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Sample records for ulva fasciata delile

  1. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile

    OpenAIRE

    AFU. Carvalho; MCC. Portela; MB. Sousa; FS, Martins; FC. Rocha; DF. Farias; JPA. Feitosa

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  2. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p < 0.05). These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:19802460

  3. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile / Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AFU., Carvalho; MCC., Portela; MB., Sousa; FS., Martins; FC., Rocha; DF., Farias; JPA., Feitosa.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial da alga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar. Foram realizadas a determinação do teor de fibra alimentar total e a descrição de algumas propriedades físico-químicas, e os efeitos fisiológicos da farinha da alga seca [...] sobre ratos alimentados com dieta hipercolesterolemizante foram investigados. Esta alga pode ser considerada uma fonte alternativa potencial de fibra com cerca de 400 g.kg-1 (base seca) e propriedades físico-químicas interessantes: uma capacidade de retenção de água de 8,74 g/água.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 0,90 (extrato de carboidratos), uma capacidade de adsorção de lipídeos de 4,52 g/óleo.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 5,70 (extrato de carboidratos), uma viscosidade intrínseca de 2,4 dl.g-1 (extrato de carboidrato da alga) e capacidade de troca iônica de 3,51 Eq.kg-1 (extrato de carboidrato). A dieta contendo farinha de alga foi capaz de manter baixos os níveis de colesterol total de ratos sem causar aumento indesejável na fração LDL-C. Nenhuma evidência de componentes tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais na farinha de alga foi encontrada. Os ratos mostraram um volume fecal maior (13 g) do que aqueles alimentados com dieta contendo celulose como fonte de fibra (7 g) (p Abstract in english This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic die [...] t were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g) (p

  4. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial da alga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar. Foram realizadas a determinação do teor de fibra alimentar total e a descrição de algumas propriedades físico-químicas, e os efeitos fisiológicos da farinha da alga seca sobre ratos alimentados com dieta hipercolesterolemizante foram investigados. Esta alga pode ser considerada uma fonte alternativa potencial de fibra com cerca de 400 g.kg-1 (base seca e propriedades físico-químicas interessantes: uma capacidade de retenção de água de 8,74 g/água.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga e 0,90 (extrato de carboidratos, uma capacidade de adsorção de lipídeos de 4,52 g/óleo.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga e 5,70 (extrato de carboidratos, uma viscosidade intrínseca de 2,4 dl.g-1 (extrato de carboidrato da alga e capacidade de troca iônica de 3,51 Eq.kg-1 (extrato de carboidrato. A dieta contendo farinha de alga foi capaz de manter baixos os níveis de colesterol total de ratos sem causar aumento indesejável na fração LDL-C. Nenhuma evidência de componentes tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais na farinha de alga foi encontrada. Os ratos mostraram um volume fecal maior (13 g do que aqueles alimentados com dieta contendo celulose como fonte de fibra (7 g (p < 0,05. Essas propriedades conferem a alga o potencial de ser utilizada na tecnologia de alimentos para a aquisição de alimentos de baixas calorias, podendo ser importante para o controle do peso corporal, redução do colesterol sanguíneo total e da fração LDL-C, como também na prevenção de doenças gastrintestinais.

  5. Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.

    The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

  6. Chemical composition of Ulvaria oxysperma (Kützing bliding, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus and Ulva fascita (Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Pádua

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three species of Chlorophyta, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Ulvaria oxysperma, was determined. Ulvaria oxysperma showed humidity (16-20%, ash (17-31% dry-base, proteins (6-10%db, lipids (0.5-3.2%db, fibers (3-12%db and carbohydrates (46-72%db which corresponded to 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (wet-base. U lactuca (15-18%db and U fasciata (13-16%db revealed grades slightly higher for proteins, but with similar energetic contents (250-272 and 225-239 kcal.100g-1, respectively. Natural blades of U lactuca and of U fasciata were more rigid than blades of U oxysperma. Other native algae showed higher protein levels. Ulvaria sp could be cultivated on the cotton-nylon net without having significance competition from other algae or predators degradation. On the other hand, it was essential choose a place without destructive tide action. Cultivated Ulvaria sp showed similar chemical composition as that grown on natural substrates.A composição química de três espécies de Chlorophyta foi determinada. Ulva lactuca se desenvolve em Guaraqueçaba e Ulva fasciata na Ilha do Mel, enquanto que Ulvaria oxysperma se desenvolve nos dois ecossistemas. Umidade (16-20%, cinzas (17-31%, base seca, proteínas (6-10%bs, lipídeos (0,5-3.2%bs, fibras (3-12%bs e carboidratos (46-72%bs para U.oxysperma correspondeu a 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (base úmida. U.lactuca (15-18%bs e U.fasciata (13-16%bs mostraram teores levemente maiores para a proteína, mas com conteúdos energéticos similares (250-272 e 225-239 kcal.100g-1, respectivamente. As folhas in natura de U.lactuca e de U.fasciata eram mais rígidas do que as de U.oxysperma. Outras algas nativas apresentaram teores de proteínas maiores. Ulvaria sp pode ser cultivada sobre redes, sem apresentar competição com outras algas ou ação significativa de predadores. Ulvaria sp cultivada apresentou composição química similar ao da Ulvaria sp crescida sobre substratos naturais. É essencial escolher um local protegido da ação destrutiva da maré.

  7. Chemical composition of Ulvaria oxysperma (Kützing) bliding, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus) and Ulva fascita (Delile)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia de, Pádua; Paulo Sérgio Growoski, Fontoura; Alvaro Luiz, Mathias.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A composição química de três espécies de Chlorophyta foi determinada. Ulva lactuca se desenvolve em Guaraqueçaba e Ulva fasciata na Ilha do Mel, enquanto que Ulvaria oxysperma se desenvolve nos dois ecossistemas. Umidade (16-20%), cinzas (17-31%, base seca), proteínas (6-10%bs), lipídeos (0,5-3.2%bs [...] ), fibras (3-12%bs) e carboidratos (46-72%bs) para U.oxysperma correspondeu a 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (base úmida). U.lactuca (15-18%bs) e U.fasciata (13-16%bs) mostraram teores levemente maiores para a proteína, mas com conteúdos energéticos similares (250-272 e 225-239 kcal.100g-1), respectivamente. As folhas in natura de U.lactuca e de U.fasciata eram mais rígidas do que as de U.oxysperma. Outras algas nativas apresentaram teores de proteínas maiores. Ulvaria sp pode ser cultivada sobre redes, sem apresentar competição com outras algas ou ação significativa de predadores. Ulvaria sp cultivada apresentou composição química similar ao da Ulvaria sp crescida sobre substratos naturais. É essencial escolher um local protegido da ação destrutiva da maré. Abstract in english Chemical composition of three species of Chlorophyta, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Ulvaria oxysperma, was determined. Ulvaria oxysperma showed humidity (16-20%), ash (17-31% dry-base), proteins (6-10%db), lipids (0.5-3.2%db), fibers (3-12%db) and carbohydrates (46-72%db) which corresponded to 192 [...] -270 kcal.100g-1 (wet-base). U lactuca (15-18%db) and U fasciata (13-16%db) revealed grades slightly higher for proteins, but with similar energetic contents (250-272 and 225-239 kcal.100g-1), respectively. Natural blades of U lactuca and of U fasciata were more rigid than blades of U oxysperma. Other native algae showed higher protein levels. Ulvaria sp could be cultivated on the cotton-nylon net without having significance competition from other algae or predators degradation. On the other hand, it was essential choose a place without destructive tide action. Cultivated Ulvaria sp showed similar chemical composition as that grown on natural substrates.

  8. Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Selvin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1 and higher (1.5 g kg-1 doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1 y más alto (1,5 g kg-1 dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01. Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

  9. FACILE GREEN SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES WITH GREAT CATALYTIC ACTIVITY USING ULVA FASCIATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sugantha Kumari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a facile, green, and high yielding approache for the synthesis and stabilization of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs using green seaweed Ulva fasciata extract. Characterization of the obtained AuNPs was performed using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the yield of the gold nanoparticles. The UV-visible absorption spectrum showed a characteristic optical peak of AuNPs at 541 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern suggested the formation and crystallinity of AuNPs. Spherical AuNPs synthesized with an average particle size of 10 ± 3 nm were confirmed by TEM. FTIR analysis supported the role of phytochemicals of Ulva fasciata extract for bioreduction and stabilization of AuNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AuNPs exhibit remarkable catalytic efficiency by using the reduction of 4-nitroaniline by potassium borohydride in aqueous solution using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Catalytic reduction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 4-Nitrophenol.

  10. Influences of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide on the rheology and stabilization of cinnamaldehyde emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Shao, Jiamei; Jiang, Yike; Sun, Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Emulsifying properties of water soluble polysaccharides from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were evaluated in cinnamaldehyde/water emulsions in terms of droplet size distribution, rheological properties, visual phase separation, and zeta-potential. The cinnamaldehyde/water (10%, wt/wt) emulsions were formulated and stabilized by different concentrations of UFP (0.1-4%, wt/wt). The obtained emulsions showed monomodal droplet size distributions with average droplet size (D[3,2]) below 1.0?m, when 3% (wt/wt) UFP was added as the emulsifying agent under a homogenization pressure of 75MPa. The rheological properties and zeta-potential of the emulsions appeared to be dependent on the UFP concentration. Furthermore, the UFP exhibited better emulsifying and stabilizing properties in the investigated system when compared to other commercial polysaccharides of gum Arabic and gum Ghatti. The results also suggested that the emulsifying and stabilizing mechanism of the UFP may not only be ascribed to its surface-active protein moiety, but also to the hydrophobicity of the polysaccharide itself. These findings provided a theoretical basis for potential utilization of UFP as a novel hydrocolloid emulsifying agent. PMID:26453847

  11. Hydrodynamic behavior and dilute solution properties of Ulva fasciata algae polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Zhu, Yueqiong; Qin, Minpu; Fang, Zhongxiang; Sun, Peilong

    2015-12-10

    Hydrodynamic behavior and dilute solution properties of Ulva fasciata polysaccharides (UFP) were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the variation of hydrodynamic behavior of UFP was affected by the type and concentration of salts. The specific viscosity of UFP in water increased with its increasing concentration. The slopes of the double logarithmic plots in the dilute and semi-dilute solutions were 0.86 and 1.99, respectively. The molecular conformation could be semi-flexible like. Huggins plots of UFP solutions in the presence of salts including Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) showed that the hydrodynamic behavior of the UFP was strongly affected by the types and strength of salt ion. The stiffness parameter of UFP solution was 0.1149, higher than that of other reported polysaccharides, indicating that it could tolerate high salt concentration. Dynamic rheological results suggested that 0.5% UFP solution was a typical characteristic of polymer solution in the dilute region. This work provided some valuable and fundamental information in understanding the physicochemical properties of UFP solution. PMID:26428159

  12. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A.; Pérez, Carlos L.; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1–500?µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25–50?µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent. PMID:26612994

  13. Do Quantity and Quality of Irradiance Influence Migration Behavior Motile Cells of the Green Alga, Ulva fasciata?

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Woung Shin; Han Seong Lee; Sang Mok Jung; Min Kyu Choo; Ji Young Cho; Kwang Soo Lee; Celia M. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Motile cells of the green alga, Ulva fasciata respond to the quantity and quality of irradiance simultaneously. The specific responses of motile cell types (gametes and spores) by irradiance influence migration behavior in coastal water environment. Gametes maximally aggregated at the highest white light intensity (250 mol·s-1), while spores maximally aggregated in the dark (0 mol m-2·

  14. Death by Ulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a series of field and laboratory mesocosm experiments where we examined the effects of two levels of decomposing Ulva on Spartina alterniflora growth, soil biogeochemistry, and nitrogen dynamics. Monitoring of porewater revealed rapid mineralization to ammonium from...

  15. An antimutagenic monoterpene from Malachra fasciata (Malvaveae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoterpene was isolated from the leaves of Malachra fasciata by gravity column chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by extensive1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. It was identified as loliolide by comparison of its 1H and 13 C NMR spectral data with those found in the literature. The compound was tested for its antimutagenicity potential by the use of the micronucleus test. Results of the study indicated a 64.4% reduction in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C, when loliolide at a dosage of 14.8 mg/kg was administered to mice of the Swiss strain. Another isolate from the leaves of the plant was stigmasterol which structure was determined by comparison of its 1H NMR spectal data with those found in the literature. (Author)

  16. Determinants of territorial recruitment in Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Pradel, Roger; Ravayrol, Alain; Vincent-Martin, Nicolas; Bosca, Fabrice; Cheylan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    [EN]Recruitment is an essential component of the life history and population dynamics of bird species. We provide comprehensive information on the determinants of territorial recruitment in populations of the endangered Bonelli’s Eagle (Aquila fasciata). Field work was based on a long-term study of two populations located in the northwest of this species’ range, one in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) and the other in Provence and Languedoc-Roussillon (southeastern France). Nestlings were ba...

  17. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  18. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  19. Endogenous cytokinins, auxins and abscisic acid in Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Dictyota humifusa (Phaeophyta): towards understanding their biosynthesis and homoeostasis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stirk, W.A.; Novák, Ond?ej; Hradecká, Veronika; P?n?ík, Aleš; Rol?ík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 44, ?. 2 (2009), s. 231-240. ISSN 0967-0262 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/05/0894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid * auxins * cytokinins Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2009 www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a911046981

  20. New record of Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in Brazil, a probably mechanical vector of enteric bacteria Novo registro de Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Ulidiidae) no Brasil, um provável vetor mecânico de enterobactérias

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Sena Barnabe; Gabriel Zorello Laporta; Marcia Zorello Laporta; Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2007-01-01

    Pterotaenia fasciata is commonly recorded in rural areas in Argentina, but during a Diptera survey study developed in a reservoir which retains storm water from polluted canals in an urban area of Taboão da Serra municipality, SP, Brazil, we could capture P. fasciata adults. Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 and Proteus sp. were isolated from P. fasciata collected in traps inside the reservoir and around it. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were found in the water of the reservo...

  1. Anthesis effects on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile phenology in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Gobert, Sylvie; Defawe, Olivier; Lepoint, Gilles; Demoulin, Vincent; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    In Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, anthesis induces a decrease in the number of juvenile leaves resulting in a significant reduction in the number of leaves on the flowering shoots. All the leaves of the flowering shoots are narrower than the leaves of nonflowering shoots. A modification of the leaf growth also appears in flowering shoots: the oldest leaves are longer and the leaves induced during or after anthesis are shorter. At 10 m depth, in the Bay of Calvi, anthesis lasts roughly 3 mont...

  2. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2015-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy- (6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy-?-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  3. The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H; Clerck, Olivier De; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i) patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii) Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii) Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv) Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage. PMID:25745427

  4. New record of Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Ulidiidae in Brazil, a probably mechanical vector of enteric bacteria Novo registro de Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Ulidiidae no Brasil, um provável vetor mecânico de enterobactérias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Sena Barnabe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pterotaenia fasciata is commonly recorded in rural areas in Argentina, but during a Diptera survey study developed in a reservoir which retains storm water from polluted canals in an urban area of Taboão da Serra municipality, SP, Brazil, we could capture P. fasciata adults. Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 and Proteus sp. were isolated from P. fasciata collected in traps inside the reservoir and around it. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were found in the water of the reservoir. These records suggest that a high abundance of this species at urban areas with inadequate sewage canals should reveal these muscoid dipterans as mechanical vectors of enteric bacteria.Pterotaenia fasciata é encontrada freqüentemente em áreas rurais na Argentina, mas durante um estudo de levantamento de Diptera em um reservatório de retenção de enchentes em uma área urbana do município de Taboão da Serra, SP, Brasil, foram capturados adultos de P. fasciata. As enterobactérias Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 e Proteus sp. foram isoladas de P. fasciata coletada em armadilhas no reservatório e em seu entorno. Coliformes fecais e E. coli foram encontrados na água do reservatório. Esses registros sugerem que a alta abundância dessa espécie em áreas urbanas sem saneamento básico poderia indicar esses dípteros muscóides como vetores mecânicos de enterobactérias.

  5. New record of Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in Brazil, a probably mechanical vector of enteric bacteria / Novo registro de Pterotaenia fasciata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Ulidiidae) no Brasil, um provável vetor mecânico de enterobactérias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderson Sena, Barnabe; Gabriel Zorello, Laporta; Marcia Zorello, Laporta; Carlos José Einicker, Lamas.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pterotaenia fasciata é encontrada freqüentemente em áreas rurais na Argentina, mas durante um estudo de levantamento de Diptera em um reservatório de retenção de enchentes em uma área urbana do município de Taboão da Serra, SP, Brasil, foram capturados adultos de P. fasciata. As enterobactérias Esch [...] erichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 e Proteus sp. foram isoladas de P. fasciata coletada em armadilhas no reservatório e em seu entorno. Coliformes fecais e E. coli foram encontrados na água do reservatório. Esses registros sugerem que a alta abundância dessa espécie em áreas urbanas sem saneamento básico poderia indicar esses dípteros muscóides como vetores mecânicos de enterobactérias. Abstract in english Pterotaenia fasciata is commonly recorded in rural areas in Argentina, but during a Diptera survey study developed in a reservoir which retains storm water from polluted canals in an urban area of Taboão da Serra municipality, SP, Brazil, we could capture P. fasciata adults. Enteric bacteria Escheri [...] chia coli T. Escherich, 1885 and Proteus sp. were isolated from P. fasciata collected in traps inside the reservoir and around it. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were found in the water of the reservoir. These records suggest that a high abundance of this species at urban areas with inadequate sewage canals should reveal these muscoid dipterans as mechanical vectors of enteric bacteria.

  6. The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H.; De Clerck, Olivier; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and...

  7. Electron microscopic study of the occlusible tapetum lucidum of the southern fiddler ray (Trygonorhina fasciata)

    OpenAIRE

    Braekevelt, Charlie R.

    1991-01-01

    The choroidally located tapetum lucidum of the southern fiddler ray (Trygonorhina fasciata) has been examined by light and electron microscopy in both light- and dark-adaptation. In this species. the tapetum consists of a single layer of overlapping cells oriented at an angle of about 30" to the incoming light. These are situated immediately external to the choriocapillaris. These tapetal cells alternate with and are separated from one another by melanocytes wh...

  8. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a tool for assessing nutritional conditions in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.(L.) Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Invers i Brunet, Olga; Pérez Vallmitjana, Marta; Romero, Javier

    1995-01-01

    The effects of experimental phosphorus enrichments on alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile were tested. Short-term additions (as phosphate, 12 hours, in the laboratory) decreased APA by 18-2896, depending on the plant part considered (roots, young leaves or old leaves). The values of APA after this treatment were well correlated with interna1 phosphorus pools (as P concentration in plant tissues). Long-term additions (as phosphate, added to the se...

  9. Essential oil constituents of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and Vernonia amygdalina Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Okeniyi, Sunday O

    2009-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaves and stem bark of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and the aerial parts of Vernonia amygdalina Delile (Asteraceae) have been analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The investigation led to the identification of 33 and 30 compounds in the oils of the leaves and stem of E. prostrate, respectively, and 40 compounds in the oil of V. amygdalina. While the oil of the leaves of E. prostrata was highly dominated by sesquiterpenoids (89.3%), the stem bark was comprised of sesquiteprenoids (47.7%), straight chain hydrocarbons (25.6%) and monoterpenoids (11.1%). The main constituents of both oils were P-caryophyllene (47.7% and 15.9%) and a-humulene (31.8 and 12.9%) in the leaves and stem, respectively. In addition, (E)-beta-farnesene (10.0%) was also identified in significant amount in the stem bark. On the other hand, the major component of V. amygdalina oil was alpha-muurolol (45.7%). PMID:19413125

  10. Maternal provisioning in Ophionereis fasciata and O. schayeri: brittle stars with contrasting modes of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Inke; Byrne, Maria; Sewell, Mary A

    2006-12-01

    Evolutionary change from planktotrophic to lecithotrophic development in echinoderms is closely tied to an increase in maternal provisioning. We provide the first data on the major energetic constituents in the eggs of two ophiuroids, the planktotroph Ophionereis fasciata (egg diameter 103 microm) and the lecithotroph O. schayeri (egg diameter 248 microm), to document changes in maternal investment associated with the switch to lecithotrophy in O. schayeri. Lipid classes in the eggs of the two species did not differ except for the presence of small amounts of wax esters in the eggs of O. schayeri. Production of a large egg in O. schayeri is mostly due to enhanced deposition of one energy-storage lipid, triglyceride. The eggs of O. schayeri are not simply scaled-up versions of the ancestral-type eggs of O. fasciata. The relationship between lipid and protein content and egg volume conformed to the relationship previously established for echinoderm eggs. Surprisingly, total lipid and protein data for the eggs of O. schayeri grouped with data for the eggs of planktotrophic echinoderms. The eggs of O. schayeri are small compared with those of other echinoderms with lecithotrophic development, and their energetic contents may approach the minimum provisions necessary to permit development without feeding. PMID:17179379

  11. Methods for the Induction of Reproduction in a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, Christina; de NYS, ROCKY; Lawton, Rebecca J; Nicholas A. Paul

    2014-01-01

    The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3). The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies) was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C) for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filt...

  12. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  13. Metals in Ulva lactuca in Hong Kong intertidal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Y.B. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong))

    1990-07-01

    The levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Ulva lactuca collected from 24 intertidal sites around the Island of Hong Kong were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twelve of the sites are in the rural southern parts of the island where the coastal waters are relatively clean. The remaining 12 sites are located in the north and within Victoria Harbor which receives, apart from industrial effluents, untreated domestic sewage from a population of some 3.5 million. The mean levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in Ulva from the urban sites were respectively 4.0, 4.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.4, and 4.6 times those from the rural sites. However, somewhat similar levels of Cd were found in the alga among all the sites. Some locations of high levels of metal contamination have been identified in Victoria Harbor. Preliminary findings indicated that Ulva is a good indicator of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contamination due to its cosmopolitan distribution, simple morphology leading to ease of growth assessment, and its graded tolerance and response to pollutants. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia do Rocio, Duarte; Ariane Gonçalves, Silva.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), espécie mais conhecida pela sinonímia Vernonia amygdalina Delile, é um pequeno arbusto empregado na medicina popular como antipirético, laxativo, antimalárico e anti-helmíntico. Estudos demonstraram que diferentes extratos do vegetal [...] possuem atividades antioxidante, antimicrobiana e antiparasitária. Entre os metabólitos bioativos presentes, citam-se lactonas sesquiterpenoides, saponinas, polifenóis e flavonoides. Este estudo investigou os caracteres microscópicos de folha e caule de G. amygdalinum, a fim de ampliar o conhecimento acerca dessa espécie medicinal e apontar estruturas anatômicas características. O material foi fixado e seccionado à mão livre e em micrótomo. Os cortes foram corados ou submetidos aos testes histoquímicos clássicos. Empregou-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura para investigar a ultraestrutura da superfície epidérmica. A folha é anfiestomática com estômatos anomocíticos. Há cutícula estriada, tricomas glandular e tector e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central e o pecíolo têm contorno plano-convexo. Ambos mostram vários feixes vasculares colaterais e poucos cristais de oxalato de cálcio. No caule, a epiderme permanece e o felogênio tem instalação periférica. São observadas endoderme típica e calotas esclerenquimáticas apostas ao floema. Os aspectos que fornecem elementos para a identificação da espécie são a ocorrência de estômatos em ambas as superfícies foliares, a organização da nervura central e do pecíolo, a endoderme e as calotas esclerenquimáticas no caule, além dos diferentes tipos de tricoma nos órgãos aéreos estudados. Abstract in english Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxida [...] nt, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

  15. Electroantennogram Responses of the Tea Slug Moth, Iragoides fasciata to Some Plant Volatiles Associated with Tea, Camellia sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, J ing; Han, Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly di...

  16. Intra-organismal distribution of tetrodotoxin in two species of blue-ringed octopuses (Hapalochlaena fasciata and H. lunulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Becky L; Caldwell, Roy L

    2009-09-01

    In-depth studies on the intra-organismal distribution of toxin may yield valuable clues about potential ecological functions. The distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in previously unexamined tissues of two species of blue-ringed octopuses, wild-caught Hapalochlaena fasciata and Hapalochlaena lunulata from the aquarium industry, was surveyed. Tissues from each individual were examined separately. Tetrodotoxin was detected in posterior salivary gland (PSG), arm, mantle, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland, testes contents, brachial heart, nephridia, gill, and oviducal gland of H. fasciata. By contrast TTX was found only in the PSG, mantle tissue, and ink of H. lunulata. The highest concentrations of TTX resided in the PSG of both species; however, the arms and mantle contained the greatest absolute amounts of TTX. Minimum total amounts of TTX per octopus ranged from 60 to 405 microg in H. fasciata and from 0 to 174 microg in H. lunulata and correlated well with the amounts in the PSG. Transport of TTX in the blood is loosely suggested by the presence of the toxin in blood-rich organs such as the gill and brachial hearts. The distributional data also suggest both offensive and defensive functions of TTX. PMID:19481562

  17. Green seaweed Ulva as a monitor for pollution in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Methods have been developed which capitalize on the capacity of Ulva to function as a bioindicator of pollution in coastal waters. Studies have been performed evaluating the growth of both Ulva tissue discs and Ulva germlings as they relate to physical and chemical parameters of the environment. The Ulva tissue disc method for the in situ monitoring of organic load (nitrogen and phosphorus) in coastal waters was demonstrated to be marginally effective. The in situ differential growth reponse of parthenogenetically developed germlings fulfilled the monitoring objective, but multi-faceted environmental considerations introduced complications which reduced the feasibility of the germling deployment method for routine monitoring. The assessment of Ulva as a bioaccumulator was undertaken. Use of Ulva as an in situ sampling device has demonstrated appreciable success. This in situ monitor can provide concentrated samples of environmental pollutants. Analytical techniques have been employed to extract information on trace metals, pesticides, PCBs and other accumulated organohalides. Ulva is a bioacumulator which, by all standards, has much to recommend it. Precedures have been developed to reduce much of the inherent biological varation. Ulva has world-wide occurrence, and is therefore capable of providing a standard for comparison of data. This alga merits consideration as an international monitor for pollutants in the marine environment.

  18. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad A. Al-Haidary; Samara, Emad M.; Kalid A. Abdoun; Riyadh S. Aljumaah; Aly B. Okab; Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-01-01

    The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca); T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed in...

  19. Photosynthetic properties of three Brazilian seaweeds / Propriedades fotossintéticas de três macroalgas marinhas brasileiras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo M., Chaloub; Fernanda, Reinert; Cristina A. G., Nassar; Beatriz G., Fleury; Dulce G., Mantuano; Anthony W. D., Larkum.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho fotossintético de três grupos distintos de macroalgas marinhas, Ulva fasciata Delile (alga verde), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (alga parda) e Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (alga vermelha), foi comparado com auxílio de u [...] m fluorímetro de pulso e amplitude modulada. O potencial fotoquímico máximo do PS II (Fv/Fm) variou de 0,80 a 0,51, sendo que os menores valores foram observados em P. brasiliensis. Sob a irradiância de 400 µmol fótons m-2 s-1, o maior valor de dissipação fotoquímica (qP = 0,92 ± 0,13) foi observado para U. fasciata. A alga vermelha P. brasiliensis dissipou elevada quantidade de energia de excitação (qN = 0,56 ± 0,09), resultando em valores baixos de potencial fotoquímico efetivo do PS II (0,23 ± 0,04), e também de taxa relativa de transporte de elétrons (3,3 ± 0,7). O elevado potencial fotossintético encontrado para U. fasciata explica, parcialmente, a capacidade da espécie de crescimento rápido e de alta produtividade. Abstract in english Photosynthetic performance of distinct marine macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile (green alga), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (brown alga), and Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (red alga), were compared using a pulse amplitude-modulated flu [...] orometer. The maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) ranged from 0.80 to 0.51, and the lowest value was found in P. brasiliensis. Under 400 µmol photons m-2 s-1 irradiance, the highest value of photochemical quenching (qP = 0.92 ± 0.13) was observed for U. fasciata. The red alga P. brasiliensis dissipated high amounts of excitation energy (qN = 0.56 ± 0.09), resulting in relatively low values for the effective quantum yield of PS-II (0.23 ± 0.04), as well as for the relative electron transport rate (3.3 ± 0.7). The high photosynthetic potential found for U. fasciata partially explains the species ability for rapid growth and high productivity.

  20. Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

  1. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POECILIOPSIS FASCIATA IN NEAR-SHORE HABITAT OF THE HIGH ELEVATION LAKE, LAGO DE ACHICHILCA, PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya-Ayala Raymundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of organisms within a pond or lake can reflect the result of a variety of factors. We examined the distribution and abundance of the fish, Poecilioposis fasciata, in Lago de Achichilca, Puebla, Mexico, as well as how the distribution and abundance varied among months. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity varied among months. The abundance of P. fasciata peaked in December and February. For the months when fish were observed, their abundances were positively related to dissolved oxygen concentration and were generally not related to temperature. Our results make it clear that there is substantial seasonal variation in the abundances of P. fasciata and that within months, their distributions are likely driven more by dissolved oxygen than either temperature or salinity.

  2. Reproducción y dimorfismo sexual en una población de Homonota fasciata (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) del monte de San Juan, Argentina / Reproduction and sexual dimorphism in a population of Homonota fasciata (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from Mount of San Juan, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo A., Nieva; Graciela M., Blanco; Juan C., Acosta; Matías, Olmedo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer y describir el ciclo reproductivo y el dimorfismo sexual morfométrico de Homonota fasciata en el monte de San Juan. Para analizar la reproducción, se midió en hembras la longitud y ancho de folículos yemados y/o huevos en oviducto; en machos se midió el ancho [...] y largo de testículos, con el fin de estimar sus volúmenes. El dimorfismo sexual se examinó midiendo 10 variables morfométricas en 49 individuos (26 hembras y 23 machos). Homonota fasciata inició su actividad reproductiva en primavera para los 2 años de registro. El tamaño de camada fue de un huevo. En hembras, se evidenció al menos una triple postura y el ciclo gonadal varió con las estaciones. En machos, el desarrollo testicular no exhibió variaciones, demostrando una condición reproductiva continua a través de la estación de actividad. Se halló dimorfismo sexual en 2 variables: longitud radio-cúbito, siendo mayor en hembras que en machos; y longitud tibia-fíbula, siendo esta variable mayor en machos y atribuyendo el dimorfismo encontrado a la marcada territorialidad de la especie. Este estudio es un valioso aporte al conocimiento de la biología de la especie, en un contexto tanto ecológico como de conservación. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to know and describe the reproductive cycle and sexual dimorphism of Homonota fasciata form the Mount of San Juan. To analyze reproduction, females were measured in the length and breadth of yemados follicles and/or eggs in the oviduct, in males testes length and width were [...] measured, in order to estimate their volumes. Sexual dimorphism was examined measuring 10 morphometric variables in 49 individuals (26 females and 23 males). Homonota fasciata started their reproductive activity in spring for 2 years recorded. The smallest size was 1 egg. Females, showed at least a triple posture and the gonadal cycle varied with seasons. In males, testicular development did not exhibit variations, showing a continuous reproductive condition through the activity season. We found sexual dimorphism in 2 variables: radio-ulna length, being higher in females than in males, and tibia-fibula length, being this variable major in males and attributing dimorphism found to the marked the territoriality of the species. This study is a valuable contribution to the knowledge of this species in a context of ecology and conservation.

  3. Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NP Dinamithra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment with calcium is beneficial in relieving the pain and muscle spasms caused by Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata.

  4. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  5. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva flexuosa Wulfen zoospores to survive darkness were tested under different conditions. The dark preserved zoospore was cultured under a two-factor experimental design to test the effect of salinity...

  6. The signal based relationship between the green seaweed Ulva and its indigenous bacterial community

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This project has focused on the relationship between the green seaweed Ulva, commonly found in the intertidal zone of the UK coastline and its cognate bacterial community. It has previously been reported that motile Ulva zoospores are attracted to N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), signalling molecules utilised by Gram-negative bacteria in a density dependent form of cellular communication termed quorum sensing (QS) and produced by several biofilm dwelling species of marine bacteria. The speci...

  7. Cadmium effects on growth and physiology of Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, J.W.; Kremer, B.P.; Sperling, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. was grown in the laboratory in unialgal culture to sufficient size so that up to 70 discs, 24 mm in diameter, could be punched out of a single plant. Using such discs, U. lactuca was then tested with various concentrations of Cd under continuous-flow conditions. A concentration of 4.5 ppm Cd was lethal to U. lactuca within 6 days. Control discs in unpolluted water increased in diameter at a rate of 8 to 13% day/sup -1/ over a 6-day period. At sublethal concentration of Cd a sharp reduction in growth rate was observed at increasing concentrations up to approximately 0.3 ppm Cd, whereas from 0.3 ppm Cd to the lethal concentrations the reduction of the growth rate was significantly less. Reduction in photosynthetic performance corresponded closely to the recuction in growth rate. At ambient concentrations of 0.8 ppm Cd, the plants concentrated Cd by a factor of approximately 50 in 6 days. Much higher concentration factors were attained in lower ambient concentrations. After removal from Cd-polluted water into flow-through culture in unpolluted water, a subsequent loss of Cd was indicated and the plants recovered rapidly. Plants exposed up to 3 d to 0.7 ppm Cd recovered sufficiently to produce viable gametes 7 days after removal from Cd. Because it has a relatively short life span and apparently loses Cd subsequent to exposure to Cd-polluted water, Ulva lactuca is not recommended as an alga for monitoring in-situ environmental pollution.

  8. Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
    humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
    De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
    diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
    síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

  9. Ulva prolifera monitoring by GF-1 wide field-of-view sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenxiu; Li, Junsheng; Zhou, Demin; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Haobin

    2014-11-01

    Ulva prolifera, a kind of green macroalgae, is nontoxic itself, however, its bloom has bad effects on the marine environment, coastal scene, water sports and seashore tourism. Monitoring of the Ulva prolifera by remote sensing technology has the advantages of wide coverage, rapidness, low cost and dynamic monitoring over a long period of time. The GF-1 satellite was launched in April 2013, which provides a new suitable remote sensing data source for monitoring the Ulva prolifera. At present, segmenting image with a threshold is the most widely used method in Ulva prolifera extraction by remote sensing data, because it is simple and easy to operate. However, the threshold value is obtained through visual analysis or using a fixed statistical value, and could not be got automatically. Facing this problem, we proposed a new method, which can obtain the segmentation threshold automatically based on the local maximum gradient value. This method adopted the average NDVI value of local maximum gradient points as the threshold, and could get an appropriate segmentation threshold automatically for each image. The preliminary results showed that this method works well in monitoring Ulva prolifera by GF-1 WFV data.

  10. Existence of a deep subtidal stock of drifting Ulva in relation to intertidal algal mat developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, M.; Morand, P.

