. (35.0 %) and Macrocystis (25.5 %). These results suggest that L. albus undergoes an ontogenetic shift in the diet, consisting of a differential foraging strategy between juveniles and adults.

GONZÁLEZ, SOLANGE J; CÁCERES, CRISTIAN W; OJEDA, F. PATRICIO.

360

Long-term changes in Prosobranchia (Gastropoda) abundances on the German North Sea coast: the role of the anti-fouling biocide tributyltin  

Science.gov (United States)

Tributyltin (TBT) has been used as a biocide in marine anti-fouling paints since the early 1970s. Due to its strong ecotoxicity and the relatively high levels in the water column as well as in port sediments on the German North Sea coast, it probably has negative ecological effects on organisms other than those targeted. An analysis of the long-term development of prosobranch stocks in the inner German Bight reveals a decrease in abundance of many species. For most species the decline cannot be attributed to TBT, but in four prosobranch species ( Buccinum undatum, Hydrobia ulvae, Littorina littorea and Nucella lapillus) significant ecological effects by TBT pollution are very probable. Although research for alternative non-TBT anti-fouling paints (e.g. biocide-free types on the basis of silicone) has been intensified, the potential threats to ecosystems and the ecotoxicological profiles of these alternatives have to be carefully evaluated.

Nehring, S.

2000-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Macroparasite community in molluscs of a tidal basin in the Wadden Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a quantitative inventory of macroparasites in intertidal molluscs from a tidal basin in the Wadden Sea (eastern North Sea). Gastropods and bivalves contained a species rich macroparasite community consisting of trematodes (26 species), turbellarians (1), nematodes (1), copepods (2) and polychaetes (1) in 3,800 host individuals from 10 host species. Highest parasite burdens were observed in the gastropods Hydrobia ulvae and Littorina littorea and in the bivalves Cerastoderma edule and Mytilus edulis. In contrast, only one parasite species and no trematodes were found in Crepidula fornicata. The parasite community in the molluscs was similar to other Western European localities but some parasite species showed obvious differences, related to the large-scale distribution of intermediate and final hosts. Parasitism seems to be a common phenomenon in molluscs of the Wadden Sea and hence the detrimental effects observed in experiments can be expected to frequently happen in the field.

Thieltges, David W.; Krakau, Manuela; Andresen, Henrike; Fottner, Silke; Reise, Karsten

2006-12-01

362

Seaweeds and plastic debris can influence the survival of faecal indicator organisms in beach environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The revised Bathing Water Directive (rBWD) introduces more stringent standards for microbial water quality and promotes more pro-active management of the beach environment through the production of a bathing water profile (BWP). The aim of this study was to determine whether living seaweeds in the littoral zone are colonised by faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), and to quantify the survival dynamics of waterborne Escherichia coli in microcosms containing senescing seaweeds. Living seaweed (Fucus spiralis) was not associated with FIO colonisation, although could be providing a protected environment in the underlying sand. Senescing seaweeds enhanced waterborne E. coli survival compared to plastic debris, with the brown seaweed Laminaria saccharina facilitating greater E. coli persistence than either Chondrus crispus or Ulva lactuca. This has important implications for FIO survival on bathing beaches as the majority of beach-cast biomass is composed of brown seaweeds, which could support significant levels of FIOs. PMID:24878304

Quilliam, Richard S; Jamieson, Julie; Oliver, David M

2014-07-15

363

Aspectos da alimentação de Tanystylum isabellae marcus e Anoplodactylus stictus marcus (Pantopoda Feeding aspects of Tanystylum isabellae and Anoplodactylus stictus (Pantopoda  

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Full Text Available This work deals with feeding tests performed in laboratory with Pantopoda species, Tanystylum isabellae Marcus, 1940 and Anoplodactylus stictus Marcus, 1940. Animals (alive and dead and vegetable foods were offered to males without eggs, males with eggs, females and juveniles Pantopoda. Of the 13 types of food offered to the animals only Sertularia Linnaeus, 1758 (Hydrozoa. Amathia distans Busk, 1886 (Bryozoa, Hyale media (Dana, 1853 (Crustacea, Gammaridea, Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1868 (Crustacea-Caprellidae, Artemia salina Leach, 1812 (Crustacea, Anostraca e Perna perna (Linné, 1758 (Bivalvia, Mytilidae were actually eaten. The macroalgae Sargassum C. Agardh, 1820; Padina Adanson, 1763; Chaetomorpha Kützing, 1845 and Ulva Linnaeus. 1753, the Hydrozoa Dynamena (Linnaeus, 1758, Polychaeta aixl anemon fragments weren't accepted.

Franci Mary Fantinato Varoli

1994-01-01

364

Release and transformations of inorganic iodine by marine macroalgae  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of field and laboratory studies on the impact of marine macroalgae on dissolved inorganic iodine speciation are presented. Within tidally isolated rock pools, the brown macroalga Fucus serratus was found to both release stored iodide and to facilitate the reduction of iodate to iodide. In contrast, no discernible changes in iodine speciation were observed in rock pools containing green macroalgae of the genus Ulva. Incubation experiments confirmed that the macroalgae Laminaria digitata, F. serratus and Kallymenia antarctica release iodide, though the rate of release varied between species and between specimens of the same species. Application of oxidative stress by treatment with cell wall derived oligoguluronate elicitors increased the efflux of iodide by L. digitata approximately 20-fold. The release of iodide by macroalgae may impact upon the formation of volatile iodine species (molecular iodine and iodocarbons) that are of importance in the coastal atmosphere.

Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hughes, Claire; Kloareg, Bernard; Malin, Gill

2009-04-01

365

Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea  

Science.gov (United States)

The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

2009-10-01

366

Hot embossed microtopographic gradients reveal morphological cues that guide the settlement of zoospores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among different surface cues, the settlement of cells and larvae of marine macrofouling organisms has been found to be strongly influenced by surface microtopographies. In this article, the settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza on a surface topographic gradient has been investigated. "Honeycomb" gradient structures with feature sizes ranging from 1 to 10 ?m were prepared by hot embossing, and the effect on the density of spores that attached in settlement assays was quantified. The highest density of spores was found when the size of the microstructures was similar to or larger than the size of the spores. With decreasing size of the structures, spore settlement density decreased. Interestingly, spore settlement density correlated with the Wenzel roughness of the surfaces. "Kink sites" on the surface played an important role and resembled preferred attachment positions. Furthermore, the gradients allowed the minimum pit size that the spores were able to squeeze into to be determined. PMID:23273183

Xiao, Linlin; Thompson, Stephanie E M; Röhrig, Michael; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Grunze, Michael; Rosenhahn, Axel

2013-01-29

367

Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile  

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Full Text Available The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine the assimilation efficieney of the most important dietary components, and to experimentally examine the species' trophic selectivity. Adult and juvenile specimens were sampled in spring 1993 and summer, fall and winter 1994 from the shallow subtidal zone of Iquique, northern Chile. Neither juveniles ñor adults showed significant seasonal differences in dietary composition. The main Ítems in the diet were the green alga Ulva sp. for juveniles and the kelp Lessonia sp. for adults. In adults, assimilation efficieney (as percentage of the total organic matter ingested was not significantly different among individuals that consumed Lessonia sp. (48.7 %, Ulva sp. (44.6 % and Macrocystis (38.1 %, whereas in juveniles assimilation efficieney was significantly higher for individuals fed on the chlorophyte Ulva sp. (55.4 %, followed by Lessonia sp. (35.0 % and Macrocystis (25.5 %. These results suggest that L. albus undergoes an ontogenetic shift in the diet, consisting of a differential foraging strategy between juveniles and adults.El erizo Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 es un recurso de gran importancia económica en los sistemas bentónicos costeros, y que se encuentra bajo una fuerte presión de explotación. Sin embargo, los antecedentes sobre diversos aspectos básicos de su biología trófica son aún escasos. Estudios de esta naturaleza son importantes en razón a que constituyen la base para el desarrollo de técnicas de cultivo exitosas, alternativa a la explotación de poblaciones naturales. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: determinar cuantitativamente la composición dietaria de L. albus, el grado de selectividad trófica, y las tasas de asimilación de los componentes de su dieta. Especímenes adultos y juveniles fueron muestreados en la primavera de 1993 y el verano, otoño e invierno de 1994 en la zona submareal de Iquique, norte de Chile. No se detectaron diferencias en la composición de la dieta de adultos y juveniles entre las estaciones muestreadas. El principal ítem alimentario de los juveniles y adultos fueron el alga verde Ulva sp. y el alga parda Lessonia sp., respectivamente. En experimentos de selección trófica se observó que los juveniles y adultos prefieren el ítem que es más abundante en su dieta natural. Estos resultados muestran un cambio ontogenético en la dieta de esta especie, sugiriéndose una estrategia de forrajeo diferencial entre juveniles y adultos.

SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ

2008-12-01

368

Amphiphilic co-networks with moisture-induced surface segregation for high-performance nonfouling coatings.  

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Herein we report the design of a photocurable amphiphilic co-network consisting of perfluoropolyether and poly(ethylene glycol) segments that display outstanding nonfouling characteristics with respect to spores of green fouling alga Ulva when cured under high humidity conditions. The analysis of contact angle hysteresis revealed that the poly(ethylene glycol) density at the surface was enhanced when cured under high humidity. The nonfouling behavior of nonbiocidal surfaces against marine fouling is rare because such surfaces usually reduce the adhesion of organisms rather than inhibit colonization. We propose that the resultant surface segregation of these materials induced by high humidity may be a promising strategy for achieving nonfouling materials, and such an approach is more important than simply concentrating poly(ethylene glycol) moieties at an interface because the low surface energy has been maintained in our work. PMID:21827199

Wang, Yapei; Finlay, John A; Betts, Douglas E; Merkel, Timothy J; Luft, J Christopher; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; DeSimone, Joseph M

2011-09-01

369

EVALUATION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE AND ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORY PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR  

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Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of four seaweeds collected from Gulf of Mannar coastal waters were tested for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. The aqueous extracts of seaweeds in the order of Gracilaria edulis, Sargassum polycystum, Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria corticata showed significant inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. G. edulis was found to be a potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 46?g/mL. The aqueous extract of S. polycystum at a concentration of 10-100 µg/ml showed maximum ?-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 60?g/mL. This study warrants further investigation on the antidiabetic activity and identifies the hyperglycemic principle to elucidate their mode of action.