    2004-11-01

    Blooms of drifting green algae often develop in shallow coastal zones that receive significant nutrient inputs. Each spring and summer, some fifty bays and coves in Brittany (France) are affected in this way. Until now, in this region, only the algae present in the surf zone or stranded ashore, constituting an intertidal stock, have been taken into account. Another stock of algae, which was subtidal and of the same species ( Ulva spp.), was found in the Bay of Douarnenez, one of the ten areas most affected by these algal blooms. This subtidal Ulva stock was located beyond the surf zone, at depths reaching 15 m. It was about the same size as the intertidal stock, viz., a few thousand tons on average. Subtidal Ulva stocks were generally found lying on the sandy bottom in a distribution showing no particular pattern. Biomass ranged from almost zero to 1.547 kg m -2 of fresh and spun-dried algae. However, at depths from 3 to 7 m they were often arranged in strips a few dm wide, due to the swell's effect. The bottom conditions of temperature, salinity, irradiance and dissolved inorganic nitrogen measured during spring and summer are suitable for the growth of Ulva in the subtidal zone. Both intertidal and subtidal drifting Ulva stocks are mobile and capable of exchanging material. In spring, the intertidal stock's inoculum is likely to come from the subtidal. Later in the season, the subtidal stock could be supplied, at least partially, by the intertidal.

  11. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  12. Kinetics of stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus in Ulva Pertusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gong, Ning; Mi, Dong; Luan, Chundi; Shao, Kuishuang; Jia, Hongliang; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-09-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) has been detected extensively in both biotic and abiotic matrices, and stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers has also been observed in organisms. In this laboratory study, Ulva pertusa were firstly exposed to known Dechlorane Plus concentrations for 21d (uptake period), and then transferred to clean seawater for 14d (depuration period) to investigate the kinetics of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa. Dechlorane Plus isomers reached steady-state after 21d of exposure. The mean fractional abundance of syn-DP (fsyn) exceeded than that of 0d (0.23±0.02) during uptake, but decreased during depuration. This study is the first to define the kinetics of stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa using two-box kinetic model. The uptake rate constants of the syn- and anti-DP were 0.164±0.056d(-1) and 0.083±0.071d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constants were 0.337±0.057d(-1) (syn-DP) and 0.236±0.095d(-1) (anti-DP), suggesting that syn-DP is eliminated quicker than anti-DP by U. pertusa. These results are consistent with observation of fsyn and stereoselective enrichment of Dechlorane Plus isomers in U. pertusa. PMID:24997969

  13. Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinelli, María Alcira; Areco, María Mar; Afonso, María dos Santos

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG?1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ?Cu-PMG-Cu to ?Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG. PMID:23376752

  14. Alterações na composição florística das algas da Praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ) / Changes in the marine flora of the Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ANDRÉ, TAOUIL; YOCIE, YONESHIGUE-VALENTIN.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A Baía de Guanabara no decorrer da ocupação de suas margens sofreu uma continua degradação, levando-a a grandes modificações em seu entorno e a inúmeros danos ambientais. Além de uma significativa alteração paisagística, ocorreu também uma queda na qualidade de suas águas, devido ao lançamento de gr [...] ande quantidade de efluentes não tratados (domésticos e industriais). Este trabalho teve como objetivo inventariar a flora algácea da praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ), compará-la com levantamentos realizados há três décadas. Os resultados mostraram desaparecimento de 30 táxons (49%) outrora existentes no início da década de 70 e o aparecimento de 14 espécies (23%). A flora atual é dominada por Ulva fasciata Delile e Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, espécies potencialmente indicadoras de poluição orgânica. Tais resultados evidenciam que, ao longo dessas três décadas, uma série de impactos trouxe profundas alterações na comunidade de macroalgas. Abstract in english During the past three decades, the Guanabara Bay suffered continuous degradation, leading to severe changes in the surrounding area and environmental damages. Besides significant loss of its natural landscape, the quality of its water decreased with continuous disposal of non-treated domestic organi [...] c sewage and industrial effluents. The present study aimed to survey the algal flora of Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ) and to compare it with information gathered three decades ago. Results showed a decrease of 30 taxa (49%) of the algal species and an increase of 14 species (23%) in comparison with algal flora recorded three decades ago. The actual algal flora is dominated by Ulva fasciata Delile and Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, species indicative of organic pollution. These results elucidate the environmental impacts caused upon the macroalgae community of the Guanabara Bay during throughout the period.

  15. Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Julian Taylor

    The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like topography to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how topography affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of topography in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon topographies. The role of topography on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to topographies was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.

  16. Growth and Cell Cycle of ULVA Compressa (Ulvophyceae) under Led Illumination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuwano, K.; Abe, N.; Nishi, Y.; Seno, H.; Nishihara, G.N.; Iima, M.; Zachleder, Vilém

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 2 (2014), s. 744-752. ISSN 0022-3646 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture(JP) 22580379 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * ulva * elongation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014

  17. Hydrobia ulvae feeding rates: A novel way to assess sediment toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Emily; Grant, Alastair

    2006-12-01

    Standard acute toxicity tests are widely used to assess contaminated sediments. However, such tests last 10 d or more and only provide information regarding lethality. Here, we present data concerning the use of a 28-d growth test and a 24-h test using feeding rate, as measured by egestion rate, of the marine snail Hydrobia ulvae. The test was used to assess the toxicity of estuarine sediments from a gradient of heavy metal contamination, and its sensitivity and ease of use were compared with those of 10-d tests using the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator. Mortality of C. volutator and H. ulvae in 10-d lethal toxicity tests showed similar patterns of sensitivity. Lethality tests with both species showed no effects when carried out using sediments from a number of sites at which ecological impacts are known to occur. By contrast, growth over 28 d in H. ulvae was reduced at all sites where other studies have detected adverse ecological effects. Feeding rate after 24 h also was decreased at moderately contaminated sites where sediments were not acutely toxic, and it was a very good predictor of 28-d growth (r2 = 0.74). Both tests were straightforward to carry out, so H. ulvae has considerable potential as a test organism for chronic toxicity. PMID:17220095

  18. Inter-annual variation of shoot density and biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus content of the leaves, and epiphyte load of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile off Mallorca, western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Terrados, Jorge; Medina-Pons, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    [EN]The epiphyte load, the ash content of the epiphytes, the leaf biomass, the nitrogen and phosphorus content of the leaves, and the density of shoots of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile were monitored yearly from 2003 to 2008 in two shallow meadows off Mallorca (western Mediterranean) with the aim of identifying the responses of P. oceanica meadows to mid-term environmental variability. Inter-annual variability of P. oceanica meadows was significant for most of the ...

  19. Changes in N cycling induced by Ulva detritus enrichment of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2013-01-01

    Macroalgal accumulation and decomposition in shallow water environments typically result in an increase in the organic matter content of the sediment, affecting both benthic metabolism and nutrient dynamics. The present study investigates how a pulse addition of Ulva detritus to estuarine sediment influences the micro-distribution of O2, NO3? and NO2? within the sediment, as well as the rates of oxygen consumption, nitrification and nitrate reduction. The micro-distributions of O2, NO3? and NO2? were monitored with microsensors in Ulva-amended sediment microcosms and in unamended controls during a 1 mo incubation experiment. Process rates were obtained from numerical modeling of the concentration profiles. Oxygen consumption and nitrate reduction were enhanced by a factor of 2 in Ulva-amended sediment compared to the control. This led to a significant reduction in the penetration depths of oxygen and nitrate. Nitrification increased significantly in response to enhanced NH4 + supply from decomposition of the Ulva detritus. Aerobic ammonia oxidation exceeded rates of nitrite oxidation, leading to accumulation of NO2 ? in the oxic zone of the sediment. Nitrite and NO3 ? produced via nitrification diffused up to the sediment surface, inducing a net efflux to the water column, and downwards, supporting a high rate of denitrification coupled to nitrification. The present study shows that organic enrichment with Ulva detritus enhances sediment oxygen uptake, nitrification and denitrification, the net result being loss of nitrogen from the system. This might constitute a compensating or self-restoration mechanism counteracting an increase in N in intertidal sediment affected by eutrophication-induced macroalgal blooms

  20. Effects of Ulva rigida on the Growth, Feed Intake and Body Composition of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Diler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first trial to evaluate algae meal, Ulva rigida, as an inexpensive and locally available feed ingredient in the diet of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Five experimental diets were supplemented with Ulva meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% (C0, U5, U10, U15 and U20, respectively to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat meal by Ulva meal for common carp, Cyprinus carpio during a 112-day growth trial. Carp fingerlings, each initially weighing 3.1 g, were stocked into 60 l-glass tanks and were fed to apparent satiation three times daily. Performances of fish fed the test diets were evaluated in terms of survival, final mean weight, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and body composition. Poorest growth performance was recorded from fish fed the diet with 20% Ulva meal supplementation (U20 (p< 0.05. Fish group fed with 5% Ulva meal inclusion (U5 achieved the best growth performance (p>0.05. Results suggested that the dietary Ulva meal inclusion of 5 to 15% replacing wheat meal in carp diets could be acceptable.

  1. Gastropod communities associated with Ulva spp. in the littoral zone in southeast Brazil / Comunidades de gasterópodos asociados con Ulva spp. en la zona litoral del sudeste de Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela C, Zamprogno; Mércia B, Costa; Danielle C, Barbiero; Brisa S, Ferreira; Fernanda T.V.M., Souza.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Las comunidades phytales están influenciadas espacial y temporalmente por parámetros físicos y biológicos cambiantes. Este estudio describe y compara los gasterópodos asociados con Ulva spp. entre sitios en la costa de Espirito Santo, con sustrato laterítico ferruginoso y con diferentes modos de exp [...] osición al oleaje. Camburi está caracterizado por la presencia de partículas de mineral de hierro. Las muestras fueron recolectadas bimensualmente. En cada sitio se realizaron cinco cuadrantes de muestreo al azar en la region intermareal. Se encontraron 2.964 individuos y 53 taxa. En Camburi, la especie dominante fue Amphitalamus valley, y en Capuba y Manguinhos fue Eulithidium affine. El análisis realizado indicó que Camburi es distinto de los otros sitios. El menor impacto de las olas y la estructura más compleja de las algas en Camburi, debido a la presencia de mineral de hierro, puede explicar esta diferencia. Abstract in english Phytal communities are characterized by spatial and temporal variation and are influenced by fluctuating biological and physical parameters. This study aimed to describe and compare the gastropods associated with Ulva spp., at three sites of the Espirito Santo coast with ferruginous laterite substra [...] te and different modes of wave exposure. Camburi is characterized by the presence of iron ore particles. Samples were collected bimonthly. At each site, five sampling quadrats were launched at random in the intertidal region. Individuals of Ulva spp. were collected (2964 individuals) and 53 taxa were found. In Camburi the dominant species was Amphitalamus vallei (Barleeidae), while in Capuba and Manguinhos Eulithidium affine (Phasianellidae) predominated. The analyses indicated that Camburi is distinct from the other sites. The lesser wave impacts and the more complex structure of the algae in Camburi, due to the presence of iron ore, may explain this variation.

  2. Avaliação da ação da macroalga marinha Ulva lactuca em animais de experimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Andrea de Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca é uma macroalga verde marinha comum em ambientes de temperatura elevada e com grandes variações de salinidade. A flora ficológica marinha vem sendo objeto de estudo por apresentar propriedades farmacoterapêuticas sobre o metabolismo animal, além de oferecer uma alternativa viável no tratamento de patologias que acometem o ser humano e afeta a sua qualidade de vida, ela é bastante utilizada na culinária, como iogurte, sushi. Objetivando avaliar a toxicidade aguda da Ulva lactuca foram utilizados camundongos albinos Swiss (Mus musculus, durante os estudos foi evidenciado que a alga tem efeitos estimulante do sistema nervoso central e periférico, e que em doses elevadas como 2000 a 3750 mg/kg/ip podem causar alterações na morfologia dos órgão comprometendo seu funcionamento,já que foram observado na analise macroscópica dos órgãos que os vasos do trato gastrointestinal estavam dilatados, os rins hipertrofiados,o fígado isquêmico , pulmões hemorrágicos,e a bexiga cheia.

  3. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  4. Hydrobia ulvae: A deposit-feeder for cleaning living hard-shelled foraminifera

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol, L.; Dupuy, Celie; Pascal, P; Debenay, J

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new method for fast and inexpensive extraction of a large number of living foraminifera for laboratory cultures. The method is a significant improvement over current extraction methods, which are highly time-consuming. Several treatments were designed to test the method. Sediment bearing foraminifera from Brouage Mudflat (Atlantic coast of France) was washed through a 50-mu m sieve and distributed in glass Petri dishes with 20, 40 and 80 specimens of Hydrobia ulvae, a co...

  5. Comparative Studies of the Pyrolytic and Kinetic Characteristics of Maize Straw and the Seaweed Ulva pertusa

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; ZHANG, XIAOWEN; Xu, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min?1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that t...

  6. Analysis of Metal Contents of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca) from Istanbul, Turkey by EDXRF

    OpenAIRE

    Apayd?n, G.; Ayl?kc?, V.; Cengiz, E.; Saydam, M; Küp, N.; T?ra?o?lu, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the contents of essential and toxic trace element by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in seaweed (Ulva lactuca) from collected eight different regions of Istanbul (Turkey) in the years of 2006 and 2007. It has been analyzed by the samples using two annular radioactive sources and an Ultra-LEGe detector. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard additions was applied for the ...

  7. Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides

    OpenAIRE

    XU, DONG; Gao, Zhengquan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Yitao WANG; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L?1 significantly inhibited grow...

  8. Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taejun; Kang, Sung-Ho; Park, Ji-Sook; Lee, Han-Kyun; Brown, Murray T

    2008-01-31

    A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 microgL(-1)), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 microgL(-1), whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 microgL(-1) Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals. PMID:18083244

  9. Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 ?g L-1), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 ?g L-1, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 ?g L-1 Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals

  10. Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Sook; Lee, Han-Kyun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-31

    A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 {mu}g L{sup -1}), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals.

  11. Low Densities of Epiphytic Bacteria from the Marine Alga Ulva australis Inhibit Settlement of Fouling Organisms?

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Holmström, Carola; Case, Rebecca; Low, Adrian; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 (formerly Roseobacter gallaeciensis) are marine bacteria often found in association with the alga Ulva australis and produce a range of extracellular in...

  12. Role of Ulva lactuca Extract in Alleviation of Salinity Stress on Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Ali, Refaat M.; Khaulood A. Hemida; Makram A. Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismuta...

  13. Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040 mg L-1) > Cd (0.095 mg L-1) > Pb (0.489 mg L-1) > Zn (0.572 mg L-1). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 ?g L-1. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788 ?l L-1) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests

  14. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  15. Inorganic nitrogen control in wastewater treatment ponds from a fish farm (Orbetello, Italy): Denitrification versus Ulva uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to quantify the N removal efficiency of an Ulva-based phytotreatment system receiving wastewaters from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy), to identify the main biogeochemical pathways involved and to provide basic guidelines for treatment implementation and management. Fluxes of O2 and nutrients in bare and in Ulva colonised sediments were assessed by light/dark core incubations; denitrification by the isotope pairing technique and Ulva growth by in situ incubation of macroalgal disks in cages. O2 and nutrient budgets were estimated as sum of individual processes and further verified by 24-h investigations of overall inlet and outlet loads. Ulva uptake (up to 7.8mmolNm-2h-1) represented a net sink for water column and regenerated NH4+ whilst N removal via denitrification (10-170?molNm-2h-1) accounted for a small percentage of inorganic nitrogen load (-2h-1) indicating that N loss could be enhanced. The control of Ulva standing stocks by optimised harvesting of surplus biomass may represent an effective strategy to maximise DIN removal and could result in the assimilation of ?50% of produced inorganic nitrogen

  16. Efecto de Ulva Spp. sobre el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten Purpuratus en la Bahía de Paracas / Effect of Ulva Spp. on growth and survival of Argopecten Purpuratus in Paracas Bay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, Arce Castro; Jaime, Mendo.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú) durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada u [...] no con tres unidades experimentales de 1m2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con 10 (T2) y 20 (T3) kg/m2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1), es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repetición (30 por tratamiento) y se registró la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gónada. La supervivencia se evaluó contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registró la temperatura y oxígeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registró diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentración de oxígeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluyó que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extracción. Abstract in english This study compares the growth and survival of juvenile Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) seeded with different densities of Ulva spp., in the bay of Paracas (Ica-Peru) between August 7 and October 16, 2011. For this purpose, three pens were installed each with three experimental units of 1m2 an [...] d each experimental unit had a density of 60 scallops /m2, with an average height of 40-50mm. In two of the pens Ulva spp., was introduced with 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) kg/m2 and the third was considered witness (T1), ie without Ulva spp. To assess growth, every two weeks 10 scallops for each repetition (30 in each treatment) were randomly extracted their individual height was recorded and dry weight and gonad somatic tissue were sampled. Survival was assessed by counting the dead individuals in varying periods. During the entire experiment temperature and bottom oxygen were assessed every 30 minutes while pH, conductivity and currents were daily assessed at noon in the treatments middle zone. Chlorophyll a was measured daily, for each treatment. The results indicate that survival, height and weight were affected by the presence of Ulva spp. Oxygen concentration and chlorophyll a, showed higher concentration in the presence of Ulva spp. It was concluded that higher than 20 kg spp./m2 densities of Ulva affect growth and survival of A. purpuratus, so a removal is recommended.

  17. Mass mortality in two common soft-bottom invertebrates, Hydrobia ulvae and Corophium volutator-the possible role of trematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. T.; Mouritsen, K. N.

    1992-09-01

    Two littoral macrofaunal invertebrates, Hydrobia ulvae (Prosobranchia) and Corophium volutator (Amphipoda) suffered mass mortality on an intertidal mudflat in the Danish Wadden Sea in May June 1990. Dissection of collected H. ulvae individuals revealed a considerable increase from March to May in numbers of infected individuals by microphallid trematodes that use H. ulvae and C. volutator as first and second intermediate host, respectively. The numbers of infested snails were hereafter reduced by an amount equal to the observed mortality rate of snails. At the same time, the C. volutator population became extinct. Since other conceivable mortality factors could be ruled out, parasites are suspected to be the causative agent. Apart from the expected effects on potential predators by the decline in the two invertebrate populations, the benthic community changed and destabilization of the substratum occurred probably because of the die-off in C. volutator. Meteorological data suggest high temperatures as a triggering factor of the massdevelopment of the studied trematodes.

  18. EFECTO DE Ulva spp. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE Argopecten purpuratus EN LA BAHÍA DE PARACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arce Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada uno con tres unidades experimentales de 1m 2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con 10 (T2 y 20 (T3 kg/m 2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1, es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repetición (30 por tratamiento y se registró la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gónada. La supervivencia se evaluó contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registró la temperatura y oxígeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registró diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentración de oxígeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluyó que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extracción.

  19. Lead, mercury, and certain nutrient elements in Ulva lactuca (linnaeus) from Ras Beirut, Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiber, J.; Washburn, E.

    1978-10-27

    Samples of the algae Ulva lactuca from nine locations along the coast of Ras Beirut, Lebanon, were analyzed for lead, mercury, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. All samples had low lead concentrations, suggesting that U. lactuca has a mechanism for controlling lead toxicity; phosphate may be a factor in this process. Concentrations of most other elements were relatively uniform, indicating that U. lactuca is subject to similar environmental conditions in terms of exposure to various elements, and that it might be able to maintain biological stability under high environmental stress levels. Further toxicity studies on U. lactuca are needed. (1 map, 50 references, 2 tables)

  20. Effect of extraction conditions on the yied and purity of ulvan extracted from Ulva lactuca

    OpenAIRE

    Yaich, Hela; Garna, Haikel; Besbes, Souhail; Paquot, Michel; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

    2013-01-01

    A study of the influence of extraction conditions (pH: 1.5 and 2; temperature: 80 °C and 90 °C; extraction time: 1-3 h), on the yield, chemical composition and purity of the sulphated cell wall polysaccharides ulvan, extracted from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca and precipitated by alcohol is carried out. The alcohol precipitate yields varied from 21.68% to 32.67% (%dw/dw) depending on the pH. At pH 2, the alcohol precipitate yields and the uronic acid recovery from extract juice are higher t...

  1. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1)y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure ...

  2. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha?1 y?1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g?1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and l...

  3. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  4. Preliminary results on laboratory simulations of the decomposition of the green algae Ulva rigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ulva Rigida is a cosmopolitan green algae characteristic of many eutrophic and mesotrophic coastal environments. The effect of its growth and decomposition on the cycle of trace metals has been studied by using enclosures in the site Loutropyrgos over a number of years. The present study is a continuation of that research. Its main aim was to simulate a number of the field experiments in the laboratory, under more controlled conditions and understand better the impact of the decomposition of algae on sea water and sediment

  5. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil / Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana de O., Rocha; Maria Magali S. R., Soares; Cristiana Leslie, Corrêa.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em [...] 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos. Abstract in english The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20) (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile) (20), that were purchased in drugstores and mar [...] kets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

  6. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  7. Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauffret, A., E-mail: aourell.mauffret@icman.csic.e [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Rico-Rico, A. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Temara, A. [The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels (Belgium); Blasco, J. [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  9. True identity of the European freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) revealed by a combined molecular and morphological approach.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan; Leskinen, E.; Sitkowska, M.; Skácelová, O.; Blomster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 47, ?. 5 (2011), 1177-1192. ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/0697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : green algae * taxonomy * Ulva Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2011

  10. The impact of mercury contamination on the population dynamics of Peringia ulvae (Gastropoda) on a temperate coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Eva Carvalho de

    2013-01-01

    Foram avaliados os efeitos da contaminação de mercúrio na estrutura e dinâmica populacional do gastrópode Peringia ulvae (também conhecida como Hydrobia ulvae) e o seu impacto na cadeia trófica, ao longo de um gradiente de mercúrio, na Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). O gastrópode revelou ser uma espécie tolerante ao contaminante, pois os valores de densidade, biomassa e produção secundária mais elevados foram registados na zona de contaminação intermédia, seguidos da menos contaminad...

  11. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1)y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy.

  12. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha?1 y?1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g?1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy.

  13. Biosorption of heavy metals by marine algae Ulva rigida, Cystoseira barbata and C. crinita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simeonova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption properties of three different marine algae (Ulva rigida (green algae; Cystoseira barbata (brown algae and Cystoseira crinita (brown algae were investigated. They were collected from the Black Sea coastal area in Varna region, Bulgaria. Kinetics were studied to evaluate the ability of the three algae to sequester Cu (II, Zn (II, Pb (II, Ni (II, Cd (II from aqueous solution. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 2.84 mgeq Ni2+/g for Cystoseira crinita and 2.28 mgeq Cu2+/g for Cystoseira barbata at a solution pH of 5 ± 0.5. The influence of pH of the solution and algae mass on the heavy metal sorption was investigated either. Desorption using 0.05 M HNO3 was carried out and was determined that regeneration of biomass for use in multiple cycles of Cd (II biosorption –desorption should be feasible.

  14. Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, JØrn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and fluctuating levels of nitrogen sources. Our understanding of the influences of this varying condition on the uptake and growth responses of U. lactuca is limited. In this present work, we examined the growth response of U. lactuca exposed to different sources of nitrogen (NH4+; NO3?; and the combination NH4NO3) by using photo-scanning technology for monitoring the growth kinetics of U. lactuca. The images revealed differential increases of the surface area of U. lactuca disks with time in response to different N-nutrient enrichments. The results showed a favorable growth response to ammonium as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 ?M of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4?±?0.18% day?1 and 9.4?±?0.72% day?1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5?±?0.24 mg DW m?2·day?1. The presence of ammonium apparently discriminated the nitrate uptake by U. lactuca when exposed to NH4NO3. Apart from showing the significant differential growth response of U. lactuca to different nitrogen sources, the work exhibits the applicability of a photo-scanning approach for acquiring precise quantitative growth data for U. lactuca as exemplified by assessment of the growth response to two different N-sources.

  15. Influence of environment factors on bacterial ingestion rate of the deposit-feeder Hydrobia ulvae and comparison with meiofauna

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Dupuy, C.; Richard, P.; Haubois, A.g.; Niquil, N

    2008-01-01

    Deposit feeders are able to process a considerable volume of sediment, containing large quantities of associated bacteria. However, conclusions concerning the trophic role played by benthic bacteria in marine sediments are still not fully elucidated. This study deals with bacterivory by the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae, one of the most abundant deposit-feeding species in intertidal mudflats in Western Europe. Ingestion rates of bacteria were determined during grazing experiments using 15N preenri...

  16. Evidence of Coexistence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in a Green-Tide-Forming Alga, Ulva prolifera

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianfang; Fan, Xiao; ZHANG, XIAOWEN; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C3 photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C4 photosynthesis, so C4 photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C3 and C4 p...

  17. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholest...

  18. Biomasa de Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) en tres localidades del malecón de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México / Biomass of Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) in three locations along the bayfront of La Paz, Baja California Sur, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth N, Aguila-Ramírez; Margarita, Casas-Valdez; Claudia J, Hernández-Guerrero; Alejandro, Marín-Álvarez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución, biomasa y potencial cosechable de Ulva spp. en tres localidades del malecón de La Paz, Baja California Sur, durante 2001 y 2002. Algunas especies de este género, antes en el género Enteromorpha, tienen una buena demanda en otros países para consumo humano. Se realizó un [...] muestreo sistemático utilizando como unidad de muestreo cuadros de 25 x 25 cm colocados cada 10 m a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la línea de costa trazados cada 40 m. En ambos años la mayor biomasa promedio se encontró en El Palmar. La mayor biomasa de Ulva spp. se registró durante mayo de 2001 y en febrero de 2002. La biomasa promedio fue de 351 g m-2 en 2001, mientras que en 2002 fue de 537 g m-2. Los máximos valores de biomasa cosechable se encontraron en El Kiwi en ambos años. El gran incremento en substrato que se presentó en 2002 podría explicar los altos volúmenes de cosecha estimados de 115 t húmedas. Recomendamos investigar si hay mercado para esta biomasa que permita su explotación sostenida Abstract in english Distribution and standing crop of Ulva spp. were measured in three localities along the bayfront of La Paz, Baja California Sur, during 2001 and 2002. Some species of Ulva, formerly in the genus Enteromorpha, are utilized in some countries for human consumption. We utilized a systematic sampling met [...] hod, using as sampling unit a 25 x 25 cm square placed every 10 m throughout transects perpendicular to the coastline which were drawn every 40 m. In both years the greatest average biomass was found at El Palmar. The largest biomass of Ulva spp. was recorded during May 2001 and February 2002. The average biomass was 351 g m-2 in 2001 and 537 g m-2 in 2002. The maximum values of the standing crop were found at El Kiwi in both years. The great increase in substratum in 2002 may explain the large volumes of the standing crop, estimated as 115 t wet. We recommend investigation to see if there is a market for this biomass leading to its sustainable exploitation

  19. Fatty acid profiles indicate the habitat of mud snails Hydrobia ulvae within the same estuary: Mudflats vs. seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Helena; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Reis, Alberto; Queiroga, Henrique; Serôdio, João; Calado, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.

  20. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  1. Effect of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca on Soil Water Holding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Hulusi Dede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca on soil water-holding capacity and the variation by over time were investigated. Sea lettuce (algae was collected from the Black Sea coast, rinsed with rain water and dried to constant weight. Dried algae were added to soil at rate of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Mixtures were filling the pots and incubated for 0, 20, 40, 60 days at 25 ºC. At the end of the incubation, soil organic matter and water holding capacity were determined. Adding of algae to soil was increased the porosity and water holding capacity. The amount of the organic matter was decreased by the incubation progress. At the 20 and 40 days, micro-porosity was increased, air capacity decreased and water-holding capacity has not changed. At the 60th incubation days, reduction of organic matter content was slowed, air capacity was reached to normal values and water holding capacity was decreased. Total porosity was not changed. At the beginning (0th and the 60th incubation days, the distinctive dose was obtained at 5% for porosity and water holding capacity increases. Increased doses of the above have been limited. The optimum dose of 5% as determined by the addition of algae was increased soil water holding capacity by 48% on average.

  2. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  3. Consumption and feeding preference of Echinogammarus marinus on two different algae: Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Irene; Leite, Nuno; Constantino, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Echinogammarus marinus constitutes the most abundant amphipod species in Fucus spp. assemblages from many North Atlantic estuaries. However, there are some doubts about the real use of fucoids by the amphipod. Whilst some studies report the ingestion of Fucus vesiculosus by E. marinus, others suggest that the amphipod preference for fucoids is mostly related to sheltering rather than feeding, due to the high phlorotannin content of brown algae. The purpose of the present work was to disentangle this issue by checking the consumption rate and feeding preference of E. marinus on F. vesiculosus, its preferential habitat, and on Ulva intestinalis, a green algae abundant in the Mondego estuary (Western Coast of Portugal) and usually considered as highly palatable for herbivores. In a 2-stage laboratorial setup, fresh disks of the two types of algae were offered to E. marinus for three days. Consumption rates were estimated from differences between algal and animal initial and final fresh weights using a control correction factor, while preference was tested by differences in algal consumption rates when no choice was offered (stage 1) and when the two algae were offered simultaneously (stage 2). Results showed that E. marinus effectively consumed fresh F. vesiculosus in much higher amounts than U. intestinalis and significantly preferred to consume F. vesiculosus over U. intestinalis. Therefore, feeding habits must be one of the factors related to the close association of the amphipod with F. vesiculosus, although other factors may also be involved (e.g. sheltering).

  4. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  5. Multi-sensor monitoring of Ulva prolifera blooms in the Yellow Sea using different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yongcun

    2015-09-01

    The massive Ulva (U.) prolifera bloom in the Yellow Sea was first observed and reported in summer of 2008. After that, the green tide event occurred every year and influenced coastal areas of Jiangsu and Shandong provinces of China. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the floating macroalgae. In this paper, U. prolifera patches are detected from quasisynchronous satellite images with different spatial resolution, i.e., Aqua MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), HJ-1A/B (China Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting), CCD (Charge-Coupled Device), Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Two comparative experiments are performed to explore the U. prolifera monitoring abilities by different data using detection methods such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) with different thresholds. Results demonstrate that spatial resolution is an important factor affecting the extracted area of the floating macroalgae. Due to the complexity of Case II sea water characteristics in the Yellow Sea, a fixed threshold NDVI method is not suitable for U. prolifera monitoring. A method with adaptive ability in time and space, e.g., the threshold selection method proposed by Otsu (1979), is needed here to obtain accurate information on the floating macroalgae.

  6. Physiological Response of the Green Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta to Heavy Metals Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To monitor physiological changes induced by heavy metals contamination on the marine algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, laboratory experiments were performed. Physiological effects of four heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd ions on U. lactuca were assessed 5 days after exposure under laboratory conditions. Fourier transform raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman technique was also applied as support for physiological study. Our data showed that the specific growth rate (SGR%, chlorophyll (Chl a & b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids (Car pigments decreased significantly in algal thalli under heavy metals stress. This phenomenon was more pronounced with Pb treatment compared to the other tested metals. In addition, morphological changes due to heavy metals treatment were recorded by observed cellular damages under the above mentioned metals. FT-Raman technique showed that the C-H, C=O, CH2 and C-O-C groups were mainly involved in heavy metals absorption. Moreover, Pb ions showed the highest toxicity against U. lactuca studied by showing the highest decline in the above mentioned physiological parameters.

  7. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one ?/?-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  8. Seasonality and environmental conditioning in Ulva rigida in Venice lagoon. In situ growth measurement with thalli discs; Stagionalita` e condizionamenti ambientali nello sviluppo di Ulva rigida nella laguna di Venezia. Prove di accrescimento in sity di frammenti di tallo algale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rismondo, R.; Zanella, L.; Rismondo, A. [Societa` Biotecnica, Venezia-Mestre (Italy)

    1997-11-01

    The growth trend, the sites and the environmental conditions for the macro algae Ulva rigida have been investigated in Venice lagoon. A method based on in situ growth, using transparent plastic bottles containing thalli discs, and on bi-weekly measurement has been applied for a number of significant lagoon sites. Results pointed out the higher growth period, being from April to June. There was no correlation between the sites where maximum growth was measured and those where algal accumulation used to occur. The effects of some of the environmental factors conditioning algal growth in the different sites have been studied by using cluster analysis.

  9. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, Cecilia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Sewell, Graham [School of Health Professions, University of Plymouth, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Plymouth PL6 8BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH{sub 2})(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: > This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. > Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. > Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. > Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. > Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  10. Ocorrência de Ulva spp., Polysiphonia sp., e Microcystis aeruginosa nas praias do Saco do Laranjal, Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Correa da Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho relata a ocorrência de algas indicadoras de processos de eutrofização no Saco do Laranjal (Lagoa dos Patos no período compreendido entre 2005 e 2012. A ocorrência de grandes quantidades da alga macroscópica verde Ulva L. (Chlorophyta, formando marés verde, foram registradas nos verão de 2008, 2009 e 2012. A cianofícea potencialmente tóxica, Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz. Kütz. foi observada em quase todos os anos, nos meses de verão e, em floração massiva, no verão de 2010. São fornecidas ilustrações dos eventos de crescimento massivos observados. Os resultados sugerem que o Saco do Laranjal provavelmente apresenta-se em processo de eutrofização.

  11. VARIACIONES EN LA MORFOMETRÍA DE ULVA LACTUCA L (ULVOPHYCEAE EN DOS ZONAS CONTAMINADAS DE LA BAHÍA DE SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel \\u00C1ngel Castell-Puchades

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo expone los resultados obtenidos acerca de la dinámica de crecimiento de la especie Ulva lactuca L en dos zonas contaminadas de la bahía de Santiago de Cuba, durante el período de febrero a mayo de 2007. En cada zona se efectuaron cada 15 días tres transectos para analizar las variaciones morfométricas. El largo de los frondes presentó variaciones entre 0,8 cm y 24,6 cm y el ancho entre 3,0 cm y 42,5 cm. La estación más idónea para el crecimiento de la especie fue Cayo Granma.

  12. Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan Hafez Omar

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L-1). The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L-1 was the same as 20 and 30 mg L-1, increase with increasing pH up to pH 5.0 and then decreased, in single and multimetal solutions. The...

  13. Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Hafez Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8 on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L-1. The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L-1 was the same as 20 and 30 mg L-1, increase with increasing pH up to pH 5.0 and then decreased, in single and multimetal solutions. The optimum pH value was observed in the pH range 4-5 for Cu2+ and pH 5-6 for Ni2+ and Mn2+. The maximum biosorption capacities of tested alga for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were 92, 80 and 75%, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0. At a further increase of pH (8.0 the biosorption process for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (75, 69 and 63%, respectively at 10 mg L-1 was decreased. The minimum biosorptions were 60, 49 and 44% for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L-1 and pH 2.0. In the multimetal solution, algal biomass exhibited the maximum and the minimum biosorption capacity at different pH values the same as in single metal solution. The inhibitory role of other ions on sorption process can be well observed in multimetal mixture, where biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were significantly decreased in the multimetal solutions. The maximum biosorption was recorded for Cu2+ (83% in solution of Cu2+ + Mn2+, Mn2+ (67% in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ and for Ni2+ (74% in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ at the concentration 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0. The observed reduction in the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (65, 57 and 52%, respectively at 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0 was more pronounced in the multimetal solution of Cu2+ + Ni2+ + Mn2+ as compared with single metal solution. The results demonstrated that the affinity of the tested alga for sorption of the investigated metal ions in single and multimetal solutions runs in the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Mn2+. Biosorption equilibrium was established by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the analyses conducted, the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ to Ulva lactuca was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm.

  14. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively. PMID:26026981

  15. Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH ?1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g-1 for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater

  16. Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sikaily, Amany [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt); Nemr, Ahmed El [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedmoustafaelnemr@yahoo.com; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2007-09-05

    Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH {approx}1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g{sup -1} for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater.

  17. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

    2007-04-15

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

  18. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb

  19. The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

  20. Prevalence and mechanism of polyunsaturated aldehydes production in the green tide forming macroalgal genus Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Taghreed; Engelen, Aschwin H; Diekmann, Onno E; Kuegler, Stefan; Wichard, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase mediated transformations convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into various oxylipins. First, lipoxygenases catalyze fatty acid oxidation to fatty acid hydroperoxides. Subsequently, breakdown reactions result in a wide array of metabolites with multiple physiological and ecological functions. These fatty acid transformations are highly diverse in marine algae and play a crucial rule in e.g., signaling, chemical defense, and stress response often mediated through polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs). In this study, green tide-forming macroalgae of the genius Ulva (Chlorophyta) were collected at various sampling sites in the lagoon of the Ria Formosa (Portugal) and were surveyed for PUAs. We demonstrated that sea-lettuce like but not tube-like morphotypes produce elevated amounts of volatile C10-polyunsaturated aldehydes (2,4,7-decatrienal and 2,4-decadienal) upon tissue damage. Moreover, morphogenetic and phylogenetic analyses of the collected Ulva species revealed chemotaxonomic significance of the perspective biosynthetic pathways. The aldehydes are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with 20 or 18 carbon atoms including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), stearidonic acid (C18:4 n-3), and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-6). We present first evidences that lipoxygenase-mediated (11-LOX and 9-LOX) eicosanoid and octadecanoid pathways catalyze the transformation of C20- and C18-polyunsaturated fatty acids into PUAs and concomitantly into short chain hydroxylated fatty acids. PMID:24915501

  1. Seasonal patterns and recruitment dynamics of green tide-forming Ulva species along the intertidal rocky shores of the southern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Rul

    2014-12-01

    The abundance of two Ulva species in unmanipulated and artificial plots was investigated to better understand the ecological aspects of green tides on the intertidal rocky shore of the southern coast of Korea from July 1998 to January 2001. Artificial substrates were made on ceramic tiles (200 cm2) using a mixture of cement and rock and were set up on the rocky substrate in the lower intertidal zone using a hammer and anchor bolts. These settling plates were replaced every 1-2 months. Two Ulva species were recruited continuously for 3-4 months each year. U. pertusa was recruited during summer-autumn, whereas U. linza was recruited during winter-early spring or spring-early summer. However, U. pertusa dominated in the monitoring plots compared with the experimental period, with the exception of 2 months (February and March 2000). These results indicated that U. pertusa may be the main contributor to green tides along the intertidal rocky shores. The two Ulva species showed a positive relationship between density and biomass. This suggests that the physical removal of Ulva masses should be conducted during the early growing season. I hope this study provides valuable information for determining management policies for green tides on intertidal rocky shores.

  2. In vivo anti-radiation activities of the Ulva pertusa polysaccharides and polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinming; Cheng, Cuilin; Zhao, Haitian; Jing, Jing; Gong, Ning; Lu, Weihong

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides with different molecular weights were extracted from Ulva pertusa and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Iron(III) complex of the low molecular-weight U. pertusa polysaccharides were synthesized. Atomic absorption spectrum showed that the iron content of iron(III)-polysaccharide complex was 27.4%. The comparison between U. pertusa polysaccharides and their iron(III) complex showed that iron chelating altered the structural characteristics of the polysaccharides. The bioactivity analysis showed that polysaccharide with low molecular weight was more effective than polysaccharide with high molecular weight in protecting mice from radiation induced damages on bone marrow cells and immune system. Results also proved that the anti-radiation and anti-oxidative activity of iron(III) complex of low molecular-weight polysaccharides were not less than that of low molecular-weight polysaccharides. PMID:23751317

  3. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

  4. Effects of El Niño on beds of Ulva lactuca along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Blanco-Betancourt

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of El Niño 1997-1998 on the biomass and size of beds of the green alga Ulva lactuca L., along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California across the Canal de Ballenas, was evaluated in May 1998 and compared with May 1995, 1996 and 2000. The El Niño event (97-98 had a significant negative effect on size and biomass. The percent cover area was reduced by 70%, and biomass by 80%, with respect to previous years. A complete recovery was observed in 2000. Growth of the algae was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. No significant effect of irradiance was detected, but temperature did have a significant effect on growth. Optimum growth was found at 18°C. Temperatures of 14°, 22° and 26°C caused reduced growth. A temperature of 30°C was lethal to U. lactuca.

  5. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Zou, Linda, E-mail: linda.zou@unisa.edu.au [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of {Delta}H{sup o} and the negative value of {Delta}G{sup o} show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy {Delta}S{sup o} shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  6. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

  7. Effects of ulvoid (Ulva spp.) accumulation on the structure and function of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of ulvoid (Ulva spp.) accumulation on the structure and function of an eelgrass bed by the coast of Iwakuni, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We monitored eelgrass shoot density and volume of ulvoid accumulation in the study site and evaluated effects of the accumulated ulvoid canopy on the percent survival, seedling density, growth rates, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and carbon contents of eelgrass. Eelgrass shoot density decreased by the accumulation of ulvoid. Also, seedling density decreased by the increase in the ulvoid volumes. Shoot density, seedling density and leaf elongation were negatively correlated with ulvoid volume. Carbon contents in eelgrass decreased by the accumulation of ulvoid (canopy height: 25 cm). These results suggest that accumulation of ulvoid bloom has significant negative impacts on the structure and function of eelgrass bed, i.e. decreases in vegetative shoot density, seedling density, shoot height and growth rate

  8. Screening of priority pesticides in Ulva sp. seaweeds by selective pressurized solvent extraction before gas chromatography with electron capture detector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M I; Micaelo, C; Vale, C; Sontag, G; Noronha, J P

    2014-11-01

    This work reports a fast and reliable analytical method for the screening of priority pesticides (PPs) in Ulva sp. seaweeds by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Extraction and sample clean-up were performed in one single step by selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE). Several parameters affecting SPLE performance were optimized. Method performance was compared with standard Soxhlet extraction. Significant decrease of the time of analysis with better recoveries for a greater number of PPs was achieved by SPLE. Average recoveries ranged from 71 to 103% with RSD < 10%. Field application showed the presence of PP in the range of 3-11 ng g(-1) in seaweeds collected in a coastal lagoon after a long period of heavy rains. These results suggest that Ulva sp. seaweeds tend to accumulate PPs and have the potential to be used as early alert signals of aquatic pollution especially after rains and storm events. PMID:24854703

  9. The influence of sediment cohesiveness on bioturbation effects due to Hydrobia ulvae on the initial erosion of intertidal sediments: A study combining flume and model approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Orvain, F; Sauriau, Pierre-guy; Bacher, Cedric; Prineau, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory experiments performed in a recirculating flume were designed to quantify the bioturbation influence of the mud snail Hydrobia ulvae, one of the most abundant deposit feeders on European intertidal mudflats. Variations in sediment moisture content that occur between bedforms in shore-normal, ridge and runnel systems of intertidal mudflats were added to the model definition. Sediment erosion thresholds, erosion rates and the microalgal pigment composition of resuspended material were...

  10. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Christelle BOUDRY; Bousseboua, Hacène; Beckers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h ...

  11. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn in the freshwater alga Ulva type, sediments and water of the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rybak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of five trace elements: cobalt (Co, chrome (Cr, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn was determined in the Ulva thalli, in the water and sediment collection from several inland sites (lakes, stream and river from the Wielkopolska region during summer 2010. The multielemental analysis of the heavy metal concentration was carried out with the use of ICP-OES method. The aim of this study was to determine the role of tubular forms as biomonitoring species. The relative abundance of metals in sediment decreased in the order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Co and in the water: Cr > Mn > Zn > Cu > Co. In Ulva thalli the distribution order from higher to lower was Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Co. The results indicate that the concentration changes of heavy metals in thallus, water and sediment have some differences, but concentration distribution tends to be similar, because among the analysed heavy metals Mn has the highest concentrations while Co the lowest abundance in the thalli and sediment of all the sites. Possibility to use freshwater species from Ulva genus as bioindicators of water pollution by manganese requires further study.

  13. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 ?mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  14. The consumption of algae, Ulva lactuca, by the snail, Littorina littorea, in relation to colliery waste contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.S.; Falconer, F. [University of Sunderland, Durham (United Kingdom). Centre of Ecology

    2001-07-01

    Colliery waste is a persistent contaminant of intertidal areas in north-east England where it can reduce biodiversity. In an attempt to understand the ways in which colliery waste exerts its effects, the authors tested how a common molluscan grazer (Littorina littorea) from a range of contaminated and uncontaminated sites reacts to a common macroalgal component of its diet (Ulva lactuca) from the same range of sites. It is hypothesised that algae that are exposed to colliery waste are rejected (eaten less) by snails than those algae that are not so exposed. It is also hypothesised that snails exposed to colliery waste would prefer (eat more) algae from contaminated sites and those animals not so exposed would prefer algae from uncontaminated sites. No differences in feeding were observed in relation to these hypotheses and it is concluded that the contamination of shores by colliery waste does not affect the feeding of L. littorea on U. lactuca. However, snails from contaminated sites ate significantly more algae than those from uncontaminated sites. This may be because of differential digestion or metabolism of the algae or because of a paucity of suitable macroalgae at contaminated sites, snails feeding heavily on the rare U. lactuca when it is encountered.

  15. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  16. Evidence for abrasion and enhanced growth of Ulva lactuca L. in the presence of colliery waste particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyslop, B.T.; Davies, M.S. [University of Sunderland, Sunderland (United Kingdom). Northumbrian Water Ecology Centre

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies have highlighted a reduction in occurrence and biomass of Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyceae) on shores where inputs of colliery waste occur. It was postulated that this was owing to an abrasive effect of colliery waste on macroalgal fronds. To test this, individual U. lactuca plants were exposed to colliery waste (three different grain size categories: {lt} 500 {mu}m, 500-2000 {mu}m, and 0-2000 {mu}m) in both shaken (turbulent) and still conditions in the laboratory. Over an 8-day period, U. lactuca plants lost weight when colliery waste was present and gained weight when no colliery waste was present. The results suggest that `large` grains of colliery waste act as a physical abrading agent on macroalgae when in turbulent conditions, and may be responsible for lowering of species richness of macroalgae where colliery waste inputs occur. However, by contrast, colliery waste in still conditions promotes the growth of U. lactuca, suggesting that, for example, rock pool flora may benefit from its presence.

  17. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masakorala, Kanaji [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga.

  18. Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Biomass yields from some species of macroalgae exceed the yields in traditional terrestrial production systems. This renewable carbon source possesses a potential for energy purposes and thus reduction in fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Previous experiments have indicated that nitrous oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2?) and nitrate (NO3?) and at a light intensity of 225?molphotonsm?2s?1. No emission of N2O was observed in darkness. The N2O emission increased in a Michaelis–Menten characteristic manner with increasing concentrations of both NO3? and NO2?. The light dependency indicated that the N2O emission was related to algal photosynthesis, and not bacterial activity. As algal NO3? reductase (NR) converts NO3? to NO2? in light, and N2O emissionwas observed from both NO3? and NO2?, it is proposed that NO2? reductase (NiR) activity may have generated the observed N2O, however the mechanism needs further investigation. This apparent N2O production by algae emphasizes the need for experiments under natural conditions in order to evaluate potential greenhouse gas balances associated with large-scale productions for energy purposes.

  19. Holographic microscopy provides new insights into the settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza on cationic oligopeptide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Svenja M; Finlay, John; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Ederth, Thomas; Liedberg, Bo; Grunze, Michael; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of zoospores of Ulva linza with cationic, arginine-rich oligopeptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is characterized by rapid settlement. Some spores settle (ie permanently attach) in a 'normal' manner involving the secretion of a permanent adhesive, retraction of the flagella and cell wall formation, whilst others undergo 'pseudosettlement' whereby motile spores are trapped (attached) on the SAM surface without undergoing the normal metamorphosis into a settled spore. Holographic microscopy was used to record videos of swimming zoospores in the vicinity of surfaces with different cationic oligopeptide concentrations to provide time-resolved insights into processes associated with attachment of spores. The data reveal that spore attachment rate increases with increasing cationic peptide content. Accordingly, the decrease in swimming activity in the volume of seawater above the surface accelerated with increasing surface charge. Three-dimensional trajectories of individual swimming spores showed a 'hit and stick' motion pattern, exclusively observed for the arginine-rich peptide SAMs, whereby spores were immediately trapped upon contact with the surface. PMID:25875964

  20. Biosorption of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) onto Ulva gigantea (Kuetzing) bliding. Discussion of adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulva gigantea (Kuetzing) bliding (UGB) obtained from sea inlet of Izmir-Turkey has been studied as a biosorbent for removal of radioactive metals from water. In this study, unmodified UGB and modified UGB with glutaraldehyde (GUGB) characterized by FTIR spectroscopy were used as biosorbents for removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous solution. Adsorption experiments performed under batch process with initial pH, contact time, adsorbent mass and temperature as variables. In order to determine the adsorption characteristics, Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduschkevich adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption data. Adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms correlated well with the Freundlich model. The sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters such as variations of ?H0, ?G0 and ?S0 were estimated as a function of temperature. The thermodynamics of the adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) onto UGB and GUGB indicates that the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results showed that UGB and GUGB were potential for application in removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) from aqueous solution. (author)

  1. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (?Go, ?Ho and ?So) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics

  2. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in Ulva spp. in the presence of nocturnal pulses of metals from sediment: A field transplantation experiment under eutrophic conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Patrícia M R

    2014-03-01

    In aquatic systems under eutrophic conditions, remobilization of metals from sediment to the overlying water may occur. Consequently, adaptive responses of local organisms could result from the accumulation of metals intermittently released from the sediment. In summer 2007, a field transplantation experiment was performed in the Óbidos lagoon (Portugal) with Ulva spp. comprising three short-term exposures (between 15:30-23:30; 23:30-07:30; 07:30-15:30) during a 24-h period. In each period, Ulva spp. was collected at a reference site located in the lower lagoon (LL) and transplanted to a eutrophic site located at the Barrosa branch (BB), characterized by moderate metal contamination. For comparison purposes, macroalgae samples were simultaneously exposed at LL under the same conditions. Both sites were surveyed in short-time scales (2-4 h) for the analysis of the variability of physical-chemical parameters in the water and metal levels in suspended particulate matter. The ratios to Al of particulate Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb increased during the period of lower water oxygenation at the eutrophic site, reaching 751 × 10-4, 0.67, 12 × 10-4, 9.9 × 10-4, respectively, confirming the release of metals from the sediment to water during the night. At the reference site, dissolved oxygen oscillated around 100%, Mn/Al ratios were considerably lower (81 × 10-4-301 × 10-4) compared to BB (234 × 10-4-790 × 10-4), and no increases of metal/Al ratios were found during the night. In general, algae uptake of Mn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cd was significantly higher at the eutrophic site compared to the reference site. The results confirmed the potential of Ulva spp. as bioindicator of metal contamination and its capability to respond within short periods. An induction of SOD, an inhibition of CAT and the increase of LPO were recorded in Ulva spp. exposed at BB (between 23:30 and 7:30) probably as a response to the higher incorporation of Mn, Fe and Pb in combination with the lack of dissolved oxygen in the water. Current findings emphasize the importance of assessing, in eutrophic systems, the relationship between the variability of chemical conditions and its repercussions on autochthonous organisms over day-night cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024.

  4. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana) (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae), habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil / Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana) (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae) from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janete, Dubiaski-Silva; Setuko, Masunari.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857), in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth per [...] eonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723), this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth) Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing) Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi) De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn) to 23ºC (summer), the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter) to 25ºC (summer) and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn) to 32.8‰ (winter). The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva) to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia) of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024).

  5. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C16 to C20. - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  6. Suitability of the marine prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae for sediment toxicity assessment: A case study with the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; González-Mazo, E; Blasco, J

    2009-05-01

    Individuals of the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) were exposed to sediments spiked with increasing concentrations (1.59-123.13mgkg(-1) dry weight) of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) which is employed in the formulation of laundry powders and liquids, as well as hand dishwashing products. The suitability of the selected organism, H. ulvae for routine sediment toxicity testing was evaluated by measuring acute toxicity recording survival. Sublethal toxicity was evaluated as total number of produced veliger larvae per treatment throughout the test (9d). Mortality has shown to be a reliable and reproducible indicator of acute toxicity. LC(50) values were comprised between 203.4 (48h) and 94.3mgkg(-1) (9d) dry weight. As sublethal endpoint, the total number of produced larvae showed to be a useful indicator of toxicity for this organism. The number of produced larvae increased at lower exposure concentrations, whereas at the highest LAS concentration, the number of produced larvae decreased. This is the first report of acute and sublethal toxicity of sediment associated LAS for this species. PMID:18950861

  7. Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Masi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer e na Barra do Furado (Barra, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m em relação ao Píer (2,2 m. Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos estressante. As diferenças observadas na distribuição vertical dos organismos bênticos, principalmente na extensão das faixas superiores, evidenciam condições de exposição a ondas variáveis.The present study aims to compare the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic communities in two sites composed by granitic boulders with distint hydrodynamics due to different wave swells at Farol de São Tomé (Pier and Barra do Furado beaches (Barra, both in northern state of Rio de Janeiro. Quadrats of 400 cm² were overlapped along three vertical profiles on each site and were sampled by the photoquadrat method from 0.2 m of the tide level to the upper limit of Littorina spp. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at Barra site (3.8 m than at Píer site (2.2 m. Nine species were common to both sites. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq, and Grateloupia sp. were unique to Barra, whereas Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie, and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux occurred only at Píer boulders. On both sites species richness and diversity were superior at the intermediate quadrats of the intertidal zone. The highest values were recorded at Barra. The most pronounced assemblage differences between equivalent areas of either site occurred on the lower upper eulittoral band followed by the lower eulittoral and the sub-littoral fringe, respectively. The littoral fringe assemblage was the only one that did not show significant differences among the studied sites, yet a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas, such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 on upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 on the sub-littoral fringe. At Píer, the intertidal zone showed an even distribution, reflecting a less stressful environment. The differences on vertical distribution of the local benthic,

  8. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in theother Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

  9. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced the temporal distribution of the Amphipoda density, due to the distinct time of air exposition in eaeh collection data. Most Amphipoda did not show specific algal substratum colonization: only Sunampithoe pelagica occurred solely in Sargassum. Four species occurred in different branched algae: J. falcata. S. pelagica. C. danilevskii and C. penantis. H. media had Sargassum, Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus as the best algal substrata, whereas Caprellidea, the Pterocladia and Pterosiphonia phytals. High sediment weight in Padina was the main reason for high densities of Hyale sp.l in this phytal. The occurrence of males, females (including ovigerous ones and juveniles of most Amphipoda species found in the present study indicates a complete life cycle whithin these phytals and corroborates with the assumption of the complexity of this marine coastal ecosystem.

  11. The Hydrobia ulvae-Maritrema subdolum association: influence of temperature, salinity, light, water-pressure and secondary host exudates on cercarial emergence and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, K N

    2002-12-01

    The effects of environmental factors and exudates from the amphipod Corophium volutator on the emergence of Maritrema subdolum cercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the snail Hydrobia ulvae were investigated in the laboratory. Increasing the temperature (15 to 25 degrees C) caused an overall 11-fold increase in emergence rate under varying salinities (24 to 36 per thousand). The effect of salinity depended on the experimental temperature. Emergence increased with increasing salinity at higher temperatures, but decreased with increasing salinity at 15 degrees C. Whereas the different levels of salinity had no effect, increasing the temperature significantly reduced the life span of cercariae. In comparison with complete darkness, light caused a two-fold increase in emergence, whereas an increment of the water pressure from 1.0 to 1.3 ATM (corresponding to 0 and 3 m of depth) left the shedding rate unaffected. Unidentified exudates from the second intermediate host, C. volutator, significantly depressed the cercarial emergence rate. The main transmission window of M. subdolum seems to occur during low water in tidal pools where light levels are high and solar radiation rapidly elevates the water temperature, as well as salinity through evaporation. The consequence of such a transmission strategy is discussed in relation to the impact of M. subdolum on the population dynamics of the second intermediate host. PMID:12498640

  12. Modulation of violacein production and phenotypes associated with biofilm by exogenous quorum sensing N-acylhomoserine lactones in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireille Ayé, Armande; Bonnin-Jusserand, Maryse; Brian-Jaisson, Florence; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Culioli, Gérald; Koffi Nevry, Rose; Rabah, Nadia; Blache, Yves; Molmeret, Maëlle

    2015-10-01

    Various phenotypes ranging from biofilm formation to pigment production have been shown to be regulated by quorum sensing (QS) in many bacteria. However, studies of the regulation of pigments produced by marine bacteria in saline conditions and of biofilm-associated phenotypes are scarcer. This study focuses on the demonstration of the existence of a QS communication system involving N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in the Mediterranean Sea strain Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14. We have investigated whether TC14 produces the violacein pigment, and whether intrinsic or exogenous AHLs could influence its production and modulate biofilm-associated phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that the purple pigment produced by TC14 is violacein. The study shows that in planktonic conditions, TC14 produces more pigment in the medium in which it grows less. Using different approaches, the results also show that TC14 does not produce intrinsic AHLs in our conditions. When exogenous AHLs are added in planktonic conditions, the production of violacein is upregulated by C6-, C12-, 3-oxo-C8 and 3-oxo-C12-HSLs (homoserine lactones), and downregulated by 3-oxo-C6-HSL. In sessile conditions, 3-oxo-C8-HSL upregulates the production of violacein. The study of the biofilm-associated phenotypes shows that oxo-derived-HSLs decrease adhesion, swimming and biofilm formation. While 3-oxo-C8 and 3-oxo-C12-HSLs decrease both swimming and adhesion, 3-oxo-C6-HSLs decrease not only violacein production in planktonic conditions but also swimming, adhesion and more subtly biofilm formation. Therefore, TC14 may possess a functional LuxR-type QS receptor capable of sensing extrinsic AHLs, which controls violacein production, motility, adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID:26318530

  13. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Jamie A.; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M.; Jackson, Stephen A.; Murphy, Jerry D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136

  14. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Jamie A; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Jackson, Stephen A; Murphy, Jerry D; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136

  15. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France: An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melha Kendel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37% and glycolipids (38%, whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, ?-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6 with an IC50 of 23 ?g/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 ?g/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy.

  16. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, ?-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 ?g/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 ?g/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. PMID:26404323

  17. The effect of Hydrobia ulvae and microphytobenthos on cohesive sediment dynamics on an intertidal mudflat described by means of numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumborg, Ulrik; Andersen, ThorbjØrn Joest

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have documented spatial and temporal variations in the erosion threshold, erosion rate, and suspended sediment settling characteristics on an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal coastal plain estuary in the Danish Wadden Sea. The differences seem to be very much controlled by the effects of benthic biology rather than by physical parameters. In order to test to what extend biology may interact with the dynamics of fine-grained sediment in an entire estuarine system, these results have been transformed into four different sets of erodibility and settling characteristics which have been used as input to the 2D hydrodynamic numerical model MIKE 21 MT. The model was used to investigate the effect that differences in the benthic communities may have on the net deposition. The model included computation of hydrodynamics, wave fields and cohesive sediment dynamics. Based on the modelling results presented it is suggested that the benthic biological activity affects the net sedimentation pattern at the investigated site. The modelling results suggest that the presence of large numbers of the destabilising mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae results in higher net accumulation on the intertidal mudflat investigated. In contrast, biofilms may change net deposition by decreasing erosion, suspended sediment concentration and consequently the resulting settling flux of the suspended material. This study suggests that a numerical hydrodynamic model in combination with a fieldwork-based set-up of a cohesive sediment transport model may be used to describe and explain net sediment dynamics in a shallow coastal plain estuary. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ? 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results indicate that SCMs can be successfully applied to sorbents as daunting as marine organic matter. Despite remnant challenges, for instance resolving the contributions of individual groups to the aggregate sorption signal, our approach helps formalize seaweed’s avowed promise as an ideal biomonitor or biofilter of metal pollution in environments ranging from freshwaters to brines by uncovering what chemical mechanisms underlie its pronounced affinity for YREEs and other surface-reactive elements.

  19. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  20. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  1. Chemoprevention of Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats by Sulfated Polysaccharides and Aqueous Extract of Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Usama K; Mahmoud, Hamada M; Farrag, Asmaa G; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common cancers and lethal diseases worldwide. Both oxidative stress and chronic inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. Because of limited treatment options and a grave prognosis of HCC, preventive management has been emphasized. The marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca (Ulvaceae) is consumed by humans and livestock because of its nutritional value. Recent studies showed that various extracts of U. lactuca possess antiviral, antiplasmodial, antinephrotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited information is available on anticancer potential of U. lactuca with no reports on liver cancer chemopreventive efficacy of this marine algae. Accordingly, the present study was initiated to evaluate the possible antihepatocarcinogenic effects and antioxidant mechanisms of action of various U. lactuca extracts against a clinically relevant rodent model of HCC. Initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of dietary carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA, 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), followed by promotion with phenobarbital (0.05%) in drinking water. The rats were fed with daily oral dose (50 mg/kg) of polysaccharide sulfate or aqueous extract of U. lactuca for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. At these timepoints, blood samples were taken to measure hepatic injury markers, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, and bilirubin. The liver tissue was harvested for measurement of hepatic oxidative indices, including lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Hepatic histopathology, immunohistochemical analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay were performed. Our results clearly indicate that sulfated polysaccharides of U. lactuca exert a marked chemoprevention of DENA-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis through inhibition of abnormal cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. A modest inhibition rat liver carcinogenesis was observed with the aqueous extract. The sulfated polysaccharides altered serum parameters of hepatic damage and modulated various components of the hepatic enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems. The sulfated polysaccharides from U. lactuca may have unique properties of providing protection against DENA-induced oxidative stress which could contribute to chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. U. lactuca sulfated polysaccharides could be developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic drug against human HCC. PMID:26130745

  2. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens / Eficiencia de absorción de nutrientes de Gracilaria chilensis y Ulva lactuca en un sistema multitrófico integrado con el abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Macchiavello; Cristian, Bulboa.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la eficiencia de captación de nutrientes de Ulva lactuca y Gracilaria chilensis, cultivadas en estanques asociados a aguas de desecho proveniente de un cultivo del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens. Los experimentos consideraron evaluar diferentes densidades de cultivo de algas (1200, 1900, [...] 2600 and 3200 g m-2) y tasas de recambio de agua (60, 80, 125 y 250 L h-1). Los resultados mostraron que tanto U. lactuca como G. chilensis fueron eficientes en la captación de nutrientes inorgánicos provenientes del cultivo de abalón, en todas las condiciones probadas, con remoción total de los nutrientes aportados por el cultivo. De la misma forma se realizó un experimento anual con U. lactuca, siendo cultivada con densidad de 1900 g m-2 y tasa de recambio de agua de 125 L h-1 para evaluar cambios estacionales en la eficiencia de captación de nutrientes, así como en la productividad y tasa de crecimiento de U. lactuca. Los resultados confirmaron una alta eficiencia de captación de U. lactuca durante todo el año, equivalente a la remoción del 100% del NH4, NO3 y PO4 aportado por el cultivo de abalón. La tasa de crecimiento y la productividad de U. lactuca presentó una marcada estacionalidad, incrementando de otoño al verano, variando de 0,5 ± 0,2 a 2,6 ± 0,2% d-1 y 10 ± 6,1 a 73,6 ± 8,4 g m-2 d-1, respectivamente. Se concluye que existen antecedentes suficientes que demuestran que es altamente posible cambiar la actividad tradicional de cultivo de abalón por un sistema integrado multitrófico, alcanzando externalidades ambientales positivas que incluyen U. lactuca como unidad de biofiltración. Abstract in english The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2) and water exchange [...] rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1). The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  3. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

  4. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta) / Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRO, CABELLO-PASINI; RANDALL S., ALBERTE.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la dist [...] ribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO), fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK) y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC) en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii Abstract in english Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxy [...] lation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchellii

  5. Synseed production for storage and conservation of ochradenus baccatus delile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochradenus baccatus is a medicinal plant of high value, spread over sandy and stony places of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and most of the desert regions of Egypt. This species contains several flavanoids and specific constituents which are important as these have already been effectively used in lowering cholesterol in the blood of rats and high inhibition potential of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Synseeds were produced from stem segments and apical bud of O. baccatus growing In vitro. Two sets of synseeds were produced, one non-dried and the other dried under running laminar air-flow for 30 min. Regeneration and regrowth were evaluated for 16 weeks storage under various temperatures (4, 8 and 12degree C). The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets was achieved on the MS medium containing 1.0 micro M BA in encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 degree C. Rooting in these shoots was induced by the pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA for 10 days, and the rooted shoots were transferred on the MS medium devoid of any PGR. Fair percent rooting occurred after one week of transfer on the MS medium. Plantlets were successfully established. No phenotypic variations were observed between the synseed originated plants with mother plant. Genetic stability of synseed grown plants and mother plant was evaluated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The mother plant as well as regenerated plants from synseed resulted in a monomorphic banding pattern developed from ISSR markers confirming genetic stability among the clones. This protocol will help multiply and conserve the plant as well as for short-term storage of germplasm for commercial use and exchange. (author)

  6. Inhibition of attachment of some fouling diatoms and settlement of Ulva lactuca zoospores by film-forming bacterium and their extracellular products isolated from biofouled substrata in Northern Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Silva-Aciares; Carlos, Riquelme.

    2008-01-15

    Full Text Available The biofouling of surfaces submerged in the marine environment includes primary colonization of the substrate by microorganisms including bacteria, microalgae, and microscopic reproductive propagules of macroorganisms such as algal zoospores. The present study reports the evaluation of the inhibitor [...] y potential of biofilms and extracellular products (EP) of the indigenous bacterium Alteromonas sp strain Ni1-LEM on the settlement of marine biofouling such as: (i) eight marine benthic diatoms and (ii) zoospores of the alga Ulva lactuca, as well as the germination of these zoospores and was compared with reference strains with proven antifouling properties, Halomonas marina (ATCC 25374) and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata. Highest antifouling activity was found for the indigenous strain. In attempts to better define the chemical nature of the antifouling substance in the EP of the Alteromonas sp strain Ni1-LEM, the culture filtrates were tested for activity after heat treatment, enzymatic treatments, dialysis through semipermeable membranes, and separation into polar (aqueous) and non-polar (organic) fractions. The results suggested that the antifouling substance in the culture filtrates to be protein or peptide in nature, thermostable, hydrophilic, and equal to or greater than 3500 daltons in molecular size. Antifouling substances from bacteria may lead to the development of novel antifouling agents in the future.

  7. A Structural Modelling Study on Marine Sediments Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sorana D. Bolboacă; Lorentz Jäntschi

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship models were obtained by applying the Molecular Descriptor Family approach to eight ordnance compounds with different toxicity on five marine species (arbacia punctulata, dinophilus gyrociliatus, sciaenops ocellatus, opossum shrimp, and ulva fasciata). The selection of the best among molecular descriptors generated and calculated from the ordnance compounds structures lead to accurate monovariate models. The resulting models obtained for six endpoin...

  8. Temporal Variations of the Chemical Composition of Three Seaweeds in Two Tropical Coastal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Andyara Nascimento; Carina Coelho-Gomes; Elisabete Barbarino; Sergio Oliveira Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    The seaweeds Chaetomorpha antennina, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae and Ulva fasciata were studied regarding tissue concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total protein, hydrosoluble protein, total carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and total carotenoid throughout a 39-month survey in two coastal environments of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. One of the sites (Itapuca Stone) has high concentrations of dissolved nutrients and an intense long-term process of cultural eutrophication; the se...

  9. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Selected Persian Gulf Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Namvar, F.; Baharara, J.; Mahdi, A A

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of red (Gracillaria corticata), green (Ulva fasciata) and brown (Sargassum ilicifolium) seaweeds alcoholic extract, against five important human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29) proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were evaluated. The reducing activity and total polyphenol content were also investigated. MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity test. Morphological alterations were examined using phase contrast, fluorescent and...

  10. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea) dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil / Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea) from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janete, Dubiaski-Silva; Setuko, Masunari.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May) to 23ºC (March), surface water temperature from 17ºC (August) to 25ºC (March) and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May) to 32.8‰ (August). Two samples of 25 [...] cm² (for algae less than 5cm long), 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long) and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long) were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing) Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi) De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth) Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea). Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea). Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced the temporal distribution of the Amphipoda density, due to the distinct time of air exposition in eaeh collection data. Most Amphipoda did not show specific algal substratum colonization: only Sunampithoe pelagica occurred solely in Sargassum. Four species occurred in different branched algae: J. falcata. S. pelagica. C. danilevskii and C. penantis. H. media had Sargassum, Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus as the best algal substrata, whereas Caprellidea, the Pterocladia and Pterosiphonia phytals. High sediment weight in Padina was the main reason for high densities of Hyale sp.l in this phytal. The occurrence of males, females (including ovigerous ones) and juveniles of most Amphipoda species found in the present study indicates a complete life cycle whithin these phytals and corroborates with the assumption of the complexity of this marine coastal ecosystem.

  11. Movements of juvenile Bonelli's eagles aquila Fasciata during dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Balbontín, Javier; Ferrer, Miguel, n. 1526

    2009-01-01

    Capsule Juvenile non-breeding males and females explored surrounding areas, returned to breeding areas, and settled in temporary settlement areas. Aims To describe movement patterns of juvenile Bonelli's Eagles during the transient phase of dispersal. Methods Radiotelemetry data from 16 individuals were studied. Results Six main temporary settlement areas were located. No sex differences were found in the time to first departure from natal areas, time to the first temporary settlement, or tim...

  12. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Bigio, Villas Bôas; Marcia A. de O., Figueiredo.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos d [...] e Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle) e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico. Abstract in english The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatu [...] m and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.

  13. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico.

  14. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin; Dahl, Jonas; Busk, Jørgen; Brødsgaard, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Bruhn, Annette; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ambus, Per; Kádár, Zsófia; Heiske, Stefan; Sander, Bo; Schmidt, Erik Ravn

    2011-01-01

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this repor...

  15. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited.

  16. Feeding habits of Hyale media (Dana, 1853 (Crustacea-Amphipoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Santo Tararam

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of males and females of the Gammaridea Hyate media at mature and immature stages were tested in laboratory experiments. Macro and microscopic algae as well as dead or alive animals were utilized as food. This gammarid is omnivorous, feeding by predation, scavenging, browsing and scraping. Feeding behaviour was discontinuous. Padina vickersiae was more utilized in winter and Ulva fasciata in summer. The feeding activity of all the animals showed great variability in relation to the type of food. Higher temperatures probably account for the higher consumption observed in summer.

  17. Active fractions from four species of marine algae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MA, Oranday; MJ, Verde; SJ, Martínez-Lozano; NH, Waksman.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay-directed is utilized to detect substances with biological activity from Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Sargassum fluitans. In a preliminary assessment, polar and non polar extracts of four species of marine protoctist form were screened for antibacterial and antifun [...] gal properties against seven microorganisms by the diffusion method, non polar extracts of Sargassumfluitans,and polar extracts of Gracilaria tikvahiae inhibited the growth of more than four microorganisms. Extracts were separated using chromatography column and fractions were tested againstStapylococcusaureus andCandida albicans. The eighty fraction of petroleum ether of S. fluitans exhibited high activity against C.albicans, MIC 0.16 µg/mL.

  18. Lulwoana sp., a dark septate endophyte in roots of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, L; Lo Piccolo, S; Piazza, G; Burruano, S; Colombo, P; Ottonello, D; Perrone, R; Di Maida, G; Pirrotta, M; Tomasello, A; Calvo, S

    2015-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica is the most common, widespread and important monocotyledon seagrass in the Mediterranean Basin, and hosts a large biodiversity of species, including microorganisms with key roles in the marine environment. In this study, we ascertain the presence of a fungal endophyte in the roots of P. oceanica growing on different substrata (rock, sand and matte) in two Sicilian marine meadows. Staining techniques on root fragments and sections, in combination with microscope observations, were used to visualise the fungal presence and determine the percentage of fungal colonisation (FC) in this tissue. In root fragments, statistical analysis of the FC showed a higher mean in roots anchored on rock than on matte and sand. In root sections, an inter- and intracellular septate mycelium, producing intracellular microsclerotia, was detected from the rhizodermis to the vascular cylinder. Using isolation techniques, we obtained, from both sampling sites, sterile, slow-growing fungal colonies, dark in colour, with septate mycelium, belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSEs). DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region identified these colonies as Lulwoana sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lulwoana sp. as DSE in roots of P. oceanica. Moreover, the highest fungal colonisation, detected in P. oceanica roots growing on rock, suggests that the presence of the DSE may help the host in several ways, particularly in capturing mineral nutrients through lytic activity. PMID:25262834

  19. Pilot Application of 3d Underwater Imaging Techniques for Mapping Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, F. S.; Irving, A. D.; Lagudi, A.; Bruno, F.; Scalise, S.; Cappa, P.; Montefalcone, M.; Bacci, T.; Penna, M.; Trabucco, B.; Di Mento, R.; Cicero, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Seagrass communities are considered one of the most productive and complex marine ecosystems. Seagrasses belong to a small group of 66 species that can form extensive meadows in all coastal areas of our planet. Posidonia oceanica beds are the most characteristic ecosystem of the Mediterranean Sea, and should be constantly monitored, preserved and maintained, as specified by EU Habitats Directive for priority habitats. Underwater 3D imaging by means of still or video cameras can allow a detailed analysis of the temporal evolution of these meadows, but also of the seafloor morphology and integrity. Video-photographic devices and open source software for acquiring and managing 3D optical data rapidly became more and more effective and economically viable, making underwater 3D mapping an easier task to carry out. 3D reconstruction of the underwater scene can be obtained with photogrammetric techniques that require just one or more digital cameras, also in stereo configuration. In this work we present the preliminary results of a pilot 3D mapping project applied to the P. oceanica meadow in the Marine Protected Area of Capo Rizzuto (KR, Calabria Region - Italy).

  20. Phenology of Posidonia Oceanica (Linneaus Delile in the West Coast of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chahrour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Posidonia oceanica seagrass in the western coast of Algeria on the subject of annual monitoring from November 2008 to November 2009.Two sites are selected and each are represented by a station located 10meters deep. The first is Cap Carbon which is polluted site subject to various major releases, and the second one is Ain Franin considered as a reference site relatively far from sources of pollution other than pollution considered sporadic during the summer where there is a rare attendance of holidaymakers. A study of the phenology of Posidonia oceanica meadows, on the leaf biometry, the coefficient "A" and the surface shows that these parameters are strongly influenced by seasonal factors and not by the depth as our samples were made at same depth.

  1. Modelling Zostera marina and Ulva spp. in a coastal lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Aveytua-Alcazar, Leslie; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F; Souza, Alejandro J; Allen, J. Icarus; Torres, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    We have implemented new modules of seagrass and macroalgae in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The modules were tested using a version of ERSEM coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) in San Quintin Bay (SQB), a coastal lagoon in Baja California, Mexico. As we are working in a region where horizontal advective transport of nutrients is important, we have included the horizontal nutrient gradients which result in nutrient advection when combined with the local...

  2. Can we use exergy index and the microbenthic loop as indicators of perturbations in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows?

    OpenAIRE

    Pete, Dorothée; Lenartz, Fabian; Velimirov, Branko; Gobert, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, many anthropogenic perturbations threaten the Mediterranean Sea. Posidonia oceanica , its endemic phanerogam, is often used as a pollution descriptor. Unfortunately, it does not react very fast because of its low turnover rate (i.e. 1.5y-1). To solve that problem, this project proposes to use the microbenthic loop (meiofauna, bacteria, microphytobenthos and organic matter) of this important coastal ecosystem to detect anthropogenic pollutions earlier, because its components may ...

  3. Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez Lizaso, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control sal...

  4. Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana

    2013-09-01

    The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

  5. An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (?13C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

  6. Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maserti, B.E. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: bianca.elena.maserti@pi.ibf.cnr.it; Ferrillo, V. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Avdis, O. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Nesti, U. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Central Institute for Marine Research (I.C.R.A.M.), Via di Casalotti, 300-00166 Rome (Italy); Di Garbo, A. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Catsiki, A. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Maestrini, P.L. [University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2005-11-10

    The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica.

  7. Identification of the toxic constituents of sediments in a Brazilian subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleza, Fernanda; Souza, Rafael C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2014-03-15

    Phase 1 of the TIE method was applied to samples of elutriates from sediments of the Itajaí-Açu estuary and adjacent coastal region in southern Brazil. Embryo-larval toxicity assays were used with the sea urchin Arbacia lixula in samples of raw elutriate, and treated with Ulva fasciata, EDTA and sodium thiosulfate. Inside the estuary, ammonia was responsible for more than 40% of the toxicity in both the dredged and undredged regions. A toxicity gradient was observed, between the estuary and the coastal region, with an increase in the importance of metals for the latter. Temporally, there is strong evidence of the influence of dredging and disposal of sediments in the contamination of the coastal dumping site. The results indicating that this area presents limitations in its saturation capacity. Chemical analysis indicated the metal Cu is probably responsible for the toxicity of the sediments observed, without the interference of ammonia. PMID:24503379

  8. Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

  9. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola / Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Américo, Wordell Filho; Daniel A, Martins; Marciel J., Stadnik.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor) e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia) de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K), [...] calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata) e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L) foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p Abstract in english A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia) in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fer [...] tilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K), bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L) significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p

  10. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

  11. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

  12. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta) do litoral catarinense (Brasil) / Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta) from southern Brazilian coast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melissa dos Santos, Raymundo; Paulo, Horta; Roseane, Fett.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna) foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de [...] 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes. Abstract in english The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna) collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of [...] linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

  13. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of selected persian gulf algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, F; Baharara, J; Mahdi, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of red (Gracillaria corticata), green (Ulva fasciata) and brown (Sargassum ilicifolium) seaweeds alcoholic extract, against five important human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29) proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were evaluated. The reducing activity and total polyphenol content were also investigated. MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity test. Morphological alterations were examined using phase contrast, fluorescent and electron microscopy. All the extracts were antiproliferative against all the cancer cell lines, dose-dependently, with G. corticata methanol extract (GCME) having the greatest inhibition activity against MCF-7 cell line. The percentage of apoptosis increased from 18 to 78 %. The cell cycle analysis also showed that GCME can induce apoptosis which confirm by TEM. Algal extract reducing activities were as follows: G. corticata > S. ilicifolium > U. fasciata. The GCME is a good source of potential complementary and alternative functional food for prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:24478544

  14. Natal dispersal and recruitment of two Bonelli’s Eagles Aquila fasciata: a four-year satellite tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Cadahía, Luis; López-López, Pascual; Urios, Vicente; Soutullo, Álvaro; Negro, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    To study natal dispersal and recruitment to the breeding population in Bonelli's Eagle, two nestlings were tagged with satellite transmitters in the Iberian Peninsula in 2002. Their monthly ranges and distances were computed and fitted to regression models to describe their general trend. One bird, a female, dispersed and settled rapidly in an area which she explored intensively during four years and which finally became her first breeding site. The natal dispersal distance was 441 km, and th...

  15. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  16. The impact of 85 years of coastal development on shallow seagrass beds (Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile)) in South Eastern France: A slow but steady loss without recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, F.; Boissery, P.; Guilbert, A.; Freschet, E.; Deter, J.

    2015-11-01

    Shallow Posidonia oceanica beds (0 to -15 m), the most common seagrass in the Mediterranean, were mapped from aerial photographs dating from the 1920's and from 2012 along 800 km of coastline in South-Eastern France (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region). Changes in P. oceanica bed spatial distribution (limits and extent) during these 85 years were analyzed in terms of concordance (remaining areas), positive discordance (expanding areas) or negative discordance (lost areas). Lost areas were linked with direct or indirect impacts of coastal development (artificialized coastlines (namely harbours, ports of refuge, landfills, artificial beaches, groynes and pontoons, submarine pipelines and aquatic farms) visible on the photographs. The comparison showed that 73% of the shallow limits have declined. Considering spatial extent, remaining seagrass meadows areas accounted for the major part (85%), while lost areas accounted for 13% and expanding areas for 1.1%. Lost areas were mainly linked with artificial coastlines but 44% remained with undetermined causes (invisible pressures and/or mixed effects). The analysis of 96 coastal facilities creating the artificial (namely man-made) coastlines showed that the highest impact over the longest distance (5 km) was caused by harbours. Only artificial beaches had such a distant impact. Pontoons were the least surrounded by lost seagrass meadows areas. These quantitative data offer important information for marine conservation.

  17. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers. and Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and macroalgae of the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany

    1993-12-31

    Mean concentrations of Aluminium ({+-}SE) in two seagrasses, four Chlorophytes, three Chromophytes and seven Rhodophyte species from the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece) decreased in the order: Chlorophyta > Chromophyta > Rhodophyta > P. oceanica > C. nodosa. This area is of particular interest because of the bauxite composition of the substrate and of the wate discharge from an aluminium factory in the Gulf. Aluminium concentrations in the two seagrasses were evenly distributed at the Gulf stations. Only the concentrations of Al in C. nodosa displayed significant seasonal variation. The mean concentrations increased from spring to summer, at which point they reached their maxima. This pattern is discussed in relation to the leaf-age of the seagrass. Regarding the amount of Al accumulated by the macroalgae of each division, there were interspecific differences which were attributed to differences in the structure, the ecology and the binding sites offered by the plants. The dependence of Al concentrations in the macrophytes on the concentrations in the sediment and the correlation of Al concentrations with the concentrations of some other metals in the plants were also investigated. (orig.)

  18. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro / Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Fernandes de, Abreu; Viviane, Talamini; Marciel João, Stadnik.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h), moídos e seus compostos ex [...] traídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru) foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas). As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6) conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai) na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico), utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds e [...] xtracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru) were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants). Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6) conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai) on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect), using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

  19. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h, moídos e seus compostos extraídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas. As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6 conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico, utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido.The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds extracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants. Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6 conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect, using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

  20. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  1. The impact of extreme weather events on the seagrass Zostera noltii and related Hydrobia ulvae population

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, P.G.; Raffaelli, D; Pardal, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal areas are typically subjected to a range of stressors, but they now face the additional stressor of climate change, manifested in part by an increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events. Thus, the Mondego estuary (Portugal) has experienced organic enrichment (eutrophication) issues and these are potentially exacerbated by extreme weather events (floods, droughts and heat waves). In this paper, we explore the impact of interactions of these different stressors on the eco...

  2. Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wladimir C., Paradas; Gilberto M., Amado Filho.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP) são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG) (Rio de janei [...] ro, Brasil). Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle). Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG. Abstract in english Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazi [...] l). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.

  3. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Aparecida Gomes, Nassar; Yocie, Yoneshigue-Valentin.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil). O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cida [...] de de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida), Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida) e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida). Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de liberação de minério, sendo a maior percentagem do particulado liberada na primeira troca de água (40 a 60%). Abstract in english The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the san [...] d on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight), Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight) and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight). Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60%) released in the first change of water.

  4. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de liberação de minério, sendo a maior percentagem do particulado liberada na primeira troca de água (40 a 60%.

  5. ?-, ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura / ?- and ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Barbosa de, Sousa; Kelma Maria dos Santos, Pires; Daniel Barroso de, Alencar; Alexandre Holanda, Sampaio; Silvana, Saker-Sampaio.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de ?- e ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram ?- e ?-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de ?-caroteno foram detectados na [...] s espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e ?-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram ?-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. ?-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas ?-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, ?-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram ?-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, ?-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of [...] a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

  6. ?-, ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura ?- and ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de ?- e ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram ?- e ?-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de ?-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e ?-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram ?-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. ?-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas ?-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, ?-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram ?-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, ?-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

  7. Comparative study of the estimated sample size for benthic intertidal species and communities Estudio comparativo del tamaño estimativo de muestra para especies bentónicas intermareales y de la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C Barbiero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the minimum sample size for studies of community structure and/or dominant species at different heights of a rocky intertidal zone at Rio de Janeiro. Community structure indicators suggested a variation in the minimum surface of 100 to 800 cm , with a minimum of 2 to 8 pro files and at least 20 to 80 quadrant sampling points, depending on the height. Indicators of species abundance suggest 100 cm for Hypnea musciformis and 400 cm for Ulva fasciata, Phragmatopoma lapidosa Kinberg, (1867 and Gymnogongrus griffthsiae at lower heights; 200 cm² for Chthamalus spp. at intermedíate heights; and 800 cm for Littorina ziczac at the greatest height. In general, seven to eight profiles and 10 to 20 sampling points were used. Different sample sizes were related to the abundance and spatial distributions of individual species, which varied at each intertidal height according to the degree of environmental stress.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el tamaño mínimo de muestra para estudios de estructura de la comunidad y para las especies dominantes a diferentes alturas, en una zona intermareal rocosa en Río de Janeiro. Los indicadores de la estructura de la comunidad sugirieron una variación en la superficie mínima de 100 a 800 cm , 2 a 8 el número mínimo de perfiles y 20 a 80 el número mínimo de puntos de muestreo de cuadrantes, dependiendo en la altura. Los indicadores de abundancia de especies sugieren 100 cm para Hypnea musciformis, 400 cm para Ulva fasciata, Phragmatopoma lapidosa Kinberg, (1867 y Gymnogongrus griffthsiae a las alturas inferiores; 200 cm² para Chthamalus spp. a las alturas mediales y 800 cm para Littorina ziczac a la altura superior. El número de perfiles y puntos de muestreo fue, en general, 7-8 y 10-20, respectivamente. Diferentes tamaños de la muestra fueron relacionados con la abundancia de especies individuales y su distribución espacial, que varían en cada altura de la zona intermareal de acuerdo con el grado de stress ambiental.

  8. Comparative study of the estimated sample size for benthic intertidal species and communities / Estudio comparativo del tamaño estimativo de muestra para especies bentónicas intermareales y de la comunidad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle C, Barbiero; Isabela M, Macedo; Bruno, Mais; Ilana R, Zalmon.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el tamaño mínimo de muestra para estudios de estructura de la comunidad y para las especies dominantes a diferentes alturas, en una zona intermareal rocosa en Río de Janeiro. Los indicadores de la estructura de la comunidad sugirieron una variación en la su [...] perficie mínima de 100 a 800 cm , 2 a 8 el número mínimo de perfiles y 20 a 80 el número mínimo de puntos de muestreo de cuadrantes, dependiendo en la altura. Los indicadores de abundancia de especies sugieren 100 cm para Hypnea musciformis, 400 cm para Ulva fasciata, Phragmatopoma lapidosa Kinberg, (1867) y Gymnogongrus griffthsiae a las alturas inferiores; 200 cm² para Chthamalus spp. a las alturas mediales y 800 cm para Littorina ziczac a la altura superior. El número de perfiles y puntos de muestreo fue, en general, 7-8 y 10-20, respectivamente. Diferentes tamaños de la muestra fueron relacionados con la abundancia de especies individuales y su distribución espacial, que varían en cada altura de la zona intermareal de acuerdo con el grado de stress ambiental. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the minimum sample size for studies of community structure and/or dominant species at different heights of a rocky intertidal zone at Rio de Janeiro. Community structure indicators suggested a variation in the minimum surface of 100 to 800 cm , with a min [...] imum of 2 to 8 pro files and at least 20 to 80 quadrant sampling points, depending on the height. Indicators of species abundance suggest 100 cm for Hypnea musciformis and 400 cm for Ulva fasciata, Phragmatopoma lapidosa Kinberg, (1867) and Gymnogongrus griffthsiae at lower heights; 200 cm² for Chthamalus spp. at intermedíate heights; and 800 cm for Littorina ziczac at the greatest height. In general, seven to eight profiles and 10 to 20 sampling points were used. Different sample sizes were related to the abundance and spatial distributions of individual species, which varied at each intertidal height according to the degree of environmental stress.

  9. Effect of quorum sensing signals produced by seaweed-associated bacteria on carpospore liberation from Gracilaria dura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra Pal; Baghel, Ravi S; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria associated with green macroalgae Ulva (U. fasciata and U. lactuca) and red macroalgae Gracilaria (G. corticata and G. dura) have been identified from three different seasons to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing (QS) molecules on carpospores liberation from Gracilaria dura. The bacterial isolates belonging to the orders Bacillales, Pseudomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Vibrionales were present in all seasons, whereas Actinomycetales and Enterobacteriales were confined to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Among all the Gram-negative bacteria, seven isolates were found to produce different types of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Interestingly, Shewanella algae produced five types of AHL: C4-HSL, HC4-HSL, C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, and 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Subsequently, the AHLs producing bacterial isolates were screened for carpospore liberation from G. dura and these isolates were found to positively induce carpospore liberation over the control. Also, observed that carpospore liberation increased significantly in C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total protein of the C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps showed two specific peptide bands of different molecular weights (50 kDa and 60 kDa) as compared to the control, confirming their indirect effect on carpospore liberation. PMID:25788899

  10. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  11. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angélica Ribeiro, Soares; Marcela C. S., Robaina; Gabriella S., Mendes; Thalia S. L., Silva; Lísia M. S., Gestinari; Odinéia S., Pamplona; Yocie, Yoneshigue-Valentin; Carlos R, Kaiser; Maria Teresa Villela, Romanos.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta) from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV). Activity tests in crude [...] extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1%) than for HSV-2 (55.5%). The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9%) against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5%) and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (-)-elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta) and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta) were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%). Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  12. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

  13. REMOVAL OF AMMONIA TOXCITY IN MARINE SEDIMENT TIES: A COMPARISON OF ULVA LACTUCA, ZEOLITE AND AREATION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is suspected of causing some of the toxicity observed in marine sediment toxicity tests because it is sometimes found at elevated concentrations in marine interstitial waters. In marine waters, ammonia exists as un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+) which combine ...

  14. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 ?g mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 ?g mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato observado entre todas estas especies de algas (desde 0,13 hasta 0,21%. Todos los SL se caracterizaron por un alto contenido de ácido palmítico (C16:0, que osciló entre 30,91% en G. cylindriea a 63,11% en T. atomatia. Sulfoquinovosyl-di-acilglicerol y acilglicerol sulfoquinovosyl fueron identificados como los principales constituyentes de los sulfolípidos de estas algas. Los sulfolípidos de las diferentes especies de algas estudiadas mostraron una notable actividad antiviral contra el virus del herpes simple tipo 1 (VHS-1 con una IC50 que osciló entre 18,75 y 70. 2 g mL–1. Por otra parte, los sulfolípidos de estas algas inhibieron el crecimiento de células tumorales de mama y células de cáncer de hígado humano con valores de IC50 que van desde 0,40 hasta 0,67 g mL–1 para las células de adenocarcinoma de mama humano (MCF7.

  15. Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L. Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac B. Araújo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil® e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf, bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp. Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05. Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água. Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp. Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05. Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água. Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp. Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas.Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil® and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final disease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp. Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P < 0.05. In most of the experimental cycles, significant differences were observed in the sanity and yield of the treatments compared to the control (plants treated with water. Overall, both preparations reduced the final disease severity (Yf and Yp (by 41-62% and the AUDPCs by 28-58%. Treatments of plants with silicate clay and seaweed extract increased the fresh weight of leaves by 46% and 32%, respectively. Although this study indicates that silicate clay and seaweed extract have the potential for disease control, further studies are needed to elucidate the control levels of these treatments in different edaphoclimatic conditions.

  16. Substrate selection of the caprellid Caprella dilatata (Crustacea, Amphipoda) / Selección de sustrato del caprélido Caprella dilatata (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana B, Lacerda; Setuko, Masunari.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad del espacio y la variabilidad de las condiciones ambientales que afectan la calidad del hábitat para los organismos son factores determinantes en la selección de un hábitat ideal. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la selección del sustrato del anfípodo caprélido Caprell [...] a dilatata, en ambientes naturales al largo de la costa del sur de Brasil y en condiciones de laboratorio. Se contabilizaron 31 sustratos biológicos distintos que albergaban a invertebrados, la mayoría fueron sustratos algales. C. dilatata fue registrada en once de estos sustratos, y resultó ser especie dominante únicamente en algas finamente ramificadas, ascidias, briozoos y en las superficies de las boyas y cuerdas. Los experimentos de laboratorio para selección de sustrato por C. dilatata se realizaron utilizando dos y cuatro especies de algas que tenían contrastante ramificación; Gracilaria cervicornis, Pterocladia capillacea, Sargassum cymosum y Ulva fasciata. En el primer experimento, caprélidos fueron trasladados a tres acuarios que contenían combinaciones variadas de dos sustratos de algas con un total de nueve combinaciones. Para el segundo experimento (cuatro algas), todas las especies de algas se combinaron en cada acuario. Los anfípodos obtenidos para experimentos en laboratorio mostraron el color del dermatoesqueleto siempre muy similar al color de las algas. Hubo una fuerte preferencia de caprélidos por el sustrato original. A pesar de la morfología cosmopolita de C. dilatata para la selección del sustrato, los individuos se encuentraron principalmente en sustratos estructuralmente complejos, y demostraron la importancia del camuflaje en estos caprélidos. Abstract in english The diversity of space and the variability of environmental conditions that affect habitat quality for organisms, are determining factors in the selection of an ideal habitat. The present study aimed to understand the substrate selectivity of a caprellid amphipod, Caprella dilatata, in natural envir [...] onments along the southern Brazilian coast and in laboratory conditions. A total of 31 biological substrates sheltering invertebrates were collected across various localities. C. dilatata was recorded in 11 substrate samples, and was a dominant species only in finely branched and softly surfaced algal substrate, ascidian and bryozoan colonies, and the surfaces of buoys and ropes. Laboratory experiments for substrate selection by C. dilatata were performed under two conditions: two-algal substrates and four-algal substrates. The phytals of Gracilaria cervicornis, Pterocladia capillacea, Sargassum cymosum and Ulva fasciata were selected for the experiments due to their contrasting degrees of ramification. In the first experiment (two-algal substrates), caprellids were transferred to three aquaria containing varied combinations of two algal substrates with a total of nine combinations. For the second experiment (four-algal substrates), all species of algae were combined together in each aquarium. Amphipods obtained for laboratory experiments always showed an exoskeleton color very close to that of the original algal substrate. Caprellids showed a strong preference for the original algal substrate. Despite the cosmopolitan morphology of C. dilatata for selection of the substrate, the individuals were mostly found in structurally complex substrates, and the experiments show the importance of camouflage for these caprellids.

  17. Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L.) / Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isaac B., Araújo; Luiz A.M., Peruch; Marciel J., Stadnik.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil®) e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. [...] Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf), bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp). Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água). Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil®) and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final dis [...] ease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl) as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp). Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P

  18. Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa and their impact on the seedling quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A: a testemunha; b fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L; c fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L; d fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e calda bordalesa (0,3%; f calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume; h extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%; i extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%. Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B. A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes.This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A were tested: a control; b fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L; c potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L; d foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e Bordeaux mixture (0.3%; f Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume; h field horsetail (Equisetum arwense extract (0.26% and i Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%. Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B. Leaf necrosis area (% was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

  19. Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas / Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa) and their impact on the seedling quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Américo, Wordell Filho; Marciel J, Stadnik.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental d [...] e Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A): a) testemunha; b) fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L); c) fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L); d) fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L); e) calda bordalesa (0,3%); f) calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g) extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume); h) extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%); i) extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%). Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B). A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16), calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes. Abstract in english This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to [...] July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A) were tested: a) control; b) fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L); c) potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L); d) foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L); e) Bordeaux mixture (0.3%); f) Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g) extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume); h) field horsetail (Equisetum arwense) extract (0.26%) and i) Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%). Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B). Leaf necrosis area (%) was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16), Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

  20. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 on algal bio-crude production via HTL process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B.; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K. C.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.

    2015-10-01

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions.We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04404a

  1. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 on algal bio-crude production via HTL process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K C; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M

    2015-11-14

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions. PMID:26465090

  2. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using ...

  3. The effect of Hydrobia ulvae and microphytobenthos on cohesive sediment dynamics on an intertidal mudflat described by means of numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumborg, Ulrik; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Pejrup, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have documented spatial and temporal variations in the erosion threshold, erosion rate, and suspended sediment settling characteristics on an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal coastal plain estuary in the Danish Wadden Sea. The differences seem to be very much controlled by the effects of benthic biology rather than by physical parameters. In order to test to what extend biology may interact with the dynamics of fine-grained sediment in an entire estuarine system, these ...

  4. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In th...

  5. Nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of two green seaweeds (Ulva pertusa and U. intestinalis from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommee Benjama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, amino acid, and element contents, as well as some physicochemical properties of Ulvapertusa and U. intestinalis, collected from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand in the rainy and summer seasons of 2007–2008, were investigated in order to gain more nutritional information. It was found that the two green seaweed speciescontained high level of protein (14.6–19.5% DW, lipid (2.1–8.7% DW, ash (25.9–28.6% DW, soluble fiber (25.3–39.6% DW,insoluble fiber (21.8–33.5% DW and total dietary fiber (51.3–62.2% DW. Comparing the element contents of the two species,U. pertusa was rich in Mg, K and Ca, while U. intestinalis was rich in Mg, K, Cl, Na, and Ca. The essential amino acids of thetwo species were rich in leucine, valine, and arginine contents. The most limiting essential amino acid of both species waslysine. However, the nutritional composition of the two seaweeds varied depending on seasonal change. As for the physicochemicalproperties of both seaweeds, their swelling capacity (SWC, water holding capacity (WHC, and oil holding capacity(OHC ranged from 4.0 to 6.4 ml/g DW, 7.8 to 15.0 g/g DW and 1.4 to 4.8 g oil/g DW, respectively. WHC and OHC of U.intestinalis was higher than those of U. pertusa (P<0.05. This study suggested that both species could be potentially usedas raw materials or ingredients to improve the nutritive value and texture of functional food and healthy products for humanbeings.

  6. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta) Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI; Alberte, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl...

  7. Survey of the radioactive background of some specimens of the biota of Rio de Janeiro coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity of components known to be bioconcentrators of artificial radionuclides in the coast of Rio de Janeiro was determined by means of sistematical gross alpha and beta radiometry. These data constitute the pre-operational survey, determining the radioactivity levels of these organisms and permiting to establish basic values and their temporal variations, which will serve as a referencial for the detection of eventual increases in the radioactivity introduced in the marine environment during the operational phase of nuclear power plants. Uranium and Potassium were also measured in some samples. The maximum and minimum values obtained after six years of experiment, analysing 14 species of algae and 4 species of animals were: for gross alpha radiometry (0,454 + - 0,162)Bq/g in the ashes of the phaeophita Padina vickersiae and (0,473 + - 0,106)Bq/g in the cnidaria Bunodosoma caissarum, (0,067 + - 0,031)Bq/g in the clorophita Ulva Fasciata and (0,091 + - 0,060)Bq/g in the soft tissues of the bivalve Perna perna. The byssus of this animal presented the highest gross alpha concentration : (1,770 + - 0,708)Bq/g, probably due to its high Uranium concentration, which contributes with 71%, complexed with its main constituent, a scleroprotein. The gross beta concentrations were highest in the algae Chetomorpha antennina (6,63 + - 1,80)Bq/g and in the species Bunodosoma caissarum, with a mean value of (2,60 + - 0,74)Bq/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations were obtained in the rodophita Plocamium brasiliense, (1,64 + - 0,36)Bq/g, and (1,04 + - 0,30)Bq/g in the byssus of Perna perna. By the theoretical concentration of 40K, calculated from potassium, the strong contribution of that radionuclide in the gross beta activity of the organisms is stressed. Seven samples of ashes were submitted to analyses by three different laboratories and the intercomparison results showed a reasonable agreement. (Author)

  8. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse L. Albertson; Christopher H. Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini) and 69 valid species (59 new) are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1) the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2) the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker), T. gra...

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn) poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, ...

  10. Biodegradable thermoplastic composites based on polyvinyl alcohol and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Emo; Cinelli, Patrizia; Ilieva, Vassilka I; Martera, Martina

    2008-03-01

    Algae constitute a largely available, low value material from renewable resources of marine origin to be used for the production of eco-compatible composites. Fibers of the green alga Ulva armoricana from the French coast were positively evaluated for the production of composites with a hydrophilic, eco-compatible polymer, such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as continuous matrix by casting of aqueous suspensions and compression molding. PVA, Ulva, and starch were also successfully processed by the melt in the presence of glycerol. Positive results were obtained for film-forming properties and mechanical characteristics also with limited amounts of PVA (40%) attesting for Ulva suitability to be introduced in composites (up to 30%). Degradation in soil of Ulva and an Ulva-based composites outlined a rapid mineralization of Ulva in the selected medium (over 80% in 100 days) while the composite samples underwent a mineralization rate affected by the different component propensity to degradation. PMID:18257530

  11. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionac...

  12. Use of ITS rDNA for discriminating of larval stages of two microphallid (Digenea) species using Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1777) and Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) as intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, J; Frydenberg, J; Sauriau, P-G; Le Gall, P; Mouritsen, K N; Jensen, K Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Digenean trematodes encompass several species with little morphological differentiation in the larval stages and, as a result, uncertainty prevails regarding species identification. The microphallid trematode Maritrema subdolum occurs widespread geographically in mud snail and crustacean hosts in European marine shallow-water ecosystems. Larval stages of this and other congeneric species are, however, difficult to separate morphologically. To verify the species status and to secure identification of two co-occurring microphallids, M. subdolum and microphallid sp. no. 15 (Deblock, 1980), we examined the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2). From fragments consisting of both ITS regions and the 5.8S gene (nearly 1,200 bp), a sequence divergence of 2.9% between the two types was recorded. In accordance with the morphological traits of the cercariae (stylet shape, length), the results support the view that the two types actually represent different species. Species-specific primers were prepared for each species. They proved to be efficient diagnostic tools for identifying single larval-stage individuals. Using these primers, infections in host organisms were also verified without performing a dissection of the host individuals. PMID:15185143

  13. Aspidoderidae from North America, with the description of a new species of Aspidodera (Nematoda: Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustín; Gardner, Scott L; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2006-08-01

    Aspidodera sogandaresi n. sp. (Heterakoidea: Aspidoderidae) from Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 is herein described. This nematode occurs in armadillos from as far south as the canal zone of Panama, north through central Mexico, and into the southern United States. Previously identified as Aspidodera fasciata (Schneider, 1866), this new species has blunt projections on the lips and lateral expansions at the distal tips of the spicules, whereas A. fasciata has conspicuous digitiform projections on the lips, and a terminal round expansion at the tips of the spicules. Other species of the family present in North America include Aspidodera binansata Railliet and Henry, 1913; Aspidodera vazi Proença, 1937; and Lauroia trinidadensis Cameron, 1939. PMID:16995403

  14. Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains

    OpenAIRE

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Hans K. Biesalski

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indic...

  15. Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro de Santis Ferreira; Rosana Peporine Lopes; Mabel Norma Costas Ulbrich; Thais Guaratini; Pio Colepicolo; Norberto Peporine Lopes; Ricardo Clapis Garla; Eurico Cabral Oliveira Filho; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues Zucchi

    2012-01-01

    SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing),...

  16. Notes on some rare and little known marine invertebrates from the Azores, with a discussion of the zoogeography of the region

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Peter; Martins, Helen R.

    1993-01-01

    Descreve-se brevemente a ocorrência das seguintes espécies de invertebrados marinhos das águas açoreanas: os moluscos Pleurobranchus testudinarius, Aplysia fasciata, Diaphorodoris luteocincta, Discodoris atromaculata, Platydoris argo, Polycera elegans, Tambja ceutae, os crustáceos Lysmata nilita, Eualus occultus, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, Aristeus antennatus, Cycloes cristata, Pilumnus hirtellus, Polybius henslowii, o foronídeo Phoronis cf. hippocrepia, o equinoderme Brissus unicolor, sendo to...

  17. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... (75 FR 27300), authorizes the permit holder to take ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata), spotted seals (P... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application for permit amendment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National...

  18. Studies on medically important flies in Thailand. III. Report of species belonging to the genus Musca Linné, including the taxonomic key (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumrasvin, W; Shinonaga, S

    1977-09-01

    Twenty species belonging to the genus Musca Linné are reported from Thailand with taxonomic key. This study is based on the specimens available in the authors' collection and 8 species are the new records from this country. The newly recorded species are Musca interrupta pilifacies, M. lucens, M. fasciata, M. pattoni, M. planiceps, M. xanthomelas, M. bezzii and M. convexifrons. PMID:269027

  19. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. M BRAVO-LINARES; S. M MUDGE; R. H LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA

    2010-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmari...

  20. Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed

    OpenAIRE

    Sornalakshmi V; Venkataraman Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR), chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin) content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be m...

  1. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadege; Menesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-01-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide’ events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves’) for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay...

  2. Community context mediates the top-down vs. bottom-up effects of grazers on rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Dolecal, Renee E; Long, Jeremy D

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between grazers and autotrophs are complex, including both top-down consumptive and bottom-up facilitative effects of grazers. Thus, in addition to consuming autotrophs, herbivores can also enhance autotroph biomass by recycling limiting nutrients, thereby increasing nutrient availability. Here, we evaluated these consumptive and facilitative interactions between snails (Littorina littorea) and seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva lactuca) on a rocky shore. We partitioned herbivores' total effects on seaweeds into their consumptive and facilitative effects and evaluated how community context (the presence of another seaweed species) modified the effects of Littorina on a focal seaweed species. Ulva, the more palatable species, enhanced the facilitative effects of Littorina on Fucus. Ulva did not modify the consumptive effect of Littorina on Fucus. Taken together, the consumptive and facilitative effects of snails on Fucus in the presence of Ulva balanced each other, resulting in no net effect of Littorina on Fucus. In contrast, the only effect of Fucus on Ulva was to enhance consumptive effects of Littorina on Ulva. Our results highlight the necessity of considering both consumptive and facilitative effects of herbivores on multiple autotroph species in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of grazers' top-down and bottom-up roles in structuring communities. PMID:25039210

  3. Trace element kinetics in contaminated Posidonia oceanica meadow

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Luy, Nicolas; Lepoint, Gilles; Biondo, Renzo; Gobert, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor trace elements (TEs). However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding to pollutant kinetics in that species. Posidonia oceanica were in situ contaminated by a mix of 15 TEs (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and Bi) at experimental levels equivalent to 10 (moderate) and 100 (acute) times seawater average concentrations. TEs concentrations were measured by ICP-MS in P. oceanica leave...

  4. New insights for an old topic: seagrasses as bioindicators of coastal trace element pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The marine magnoliophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor the coastal pollution of the Mediterranean in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and/or Fe. In contrast, other trace elements (TEs) like As, V, Ag, Be, Al, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi, many of them categorized as TEs of environmental emerging concern, have been subject to nearly no ecotoxicological survey with that species. It has been shown that the French Mediterranean littoral was submitted ...

  5. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the circumglobally distributed genus Seriola (Pisces: Carangidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Belinda L; von der Heyden, Sophie; Bester-van der Merwe, Aletta; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-12-01

    The genus Seriola includes several important commercially exploited species and has a disjunct distribution globally; yet phylogenetic relationships within this genus have not been thoroughly investigated. This study reports the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny for this genus based on mitochondrial (Cytb) and nuclear gene (RAG1 and Rhod) DNA sequence data for all extant Seriola species (nine species, n=27). All species were found to be monophyletic based on Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The closure of the Tethys Sea (12-20 MYA) coincides with the divergence of a clade containing ((S. fasciata and S. peruana), S. carpenteri) from the rest of the Seriola species, while the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (±3 MYA) played an important role in the divergence of S. fasciata and S. peruana. Furthermore, factors such as climate and water temperature fluctuations during the Pliocene played important roles during the divergence of the remaining Seriola species. PMID:26279346

  6. Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Chikako Asada; Keita Doi; Chizuru Sasaki; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry micr...

  7. Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil New species and notes on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Pará and Brazilian norteastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq. J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962 and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

  8. Multi-Scale Effects of Nestling Diet on Breeding Performance in a Terrestrial Top Predator Inferred from Stable Isotope Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Moleón, Marcos; Parés, Francesc; Inger, Richard; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual diet variation within populations is likely to have important ecological and evolutionary implications. The diet-fitness relationships at the individual level and the emerging population processes are, however, poorly understood for most avian predators inhabiting complex terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we use an isotopic approach to assess the trophic ecology of nestlings in a long-lived raptor, the Bonelli’s eagle Aquila fasciata, and investigate whether nestling die...

  9. Living on the edge: assessing the extinction risk of critically endangered Bonelli’s eagle in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, Pascual; Sarà, Maurizio; Di Vittorio, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Background: The population of Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata) has declined drastically throughout its European range due to habitat degradation and unnatural elevated mortality. There are less than 1500 breeding pairs accounted for in Europe, and the species is currently catalogued as Critically Endangered in Italy, where the 22 territories of Sicily, represent nearly 95% of the entire Italian population. However, despite national and European conservation concerns, the species currently la...

  10. Trace metals in Mediterranean area; Metalli in tracce nell'ambiente marino. Individuazione di bioindicatori per l'area mediterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubadda, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy); Conti, M. E. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Controllo e Gestione delle Merci e del loro impatto sull' Ambiente; Campanella, L. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2000-12-01

    The possible use of six marine organisms as cosmopolitan bio monitors of trace metals in the Mediterranean area was evaluated. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the gastropod molluscs Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi. The selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. The potential of each species as trace metal bio monitor is discussed in view of its diffusion, reliable taxonomic identification and accumulation capability. [Italian] Al fine di acquisire conoscenze utili a valutare il possibile utilizzo di una serie di organismi diffusi nelle zone costiere dei nostri mari come biondicatori cosmopoliti per l'area mediterranea, esemplari appartenenti a queste specie sono stati campionati in siti caratterizzati da diversi gradi di contaminazione ambientale sulle coste dell'isola di Favignana, la maggiore del comprensorio delle Egadi (Sicilia). Le specie studiate sono l'alga bruna Padina pavonica, Thivy, la fanerogama marina Posidonia oceania Delile e i gasteropodi Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born, Monodonta mutabilis Philippi.

  11. Field measurements on respiration and secondary production of a benthic community in the northern Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, H.

    Biomass relations in macrofaunal species showed the dominating role of the grazer Hydrobia ulvae (71%), followed by Arenicola marina (19%) and Macoma balthica (4%). Mean biomass of the entire macrobenthic community was 27 g · m -2. In macrofauna production (50 g · m -2 · a -1) Hydrobia ulvae was the most important species too (21 g · m -2 · a -1). Total oxygen consumption showed strong temperature dependence. Chemical oxygen consumption amounted to only a few percent of total oxygen consumption. Community respiration was mainly caused by macrofauna respiration, the share of microbenthos being very low. Juvenile stages of Hydrobia ulvae were responsible for about 45% of the total oxygen consumption. For the time of submersion of the tidal flat (about 12 hours a day) a rough outline for energy flow through the community was made, showing a net growth efficiency of 24% for macrofauna.

  12. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 ?Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 ?Sv/year, respectively.

  13. Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

    2013-12-01

    The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) and increased erosion rate (E), since their feeding activities diminished the surface stabilizing effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microphytobenthos. S. plana had the highest and H. ulvae the lowest impact when related to density (factor of 29 for uc and factor of 19 for E), while H. ulvae was more important than S. plana when related to biomass (factor of 4 for uc and factor of 6 for E). N. diversicolor had intermediate density-specific (4-6 times higher than H. ulvae) and lowest biomass-specific (2-3 times lower than S. plana) effects on erosion. It appears that faunal erosion impacts preferably should be reported in biomass units for comparative purposes because individual behavioural effects of a small-bodied species like H. ulvae functionally can be relatively more important than those of a 100 times heavier S. plana individual. This is clearly evidenced from the strongly diminished response in suspended Chlorophyll-a content in the presence of the former than the latter species, which is caused by an efficient microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae. It is also important to emphasize that the total faunal impact on erosion threshold in a certain area is dictated by combination of contributions from individual species. The total outcome is unpredictable and controlled by synergistic and antagonistic species-specific effects, species interactions as well as environmental and sediment conditions.

  14. Antagonistic Effect of Epiphytic Bacteria from Marine Algae, Southeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alex John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epibiotic bacteria from seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Dictyota dichotoma and Padina tetrastromatica against some potent human pathogens. The epibiotic bacteria of Ulva lactuca shows higher level of inhibition properties than the other species. The strain UL1 shows broad spectrum inhibitory activity against 7 pathogens. The inhibitory level of epibiotic bacteria ranged from low to moderate activity. The present investigation suggests that the epibiotic bacteria are good source for the isolation of antibacterial compounds of biomedical importance. The compounds can further be purified and can used to save mankind from dreadful diseases.

  15. MAPPING GREEN MACROALGAE BLOOMS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY VIA 35-MM AERIAL PHOTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer blooms of green macroalgae (mainly Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) on intertidal mudflats of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were documented using oblique 35-mm color-infrared aerial photographs taken at low tide. Costs were controlled by use of a small airplane from a loc...

  16. Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)(PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate)(PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: morphology and thermal-mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  17. Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Emad A. SHALABY; El-Fayoumy, Eman A.

    2011-01-01

    The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzy...

  18. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (?15N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (?13C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months

  19. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2003-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 13}C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  1. Bromeliads production in greenhouses associated to different shading screens / Produção de bromélias sob malhas de sombreamento em casa de vegetação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ester, Holcman; Paulo Cesar, Sentelhas.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de bromélias em ambiente protegido é altamente influenciada pelo microclima, o qual afeta tanto o desenvolvimento como o crescimento das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nas variáveis microclimáticas e no cresc [...] imento da bromélia Aechmea fasciata em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente. Os tratamentos foram compostos por diferentes malhas de sombreamento: termo-refletora (T1), testemunha sem malha (T2), vermelha (T3), azul (T4) e preta (T5), todas com 70% de sombreamento. Das 60 plantas dispostas em cada um dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas 24 delas obtidas aleatoriamente. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado para as variáveis biométricas. Um sistema automático de aquisição de dados micrometeorológicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo registros de temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e radiação solar. As variáveis das plantas avaliadas foram altura e diâmetro da planta, largura e comprimento das folhas e número de folhas por planta. O diâmetro da roseta e o comprimento das folhas foram as variáveis que apresentaram as maiores diferenças entre os tratamentos, em função das alterações na radiação solar causadas pelas malhas de sombreamento. A malha vermelha promoveu as melhores condições para a produção da bromélia A. fasciata. Abstract in english Bromeliads production in greenhouses is highly influenced by microclimate, which affects plants growth and development. Based on that, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of shading screens of different colors on microclimatic variables and Aechmea fasciata bromeliad growth in a greenhouse co [...] vered by transparent low-density polyethylene. The experiment had five treatments, with screens of different colors, inside a plastic greenhouse: thermo-reflective (T1); control without screen (T2); red (T3); blue (T4); and black (T5) screens, all of them with 70% of shading. From the 60 plants arranged in each one of the treatments 24 were evaluated, which were obtained randomly. The statistical design was completely randomized for the biometric variables. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, recording temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The plant parameters evaluated weekly were plant diameter and height, leaf width and length, and number of leaves per plant. The rosette diameter and leaf length were the parameters that presented the highest differences among treatments, which was basically a function of changes in solar radiation caused by the shading screens. The red screen provided the best conditions for A. fasciata bromeliad production.

  2. Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

  3. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) on seaweeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilla Ferreira, Souza; Aline Santos de, Oliveira; Renato Crespo, Pereira.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroal [...] gas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos de análise de dados: comparação entre a perda de biomassa e as mudanças por autogenia, e a incorporação dos valores de autogenia à perda de biomassa por herbivoria. Em ambos os experimentos observou-se uma clara preferência de L. variegatus por certas espécies de macroalgas em relação a outras, em ordem decrescente de preferência: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. Além disso, constatou-se que os dois métodos de análise produziram resultados muito similares. De acordo com os resultados, a preferência alimentar de L. variegatus é provavelmente condicionada pela química defensiva produzida por P. brasiliense e D. menstrualis e aspectos morfológicos presentes em C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba e Sargassum sp. Abstract in english Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racem [...] osa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.

  4. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos de análise de dados: comparação entre a perda de biomassa e as mudanças por autogenia, e a incorporação dos valores de autogenia à perda de biomassa por herbivoria. Em ambos os experimentos observou-se uma clara preferência de L. variegatus por certas espécies de macroalgas em relação a outras, em ordem decrescente de preferência: C. racemosa ? Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ? Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. Além disso, constatou-se que os dois métodos de análise produziram resultados muito similares. De acordo com os resultados, a preferência alimentar de L. variegatus é provavelmente condicionada pela química defensiva produzida por P. brasiliense e D. menstrualis e aspectos morfológicos presentes em C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba e Sargassum sp.

  5. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  6. Toxin and species identification of toxic octopus implicated into food poisoning in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Jung; Lin, Chun-Lan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Jen, Hsiao-Chin; Jian, Shi-Jie; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2014-12-01

    A food poisoning incident due to ingestion of unknown octopus occurred in Taipei in December, 2010. The serum and urine from victims (male 38 and 43 years old) were collected, determined the toxicity, and identified tetrodotoxin (TTX) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It was found that only urine contained the trace of TTX. Then, two retained specimen (one without blue ring in the skin and another with small blue ring in the skin) were collected from victims and examined for the toxicity and toxin. Meanwhile, 6 specimens of octopus without blue ring in the skin and 4 specimens of octopus with blue ring in the skin were re-collected from the market. Both retained octopus samples were found to contain TTX. However, re-collected market's octopus without blue ring in the skin did not show to contain TTX the and was identified as Octopus aegina by using the analysis of cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Only octopus with blue ring in the skin contained TTX and was identified as Hapalochlaena fasciata by using the analysis of Cyt b and COI. Therefore, this octopus food poisoning was caused by toxic octopus H. fasciata and the causative agent was TTX. PMID:25286395

  7. [Ethology and phylogeny of the family Belontiidae (Anabantoidei, pisces)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierke, J

    1975-09-01

    1. The behavioural patterns of the following species of the family Belontiidae were qualitatively examined and compared with each other: Colisa lalia, C. fasciata, C. chuna, Trichogaster trichopterus, T. leeri, T. microlepis, Macropodu, opercularis, Pseudosphromenus (Macropodus) cupanus cupanus, Betta splendens, Trichopsis pumilus, T. vittatus vittatus, T. vittatus schalleri, Belontia signata and the hybrids Colisa fasciata X lalia. 2. Among other points the paper puts some emphasis on the description of the reproductive behaviour of the various species (nest building, mating, parental behaviour). In addition aspects of feeding and fighting behaviour are described. 3. The subfamilies established by Liem (1963) on the basis of osteological characteristics can also be substantiated ethologically. 4. Liem's conception of the phylogeny of Belontiidae is criticized. His system conceiving phylogeny as a process of branching off successively is contrasted with a phylogenetic fan. The subfamilies Belontiinae, Trichogasterinae and Macropodinae differentiated almost at the same time. 5. The genus of Macropodus has a very isolated position within the sub-family of Macropodinae. The remaining genera are on a higher level of development regarding their reproductive behaviour. As a result of the paper Pseudosphromenus (Macropodus) cupanus has to be eliminated from the genus of Macropodus. PMID:1237971

  8. Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Beaver

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.

  9. HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Guerreiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las QuijadasThe National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

  10. Macroalgae fouling community as quality element for the evaluation of the ecological status in Vela Luka Bay, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Jelic Mrcelic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One year qualitative and quantitative study of communities of three major taxonomic groups has been carried out at test panles placed in the upper infarlittoral zone of coastal area of Vela Luka Bay, Croatia. A list of 44 taxa was recorded. Chaetomorpha sp., Ulva sp., Fosliella farinosa, Sphacelaria cirrosa, Polysiphonia scopulorum were the most frequent dominant taxa. Among 27 algal taxa with noticeable presence only three were classified as ESG (Ecological State Groups I. Low diversity and species richness together with massive presence of the green algae (as Ulva sp. and negligible presence of ESG I taxa, may lead to erroneous conclusion that Vela Luka Bay is eutrophicated area. Low values of biomass and R/P (Rhodophyceae by Phaeophyceae ratio Index together with dominance of Phaeophyta also support conclusion that there is no negative impact of nutrient enrichment on macrophyta fouling community in Vela Luka Bay.

  11. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 ?mol photons m-2 s-1). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

  12. Antimicrobial Behavior of Semifluorinated-Quaternized Triblock Copolymers against Airborne and Marine Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.; Finlay, J; Ward, R; Weinman, C; Krishnan, S; Park, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; Callow, J; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity.

  13. Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G.; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Antunes Paulo; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Baptistotte, Cecilia; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL = 44.0 cm (SD 6.7 cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

  14. Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile) Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    RALF RAUTENBERGER; ANDRÉS MANSILLA; IVÁN GÓMEZ; CHRISTIAN WIENCKE; KAI BISCHOF

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittoral: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I) curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory un...

  15. Macroalgae fouling community as quality element for the evaluation of the ecological status in Vela Luka Bay, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorana Jelic Mrcelic; Merica Sliskovic; Boris Antolic

    2012-01-01

    One year qualitative and quantitative study of communities of three major taxonomic groups has been carried out at test panles placed in the upper infarlittoral zone of coastal area of Vela Luka Bay, Croatia. A list of 44 taxa was recorded. Chaetomorpha sp., Ulva sp., Fosliella farinosa, Sphacelaria cirrosa, Polysiphonia scopulorum were the most frequent dominant taxa. Among 27 algal taxa with noticeable presence only three were classified as ESG (Ecological State Groups) I. Low diversity and...

  16. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2012-01-01

    Marine seaweed that is washed up on the coastline is a nuisance as its degradation produces a foul a smell and generates waste problems. Exploitation of coastline-polluting seaweeds such as Sargassum sp., Ulva sp., and other beach-cast seaweed species for various commercial applications will generate new valuable products that may help lessen coastal pollution by seaweeds and create new seaweed-based resources. Thus, utilization of these natural resources is of great importance. The objectives o...

  17. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2011-01-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8–59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4–29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5–3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p?

  18. Ecosystem quality and natural heritage preservation: the case of the littoral eutrophication and the wintering of Brent Geese Branta b. bernicla in the bay of Saint-Brieuc (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsero, Alain; Le Mao, Patrick; Yesou, Pierre; Allain, Jeremy; Vidal, Justine

    2009-01-01

    The national nature reserve of Saint-Brieuc Bay, located in the north of Brittany, is a site of international importance for the wintering of the Black-bellied Brent goose Branta bernicla bernicla although its preferred food, eelgrass, is completely absent. Local monitoring points out that the green seaweeds Ulva armocicana represents 90% of the food eaten by the Brent geese. These algae are responsible for the spectacular green tides which greatly impact this bay each summer. The 400 odd ton...

  19. Rol de las macroalgas en el biomonitoreo de la contaminación en «Marchica», la laguna de Nador / Role of macroalgae in biomonitoring of pollution in «Marchica», the Nador lagoon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K, Ben Chekroun; A, Moumen; N, Rezzoum; E, Sánchez; M, Baghour.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de los sistemas acuáticos por los contaminantes orgánicos y metales pesados es uno de los problemas más graves a los que están expuestos el medio ambiente y los organismos. La acumulación de estos contaminantes se debe a la actividad antropogénica, principalmente al uso intensivo de [...] fertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos en los cultivos. En este trabajo, hemos comparado los niveles de clorofila, proteínas y carbohidratos (glucosa y sacarosa) en algunas algas rojas (Alsidium sp. y Gracilaria sp.) y verdes (Ulva sp.) recogidas en Mohandis, cerca de Kariat y Bou Areg. Nuestros resultados indican que las algas recogidas cerca de Bou Areg, una zona bien conocida por su alta actividad agrícola, contienen altos niveles de pigmentos, proteínas y azúcares. A partir de los resultados de clorofila podemos concluir que Ulva sp. es un buen indicador para el registro de la eutroficación. No obstante, Gracilaria sp. puede ser utilizada en la fitorremediación debido a la alta tasa de síntesis de carbohidratos lo que la hace mucho más resistente a la contaminación. Abstract in english The Aquatic system contamination by organic pollutants and heavy metals is one of the most serious problems that might face the environment and organisms as a whole. Interestingly, the accumulation of these pollutants is due to the anthropogenic activity, namely the intensive use of fertilizers to o [...] btain high yields in crop production. In this paper, we compared the levels of chlorophylls, proteins, dry weight and sucrose in some red (Alsidium sp. and Gracilaria sp.) and green algae (Ulva sp.) collected from Mohandis, near Kariat and Bou Areg. Our results indicate that the algae collected nearby Bou Areg, an area well-known for its high agricultural activity, contained high levels of pigments, proteins and sugars. From the chlorophyll results, we conclude that Ulva sp. is the best indicator for eutrophication biomonitoring. Nevertheless, the Gracilaria sp. can be used in phytoremediation due to its high carbohydrate synthesis that makes it much more pollutant resistant.

  20. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M BRAVO-LINARES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus, Fucus serratus (Linnaeus, Laminaria digitata (Hudson Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus, Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus, formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis Batters. The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

  1. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyo Ukai; Teruaki Nishikawa; Takeshi Fujiwara; Michio Namikoshi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  2. Methane and fertilizer production from seaweed biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzer, P.R.; Humm, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was demonstrated that several varieties of abundant benthic algae indigenous to Tampa Bay (Gracilaria, Hypnea, and Ulva) were readily degradable via anaerobic digestion to methane. The energy yield per unit weight biomass degraded was higher than any previously reported. Given the large masses of readily degradable plants which are annually produced in and around Tampa Bay, the resource is estimated to be at least equivalent to several million gallons of gasoline.

  3. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisler Alveal

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

  4. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Krisler, Alveal; Héctor, Romo.

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussflum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus wh [...] ich occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

  5. An ortholog of the Leptospira interrogans lipoprotein LipL32 aids in the colonization of Pseudoalteromonas tunicata to host surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Melissa; David E. Hoke; Egan, Suhelen

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a common surface colonizer of marine eukaryotes, including the macroalga Ulva australis.Genomic analysis of P. tunicata identified genes potentially involved in surface colonization, including genes with homology to bacterial virulence factors that mediate attachment. Of particular interest is the presence of a gene, designated ptlL32, encoding an ortholog to the Leptospira lipoprotein LipL32, which has been shown to facilitate the interaction of Le...

  6. Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are reported from field and laboratory studies on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms of Northwest Pacific coastal ecosystems. Chemical methods for the characterization of test solutions for specific hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, and heptodecane) were developed concurrently with population and community studies of the effects of short-term and chronic exposures. Results are reported from studies on algae (Ulva), clams (protothaca staminea), crustaceans (Anomyx and Neomysis) and burrowing worms

  7. Identification of cytokinin in a green algae extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Lin, Duan; Feng, Pan; Li, Shuai; Jun-Shun, Zhang; Xin-Tong, Liu; Xiu-Geng, Fei

    1996-06-01

    Isopentenyladenosine (i6Ado) was identified, and trans-zeatin (trans-Z) and trans-zeatin riboside (trans-ZR) were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) but not verified with chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cytokinin from the extracts of green algae ( Ulva pertusa (Kjellm), Enteromopha compressa and Monostroma sp.). This indicated that the green algae mixture contained cytokinin—like substances.

  8. Recent changes in macroalgae distribution patterns in the Orbetello lagoon (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani, Andrea; Mari, Elena; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Focardi, Silvano; Renzi, Monia

    2014-01-01

    This study related recent distribution changes in seven macroalgae taxa (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chaetomorpha linum, Cladophora sp., Gracilariopsis longissima, Spyridia sp., Ulva laetevirens, Valonia aegagrophyla) to spatial (basin) and temporal (time) trophic differences in a meso-eutrophic Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Orbetello, Italy). In July 2003 and July 2009, the coverage percentage (CP) of each considered taxon was measured in 38 stations equally distributed in the Western and Easte...

  9. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. M, BRAVO-LINARES; S. M, MUDGE; R. H, LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le [...] Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis) Batters). The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata) had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

  10. Antioxidant activity of macroalgae from the Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Lisete S. (Sousa); Patarra, Rita F.; Neto, Ana I.; Lima, Elisabete M. C.; Baptista, José A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) was studied to determine the antioxidant activity of 8 common macroalgae species found in the Azores. Species under study were Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius and Gelidium microdon, from Rhodophyta; Ulva compressa and Chaetomorpha pachynema, from Chlorophyta and Fucus spiralis from Phaeophyta.The antioxidant activity was evaluated in methanolic extract by a decolourisation solution test of 2,2-...

  11. EVALUATION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE AND ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORY PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy SenthilKumar; Sellappa Sudha

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of four seaweeds collected from Gulf of Mannar coastal waters were tested for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. The aqueous extracts of seaweeds in the order of Gracilaria edulis, Sargassum polycystum, Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria corticata showed significant inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. G. edulis was found to be a potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 46?g/mL. The aqueous extract of S. polycystum at a conc...

  12. LC-ICP-MS analysis of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece).

    OpenAIRE

    Pell, Albert; Kokkinis, Giannis; Malea, Paraskea; Pergantis, Spiros A.; Rubio i Rovira, Roser; López Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-01-01

    The content of total arsenic and arsenic compounds in the dominant seaweed species in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea was determined in samples collected in different seasons. Total arsenic was determined by acid digestion followed by ICPMS. Arsenic speciation was analyzed by water extraction followed by LCICPMS. Total arsenic concentrations in the seaweeds ranged from 1.39 to 55.0 mg kg- 1. Cystoseira species and Codium fragile showed the highest total As contents, while Ulva specie...

  13. SCREENING OF PHYCOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS QUALITATIVELY AND QUANTITATIVELY CERTAIN SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikkannu Thinakaran; Mohan Balamurugan; Kathiresan Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    The six seaweeds namely Ulva lactuca (L), Caulerpa racemosa C. Agardh, Sargassum wightii Greville, Padina tetrastomatica Hauck, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica J. Ag., and Acanthophora spicifera (vahl.) Boergesen, collected from the Gulf of Mannar were screened for the presence of Phycochemical constituents like primary and secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present investigation revealed that saponin and polyphenol were absent in the acetone extract of seaw...

  14. The Effects of Environmental Conditions and Mercury on Common Estuarine Species. An Integrated Ecological and Toxicological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sónia Isabel Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O principal objectivo da presente tese foi avaliar o impacto das condições ambientais e do mercúrio em espécies estuarinas. Para atingir este fim, diferentes abordagens foram realizadas utilizando diferentes categorias de organismos: um produtor primário (a macroalga Ulva lactuca) e dois consumidores (o caranguejo Carcinus maenas e o seu parasita Sacculina carcini). A tese escontra-se dividida em quatro capítulos principais, focando-se: 1) nas consequências de dois períodos hidrológicos di...

  15. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadège; Ménesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-04-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide' events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves') for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay, Guissény Bay and Douarnenez Bay). Calibration of the biological model was mainly based on the seasonal variation of the maximum nitrogen uptake rate (VmaxN) and the half-saturation constant for nitrogen (KN) to reproduce the internal nutrient quotas measured in situ for each site. In each bay, model predictions were in agreement with observed algal coverage converted into biomass. A numerical tracking method was implemented to identify the contribution of the rivers that empty into the study bays, and scenarios of decreases in nitrate concentration in rivers were simulated. Results from numerical nitrogen tracking highlighted the main nitrogen sources of green tides and also showed that each river contributes locally to green tides. In addition, dynamic modelling showed that the nitrate concentrations in rivers must be limited to between 5 and 15 mg l- 1, depending on the bay, to reduce Ulva biomass by half on the coasts. The three-step methodology developed in this study (analysing total dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux from rivers, tracking nitrogen sources in Ulva and developing scenarios for reducing nitrogen) provides qualitative and quantitative guidelines for stakeholders to define specific nitrogen reduction targets for better environmental management of water quality.

  16. Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

    2013-01-01

    The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) a...

  17. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) on seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Ferreira Souza; Aline Santos de Oliveira; Renato Crespo Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preferen...

  18. Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137Cs, 129I, 6Co, 152Eu, 9Sr, and 99Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234U, 235U, and 238U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes

  19. Biosorption of lanthanides using three kinds of seaweed biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of seaweed biomass as sorbent for rare earth elements (REEs), sorption experiment from aqueous solutions containing known amount of lanthanide (La, Eu or Yb) using three kinds of Ca-loaded dried seaweeds (brown algae: Sargassum hemiphyllum, green algae: Ulva pertusa and red algae: Schizymenia dubyi) in single component system was explored. Furthermore, the sorption mechanism of these elements was investigated by applying Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to the data obtained. In addition, to confirm the characteristics of the seaweed biomasses, the surface morphology of the biomass before and after metal adsorption was determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The morphology of Sargassum hemiphyllum and Ulva pertusa surface has hardly changed even after exposing to metals. On the other hand, the change of the surface condition on Schizymenia dubyi after adsorption was observed. (2) Adsorption isotherms using the seaweed biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for lanthanide. These adsorption may have occurred mainly by monolayer reaction because of better-fitting for Langmuir model. (3) The seaweed biomasses could be an efficient sorbent for REEs. Particularly, Ulva pertusa is found to be a promising biosorbent for removing La. (4) Ion-exchange process is considered to be the main mechanism responsible for the sorption of lanthanide ion onto the seaweed biomass. (author)

  20. Basic study of CO2 fixation using a combination of seaweed and shells; Kaiso to kairui wo kumiawaseta CO2 koteika kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    CO2 fixed in organic matters return to the atmosphere after putrefication and decomposition, but it is also known that CO2 fixed in inorganic shells stays there permanently. A study is made in this report about the fixation of CO2 in organic matters by use of the ulva and anchored diatom known to be high in CO2 trapping capability, and the study also covers the raising of shells aiming at the fixation of CO2 in inorganic matters. The ulva is raised in a cylindrical raceway type culture water tank, and the anchored diatom in a cylindrical culture unit, and breeding conditions under which they multiply at the highest rate are determined. Their CO2 fixation rates are, respectively, 92.76mg/liter/day and 25.45mg/liter/day, which may be converted, respectively, into 147.1 ton and 5.8 ton of CO2 per hectare per year. Fixed CO2 amounts are tentatively calculated using the above-said figures combined with the raising of shells, and it is found that CO2 may be effectively fixed when the ulva is raised in a 1-hectare area and the shells in a 3.63-hectare area. In this case, the annual CO2 fixation amounts are estimated at 74.1 ton in inorganic matters and 3.9 ton in organic matters. 6 figs.

  1. Local adaptation in adult feeding preference and juvenile performance in the generalist herbivore Idotea balthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina M; Sotka, Erik E

    2012-10-01

    Populations can respond to environmental heterogeneity by genetic adaptation to local conditions. Evidence for local adaptation in herbivores with relatively broad host breadth is scarce, either because generalists rarely locally adapt or because fewer studies have tested for local adaptation. The marine isopod Idotea balthica, a small (Fucus vesiculosus and consumed more of its water-soluble and lipophilic extracts relative to southern populations. In contrast, southern populations have a relatively higher preference for the green macroalga Ulva linza and sea grass Zostera marina. The rank of hosts in feeding assays exhibited by northern adults (Fucus = Ulva > Zostera) and southern adults (Ulva > Fucus > Zostera) closely mirrored ranking of juvenile growth rates, suggesting that preference and performance are strongly correlated across these macrophytes. Several of our assays included isopods that had parents reared under uniform laboratory conditions, indicating that geographic differences are genetically mediated and unlikely to reflect phenotypic plasticity or maternal effects. Local adaptation in host use traits may be common in broadly distributed, generalist herbivores in marine and terrestrial systems, and will manifest itself as local shifts in the preference ranking of hosts. PMID:22451011

  2. Metal binding stoichiometry and isotherm choice in biosorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiewer, S.; Wong, M.H.

    1999-11-01

    Seaweeds that possess a high metal binding capacity may be used as biosorbents for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater. The binding of Cu and Ni by three brown algae (Sargassum, Colpomenia, Petalonia) and one green alga (Ulva) was investigated at pH 4.0 and pH 3.0. The greater binding strength of Cu is reflected in a binding constant that is about 10 times as high as that of Ni. The extent of metal binding followed the order Petalonia {approximately} Sargassum > Colpomenia > Ulva. This was caused by a decreasing number of binding sites and by much lower metal binding constants for Ulva as compared to the brown algae. Three different stoichiometric assumptions are compared for describing the metal binding, which assume either that each metal ion M binds to one binding site B forming a BM complex or that a divalent metal ion M binds to two monovalent sites B forming BM{sub 0.5} or B{sub 2}M complexes, respectively. Stoichiometry plots are proposed as tools to discern the relevant binding stoichiometry. The pH effect in metal binding and the change in proton binding were well predicted for the B{sub 2}M or BM{sub 0.5} stoichiometries with the former being better for Cu and the latter preferable for Ni. Overall, the BM{sub 0.5} model is recommended because it avoids iterations.

  3. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition. The results show that the methane yield of Laminaria from mesophilic anaerobic digestion was fairly stable (average 138 L CH4/kgVSadded). Methane generation from thermophilic reactors both for Ulva and Laminaria, on the other hand, varied significantly, as the feeding rate varied. While the thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, itwas found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that subsequent can be used for fertilizer in organic farming. In the study the digested fertilizer product has been evaluated and it has a high quality in terms of nutrients.

  4. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qianjin; Duan, Weijun; Zhou, Chengxu; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Aili; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Jiong

    2015-06-01

    Rapid, high-throughput and reliable methods are urgently required to accurately detect and monitor harmful algae, which are responsible for algal blooms, such as red and green tides. In this study, we successfully developed a multiplex PCR-based DNA microarray method capable of detecting nine harmful algal species simultaneously, namely Alexandrium tamarense, Gyrodinium instriatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Prorocentrum minimum, Ulva compressa, Ulva ohnoi and Ulva prolifera. This method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng of genomic DNA (orders of magnitude of the deci-nanogram range) in the tested algae cultures. Altogether, 230 fi eld samples from ship ballast waters and seaport waters were used to evaluate the DNA microarray. The clinical sensitivity and specifi city of the DNA microarray assay in detecting fi eld samples were 96.4% and 90.9%, respectively, relative to conventional morphological methods. This indicated that this high-throughput, automatic, and specifi c method is well suited for the detection of algae in water samples.

  5. Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Div. of Life Sciences, Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst. - EOHSI, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: gochfeld@eohsi.rutgers.edu; Kosson, David S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)]. E-mail: david.kosson@vanderbilt.edu; Powers, Charles W. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Jewett, Stephen [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska (United States)]. E-mail: jewett@ims.uaf.edu; Friedlander, Barry [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Chenelot, Heloise [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska (United States); Volz, Conrad D.; Jeitner, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 6}Co, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 9}Sr, and {sup 99}Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of {sup 241}Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of {sup 239,24}Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of {sup 239,24}Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes.

  6. Differential effects of microorganism-invertebrate interactions on benthic nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, William W; Solan, Martin; Prosser, James I

    2012-10-01

    Infaunal invertebrate activity can fundamentally alter physicochemical conditions in sediments and influence nutrient cycling. However, despite clear links between invertebrate activity and microbially mediated processes such as nitrification, the mechanisms by which bioturbating macrofauna affect microbial communities have received little attention. This study provides strong evidence for differential stimulation of microbial nitrogen transformations by three functionally contrasting species of macrofauna (Hediste diversicolor, Corophium volutator, Hydrobia ulvae). Despite increased nitrification, abundance of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) at the sediment-water interface did not significantly change in the presence of macrofauna. However, species-specific differences in macrofaunal activity did influence ammonia oxidiser community structure, increasing AOB abundance relative to AOA in the presence of C. volutator or H. ulvae, but with no change in H. diversicolor and no-macrofauna treatments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles were similar between macrofaunal treatments, although one AOB band increased in relative intensity in the presence of C. volutator, decreased in the H. diversicolor treatment and was unchanged in the H. ulvae treatment. These data suggest that links between bioturbating macrofauna and nutrient cycling are not expressed through changes in the abundance of ammonia oxidisers in surface sediments, but are associated with changes in the AOA : AOB ratio depending on the invertebrate species. PMID:22533682

  7. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different species of Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta co-occur in the Mediterranean Sea: two of them are found at the central-eastern basin and are typically considered non aggressive components of the Lessepsian flora [(C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse]; a third taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder has aggressively expanded its range since its first observation in 1990, and it is nowadays reported from nearly all the Mediterranean countries. We report a population of C. cylindracea from Almería (Andalusia, Southern Iberian Peninsula at ?30 m depth as to be the westernmost record of the invasive variety on the Mediterranean European coast. Therefore, we made use of morphological description and molecular phylogenetics to provide a complete identification of this invasive seaweed in Southern Spain. Our findings are discussed in light of the composition of the receptor communities, such as maërl bed, edges of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, and their ecology. Our results confirmed the suggested directionality of the invasive pathway to be westward to the Strait of Gibraltar, mainly supported by sea currents and vectors of anthropogenic origin.En el Mar Mediterráneo se encuentran tres especies diferentes de Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta: dos de ellas se localizan en la cuenca centro oriental y se consideran componentes no agresivos de la flora Lessepsiana (C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse; un tercer taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder ha expandido de manera agresiva su rango de distribución desde su primera observación en 1990, y actualmente se registra en casi todos los países de la cuenca mediterránea. En este trabajo se informa sobre una población de C. cylindracea en Almería (Andalucía, Sur de España, a ?30 m de profundidad, que representaría la cita más occidental de la variedad invasora en las costas mediterráneas europeas. Se realiza una completa identificación de esta alga invasora en el Sur de España mediante una descripción morfológica y filogenia molecular. Los datos obtenidos se discuten en relación a la composición de las comunidades receptoras, tales como fondos de maërl y bordes de Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, y su ecología. Los resultados confirman la direccionalidad de la ruta invasora de la especie hacia el oeste en las proximidades del Estrecho de Gibraltar, principalmente debido a corrientes marinas y vectores de origen antropogénico.

  8. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de cápsulas e chás de plantas utilizadas na assistência ao tratamento da obesidade / Microbiological quality evaluation of herbal capsules and teas to assist the treatment of obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Verdi; Salua, Younes; Charise D., Bertol.

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas diuréticas e laxativas é uma alternativa medicamentosa para muitas pessoas que objetivam o emagrecimento com menores efeitos adversos. A avaliação microbiológica é um requisito essencial para a garantia de qualidade dos produtos. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade m [...] icrobiológica de cápsulas e chás de alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L.), centella asiática (Hydrocotile asiatica L.), fucus (Fucus vesiculosus L.), e sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile), através da contagem de micro-organismos viáveis totais e pesquisa de patógenos. Na contagem de micro-organismos viáveis, os chás analisados foram aprovados, pois apesar de apresentarem uma carga microbiana elevada, esta se encontrava dentro das especificações, entretanto, 16,66% e 66,66% das cápsulas analisadas foram reprovadas por apresentaram quantidades superiores de bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. Na pesquisa de patógenos, 76% das amostras (88% dos chás e 58% das cápsulas) apresentaram um ou mais de um tipo de micro-organismo. Salmonella sp. esteve presente em 33% das amostras evidenciando a qualidade microbiológica insatisfatória dos produtos encontrados no mercado. Estes resultados demonstram a necessidade da realização do controle de qualidade tanto das matérias-primas vegetais, quanto dos produtos acabados, através do controle e fiscalização rigorosa, com adoção de medidas regulamentadoras e educativas. Abstract in english The use of laxative and diuretic herbal drugs is an alternative therapy for many people looking for loosing weight with fewer side effects. The microbiological evaluation is an essential requirement for the quality assurance of products. This study aimed to evaluate the microbial quality of artichok [...] e (Cynara scolymus L.), centella (Hydrocotile asiatica L.), fucus (Fucus vesiculosus L.), and Senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile) capsules and teas, by counting the total viable aerobic microorganisms and through tests for specified microorganisms. On the total viable aerobic microorganisms count, the teas analyzed were approved, because although they had a high microbial load, this was in accordance with the specifications, however 16.66% and 66.66% of the capsules analyzed were rejected because they presented higher amounts of bacteria and fungi, respectively. In relation to the tests for specified microorganisms, 76% of the samples (88% of the teas and 58% of the capsules) presented one or more than one type of microorganisms. Salmonella sp. was present in 33% of the samples, showing the unsatisfactory microbial quality of the products in the market. These results demonstrate the necessity of performing quality control both on herbal raw material and finished products, through a rigorous control and inspection, adopting regulatory and educational measures.

  9. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Marcelo E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

  10. The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Oliva

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

  11. The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Oliva; Jose L., Luque; Jose A., Iannacone.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comme [...] nts on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

  12. Rediscovery of Clivina morio Dejean with the description of Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille, is established for C. americana Dejean and its relatives, whose collective geographical range includes the Western Hemisphere Nearctic Region and the Eastern Hemisphere Palaearctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical Regions. Previously, these taxa were included in the subgenus Reichardtula Whitehead, 1977, a taxon now confined to the Eastern Hemisphere. Members of Leucocara differ from those of other Nearctic Clivina by the presence of a small, apically truncate preapical protuberance on the mesotibia with its seta inserted apically. Clivina morio, previously known only from the holotype, is reported here from Louisiana and Texas, confirming its presence on the North American continent; the species is also included in Leucocara. The following new synonymies are proposed: C. dilutipennis Putzeys, 1866, C. insularis Jacquelin du Val, 1857, C. klugii Putzeys, 1846, C. sculptifrons Putzeys, 1846 with C. fasciata Putzeys, 1846 and C. morula LeConte, 1857 with C. americana Dejean, 1831.

  13. Variations in the fecundity and body size of digenean (Opecoelidae) species parasitizing fishes from Northern Chile / Variaciones en la fecundidad y tamaño corporal de especies digeneas (Opecoelidae) que parasitan peces del norte de Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Teresa, González; Vania, Henríquez; Zambra, López.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La historia de vida y estrategias de reproducción de los parásitos muestran una variabilidad significativa asociada con la identidad de hospedador y con factores ambientales. Este estudio evaluó la influencia de las especies hospedadoras sobre algunos rasgos de historia de vida de digeneos, como el [...] tamaño del cuerpo del parásito (PBL) y la fecundidad, de 3 especies: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia y Neoleburia georgenascimentoi. Además, se usaron marcadores moleculares (región V4 del gen 18S y CO-I)para confirmar la identidad específica de las especies parásitas en los diferentes hospedadores. Desde enero 2010 hasta junio 2012, 305 peces pertenecientes a Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus, Labrisomus philippii, Prolatilus jugularis y Pinguipes chilensis fueron capturados, por medio de buceo, desde la costa norte de Chile (24°S). En el laboratorio, los peces se midieron y se recolectaron todos sus parásitos. A cada parásito objetivo se le midió la longitud total y el ancho del cuerpo y todos sus huevos extraídos del útero se contabilizaron. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados (GLM) para identificar los factores que afectan la fecundidad de los digeneos. La fecundidad de H. nimia fue mayor en A. pictus y menor en L. philippii; la fecundidad de H. fasciata fue mayor en P. humeralis y menor en L. philippii y la fecundidad de N. georgenascimentoi fue mayor en P. chilensis. GLM mostraron que la fecundidad es afectada por el PBL y por la especie hospedadora. Las variaciones en PBL y fecundidad están aparentemente asociados con el tamaño de las especies hospedadoras: los parásitos más grandes (y con mayor fecundidad) se registraron en las especies de peces con mayores tamaños corporales (P. humeralis; A. pictus y P. chilensis). No obstante, los análisis moleculares mostraron que H. nimia presente en L. philippii difiere a las encontradas en A. pictus y P. humeralis, mientras que N. georgenascimentoi presente en P. jugularis es distinta a la encontrada en P. chilensis; por lo tanto, la identidad específica de los digeneos podría explicar la diferencia en su fecundidad entre especies de hospedadores. Abstract in english Parasite life history and reproductive strategies show considerable variability associated with host identity and/or environmental factors. In this study, we measured parasite body length (PBL) and fecundity of 3 digenean species: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia and Neoleburia georgenascim [...] entoi, in their different host species, to evaluate the host influence on these biological traits. Additionally, parasite identifications were confirmed using molecular markers (V4 region of 18S and CO-I genes). From January 2010 to June 2012, 305 fish belonging to Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus; Labrisomus philippii; Prolatilus jugularis and Pinguipes chilensis were captured, by diving, off the northern Chilean coast (24°S). In the laboratory, fish were measured and all their parasites collected. The total length and body width of each individual parasite were measured and all eggs were extracted from the parasites' uterus and counted. Generalized lineal models were used to identify factors affecting fecundity of digeneans. Fecundity of H. nimia was highest in A. pictus and lowest in individuals from L. philippii; fecundity of H. fasciata was highest in P. humeralis and lowest in L. philippii and fecundity of N. georgenascimentoi was highest in P. chilensis. GLM showed that variations in fecundity of digeneans are explained by host fish species and by PBL. Variations in PBL and fecundity are apparently associated with host species sizes: longer parasites (with more eggs per parasite) were recorded in larger fish species (P. humeralis, A. pictus and P. chilensis). However, molecular analyses showed that H. nimia from L. philippii should be considered a distinct species from specimens found in A. pictus and P. humeralis, while N. georgenascimentoi from P. jugularis should be considered a distinct species from specimens found in P

  14. Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae) capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú / Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae), caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Iannacone.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 [...] fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65). Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122). El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4). Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04%) mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33%) y 7 (6,66%) tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56) y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07). Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H') = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C) = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad. Abstract in english A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 female [...] s. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65). Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122) were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4). One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04%) showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33%) and seven (6.66%) had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07) were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H') = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C) = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

  15. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  16. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusch Thorsten BH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  17. When Microplastic Is Not Plastic: The Ingestion of Artificial Cellulose Fibers by Macrofauna Living in Seagrass Macrophytodetritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, François; Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Compère, Philippe; Eppe, Gauthier; Lepoint, Gilles

    2015-09-15

    Dead leaves of the Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, in the Mediterranean coastal zone, are colonized by an abundant "detritivorous" invertebrate community that is heavily predated by fishes. This community was sampled in August 2011, November 2011, and March 2012 at two different sites in the Calvi Bay (Corsica). Ingested artificial fibers (AFs) of various sizes and colors were found in 27.6% of the digestive tracts of the nine dominant species regardless of their trophic level or taxon. No seasonal, spatial, size, or species-specific significant differences were revealed; suggesting that invertebrates ingest AFs at constant rates. Results showed that, in the gut contents of invertebrates, varying by trophic level, and across trophic levels, the overall ingestion of AFs was low (approximately 1 fiber per organism). Raman spectroscopy revealed that the ingested AFs were composed of viscose, an artificial, cellulose-based polymer. Most of these AFs also appeared to have been colored by industrial dyes. Two dyes were identified: Direct Blue 22 and Direct Red 28. The latter is known for being carcinogenic for vertebrates, potentially causing environmental problems for the P. oceanica litter community. Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy are necessary to investigate the particles composition, instead of relying on fragment size or color to identify the particles ingested by animals. PMID:26301775

  18. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands. PMID:25253055

  19. Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, François; De Troch, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35?N, 8°43?E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

  20. Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randazzo Davide

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

  1. Chernobyl radionuclides in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Charmasson, S.; Gontier, G. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Station Marine de Toulon, La Seyne Sur Mer (France)); Meinesz, A. (Lab. d' Environnement Marin, Nice (France)); Boudouresque, C.F. (Luminy Univ., Marseille (France). Lab. d' Ecologie du Benthos)

    1991-01-01

    Between 26 April and 1 June 1986, the nuclear reactor accident of unit 4 at Cherobyl led to the release of a large quantity of radioactive material, part of which reached the Mediterranean environment. Radionuclides such as {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 141}Ce and {sup 144}Ce were immediately detected in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. A survey of this species showed a selective distribution amongst its tissues and a preferential contamination of the adult leaves. The rhizomes, which are perennial parts, recorded early contamination by {sup 110m}Ag, located by sectioning the annual segments (lepidochronology). Variations in the concentrations of several radionuclides found in adult leaves reveal the rapid decay and distribution of contamination in Mediterranean waters in 1986 and 1987, although the eastern part of the French coast had higher concentrations in 1986. Since adult leaves are continuously renewed and because of their rapid accumulation of radionuclides, they may be particularly interesting immediate sentinel accumulators in the event of a nuclear accident as well as in monitoring chronic contamination. It is suggested that a 'Posidonia Watch' could be set up around the Mediterranean Sea. (author).

  2. In situ observations of the radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French coast from Banyuls to Menton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this preliminary work is to measure the gamma radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French Mediterranean coast line between Banyuls and Menton. The marine species measured are: mussels, sea urchins and ten species of seaweed, namely: Ulva sp., Codium sp., Zoostera marina, Corallina elongata, Stypocaulon scoparium, Cymodocee nodosa, Pterocladia pinnata, Asparagopsis armata, Cystoseira sp., Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. The sampling places are spread over twenty four stations, eight of which are maritime and six representative of coastal lakes west of the Rhone. This aggregate study allowed us to highlight certain particular points and to make a choice between the indicators for a subsequent study in the most interesting areas

  3. Mercury in marine organisms of the Tay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.M.; Jones, Y.; Stewart, W.D.P.

    1972-07-21

    The problem of mercury pollution in the Tay region of the United Kingdom is discussed with emphasis on mercury concentration within marine algae and invertebrates. High levels of Hg were found in Broughty Ferry algae while there was no detectable mercury in any of the samples collected from north of Arbroath. Most was found in the thallose algae, Ulva lactuca and Porphyra umbilicalis, and in Ceramium rubrum. In studies carried out on molluscs, high levels were found in the lamellibranch, Mytilus edulis and in the gastropods Littorina littoralis and Nucella lapillus. 12 references, 3 tables.

  4. Biogeochemical effects of macroalgae decomposition on intertidal microbenthos: a microcosm experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia de Lomas, J; van Bergeijk, S A

    2008-01-01

    The decomposition of macroalgal detritus (tubular and planar Ulva spp.) was studied in a microcosm under a daily light:dark cycle to simulate the decomposition on intertidal sediment. The consequences of bloom decay were evaluated in the bulk water phase and in the sediment. Inorganic nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO32-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured in the inflowing and outflowing seawater. Vertical microprofiles of O2, pH and H2S at the sedi...

  5. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species – harvested in Denmark – for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 WC) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids1 (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 ml g VS1 for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS1 for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS1 for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5–2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitab...

  6. Noise-Dependent Fish Distribution in Kelp Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Guo, Hongy; Wang, Zhenhua; Pan, Yingjie; Song, Jiakun

    2016-01-01

    The marine marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus is dependent on kelp beds and rocks for survival and reproduction. We found that sound production and hearing sensitivity in S. marmoratus are closely matched in the frequency domain. We also found that the juvenile rockfish prefers the habitat of the larger macroalgae Sargassum horueri rather than the habitat containing the smaller algae Ulva pertusa where the adult rockfish prefers to live. Our underwater noise recording data from these two habitats indicate that their spectra of the background noise have different values. The results suggest that the acoustic cues may be critical for pelagic larvae when selecting the preferential habitat in which to settle. PMID:26611095

  7. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-Lak; OSAWA, Syozo

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land pl...

  8. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Nicholas A. Paul; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic s...

  9. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  10. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Bruhn, Anette; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2012-01-01

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown sea...

  11. Mineral Content of Some Seaweeds from Sabah`s South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Duduku Krishnaiah; Rosalam Sarbatly; D.M.R. Prasad; Awang Bono Chemical Engineering Programme

    2008-01-01

    The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia) and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%). The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5%) was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%). The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>Caulerpa> Sargassum> Eucheuma and its range was foun...

  12. Benthic grazers and suspension feeders: Which one assumes the energetic dominance in Königshafen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, H.

    1994-06-01

    Size-frequency histograms of biomass, secondary production, respiration and energy flow of 4 dominant macrobenthic communities of the intertidal bay of Königshafen were analysed and compared. In the shallow sandy flats ( Nereis-Corophium-belt [ N.C.-belt], seagrass-bed and Arenicola-flat) a bimodal size-frequency histogram of biomass, secondary production, respiration and energy flow was found with a first peak formed by individuals within a size range of 0.10 to 0.32 mg ash free dry weight (AFDW). In this size range, the small prosobranch Hydrobia ulvae was the dominant species, showing maximal biomass as well as secondary production, respiration and energy flow in the seagrass-bed. The second peak on the size-frequency histogram was formed by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor with individual weights of 10 to 18 mg AFDW in the N.C.-belt, and by Arenicola marina with individual weights of 100 to 562 mg AFDW in both of the other sand flats. Biomass, productivity, respiration and energy flow of these polychaetes increased from the Nereis-Corophium-belt, to the seagrass-bed, and to the Arenicola-flat. Mussel beds surpassed all other communities in biomass and the functional parameters mentioned above. Size-frequency histograms of these parameters were distinctly unimodal with a maximum at an individual size of 562 to 1000 mg AFDW. This size group was dominated by adult specimens of Mytilus edulis. Averaged over the total area, the size-frequency histogram of energy flow of all intertidal flats of Königshafen showed one peak built by Hydrobia ulvae and a second one, mainly formed by M. edulis. Assuming that up to 10% of the intertidal area is covered by mussel beds, the maximum of the size-specific energy flow will be formed by Mytilus. When only 1% is covered by mussel beds, then the energy flow is dominated by H. ulvae. Both animals represent different trophic types and their dominance in energy flow has consequences for the food web and the carbon flow of the total area. If the energy flow of the macrozoobenthos of Königshafen is dominated by M. edulis, then the primary energy has to be gained from the pelagic primary production and the total ecosystem will be dependent on energy input from the North Sea and deeper parts of the adjacent Wadden Sea. In the case of a dominance of H. ulvae, the energy flow of Königshafen is mainly based on autochthonous primary production.

  13. Tube-building in two epifaunal amphipod species, Corophium insidiosum and Jassa falcata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, I.; Anger, K.; Schöttler, U.

    1995-03-01

    Jassa falcata and Corophium insidiosum are epifaunal tube-building marine amphipods, whose niches overlap in habitat and food requirements. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the influence of the quality of different available particulate substrates on settlement and tube-building behaviour of these two amphipod species. Our experiments suggest that C. insidiosum is less specialized in this respect than J. falcata. C. insidiosum is able to use organic materials for tube-building such as artificial ( Ulva spec. powder) or mixed natural detritus as well as inorganic material (coarse sand); whereas J. falcata utilizes organic materials, but sand only to a very limited extent.

  14. Formação das castas no gênero Melípona (Illiger, 1806)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Warwick E., Kerr.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The present work is destinated to prove that the castes : workers and queens, in Melipona bees are due to genetic factors and not to differences in food. 2) Material used: Hives of Melipona quadri-fasciata anthidioides (Lep. 1836), M. schenki schenki (Gribodo, 1893), M. fasciata rufiventris (Lep. 18 [...] 36), M. quadri-fasciata vicina (Lep. 1836), M. marginata marginata (Lep. 1836), Apis mellifera (L. 1758). 3) It should be pointed out that in Melipona bees there are no royal cells for the queens, but all the cells are of the same size independently of being destinated for workers, queens or drones. The numerous queens which are born are killed soon after emerging from their cells. 4) Changes of feeding in quality and in quantity caused no variation of castes. The only variable factor is the size, which becomes bigger when the bee is well nourished. 5) The offsprings of 5 hives were examined : 3 of M. quadri-fasciata anthidioides (n.o 1, n.o 2 and n.o 3), 1 of M. quadri-fasciata vicina (n.o 4) and 1 of M. marginata marginata (n.o 5). Combs of about 40 cells were taken into laboratory and the type of bee registered immediately after emerging. The results of the counts were: BOX COMB WORKER QUEEN PERCENTAGE ? X2 to 12,5% Nº 1 1th 69 8 10,4% 0, 3139 " 1 2nd 144 18 11,1% 0, 2856 " 2 1th 52 8 13,3% 0, 0384 " 3 1th 45 10 18,2% 1, 6736 " 4 1th 56 4 6,7% 1, 8686 " 4 2nd 29 4 12,1% 0,00432 ? X2 to 25% " 5 1th 34 14 29,2% 0,44444 "5 2nd 83 27 24,5% 0, 0121 In the 4 first boxes there is a percentage of 11,63% queens and in the last there is a percentage of 25,95%. 6) These percentages are very near two genetical ratios: 12,5% or 7:1, and 25% or 3:1, which correspond to a trifactorial and a bifactorial back-cross. Carrying out a X² test no significant deviations were found ( X² to 12,5% and to 25% and table 1 to 4). 7) We suppose that the formula for the queen in the first case (11,65%) is: AaBbCc. Since the Melipona bees are arrhenotokous hymenopteres, the drones are haploid and may have any one of the following eight formulas, corresponding to the gonic segregation of the queem : ABC, ABc, Abc, Abc, AbC, aBC, aBc, abC, abc. Anyone combination of these males with the queen will give a segregation of 7 workers to 1 queen, since there is always only one triple heterozygote among the eight possible segregates (table 5). 8) In order to explain the second case, it is suffient to assume that in this species there are only two pairs of factors, the queen being the double heterozygote : AaBb, while the drones may have any one of the following constitutions: AB, Ab, aB and ab. Workers are again all diploids which are homozygous for one or both factors, for instance: AABB, AABb, AaBB, aaBb, AAbb, etc. (table 6). 9) It is suggested that the genus Melipona is an intermediary type between the solitary bees, where all females are fertile independently of their feeding, and the genera Apis and Trigona, where without special feeding all females are born sterile, while only specially fed females develop into fertile queens. 10) No speculations are put forward with regards to the evolutionary mechanism which may have been responsible for the development of the genetical determination of castes in Melipona, since it seems advisable point to extend the studies to other insects with complicated caste systems.

  15. Mild-temperature thermochemical pretreatment of green macroalgal biomass: Effects on solubilization, methanation, and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of mild-temperature thermochemical pretreatments with HCl or NaOH on the solubilization and biomethanation of Ulva biomass were assessed. Within the explored region (0-0.2M HCl/NaOH, 60-90°C), both methods were effective for solubilization (about 2-fold increase in the proportion of soluble organics), particularly under high-temperature and high-chemical-dose conditions. However, increased solubilization was not translated into enhanced biogas production for both methods. Response surface analysis statistically revealed that HCl or NaOH addition enhances the solubilization degree while adversely affects the methanation. The thermal-only treatment at the upper-limit temperature (90°C) was estimated to maximize the biogas production for both methods, suggesting limited potential of HCl/NaOH treatment for enhanced Ulva biomethanation. Compared to HCl, NaOH had much stronger positive and negative effects on the solubilization and methanation, respectively. Methanosaeta was likely the dominant methanogen group in all trials. Bacterial community structure varied among the trials according primarily to HCl/NaOH addition. PMID:26294339

  16. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11?53.68?N, 6°49?34.64?W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. - Highlights: ? Three main classes of seaweed were collected from the South-East coast of Ireland. ? Metal levels (total, intracellular and surface-bound) in four seaweed species were determined. ? Metal levels of seawater and sediment samples collected from the same location were quantified. ? The Concentration Factors for P. lanosa, A. nodosum, F. vesiculosus and Ulva sp., were calculated. ? Interspecies variations in seaweed metal concentrations were demonstrated. - This study, reports the most comprehensive uptake efficiencies and distributions of metals in four main seaweed sps., with P. lanosa demonstrating excellent bioaccumulation ability.

  17. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6?3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  18. Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornalakshmi V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR, chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be more than the control. Protein content was slightly more than the control at 0.25% fly ash while that of lipid at 0.5 and 2.5% concentrations. In Caulerpa scalpelliformis, fly ash at all the concentrations induced reduced DGR and lipid content but increased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b amount. The amount of protein was more than the control at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% fly ash. In Padina tetrastomatica, at almost all the concentrations of fly ash, the amount of Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and protein exceeded over the control. In the present study, of the four experimental seaweeds, the red seaweed Gracilaria corticata was found to be most tolerant as this exhibited enhanced growth and biochemical content at most of the concentrations of fly ash.

  19. Determination of heavy metals in environmental bio-indicators by voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Garai, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry

    1999-04-01

    The determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in matrices involved in the food chain as algae, species Ulva rigida, and clams, species Tapes philippinarum by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was carried out. For the mercury determination in these matrices, a new accurate and precise method was developed employing a mixture of concentrated acids H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} for digestion and subsequent cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) by reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The analytical procedures were verified for four reference standard materials: Ulva lactuca BCR-CRM 279, Lagarosiphon major BCR-CRM 060, Oyster tissue NBS-SRM 1566, Mussel tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (s{sub r}), and the accuracy, expressed as relative error (e), were in the order of 3 to 5%, while the detection limits were in the range 0.010-0.100 {mu}g/g. The standard addition technique improved the resolution of the voltammetric method even in the case of very high element concentration ratios. The analytical procedure was used for real matrices sampled in the Adriatic Sea south to Po river mouth, in the zone ``Goro bay``, and at open sea north to the Ravenna shore. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 36 refs.

  20. Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

  1. Composición química y algunas actividades biológicas de algas marinas recolectadas en Túnez / Chemical composition and some biological activities of marine algae collected in Tunisia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F, Frikha; M, Kammoun; N, Hammami; RA, Mchirgui; L, Belbahri; Y, Gargouri; N, Miled; F, Ben-Rebah.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la composición química y algunas propiedades biológicas de cuatro especies de algas (Ulva rigida, Codium bursa, Cystoseira barbata y Ceramium diaphanum) que se recolectaron en el Golfo de Gabes (Túnez). Los contenidos de cenizas (11.35-29.08% de peso/peso seco [p/ps]) y azúcares totales [...] (13.20-18.70% p/ps) fueron los más abundantes en estas algas. El contenido de proteínas fue moderado (5.03-14.00% p/ps), y el alga roja C. diaphanum presentó el valor más alto. El contenido de lípidos estuvo dentro del intervalo determinado para algas marinas ( Abstract in english The chemical composition and some biological properties of four algae (Ulva rigida, Codium bursa, Cystoseira barbata, and Ceramium diaphanum) collected from the Gabes Gulf area (Tunisia) were examined. Ash (11.35-29.08% weight/dry weight [w/dw]) and total sugar (13.20-18.70% w/dw) were the most abun [...] dant contents in these algae. Protein contents were moderate (5.03-14.00% w/dw), with the red alga (C diaphanum) having the highest value. Lipid contents were within the range mentioned for seaweeds (

  2. Screening of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Freshwater and Marine Algae as a Prominent Natural Antibiotic Available in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, algae have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. So, present work provides the eligibility of algae commonly found in Bangladesh as a prominent natural antibiotic against various pathogens. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol and chloroform of ten fresh water and marine algae showed antimicrobial activity carried out by disc diffusion method against two gram positive, four gram negative bacteria and one fungus. Marine algal species performed better than fresh water algal species. Green algae are more potent than red and brown algae. Ethanolic extracts are more effective than methanolic and chloroform extracts. Ulva lactuca and Chlorella sp. revealed the best activity among other algal species in all solvent forms. Spirogyra crassa showed very poor antibacterial activity where its antifungal activity was moderate. Escherichia coli was more resistant bacteria in a comparison to others because it showed totally resistant against some algae. Highest zone of inhibition (26 mm was recorded for chloroform extract of Ulva lactuca against E. coli where chloroform extract of Dictyopteris membranacea didn’t show any microbial activity. At the end, it was clear that almost all extracts of all algal species revealed antimicrobial activity against all pathogens. These results give an indication of the presence of promising antimicrobial compounds in the algal species under studied. Further phytochemical studies are needed to elucidate these compounds structures and activity for use algae as an alternative natural antibiotic against synthetic conventional antibiotics.

  3. Primer registro de Caprella scaura y Caprella penantis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) en la laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, México / First record of Caprella scaura and Caprella penantis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) in the Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabino A., Rodríguez-Almaraz; Víctor M., Ortega-Vidales.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez los anfípodos caprélidos Caprella scaura y C. penantis en la laguna Madre de Tamaulipas. Ambas especies son cosmopolitas y con numerosos registros exóticos alrededor del mundo. El registro de C. scaura es también el primero en el suroeste del golfo de México. Este caprél [...] ido se recolectó entre mantos del alga verde Ulva lactuca adheridos en rocas de arenisca en la boca de Catán de esta laguna. Mientras que los especímenes de C. penantis se recolectaron entre el pasto marino Halodule wrightii. Abstract in english The caprellid amphipods Caprella scaura and C. penantis are recorded for first time in the Laguna Madre from Tamaulipas. Both species are cosmopolitan and with exotic numerous records worldwide. The finding of C. scaura is also the first record for the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. This caprellid was [...] collected among green-algae Ulva lactuca that colonized tidal inlets at Laguna Madre. While that specimens of C. penantis were collected between seagrass Halodule wrightii.

  4. Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Coastal seagrasses are declining at increasing rates worldwide, forcing herbivores previously reliant on these habitats to abandon them in search of alternative ways to fulfil their daily energy budgets. After two decades of declining seagrass abundance in Mariager Fjord, Denmark, the Svalbard breeding population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota has experienced substantial changes in habitat use at this traditional autumn staging area. Declines in seagrasses have caused birds to depend increasingly on Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca in recent years, and forced birds into terrestrial habitats such as saltmarsh and winter wheat. In contrast to those birds exploiting aquatic habitats, birds relying on these new habitats showed higher energy expenditure and failed to balance their energy budget. Eelgrass (Zostera) was energetically superior to other food resources, with marine Ulva being second best. Predicted body mass development under two different scenarios indicate that present habitat use resulted in a midwinter body mass around 122 g lower than just 20 years ago, equivalent to c. 9.4% of Brent Goose body weight. Even after controlling for inter-annual differences in thermoregulatory costs, the effect of changes in habitat use translated into a body mass reduction of c. 56 g, which could adversely affect survival and future reproduction. Flyway-wide declines in Zostera abundance and further reductions in traditional habitats due to climate change give cause to reassess projected population trends and consequent management implications for the East Atlantic flyway population of Light-bellied Brent Geese.

  5. Experimental and mathematical modelling of the consumer influence on the productivity of algae in a model aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.; Galayda, Y. V.; Shirobokova, I. M.

    Based upon the experimental and theoretical results the possibility of increasing the microalgal productivity in the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle (Chlorella vulgaris - Paramecium caudatum) has been considered. The experiment was held on the device with spatially divided links, which consists of a fermenter for Chlorella cultivation (the "producer" link) and a fermenter for Paramecia growing (the "consumer" link). The direct relation between the reproduction of Paramecia at consuming Chlorella and emission of nitrogen in ammonium form, which is the most preferable for growing Chlorella, has been revealed. In the result of theoretical study of the model of the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle with spatially divided links the contribution of Paramecia to the nitrogen cycle has been proved. It was shown that simultaneously with the increase of concentration of nitrogen evolved in the process of Paramecia metabolism, the biomass of Chlorella increases as well. The possibility of increasing the productivity of agal growth in the presence of a predator in a different way (due to decrease of limitation on light) has been considered. A laboratory growth experiment revealed a positive effect of Gammarus presence on Ulva spp. growth, probably caused by removal of epiphytic diatoms from the Ulva spp. thalli.

  6. Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Fluorine-Free Amphiphilic Non-Ionic Side Chains for Antifouling and Fouling-Release Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; H Sundaram; C Weinman; M Paik; M Dimitriou; J Finlay; M Callow; J Callow; E Kramer; C Ober

    2011-12-31

    Fluorine-free, amphiphilic, nonionic surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were synthesized through chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene triblock copolymer precursor with selected amphiphilic nonionic Brij and other surfactants. Amphiphilicity was imparted by a hydrophobic aliphatic group combined with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group-containing moiety. The surfaces were characterized by dynamic water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. In biofouling assays, settlement (attachment) of both spores of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula on SABCs modified with Brij nonionic side chains was significantly reduced relative to a PDMS standard, with a nonionic surfactant combining a PEG group and an aliphatic moiety demonstrating the best performance. Additionally, a fouling-release assay using sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula suggested that the SABC derived from nonionic Brij side chains also out-performed PDMS as a fouling-release material. Good antifouling and fouling-release properties were not demonstrated for the other two amphiphilic surfaces derived from silicone and aromatic group containing nonionic surfactants included in this study. The results suggest that small differences in chemical surface functionality impart more significant changes with respect to the antifouling settlement and fouling-release performance of materials than overall wettability behavior.

  7. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation of ethnoveterinary medicines against strongyle nematodes of equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E

    2015-05-30

    Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg/ml, respectively. All four UK extracts, A. sativum, C. album, Z. officinale and A. absinthium, showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.3), 2.3 (CI 1.9-2.7) and 0.3 (CI 0.2-0.4)mg/ml, respectively. Extract of A. absinthium had a relatively low efficacy and the data did not accurately fit a PROBIT model for the dose response relationship, thus an EC-50 value was not calculated. Differences in efficacy for each extract were noted, dependent on the assay and solvent used, highlighting the need for a systematic approach to the evaluation of bioactive plant compounds. This study has identified bioactive plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia which have potential as anthelmintic forages or feed supplements in equids. PMID:25868847

  8. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais / Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme, Prado; Mabel Caldeira de, Andrade; Marize Silva de, Oliveira; Alexandre Soares, Leal; Bibiane Rezende de, Oliveira; Luis Roberto, Batista.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama ( [...] 60Co) na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L.), Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina), Camomila (Matricaria recutita L.), Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli) e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile). A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25%) produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40%) produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6) UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5) UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g. Abstract in english The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the ef [...] fect of gamma irradiation (60Co) on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), boldo (Peumusboldus Molina), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli), and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile). The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25%) beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40%) being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6) CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5) CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

  9. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25% beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40% being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6 CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5 CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

  10. Ehl-i Sünnet Aç?s?ndan Bilgi ve De?eriKnowledge and its Value in Terms of the Ahl As-Sunnah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ismail yüceda?

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelâm ilmînin amac?, dinî inançlar? kesin deliller kullanarak ispat etmektir. Bu nedenle kelâmc?lar Kur’an’? ve iki k?sma ay?rd?klar? Sünnet’in ilk k?sm?nda yer alan mütevâtir haberleri esas alm??lard?r. Kelâm ilminde üç bilgi edinme yolu oldu?u kabul edilmi?tir. Bunlar, be? duyu, ak?l ve haber-i sâd?k’t?r. Bilgi edinme yollar?ndan ilk ikisini olu?turan be? duyu ve ak?l ile elde edilen bilgiler ile Sünnet’in ilk k?sm?nda yer alan mütevâtir haberin de?eri konusunda ?slâm âlimleri aras?nda bir ihtilâf söz konusu de?ildir. Hicretin II. asr?ndan itibaren, sünnetin ikinci k?sm?n? olu?turan haber-i vahid’in de?eri ve itikâdî konularda delil te?kil edip etmeyece?i konusunda âlimler tarihsel süreç içinde birbirinden farkl? görü?ler ortaya koymu?lard?r. Böylelikle problem günümüze kadar devam etmi?tir. Konu hakk?nda fikir yürüten âlimler, Kelâmc?lar ve Selefiyye olmak üzere iki ana gruba ayr?lm??lard?r. Bu çal??man?n amac?, haber-i vâhid hakk?ndaki fikir ayr?l?klar?n?n nedenlerini, kelâmc?lar taraf?ndan bilgi edinme yollar?ndan biri olarak kabul edilen haber-i sâd?k? dikkate alarak ara?t?rmakt?r. Abstract The purpose of the Kalam science is to prove the religious beliefs by using definitive evidences. For this reason, the Kalam scholars are inclined to Koran and the mutawatir reports which are included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah divided into two parts. In the Kalam science, it has been accepted that there are three ways of attaining knowledge. These are the five senses, intelligence, and precise reports. It is not the case that Islamic scholars have a disagreement on not only knowledges obtained through the five senses and intelligence but the value of mutawatir reports included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah. As of the second century of Hegira, the scholars have put forward different opinions about whether the value of imprecise reports will constitute an evidence in matters of faith in the historical process or not. Thus, the problem has continued to the present day. The scholars who speculate about the issue have been divided into two main groups as Kalam scholars and Salafism. The purpose of this study is to research the reasons for the disagreements on imprecise reports by taking precise reports into account, which has been accepted by Kalam scholars as one of the ways of attaining knowledge.

  11. COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF TERMS OF TURKISH ARMY ORGANIZATION IN MUHÂKEMETÜ’L-LÜGATEYN MUHÂKEMETÜ’L-LÜGATEYN’DEK? TÜRK ORDU TE?K?LATINA A?T TER?MLER?N KAR?ILA?TIRMALI ?NCELEMES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay BERBER

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In his work called Muhâkemetü’l-Lügateyn prepared with the goal of proving the superiority of Turkish to Farsi, Ali ?îr Nevâyî has conveyed the language particularities of Turkish via showing evidences. Viewed from this angle, it’s a kind of grammer book, and another important aspect, contained valuable informations about Turkish culture. Because Nevâyî uses a lot of terms blended within the social, cultural, economic and political life of Turks while listing the evidences serving his purpose to edit this work. In our study, starting with these terms employed annotatively by Ali ?îr Nevâyî, eighteen concepts included within Turkish army organization and equivalents of these concepts in the antecedent and subsequent periods shall be included Ali ?îr Nevâyî, Türkçenin Farsçaya üstünlü?ünü ispatlamak gayesiyle haz?rlad??? Muhâkemetü’l-Lügateyn adl? eserinde, Türkçeye ait dil hususiyetlerini deliller göstererek aktarm??t?r. Bu aç?dan bir çe?it dil bilgisi kitab? olarak önem arz eden eserin, bir ba?ka önemli yan?, Türk kültürü hakk?nda de?erli bilgileri içermesidir. Çünkü Nevâyî, eseri haz?rlama amac?na hizmet eden delilleri s?ralarken, Türklerin sosyal, kültürel, ekonomik ve siyasal ya?ant?s? içerisinde harmanlanm?? pek çok terimi kullanm??t?r. Çal??mam?zda Ali ?îr Nevâyî’nin aç?klamal? olarak kulland??? bu terimlerden yola ç?karak, Türk ordu te?kilat? içerisinde yer alan on sekiz kavrama ve bu kavramlar?n daha önceki ve sonraki dönemlerdeki kar??l?klar?na yer verilecektir.

  12. Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

  13. Modelling the effects of macrofauna on sediment transport and bed elevation: Application over a cross-shore mudflat profile and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvain, Francis; Le Hir, Pierre; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Lefebvre, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The effects of 2 functional groups of bioturbators have been predicted in terms of long-term impact on erodability: (1) one superficial mobile deposit-feeder, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae; and (2) one endobenthic deposit-feeder, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Different scenarios of morphodynamical cross-shore 1DH/1DV model were performed to simulate the equilibrium profile of an intertidal mudflat under tide and wave forcings. This process-based model for erosion is able to simulate multiphasic sequential resuspension, by discriminating various erosion behaviour like benthos-generated fluff-layer erosion (BGFL) and general bed loosening and burrowing activity in deep layers. The results were analysed and compared to examine the long-term effect of macrofauna after 14 years. It reveals that the impact of the bivalve S. plana is very significant after only 4 years of simulation while the effect of the gastropod H. ulvae is negligible in terms of sediment transport even after 14 years. More generally, this reveals the strong impact of stationary endobenthic bioturbators that induces a high downward shift of the upper shore while the effects of superficial motile bioturbators remain very low. This impact is mainly due to the effect of endobenthic species in deep layers associated to burrowing activities and their consequences on the bed erosion, but the production of a fluff layer by surface grazer like H. ulvae at the sediment surface can be neglected. The importance of macrofauna mediation of bed erodability is discussed in this study by comparing the activities of the two functional groups of bioturbation on the general functioning of intertidal mudflats. The model outcomes (transferred in a 1DV framework) were in close agreement with the measured results of flume data at 3 different bathymetric levels of the mudflat over the cross-shore profile. This validation step revealed that model of sediment transport under influence of biota effects does not need further refinements at the upper shore where S. plana dominates the species assemblage, whereas there is still a need to include further formulations of biota effects to simulate the erosion experimental results at the lower shores where other molluscs and Annelids significantly contribute to the species assemblage.

  14. Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

    2015-03-01

    The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092 µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022 µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016 µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent eradications using aerial bait application, the risk of mortality to exposed individual fish or shellfish appears very low. There is also a very low risk of adverse effects on humans that consume fish or shellfish containing residual concentrations in the ranges reported here. Furthermore, any brodifacoum residues that occur in marine wildlife decline to below detectable concentrations over a period of weeks. Thus potential human exposure to brodifacoum through consumption of marine wildlife containing residual brodifacoum could be minimized by defining 'no take' periods for harvest following bait application and regular monitoring to confirm the absence of detectable residues in relevant marine wildlife. PMID:25437099

  15. Gamma-ray induced mutations in Pisum arvense (L.s.s.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the studies was the progeny of seven lines of field pea, treated with gamma rays (at the doses of 1, 6, 12, 15, 50 kR) in the generations M2- M4. Of the total number of analysed 15630 plants 249 mutants have been isolated which constituted 1.59% of the total population. The mutation frequency was significantly different depending on the line under study and on the radiation dose. In the mutation spectrum lethal and semilethal mutations were prevalent. The cause of these phenomena were either chlorophyll aberrations or disturbances in the development, growth and morphology of plants. These mutations died in different periods of vegetation or did not come to flowering and died. A number of morphologic-developmental mutations have been isolated; their genotypes have been established, cytologically examined and characterized. Some of the isolated fertile mutations are similar to those obtained at other research centres (e.g., cirrhifolialis, viciaefolialis, fasciata), others seem to be original (eg. pumilio, celeriter crescens, gynaecei, multiplicis). It is necessary, however, to perform identification tests to introduce these mutations into the Pisum Genebank, the more so, as most of papers on mutations concerned edible and garden peas (P. sativum L.), and in our work we considered field forms (P. arvense L.s.s.). (author)

  16. Metal speciation in sediment and their bioaccumulation in fish species of three urban rivers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Six trace metals (chromium [Cr], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd] and lead [Pb]) were measured in sediments and soft tissues of three commonly consumed fish species (Channa punctatus, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Trichogaster fasciata) collected from three urban rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The abundance of total metals in sediments varied in the decreasing order of Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu > As > Cd. Sequential extraction tests showed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction followed by the organically bound phase. The range of metal concentration in fish species were as follows: Cr (0.75-4.8), Ni (0.14-3.1), Cu (1.1-7.2), As (0.091-0.53), Cd (0.008-0.13), and Pb (0.052-2.7 mg/kg wet weight [ww]). The rank of biota-sediment accumulation factor for fish species were in the descending order of Cu > As > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd. Metal concentrations in fish exceeded the international permissible standards suggesting that these species are not safe for human consumption. PMID:25213477

  17. Updating Known Distribution Models for Forecasting Climate Change Impact on Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    To plan endangered species conservation and to design adequate management programmes, it is necessary to predict their distributional response to climate change, especially under the current situation of rapid change. However, these predictions are customarily done by relating de novo the distribution of the species with climatic conditions with no regard of previously available knowledge about the factors affecting the species distribution. We propose to take advantage of known species distribution models, but proceeding to update them with the variables yielded by climatic models before projecting them to the future. To exemplify our proposal, the availability of suitable habitat across Spain for the endangered Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) was modelled by updating a pre-existing model based on current climate and topography to a combination of different general circulation models and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our results suggested that the main threat for this endangered species would not be climate change, since all forecasting models show that its distribution will be maintained and increased in mainland Spain for all the XXI century. We remark on the importance of linking conservation biology with distribution modelling by updating existing models, frequently available for endangered species, considering all the known factors conditioning the species' distribution, instead of building new models that are based on climate change variables only. PMID:23840330

  18. Temporal trending of lead and cadmium contamination in the Vigo estuary intertidal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez López

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, limpet (Patella vulgata L. and seaweed (Ulva lactuca specimens have been monthly sampled at the same point from the Vigo estuary, during a year. Heavy metal (cadmium and lead content has been determined by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry in both limpet and seaweed tissues, as well as in seawater. The obtained results have shown the main heavy metal content in limpet soft tissues with respect to shell, with maximum concentrations of 3 ppm (limpet shell for lead, whereas the highest content for cadmium was identified in seaweed samples (1.1 ppm. The statistical study revealed the existence of a clear correlation between cadmium and lead concentrations in seaweed samples.

  19. SCREENING OF PHYCOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS QUALITATIVELY AND QUANTITATIVELY CERTAIN SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaikkannu Thinakaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The six seaweeds namely Ulva lactuca (L, Caulerpa racemosa C. Agardh, Sargassum wightii Greville, Padina tetrastomatica Hauck, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica J. Ag., and Acanthophora spicifera (vahl. Boergesen, collected from the Gulf of Mannar were screened for the presence of Phycochemical constituents like primary and secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present investigation revealed that saponin and polyphenol were absent in the acetone extract of seaweeds and other extracts posses all the phycoconstituents. Maximum percentage of protein (210.31±6.3 mg/g, carbohydrate (317.11±9.51mg/g and phenol (3.02±0.09mg/g were recorded in Sargassum wightii whereas lipid (81.95±2.45mg/g, anthocyanin (0.202±0.006mg/g in Padina tetrastomatica and tannin (35.87±1.07 mg/g in Acanthophora spicifera. Phycochemical analysis of these seaweeds revealed the presence of potential pharmaceutical activity.

  20. Patrones de distribución de macroalgas y macroinvertebrados intermareales de la isla Robinson Crusoe, archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile / Distributional patterns of the intertidal macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from Robinson Crusoe island, Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Eliana, Ramírez; Cecilia, Osorio.

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe cualitativa y cuantitativamente los patrones de distribución de los organismos sésiles del intermareal rocoso de la isla Robinson Crusoe. Los datos cualitativos corresponden a observaciones realizadas en el terreno durante tres exploraciones a la isla. Los datos cuantita [...] tivos fueron obtenidos en base a la medición de la cobertura de organismos a lo largo de un transecto vertical de 11,6 m, extendido sobre toda la zona intermareal en la localidad de playa El Palillo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten señalar el siguiente patrón de distribución para estas comunidades de sustratos duros. En el intermareal alto (2 a 3 m), la única especie presente es Nodilittorina fernandezensis, con coberturas de 14 a 17%. En el intermareal medio (1 a 2 m) las especies dominantes son Chaetomorpha firma (62%), Ulva rigida (36%) y Gelidium pseudointricatum (16%). Entre los invertebrados presentes en este nivel destacan Jehlius cirratus (10%) y Heliaster canopus, presente sólo a 1 m de altura intermareal con un 21% de la cobertura. En el intermareal bajo dominan nuevamente las algas. Entre 0,51 y 1m son dominantes en cobertura Corallina officinalis (27%), Chondracanthus intermedius (20%) y G. pseudointricatum (12 a 13%). En los niveles mareales inferiores a 0,51 m las especies dominantes son Ulva rigida (23%) y Sphacelaria cirrosa (20%). Los patrones de distribución ecológica de estas comunidades son diferentes de aquéllos descritos para comunidades cercanas del continente. Factores físicos como la pronunciada pendiente de los roqueríos y biogeográficos, propios de este archipiélago serían determinantes en la composición de especies y en la estructura de estas comunidades Abstract in english The present work describe in qualitative and quantitative terms the distributional patterns of the marine organisms from a rocky shores in the "El Palillo" beach at Robinson Crusoe Islands Archipelago Juan Fernandez, in base to a new exploration in the field and also in base to a coberture percentag [...] e of the organisms over a transect of 11.6 m. The following distributional patterns was observed. In the upper intertidal zone the small mollusk Nodilittorina fernandezensis is present with a coberture of 14 and 17%. In the middle intertidal zone (1 to 2 m) the dominants species are Chaaetomorpha firma (62%), Ulva rigida (36%) and Gelidium pseudointricatum (16%). Between the invertebrates at this tidal level we found Jehlius cirratus (10%) and Heliaster canopus ( 21%) only at 1 m. In the low intertidal the algae Corallina officinalis (27%), Chondracanthus intermedius (20%) and G. pseudointricatum (12 to 13%) are the dominants species. Below this level the species Ulva rigida (23%) and Sphacelaria cirrosa (20%) are the dominants. These patterns are different to those described for others near communities of the continent. Physical and biogeographicals factors can be determinants in the species composition and the structure of these communities

  1. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60CoCl2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60CoCl2. This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  2. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-? concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-? concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-? concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of steel during putrefaction of seawater: Evidence for a new mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eashwar, M. (Offshore Platform and Marine Electrochemistry Center, Tuticorin (India)); Chandrasekaran, P.; Subramanian, G. (Corrosion Research Center, Mandapam Camp (India)); Balakrishnan, K. (Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karikudi (India))

    1993-02-01

    The influence of putrid seawater on the performance of mild steel has been investigated in laboratory tests with decomposing Ulva lactuca. During a 30-day period, the corrosion of steel was considerably enhanced by increased rates of putrefaction. However, accelerated rates of corrosion in the presence of large amounts of decomposing organisms were limited to the initial stages prior to oxygen depletion and rapid sulfide production. Evidence for microbiological oxidation of sulfur in algal proteins is presented, and this process appears to have a significant effect on pH. Acidification of seawater by thiobacilli and the coexistence of oxygen and sulfide are two important phenomena involved in corrosion enhancement contrary to the prevalent thought emphasizing anaerobic corrosion. Implications of the present findings to natural systems are considered.

  4. EVALUATION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE AND ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORY PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy SenthilKumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of four seaweeds collected from Gulf of Mannar coastal waters were tested for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. The aqueous extracts of seaweeds in the order of Gracilaria edulis, Sargassum polycystum, Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria corticata showed significant inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. G. edulis was found to be a potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 46?g/mL. The aqueous extract of S. polycystum at a concentration of 10-100 µg/ml showed maximum ?-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 60?g/mL. This study warrants further investigation on the antidiabetic activity and identifies the hyperglycemic principle to elucidate their mode of action.

  5. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

  6. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees. PMID:10697743

  7. Seasonal variations of vegetation patterns and biomass constituents in the rocky eulittoral of Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munda, I. M.; Markham, J. W.

    1982-06-01

    Seasonal changes in vegetation patterns and biomass of benthic algae were recorded over a 14-month period in the rocky eulittoral of the North Sea island of Helgoland. The area is characterized by the dominance of Fucus serratus throughout most of the eulittoral and this is reflected in higher biomass of F. serratus ranged seasonally from 4.3 kg to 15 kg m-2 in the center of its extensive distribution. Biomass was also recorded monthly, when the plants were present, for Blidingia spp., Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca, Fucus spiralis, F. vesiculosus, Porphyra linearis, P. umbilicalis, Chondrus crispus, Corallina officinalis, Dumontia incrassata, Petalonia fascia, P. zosterifolia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. New generations of several species which reappeared after a destructive winter storm showed a higher protein content than in the previous year. The winter and early spring flora of Helgoland shows several resemblances in species composition to the summer flora of Scandinavia.

  8. Comparison of the antioxidative components of some marine macroalgae from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing demand for natural antioxidant molecules to replace the synthetic additives currently used in the food industry. Therefore, in this study, the total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacities (lipid-soluble and water-soluble), total protein contents, vitamin E contents and vitamin C contents of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) M. Steentoft, L.M. Irvine et W.F. Farnham and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse were determined. According to our data, among the algae studied, the highest levels of bioactive components were found in U. rigida, followed by C. tomentosum, G. gracilis and S. coronopifolius. In particular, U. rigida and C. tomentosum showed the highest values for all of the parameters studied. Therefore, U. rigida and C. tomentosum could be considered as species possessing significant natural antioxidant molecules which might be useful for the food industry. (author)

  9. Analysis of holographic microscopy data to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional settlement dynamics of algal zoospores in the vicinity of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, M; Divós, P; Grunze, M; Rosenhahn, A

    2009-10-01

    In this article we describe the technical aspects of digital in-line holographic microscopy to track multiple macrofouling Ulva linza zoospores simultaneously during their exploration of surfaces. Using an effective method of artefact suppression at the edges of holograms in combination with projection of volume reconstructions, a fast algorithm was developed which allows a reliable determination of a large number of subsequent spore positions. Thus, statistical analysis of swimming behaviour in the vicinity of surfaces becomes possible. Using glass surfaces as example, velocity and diving direction distributions are calculated and the swimming behaviour is statistically analysed. Diving direction analysis provides a straightforward way to determine segments within traces with surface contact. The presented method of data analysis allows high throughput analysis of holographic microscopy data and sets the basis for different applications including biofouling. PMID:19517151

  10. Aspectos da alimentação de Tanystylum isabellae marcus e Anoplodactylus stictus marcus (Pantopoda) / Feeding aspects of Tanystylum isabellae and Anoplodactylus stictus (Pantopoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franci Mary Fantinato, Varoli.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This work deals with feeding tests performed in laboratory with Pantopoda species, Tanystylum isabellae Marcus, 1940 and Anoplodactylus stictus Marcus, 1940. Animals (alive and dead) and vegetable foods were offered to males without eggs, males with eggs, females and juveniles Pantopoda. Of the 13 t [...] ypes of food offered to the animals only Sertularia Linnaeus, 1758 (Hydrozoa). Amathia distans Busk, 1886 (Bryozoa), Hyale media (Dana, 1853) (Crustacea, Gammaridea), Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1868 (Crustacea-Caprellidae), Artemia salina Leach, 1812 (Crustacea, Anostraca) e Perna perna (Linné, 1758) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) were actually eaten. The macroalgae Sargassum C. Agardh, 1820; Padina Adanson, 1763; Chaetomorpha Kützing, 1845 and Ulva Linnaeus. 1753, the Hydrozoa Dynamena (Linnaeus, 1758), Polychaeta aixl anemon fragments weren't accepted.

  11. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase) in marine macroalgae from southern Spain / Efectos de la radiación solar UV sobre la fotosíntesis y actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa) en macralgas marinas del sur de España

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FÉLIX L., FIGUEROA; BENJAMÍN, VIÑEGLA.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el efecto de la radiación solar ultravioleta (UV) durante el ciclo diario de luz sobre la actividad fotosintética y la de dos enzimas claves en la incorporación de carbono, la anhidrasa carbónica, y en la reducción de nitrógeno inorgánico, la nitrato reductasa, en macroal [...] gas del sur de España. Durante el ciclo diario de luz, la fotoinhibición, expresada como porcentaje de disminución del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde la mañana al mediodía, estuvo linear y negativamente correlacionada con la irradiancia integrada diaria. Sin embargo, la recuperación, expresada como porcentaje de incremento del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde el mediodía hasta el atardecer siguió un patrón diferente. Se observó recuperación completa a irradiancias integradas diarias menores a 1.0 x 10(4) kJ m-2. Sin embargo, a irradiancias diarias mayores, la recuperación fue sólo del 50 %. La existencia de fotoinhibición y de una recuperación diaria completa en macroalgas hace pensar que la fotoinhibición está funcionado como un mecanismo de fotoprotección contra radiaciones solares altas como ocurre en plantas terrestres. Además, los patrones de fotoinhición y recuperación tienen relación con la dosis acumulada diaria. Las actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa) fueron determinadas en tres macroalgas marinas (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida y Fucus spiralis) bajo radiación solar completa (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) y excluyendo la radiación UV (PAR). Bajo PAR + UV-A + UV-B se observó un máximo en la actividad de ambas enzimas en P. cartilagineum por la tarde, lo que concuerda con datos publicados en otras algas rojas. La situación fue modificada en ausencia de UV ya que el incremento de ambas actividades fue retrasado en el tiempo (varias horas). En las tres macroalgas bajo radiación solar completa se encontró una correlación significativa y negativa sólo cuando los datos de la actividad nitrato reductasa fueron desplazados al menos 4 horas respecto a los de la anhidrasa carbónica. Esta correlación se pierde en Ulva rigida cunado se excluye la radiación UV. La existencia de variaciones diarias y la correlación negativa entre la actividad de ambas enzimas podría reflejar una compleja regulación conjunta entre el metabolismo del carbono y del nitrógeno bajo radiación solar. Debido a que esta correlación se pierde en ausencia de UV en Ulva o los máximos se retrasan en Plocamium, se sugiere que la radiación UV podría ser una señal medioambiental implicada en el control de los ciclos enzimáticos. Se sugiere la existencia de procesos de retroalimentación que controlan el metabolismo del nitrógeno en función del contenido de carbono Abstract in english The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation during daily cycles on photosynthesis and two key enzymes involved in carbon incorporation, the carbonic anhydrase, and in inorganic nitrogen reduction, the nitrate reductase, of macroalgae from southern Spain are presented. During daily cycles, photoi [...] nhibition in several intertidal macroalgae, expressed as decrease in the effective quantum yield from the morning to noon time, was linearly dependent on the daily integrated irradiance. However, recovery, expressed as the increase in the effective quantum yield from noon to the afternoon, presented a different pattern; full recovery was found below daily integrated irradiance of 1.0 x10(4) kJ m-2. However, recovery reached only 50 % at higher irradiances. The existence of daily photoinhibition and full recovery in intertidal algae suggests that photoinhibition is a photoprotective mechanism against high solar radiation as in higher plants, and that patterns of photoinhibition and recovery are affected by accumulative doses. Activities of carbonic anhidrase and nitrate reductase were determined in three marine macroalgae (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida and Fucus spiralis) under full (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and excluded UV solar radiation (PAR). Under PAR + UV-A + UV

  12. Mineral Content of Some Seaweeds from Sabah`s South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduku Krishnaiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%. The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5% was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%. The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>Caulerpa> Sargassum> Eucheuma and its range was found to be 6.6-10.94 mg/100 g dry weight. The major seasonal deviation was found to be 9.25% Mg, 6.44% Ca and 5.3% Fe. This study was conducted to create a nutritional data for consumption and utilization in the industry.

  13. Cadmium interaction with microalgal cells, cyanobacterial cells, and seaweeds; toxicology and biotechnological potential for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto; de França, Francisca Pessôa

    2003-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) by Tetraselmis chuii and Spirulina maxima was studied with dead and growing cells. Results indicated that the 2 microorganisms accumulated Cd by 2 different means according to the mechanisms involved-metabolism-dependent or metabolism-independent sorption. The mechanism involved in Cd accumulation on Tetraselmis chuii was restricted to surface phenomena, while in Spirulina maxima, Cd was accumulated on different layers of the cyanobacterium surface. In order to select a suitable immobilization support for the cells, several seaweeds were tested. Two types of seaweed were selected for experiments, using a small continuous pilot unit: Sargassum sp., a strong Cd adsorber, and Ulva sp., a poor one. The column reactors of the continuous system were filled with the algal supports and covered with dense microbial biofilms of Tetraselmis chuii or Spirulina maxima. The results obtained proved the success of the association between living microbial cells and dead seaweeds for operation of the continuous system. PMID:12876650

  14. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast / Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SOLANGE J, GONZÁLEZ; CRISTIAN W, CÁCERES; F. PATRICIO, OJEDA.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El erizo Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) es un recurso de gran importancia económica en los sistemas bentónicos costeros, y que se encuentra bajo una fuerte presión de explotación. Sin embargo, los antecedentes sobre diversos aspectos básicos de su biología trófica son aún escasos. Estudios de esta [...] naturaleza son importantes en razón a que constituyen la base para el desarrollo de técnicas de cultivo exitosas, alternativa a la explotación de poblaciones naturales. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: determinar cuantitativamente la composición dietaria de L. albus, el grado de selectividad trófica, y las tasas de asimilación de los componentes de su dieta. Especímenes adultos y juveniles fueron muestreados en la primavera de 1993 y el verano, otoño e invierno de 1994 en la zona submareal de Iquique, norte de Chile. No se detectaron diferencias en la composición de la dieta de adultos y juveniles entre las estaciones muestreadas. El principal ítem alimentario de los juveniles y adultos fueron el alga verde Ulva sp. y el alga parda Lessonia sp., respectivamente. En experimentos de selección trófica se observó que los juveniles y adultos prefieren el ítem que es más abundante en su dieta natural. Estos resultados muestran un cambio ontogenético en la dieta de esta especie, sugiriéndose una estrategia de forrajeo diferencial entre juveniles y adultos. Abstract in english The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the [...] successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine the assimilation efficieney of the most important dietary components, and to experimentally examine the species' trophic selectivity. Adult and juvenile specimens were sampled in spring 1993 and summer, fall and winter 1994 from the shallow subtidal zone of Iquique, northern Chile. Neither juveniles ñor adults showed significant seasonal differences in dietary composition. The main Ítems in the diet were the green alga Ulva sp. for juveniles and the kelp Lessonia sp. for adults. In adults, assimilation efficieney (as percentage of the total organic matter ingested) was not significantly different among individuals that consumed Lessonia sp. (48.7 %), Ulva sp. (44.6 %) and Macrocystis (38.1 %), whereas in juveniles assimilation efficieney was significantly higher for individuals fed on the chlorophyte Ulva sp. (55.4 %), followed by Lessonia sp. (35.0 %) and Macrocystis (25.5 %). These results suggest that L. albus undergoes an ontogenetic shift in the diet, consisting of a differential foraging strategy between juveniles and adults.

  15. Patrones de distribución de macroalgas y macroinvertebrados intermareales de la isla Robinson Crusoe, archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Distributional patterns of the intertidal macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from Robinson Crusoe island, Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eliana Ramírez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe cualitativa y cuantitativamente los patrones de distribución de los organismos sésiles del intermareal rocoso de la isla Robinson Crusoe. Los datos cualitativos corresponden a observaciones realizadas en el terreno durante tres exploraciones a la isla. Los datos cuantitativos fueron obtenidos en base a la medición de la cobertura de organismos a lo largo de un transecto vertical de 11,6 m, extendido sobre toda la zona intermareal en la localidad de playa El Palillo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten señalar el siguiente patrón de distribución para estas comunidades de sustratos duros. En el intermareal alto (2 a 3 m, la única especie presente es Nodilittorina fernandezensis, con coberturas de 14 a 17%. En el intermareal medio (1 a 2 m las especies dominantes son Chaetomorpha firma (62%, Ulva rigida (36% y Gelidium pseudointricatum (16%. Entre los invertebrados presentes en este nivel destacan Jehlius cirratus (10% y Heliaster canopus, presente sólo a 1 m de altura intermareal con un 21% de la cobertura. En el intermareal bajo dominan nuevamente las algas. Entre 0,51 y 1m son dominantes en cobertura Corallina officinalis (27%, Chondracanthus intermedius (20% y G. pseudointricatum (12 a 13%. En los niveles mareales inferiores a 0,51 m las especies dominantes son Ulva rigida (23% y Sphacelaria cirrosa (20%. Los patrones de distribución ecológica de estas comunidades son diferentes de aquéllos descritos para comunidades cercanas del continente. Factores físicos como la pronunciada pendiente de los roqueríos y biogeográficos, propios de este archipiélago serían determinantes en la composición de especies y en la estructura de estas comunidadesThe present work describe in qualitative and quantitative terms the distributional patterns of the marine organisms from a rocky shores in the "El Palillo" beach at Robinson Crusoe Islands Archipelago Juan Fernandez, in base to a new exploration in the field and also in base to a coberture percentage of the organisms over a transect of 11.6 m. The following distributional patterns was observed. In the upper intertidal zone the small mollusk Nodilittorina fernandezensis is present with a coberture of 14 and 17%. In the middle intertidal zone (1 to 2 m the dominants species are Chaaetomorpha firma (62%, Ulva rigida (36% and Gelidium pseudointricatum (16%. Between the invertebrates at this tidal level we found Jehlius cirratus (10% and Heliaster canopus ( 21% only at 1 m. In the low intertidal the algae Corallina officinalis (27%, Chondracanthus intermedius (20% and G. pseudointricatum (12 to 13% are the dominants species. Below this level the species Ulva rigida (23% and Sphacelaria cirrosa (20% are the dominants. These patterns are different to those described for others near communities of the continent. Physical and biogeographicals factors can be determinants in the species composition and the structure of these communities

  16. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. PMID:25595489

  17. The macrozoobenthos of the subtidal western dutch wadden sea. I. Biomass and species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R.

    During a one-year period in 1981-1982, a survey was conducted on the macrozoobenthos of the subtidal areas of the western half of the Dutch Wadden Sea. In total 80 species were found, half of them polychaetes. In terms of biomass, Mytilus edulis dominated the macrozoobenthos, with Hydrobia ulvae, Heteromastus filiformis, Carcinus maenas and Macoma balthica as other important species. Numerically important were also the polychaetes Pygospio elegans and Scoloplos armiger. Average macrozoobenthic biomass amounted to 43.7 g·m -2 ash-free dryweight. This value is in the same range as values from intertidal areas in the Wadden Sea. The relatively high value in comparison with data from similar subtidal areas is attributed to the important mussel culture in the area.

  18. Novas ocorrências de macroalgas marinhas bentônicas no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil / New records of benthic marine macroalgae from Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luanda Pereira, Soares; Mutue Toyota, Fujii.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos na região entremarés de recifes da Praia de Boa Viagem, Recife, nordeste do Brasil, em dezembro de 2009 (período seco) e abril de 2010 (período chuvoso), para analisar a estrutura da comunidade das macroalgas epífitas em outras macroalgas. O material foi coletado em dois tre [...] chos recifais, cada um com aproximadamente 30 m de extensão, em diferentes compartimentos favoráveis ao crescimento de macroalgas. Todo o material coletado permaneceu congelado até o procedimento de análise. Os exemplares estão depositados no Herbário do Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo, Brasil (SP). Foram encontradas nove novas ocorrências para a costa pernambucana: Boodlea composita (Harv.) F. Brand, Ceramium corniculatum Mont., Chaetomorpha clavata Kütz., C. nodosa Kütz., Chondracanthus cf. saundersii C.W. Schneid. & C.E. Lane, Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kütz., Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa (Børgesen) M.-S. Kim & I.K. Lee, Ulva linza L. e U. prolifera O.F. Müll. Destas, quatro tiveram sua distribuição consideravelmente ampliada ao longo do litoral brasileiro. Abstract in english Studies were carried out in the intertidal reefs of Boa Viagem beach, Recife, northeastern Brazil, in December 2009 (dry season) and April 2010 (rainy season), to analyze the community structure of seaweeds growing on other macroalgae. The material was collected in two areas, each around 30 m long, [...] in different habitats which are suitable for the growth of seaweeds. The seaweeds remained frozen until the analysis. The specimens are deposited at the Herbarium of the Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo, Brazil (SP). Nine species were recorded for the Pernambuco coast for the first time: Boodlea composita (Harv.) F. Brand, Ceramium corniculatum Mont., Chaetomorpha clavata Kütz., C. nodosa Kütz., Chondracanthus cf. saundersii C.W. Schneid. & C.E. Lane, Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kütz., Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa (Børgesen) M.-S. Kim & I.K. Lee, Ulva linza L. and U. prolifera O.F. Müll. Of these, four species had their distribution along the Brazilian coast considerably expanded.

  19. Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S) / Tasas de crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai en cultivos en estanques en el sur de Chile (41,5°S)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Mardones; Alberto, Augsburger; Rolando, Vega; Patricio de Los, Ríos-Escalante.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de las actividades de acuicultura en Chile involucra principalmente cultivo de salmónidos, ostiones, algas, mitílidos y otras especies, y en menor escala especies como los abalones rojo (Haliotis rufescens) y japonés (Haliotis discus hannai). El objetivo del presente estudio fue evalua [...] r el crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai alimentados con diferentes dietas a base de pellet Macrocystis sp. y Ulva sp., cultivados en estanques durante 13 meses. Los resultados para ambas especies denotaron que hubo incremento en longitud y biomasa durante el periodo experimental, existiendo bajas tasas de crecimiento durante invierno austral (julio-septiembre) e incremento durante el verano austral (diciembre-enero). Los resultados concuerdan con las descripciones de la literatura en que hay altas tasas de crecimiento durante el verano usando dieta a base de algas pardas. Desde el punto de vista económico el cultivo de abalones sería una actividad económicamente viable para la acuicultura local, si se considera los requerimientos de calidad de agua y alimentación. Abstract in english The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Ha [...] liotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September) and increase during the austral summer (December-January). Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

  20. STUDI KOMUNITAS RUMPUT LAUT DI PANTAI SANUR DAN PANTAI SAWANGAN NUSA DUA BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALIH INDRAWATI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this research are to analyze structure community population, relative population, variety domination, heterogeneous, and equality of seaweed species in Sanur and Sawangan Beach Nusa Dua.The result of the study shows that in Sanur and Sawangan Beach observed 13 related seaweed species were observed, which are: Ulva reticulata, Chaetomorpha crassa, Bornetella nitida, Halimeda macroloba, Padina australis, Sargassum binderi, Hypnea asperi, Dictyopteris sp, Gracilaria coronapifolia, Gracilaria gracilis, Acanthopora spicifera, Euchema edule, Euchema denticulatum Meanwhile, , Caulerpa racemosa, Boergesiana forbessii, Sargassum crassifolium, Gelidium sp, Turbinaria ornata, Gracilaria foliifera only observed in Sanur Beach and species of Actinotrichia fragilis, Ulva lactuca, Euchema serra, Turbinaria conoides observed in Sawangan Beach, Nusa Dua.Heterogeneous value index (H in Sanur Beach is 0.75 – 1.87 categorized as medium category, except in station five characterized as low category. Domination index (C is 0.10 – 0.28, where there is no dominated species. Equality index value (E is 0.32 – 0.85 in unstable condition, except in station one is stable. In Sawangan Beach, heterogeneous indexes is 1.04 – 1.54, that spread in all stations by medium category. Domination index is 0.14 – 0.30, indicated that there is no dominant species. Equality index is 0.47 – 0.74, by stabile condition in station one, while others station is unstable. Highest relatif population in Sanur Beach is 37.63% in station three (Gracilaria foliifera. In Sawangan Nusa Dua Beach is Hypnea asperi (48.65%.Substrate analysis show that Sanur and Sawangan Beach has mud sand types. Water temperature in both research locations approximately is 28.90 C – 30.40 C, pH 7.00 – 7.80 and dissolved oxygen around 6.8mg/1-7.4mg/l.

  1. Antimicrobial and antifouling activities achieved by extracts of seaweeds from Gulf of California, Mexico / Actividades antimicrobiana y anti-incrustante obtenidas de los extractos de algas marinas del Golfo de California, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth Noemí, Águila-Ramírez; Anabel, Arenas-González; Claudia Judith, Hernández-Guerrero; Bárbara, González-Acosta; José Manuel, Borges-Souza; Benoit, Véron; Josephine, Pope; Claire, Hellio.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron seis especies de macroalgas comunes del Golfo de California: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca y Codium fragile para determinar su potencial aplicación industrial, a través de la evaluación de la actividad antibacteria [...] na frente a bacterias patógenas (5 cepas), y el potencial anti-incrustante como inhibidores de crecimiento de especies colonizadoras en ambientes marinos (7 bacterias, 5 hongos y 11 microalgas). Los extractos orgánicos de L. johnstonii, U. lactuca y D. flabellata presentaron antibiosis bacteriana. Los extractos etéreos fueron más activos en comparación con los extractos de butanol frente a la cepa bacteriana Staphylococcus aureus. Los mejores resultados de actividad anti-incrustante se obtuvieron con U. lactuca y L. johnstonii (0.1-1 ?g ml-1) frente a todas las cepas probadas. C. fragile mostró una significativa actividad anti-incrustante, presentando una concentración mínima inhibitoria (MIC) entre 1-10 ?g ml-1, frente a las microalgas marinas Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea y Prymnesium calathiferum. Abstract in english Six species of common seaweed extracts were tested in laboratory assays: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile for potential industrial applications through evaluation of the antibacterial activity against pathogenic [...] bacteria (5 strains) and the antifouling potency against the growth of key species of marine colonisers (7 bacteria, 5 fungi and 11 microalgae). The organic extract of L. johnstonii, U. lactuca and D. flabellata have bacterial antibiosis. The ethereal extracts were more active in comparison with buthanol extracts against the bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus. The best antifouling results were obtained with U. lactuca and L. johnstonii(0.1-1 ?g ml-1) against all strains tested. C.fragile exhibited significant antifouling activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 1-10 ?g ml-1 against marine microalgae Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea and Prymnesium calathiferum.

  2. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M.; Finlay, John A.; Brewer, Lenora H.; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Callow, James A.; Wendt, Dean E.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; DeSimone, Joseph M. (Birmingham UK); (NCSU); (UNC); (Cal. Polytech.); (UMM)

    2013-03-07

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M{sub w} = 1500 g mol{sup -1}) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M{sub w} = 300, 475, 1100 g mol{sup -1}), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  3. Antimicrobial and antifouling activities achieved by extracts of seaweeds from Gulf of California, Mexico Actividades antimicrobiana y anti-incrustante obtenidas de los extractos de algas marinas del Golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Noemí Águila-Ramírez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Six species of common seaweed extracts were tested in laboratory assays: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile for potential industrial applications through evaluation of the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (5 strains and the antifouling potency against the growth of key species of marine colonisers (7 bacteria, 5 fungi and 11 microalgae. The organic extract of L. johnstonii, U. lactuca and D. flabellata have bacterial antibiosis. The ethereal extracts were more active in comparison with buthanol extracts against the bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus. The best antifouling results were obtained with U. lactuca and L. johnstonii(0.1-1 ?g ml-1 against all strains tested. C.fragile exhibited significant antifouling activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC between 1-10 ?g ml-1 against marine microalgae Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea and Prymnesium calathiferum.Se analizaron seis especies de macroalgas comunes del Golfo de California: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca y Codium fragile para determinar su potencial aplicación industrial, a través de la evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana frente a bacterias patógenas (5 cepas, y el potencial anti-incrustante como inhibidores de crecimiento de especies colonizadoras en ambientes marinos (7 bacterias, 5 hongos y 11 microalgas. Los extractos orgánicos de L. johnstonii, U. lactuca y D. flabellata presentaron antibiosis bacteriana. Los extractos etéreos fueron más activos en comparación con los extractos de butanol frente a la cepa bacteriana Staphylococcus aureus. Los mejores resultados de actividad anti-incrustante se obtuvieron con U. lactuca y L. johnstonii (0.1-1 ?g ml-1 frente a todas las cepas probadas. C. fragile mostró una significativa actividad anti-incrustante, presentando una concentración mínima inhibitoria (MIC entre 1-10 ?g ml-1, frente a las microalgas marinas Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea y Prymnesium calathiferum.

  4. Facilitation of macroalgae by the sedimentary tube forming polychaete Diopatra cuprea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. S.; McGlathery, K.

    2005-01-01

    Marine foundation organisms such as seagrasses, corals, and kelps facilitate the distribution of numerous organisms by creating refuges from environmental stressors and by providing food and substrate for settlement and growth. Barren soft-sediment systems often have faunal organisms that facilitate other species by habitat modification. We investigated how an abundant (21 m -2) tube cap forming polychaete, Diopatra cuprea, facilitates macroalgal distribution in Hog Island Bay, a turbid shallow tidal lagoon in Virginia (USA). Seventy percent of the number of mudflat macroalgae were found incorporated into protruding D. cuprea tube caps and field experiments showed that D. cuprea facilitates algal persistence by providing a stable substrate retaining algae against hydrodynamic forces such as tidal flushing and storm surge. If tube caps were removed, simulating storm-induced erosion, they were rebuilt within days and new drift algae incorporated. Also, D. cuprea facilitated the algal assemblage by fragmenting thalli in the attachment process, thereby ensuring a constant fragment supply for vegetative re-growth if storm-induced pruning occurs. On a species-specific level, Gracilaria verrucosa and Ulva curvata benefited more from tube cap construction compared to Fucus vesiculosus, Agardhiella subulata and the alien Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. This was partly because G. verrucosa and U. curvata were incorporated and fragmented more readily, and partly because they probably have physiological, morphological and biomechanical traits that enable them to better co-exist with D. cuprea. These results suggest that macroalgal distribution throughout Hog Island Bay to a large extent is linked to the distribution of D. cuprea. The processes of algal attachment, retainment, recovery, re-growth and fragmentation, can have important ecosystem implications because of the sheer abundance of the Diopatra- Gracilaria/Ulva association.

  5. Algas marinas de Baja California Sur, México: Valor nutrimental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, Carrillo Domínguez; Margarita, Casas Valdez; Felipe, Ramos Ramos; Fernando, Pérez-Gil; Ignacio, Sánchez Rodríguez.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La península de Baja California constituye una de las regiones más ricas en recursos algales de México. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la composición química de algunas especies de algas marinas de Baja California Sur, consideradas económicamente potenciales por su distribución y abundancia [...] y promover su empleo en la alimentación humana y animal. Las algas estudiadas fueron: Verdes (Ulva spp. , Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides y Bryopsis hypnoides), Rojas (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa e Hypnea valentiae) y Parda(Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus y Colpomenia sinuosa). Los ejemplares se secaron al sol y molieron en un molino de cuchillas. Los resultados mostraron en las algas, un contenido de proteína menor de 11%, excepto en L. Johnstonii con 18% y bajo aporte de energía. El contenido de extracto etéreo en general, fue menor al 1%. Las fracciones más abundantes resultaron ser los carbohidratos totales y la materia inorgánica, radicando en estos componentes químicos la principal riqueza de estos recursos. Abstract in english Marine algae of Baja California Sur, México: nutrimental value. The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical po [...] tential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp.,Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S.sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter.

  6. Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Gheidarloo, Razieh; Sadati, Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Tavajohi, Shohreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70%) extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and MeOH–H2O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC50 (median growth inhibitory concentration) values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10) software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC50 82.26 ± 4.09 ?g/ml) and MeOH-H2O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC50 116.92 ± 8.58 ?g/ml) showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 ?g/ml), respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 ?g/ml). Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines. PMID:22438665

  7. Temporal trending of lead and cadmium contamination in the Vigo estuary intertidal area Evolución temporal de la contaminación por plomo y cadmio en la zona intermareal de la ría de Vigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alonso Díaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, limpet (Patella vulgata L. and seaweed (Ulva lactuca specimens have been monthly sampled at the same point from the Vigo estuary, during a year. Heavy metal (cadmium and lead content has been determined by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry in both limpet and seaweed tissues, as well as in seawater. The obtained results have shown the main heavy metal content in limpet soft tissues with respect to shell, with maximum concentrations of 3 ppm (limpet shell for lead, whereas the highest content for cadmium was identified in seaweed samples (1.1 ppm. The statistical study revealed the existence of a clear correlation between cadmium and lead concentrations in seaweed samples.En el presente trabajo se han recogido muestras de lapa (Patella vulgata L. y alga verde (Ulva lactuca en un mismo punto de muestreo de la ría de Vigo, con una periodicidad mensual, a lo largo de un año, analizándose por medio de voltamperometría de redisolución anódica la concentración en dos metales pesados con claras repercusiones toxicológicas, cadmio y plomo, en estas muestras, así como en el agua marina. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la mayor concentración de ambos metales en los tejidos blandos de las lapas frente a las valvas de estos moluscos, con valores máximos en el caso del plomo próximos a 3 ppm (valva de lapa, mientras que para el cadmio se situó en torno a 1,1 ppm (alga verde. El estudio estadístico permitió poner en evidencia una clara correlación estadística entre los valores de cadmio y plomo cuantificados en las muestras de algas.

  8. Amphiphilic Surface Active Triblock Copolymers with Mixed Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Side Chains for Tuned Marine Fouling-Release Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.; Weinman, C; Finlay, J; Fletcher, B; Paik, M; Sundaram, H; Dimitriou, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M{sub n} {approx} 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 9}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  9. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Domingos Brescovit

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Anyphaeninae is revised at genera level in the Neotropical region. Anyphaeninae is diagnosed by the tracheal spiracle approximately in the midway of venter or between the midway of venter and the epigastric groove; retromargin of chelicerae with more than four denticles; and male palp with tegulum basket-like or cup-like, without the basal lightly sclerotized area. The subfamily contais 32 genera, 14 of which are new: Aljassa (type species Teudis annulipes Caporiacco, Buckupiella (type species B. imperatriz sp.n., from Brazil and Argentina, Hatitia (type species H.yhuaia sp.n., from Peru Iguarima (type species Anyphaena censoria Keyserling, Ilocomba (type species I. marta sp.n., from Colombia, Italaman (type species I. santamarina sp.n., from Brazil, Colombia and Argentine, Jessica (type species Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão, Katissa (type from Jamaica, Otoniela (type species O. adisi sp.n., from Brazil, Pippuhana (type species P. gandu sp.n., from Brazil, Timbuka (type species T. boquete sp.n., from Costa Rica, Panamá and Colômbia, Umuara (type species Clubiona fasciata Blackwall, Xiruana (type species Aysha gracilipes Keyserling. Other new species and the male of Bromelina zuniala are described: Iguarima pichinha and Lepajan edwardsi from Ecuador; Temnida rosário, Umuara pydanieli and U. juquia from Brazil; Umuara junin, Hatitia conchaque from Peru; Ilcomba perija from Colombia. Twelve new synonyms are presenteei: Wuljilopsis keyserlingi soares & Camargo witn W. tenuips (Keyserling; Teudis foliatus Schmidt with Patrera ruber (F.O.P. - Cambridge; Teudis moreirae Mello-Leitão with Teudis angusticeps (Keyserling; Anyphaena rufibarbis Mello-Leitão with Jessica osoriana (Mello-Leitão; Aysha cinereoviítata Mello-Leitão with Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Teudis bucolicus Chickering with Katissa simplicipalpis (Simon; Gayenna minutissima Petrunkevitch with Lupetíiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; Teudis adfabilis (Keyserling and Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia defolonguei (Berland; H. riveti (Berland; H. sericea (L. Koch. Two spedes are revalidated: Sillus du

  10. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae) / Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Domingos, Brescovit.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The subfamily Anyphaeninae is revised at genera level in the Neotropical region. Anyphaeninae is diagnosed by the tracheal spiracle approximately in the midway of venter or between the midway of venter and the epigastric groove; retromargin of chelicerae with more than four denticles; and male palp [...] with tegulum basket-like or cup-like, without the basal lightly sclerotized area. The subfamily contais 32 genera, 14 of which are new: Aljassa (type species Teudis annulipes Caporiacco), Buckupiella (type species B. imperatriz sp.n., from Brazil and Argentina), Hatitia (type species H.yhuaia sp.n., from Peru) Iguarima (type species Anyphaena censoria Keyserling), Ilocomba (type species I. marta sp.n., from Colombia), Italaman (type species I. santamarina sp.n., from Brazil, Colombia and Argentine), Jessica (type species Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão), Katissa (type from Jamaica), Otoniela (type species O. adisi sp.n., from Brazil), Pippuhana (type species P. gandu sp.n., from Brazil), Timbuka (type species T. boquete sp.n., from Costa Rica, Panamá and Colômbia), Umuara (type species Clubiona fasciata Blackwall), Xiruana (type species Aysha gracilipes Keyserling). Other new species and the male of Bromelina zuniala are described: Iguarima pichinha and Lepajan edwardsi from Ecuador; Temnida rosário, Umuara pydanieli and U. juquia from Brazil; Umuara junin, Hatitia conchaque from Peru; Ilcomba perija from Colombia. Twelve new synonyms are presenteei: Wuljilopsis keyserlingi soares & Camargo witn W. tenuips (Keyserling); Teudis foliatus Schmidt with Patrera ruber (F.O.P. - Cambridge); Teudis moreirae Mello-Leitão with Teudis angusticeps (Keyserling); Anyphaena rufibarbis Mello-Leitão with Jessica osoriana (Mello-Leitão); Aysha cinereoviítata Mello-Leitão with Iguarima censoria (Keyserling); Teudis bucolicus Chickering with Katissa simplicipalpis (Simon); Gayenna minutissima Petrunkevitch with Lupetíiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge); Teudis adfabilis (Keyserling) and Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall); Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling); Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling) with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch). Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling); W. pygmaea (Keyserling); W. tenuipes (Keyserling); W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão); Patrera apora (Chamberlin); P.armata (Chickering); P.auricoma (L. Koch); P. cita (Keyserling); P. lauta (Chickering); P. longipes (Keyserling); P. procera (Keyserling); P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge); P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge); P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge); P. virgata (Keyserling); Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren); T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão); T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo); T. morenus (Mello-Leitão); Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna); J. glabra (Keyserling); J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo); J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão); J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão); J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão); Iguarima censoria (Keyserling); Katissa delicatula (Banks); K. elegans (Banks); K. lycosoides (Chickering); K. simplicipalpis (Simon); K. zimarae (Reimoser); Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon); Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge); L. parvula (Banks); L. perpusilla (Banks); L. spinosa (Bryant); Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch); T. granadensis (Keyserling); T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge), T. masseneti (Berland); T.meridiana (L. Koch); Tafana quelchii (pocock); T. silhavyi (Caporiacco); T. straminea (L. Koch); Umuara fascia J(Blackwall); Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo); A. diversicolor (Keyserling); A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão); A. gentilis (Keyserling); A. helvola (Keyserling); A. robusta (Keyserling); A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling); A. striolata (Keyserling); A. subruba (Keyserling); Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão); X. gracilipes (Keyserling); X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão); X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão); Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco); A. notata (Keyserling); A. poicila (Chamberlin); A. subpallida(L. Koch); A. venezuelica (Caporiacco); Pippuhana calcar (Bryant); H. donaldi (Chickering); P. unicolor

  11. Italian Dermestidae: notes on some species and an updated checklist (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Nardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An up-to-date checklist of the Italian Dermestidae is provided. The presence of 95 species in Italy is confirmed, while further 5 species (Dermestes (Dermestes vorax Motschulsky, 1860, Thorictus pilosus Peyron, 1857, T. wasmanni Reitter, 1895, Attagenus (Attagenus simonis Reitter, 1881 and Globicornis (G. breviclavis (Reitter, 1878 and 1 subspecies (A. (A. tigrinus pulcher Faldermann, 1835 are excluded from the Italian fauna.Attagenus (Attagenus calabricus Reitter, 1881 and A. (A. lobatus Rosenhauer, 1856 are for the first time recorded from Abruzzi and Tuscany respectively; A. (A. silvaticus Zhantiev, 1976 is recorded for the first time from mainland Italy (Apulia; Anthrenus (Anthrenus angustefasciatus Ganglbauer, 1904 is new to northern Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, central Italy (Tuscany, Apulia and Basilicata; A. (A. munroi Hinton, 1943 is new to central Italy (Elba Island; A. (A. delicatus Kiesenwetter, 1851 is for the first time recorded from Apulia; Globicornis (Globicornis fasciata (Fairmaire & Brisout de Barneville, 1859 is new to southern Italy (Basilicata; G. (Hadrotoma sulcata (C.N.F. Brisout de Barneville, 1866 is for the first time recorded from central Italy (Abruzzi, Campania and Sicily, while Trogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 is new to Apulia.Seven species (Dermestes (Dermestes peruvianus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, D. (Dermestinus carnivorus Fabricius, 1775, D. (Dermestinus hankae Háva, 1999, D. (Dermestinus intermedius intermedius Kalík, 1951, D. (Dermestinus szekessyi Kalík, 1950, Anthrenus (Anthrenops coloratus Reitter, 1881 and Trogoderma angustum (Solier, 1849 recently recorded from Italy (without further details are discussed.The lectotype and a paralectotype are designated for Attagenus (A. calabricus Reitter, 1881 from Calabria.Attagenus pellio (Linnaeus, 1758 var. pilosissimus Roubal, 1932 is removed from synonymy with A. (A. pellio and recognized as a valid species (stat. prom.; it is known from Lombardy, Apulia and Calabria.

  12. Control de malezas en arroz de temporalcon clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanily 2,4-d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control de malezas en arroz de temporal con clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D. Se establecieron tres experimentos con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del herbicida clomazone sólo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D en el control de malezas y la toxicidad al arroz cv. Milagro Filipino desarrollado en condiciones de temporal. Los tres experimentos se establecieron en la zona arrocera de Los Naranjos, localizada en el Mpio. de Tres Valles en el estado de Veracruz. Las especies dominantes de malezas fueron: Cyperus iria, Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Scleria setuloso- ciliata y Malachra fasciata. El clomazone aplicado en preemergencia, controló eficientemente E. colona en dosis de 0,72 y 0,96 kg i.a./ha, pero tuvo un efecto temporal y limitado sobre S. setuloso-ciliata y no tuvo efecto sobre C. iria y C. rotundus. La mezcla de clomazone + propanil + 2,4-D controló E. colona y C. iria a partir de la dosis de 0,60 + 1,44 + 0,24 kg i.a./ha. Asimismo, tuvo un buen control inicial de C. rotundus, pero su efecto sobre esta especie se perdió entre los 45 y 60 días después de la aplicación y su efecto sobre S. setuloso-ciliata estuvo influenciado por las condiciones de humedad en el terreno, a mayor humedad se tuvo mejor control de esta maleza y viceversa. En todos los casos, los rendimientos de arroz palay obtenidos con los tratamientos en donde se aplicó el clomazone sólo o en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D, fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los obtenidos en los testigos regionales

  13. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ?1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild birds in Spain, most likely related to their feeding behaviour. PMID:22216311

  14. Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

    2014-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

  15. Pollutant accumulation patterns in nestlings of an avian top predator: biochemical and metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Moleón, Marcos; Real, Joan; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-12-15

    The exposure to persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) or metals has been associated with declines in top predator populations, which can accumulate high amounts of these pollutants from their prey. However, understanding how variation in OC and metal accumulation in wild species affects their biochemical and physiological responses is a big challenge, especially for endangered predators like the Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). This bird of prey is an interesting study model because the differences in diet composition among populations and territories can account for important pollutant uptake variations. We compared OC and metal accumulation in blood of Bonelli's eagle nestlings from three populations across Spain as a function of origin, age class (nestlings vs. adults), sex and number of siblings per nest, and related accumulation patterns to responses indicative of body condition, biochemistry and antioxidant status. Nestlings from Catalonia, the most industrialized area, showed the highest concentrations of PCBs and arsenic, and the lowest concentrations of zinc. The two former substances, together with DDTs, exerted an overall influence on nestling's physiology. PCBs and arsenic were associated with reduced retinol levels, pointing to oxidative damage in exposed individuals, which was also consistent with the low zinc levels in individuals from the polluted region. Increased plasma DDT levels were related to reduced body condition and lower levels of triglycerides. Mercury accumulation in Castile and Leon was higher in nestlings that were alone in the nest than in nestlings that shared it with a sibling; this suggests an increased mercury uptake from secondary prey in territories where preferred prey (i.e. rabbits) are scarce, which are also the territories where productivity is reduced. Overall, the results reveal a spatial variation in pollutant accumulation patterns and associated physiological effects, and suggest the major role that territory quality may have in such patterns. PMID:26327637

  16. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in marine macroalgae from southern Spain Efectos de la radiación solar UV sobre la fotosíntesis y actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa en macralgas marinas del sur de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX L. FIGUEROA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV radiation during daily cycles on photosynthesis and two key enzymes involved in carbon incorporation, the carbonic anhydrase, and in inorganic nitrogen reduction, the nitrate reductase, of macroalgae from southern Spain are presented. During daily cycles, photoinhibition in several intertidal macroalgae, expressed as decrease in the effective quantum yield from the morning to noon time, was linearly dependent on the daily integrated irradiance. However, recovery, expressed as the increase in the effective quantum yield from noon to the afternoon, presented a different pattern; full recovery was found below daily integrated irradiance of 1.0 x10(4 kJ m-2. However, recovery reached only 50 % at higher irradiances. The existence of daily photoinhibition and full recovery in intertidal algae suggests that photoinhibition is a photoprotective mechanism against high solar radiation as in higher plants, and that patterns of photoinhibition and recovery are affected by accumulative doses. Activities of carbonic anhidrase and nitrate reductase were determined in three marine macroalgae (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida and Fucus spiralis under full (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and excluded UV solar radiation (PAR. Under PAR + UV-A + UV-B, peaks of enzyme activity were found in P. cartilagineum during the evening, and accordingly to data previously published for other red macroalgae. This situation was modified by the absence of UV radiation since the increase in the activities was delayed several hours. In the three macroalgae and under full solar radiation, a significant and negative correlation was found only when data from nitrate reductase activity was shifted in time during at least four hours. This correlation is lost in Ulva rigida when UV radiation is excluded. The existence of these daily variations with a negative correlation of both enzyme activities could reflect a complex regulatory link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism under solar radiation. Considering the absence of a significant correlation in U. rigida and the delay observed in maximal activities of P. cartilagineum in the absence of UV, it is suggested that UV radiation acts as an environmental signal involved in the control of cycles. The presence of feedback processes that control nitrogen assimilation as a function of carbon content is proposedEn este trabajo se presenta el efecto de la radiación solar ultravioleta (UV durante el ciclo diario de luz sobre la actividad fotosintética y la de dos enzimas claves en la incorporación de carbono, la anhidrasa carbónica, y en la reducción de nitrógeno inorgánico, la nitrato reductasa, en macroalgas del sur de España. Durante el ciclo diario de luz, la fotoinhibición, expresada como porcentaje de disminución del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde la mañana al mediodía, estuvo linear y negativamente correlacionada con la irradiancia integrada diaria. Sin embargo, la recuperación, expresada como porcentaje de incremento del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde el mediodía hasta el atardecer siguió un patrón diferente. Se observó recuperación completa a irradiancias integradas diarias menores a 1.0 x 10(4 kJ m-2. Sin embargo, a irradiancias diarias mayores, la recuperación fue sólo del 50 %. La existencia de fotoinhibición y de una recuperación diaria completa en macroalgas hace pensar que la fotoinhibición está funcionado como un mecanismo de fotoprotección contra radiaciones solares altas como ocurre en plantas terrestres. Además, los patrones de fotoinhición y recuperación tienen relación con la dosis acumulada diaria. Las actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa fueron determinadas en tres macroalgas marinas (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida y Fucus spiralis bajo radiación solar completa (PAR + UV-A + UV-B y excluyendo la radiación UV (PAR. Bajo PAR + UV-A + UV-B se observó un máximo en la actividad de ambas enzimas en P. cartilagineum por la tarde, lo que concuerda con datos publicados en otras

  17. Impact of the pollution by heavy metals and eutrophication on the southern lagoon of Tunis before its ecological rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern lagoon of Tunis, (northern Tunisia, central Mediterranean), has been strongly affected by nutrients and heavy metals. Since the Middle Ages, at least, the lagoon collected natural and anthropic pollutants and both categories of pollution considerably increased concomitant to urban industrialization and, were the cause of important dystrophic crises. With regard to this ecosystem, a previous article was provided by who given thorough data allowing to suggest that local benthic communities were submitted to both natural and anthropic pollutants pressure. These unfavorable patterns reached a high level eutrophication and ended in a collapse stage according to. Before ecological rehabilitation of southern lagoon, investigations were conducted in order to assess and to delineate the environment state of pollution and its effects in the area. We conducted a comparative study on the pollution by heavy metals and nutrients in the water column, surface sediment and in various organisms such as the green algae Ulva rigida, the two mussels Ruditapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis, the three species of fish Anguilla anguilla, Chelon labrosus and Mugil cephalus .The following metals were studied (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, and HgTot). Samples are collected seasonally during five years 1995-1999 and treated according to international norms and analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A.A.S.). The results showed a high level of contamination by heavy metals of surface sediment. The values for mercury, cadmium and lead oscillate respectively between (0.17 and 5?g/g dry weight; 0.13 and 30?g/g dry weight; 3.97 and 698 ?g/g dry weight). The sediment of the lagoon constitute before the restoration program a great reserve of toxic metallic pollutants strongly correlated with the nature and the importance of the industrial activity. In the same way, ecotoxicological survey revealed that relatively high concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium occur in Ulva rigida, although concentrations in water were generally, except during the decomposition of algae in summer, less than the detection limit. The variation of metals concentrations in the cosmopolitan green algae Ulva rigida, characteristic of many eutrophic coastal environments, seems to reflect the fluctuations of the above metals in the sediment. In fact, contents of this 'bio-sensor species cover large intervals of values according to stations considered reaching in certain cases very high concentrations. Concerning the animal organisms, the seasonal study has allowed us to observe the bioaccumulation complex, dependent on a multitude of factors such as abiotic parameters, the species and its metabolism, the organ analysed as well as the time of exposure to the pollutants. Facing the stress caused by this pollution, these animals, although belonging to the similar environment, develop and present different behaviours. This state of pollution is to the origin of a deplorable ecological situation in the lagoon, characterised by the relatively low specific diversity and the colonisation of the ecosystem by the indicators of pollution and extreme conditions

  18. Actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de extractos de algas marinas venezolanas / Antibacterial and antifungal activity from extracts of Venezuelan marine algae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nurby, Ríos; Gerardo, Medina; José, Jiménez; Carlos, Yánez; Maria Y., García; Maria L., Di Bernardo; Maria, Gualtieri.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron las propiedades bioactivas antibacterianas y antimicóticas de 33 extractos (etanol, diclorometano, hexano) obtenidos de 11 especies de algas marinas recolectadas en las localidades de San Juan de Los Cayos y Chichiriviche, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. La actividad antibióti [...] ca y antimicótica de los extractos se evaluó mediante la aparición de halos de inhibición contra bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negativas (Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli) y el hongo Candida albicans. De los 33 extractos ensayados sólo 17 presentaron actividad antibacteriana (5 con etanol, 6 con diclorometano y 6 con hexano), resultando activos 14 frente a las especies Gram(-) y 4 contra la especie Gram(+). Las especies algales que mostraron actividad antibacteriana fueron: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incrassata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp. Ninguno de los extractos de algas ensayados presentó actividad antimicótica sobre Cándida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que las algas de la costa occidental de Venezuela, presentan compuestos bioactivos con actividad antibacteriana. Abstract in english This study assessed the antibacterial and antifungal properties of 33 extracts (ethanol, dichloromethane, hexane) from 11 species of marine algae collected in the villages of San Juan de Los Cayos and Chichiriviche, Estado Falcon, Venezuela. The antibiotics and antifungal activity of extracts was ev [...] aluated by the appearance of halos of inhibition against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli) and the fungus Candida albicans. Of the 33 tested extracts showed antibacterial activity only 17 (5 with ethanol, 6 and 6 with dichloromethane-hexane), resulting assets compared to 14 species Gram(-) and 4 against the kind Gram(+). The algae species that showed antibacterial activity were: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incrassata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp.. None of the tested extracts from algae introduced antifungal activity on Candida albicans. The findings suggest that the algae on the west coast in Venezuela have bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity.

  19. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  20. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ravindra, Pawar; Chellandi, Mohandass; Elakkiya, Sivaperumal; Elaine, Sabu; Raju, Rajasabapathy; Tanaji, Jagtap.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of [...] the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782) a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783), an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781) an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media, were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22%) and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 ?g/mL of AsA Eq.) respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p

  1. Stable isotopes reveal habitat-related diet shifts in facultative deposit-feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Baeta, Alexandra; Marques, João C.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass patches interspersed in a sediment matrix may vary environmental conditions and affect feeding habits of consumers and food-web structure. This paper investigates diet shifts between bare sediments and a Zostera noltei (Hornemann, 1832) meadow for three facultative deposit-feeding macrofaunal consumers, notably the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778), the polychaete Hediste diversicolor (O.T. Müller, 1776), and the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1778). In July 2008, one eelgrass meadow and two bare sediment locations were chosen in the Mondego estuary (40° 08? N, 8° 50? W, Portugal) and sampled for stable isotope signatures (?13C and ?15N) of macrofauna consumers and some of their potential basal food sources, such as sedimentary organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos (MPB), seagrass shoots, leaves and seaweeds laying on the surface sediment. The ?15N of H. diversicolor was 3‰ higher in the eelgrass meadow than in bare sediment, indicating a change of trophic position, whereas the Bayesian stable-isotope mixing model showed that S. plana assimilated more macroalgal detritus than microphytobenthos in the eelgrass bed. Such habitat-related diet shifts have the potential to change structure and spatial dynamics of benthic food webs.

  2. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-07-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  3. The effect of desiccation on the emission of volatile bromocarbons from two common temperate macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Leedham Elvidge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of intertidal macroalgae during low tide has been linked to the emission of a variety of atmospherically-important trace gases into the coastal atmosphere. In recent years, several studies have investigated the role of inorganic iodine and organoiodides as antioxidants and their emission during exposure to combat oxidative stress, yet the role of organic bromine species during desiccation is less well understood. In this study the emission of dibromomethane (CH2Br2 and bromoform (CHBr3 during exposure and desiccation of two common temperate macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis, is reported. Determination of the impact exposure may have on algal physiological processes is difficult as intertidal species are adapted to desiccation and may undergo varying degrees of desiccation before their physiology is affected. For this reason we include comparisons between photosynthetic capacity (Fv / Fm and halocarbon emissions during a desiccation time series. In addition, the role of rewetting with freshwater to simulate exposure to rain was also investigated. Our results show that an immediate flux of bromocarbons occurs upon exposure, followed by a decline in bromocarbon emissions. We suggest that this immediate bromocarbon pulse may be linked to volatilisation or emissions of existing bromocarbon stores from the algal surface rather than the production of bromocarbons as an antioxidant response.

  4. Context-specific effects of the identity of detrital mixtures on invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Melanie J; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2013-10-01

    Many aquatic ecosystems are sustained by detrital subsidies of leaf litter derived from exogenous sources. Although numerous studies have examined the effects of litter species richness and identity on decomposition processes, it remains unclear how these effects extend to associated invertebrate communities or how these effects vary spatially according to local environmental context. Using field enrichment experiments, we assessed how the species richness, assemblage composition, and supply of detrital litter resources interact to affect benthic communities of three temperate Australian estuarine mudflats. Our experiments utilized eight litter sources that are presently experiencing human-mediated changes in their supply to estuarine mudflats. Contrary to predictions, we did not detect effects of the species richness of detrital mixtures on benthic communities. Macroinvertebrate community structure and, in particular, abundance were, instead, influenced by the assemblage composition of detrital mixtures. At two of the three sites, plots receiving the most labile detrital mix, containing the ephemeral algae Chaetomorpha and Ulva, supported the fewest macroinvertebrates of all the experimental enrichments. The large effect of detrital mix identity on macroinvertebrate communities is of concern given present trends of proliferation of macroalgae at the expense of more refractory seagrasses and marsh grasses. As such environmental degradation continues, it will be important to more fully understand under what environmental contexts such compositional changes in detrital resources will have the most detrimental effects on important prey resources for commercially important fish and wading shorebirds. PMID:24198954

  5. Progressive eutrophication behind the world-largest super floating macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available World-largest super floating macroalgal blooms of Ulva prolifera have lasted 7 years by now in every summer in the Yellow Sea, the outer part of a semi-enclosed coastal sea. Evaluation of the inter-annual variability in the trophic status is one of fundamental tasks for prediction and management of the blooms. We show the new findings of a progressive eutrophication in the large Yellow Sea basin behind the super floating macroalgal blooms. The inter-annual variability in human-induced nutrient pollution from 2001 to 2012 was assessed by a nutrient pollution index weighted by area (AWCPI-NP, and a significant increase in the trophic status was found in the macroalgal bloom (MAB phase (2007–2012: the average AWCPI-NP was higher than that in the pre-MAB phase (2001–2006 by about 45%; meanwhile, in the Jiangsu Shoal, origin place of the drifting macroaglae, the annual in-situ nutrient concentrations increased rapidly from 2000 to 2011. Chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a, an indicator of eutrophication, increased by about 15% in the bloom region from the pre-MAB to MAB phase. This progressive eutrophication might lead to the non-linear outburst in the growth of macroalgae, i.e., green tides, in the Yellow Sea since 2007.

  6. Design, preparation and characterization of ulvan based thermosensitive hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Betti, Margherita; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica

    2016-01-20

    The present study is focused on the exploitation and conversion of sulphated polysaccharides obtained from waste algal biomass into high value added material for biomedical applications. ulvan, a sulphated polysaccharide extracted from green seaweeds belonging to Ulva sp. was selected as a suitable material due to its chemical versatility and widely ascertained bioactivity. To date the present work represents the first successful attempt of preparation of ulvan-based hydrogels displaying thermogelling behaviour. ulvan was provided with thermogelling properties by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains onto its backbone as thermosensitive component. To this aim ulvan was properly modified with acryloyl groups to act as macroinitiator in the radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide, induced by UV irradiation through a "grafting from" method. The thermogelling properties of the copolymer were investigated by thermal and rheological analyses. Sol-gel transition of the copolymer was found to occur at 30-31°C thus indicating the feasibility of ulvan for being used as in-situ hydrogel forming systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26572453

  7. Resuspension created by bedload transport of macroalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Kristensen, Erik

    Earlier studies have quantified that plant bound transport in shallow lagoons and estuaries may periodically be the dominating nutrient transport form. In some of these field studies turbidity increased when plant transport increased. The hypothesis in this study is therefore that macroalgae erode surface sediment while drifting as bed load. To improve the understanding of this ballistic effect of moving plants on the sediment surface, controlled annular flume experiments were performed. Plant transport was measured together with turbidity and suspended particulate matter during increasing water currents. In all experiments the plant induced sediment erosion started earlier than at bare bottoms. The turbidity increased when the plants started to move (2-4 cm s-1). Depending on the plant type the turbidity increased from a background concentration of 7-10 mg SPM l-1 to 30-50 mg SPM l-1 for Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha linum and Ceramium sp., while the more rigid macroalgae like Fucus vesiculosus caused much higher turbidities (50-150 mg SPM l-1).This phenomena may explain the appearance of turbid waters in estuaries and lagoons in the absence of wind and wave action.

  8. BOOK REVIEW. Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Grossman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment was written by three experienced marine biologists, Sven Beer, Mats Björk, and John Beardall, who have all worked for many years on photosynthesis and the utilization of inorganic carbon in the marine environment. They have published numerous papers dealing with photosynthesis and the fixation of inorganic carbon by various marine organisms, including seagrasses, macroalgae, and microalgae, and how the environment impacts their photosynthetic activity. This book emphasizes how marine photosynthetic processes differ from those of terrestrial plants, and while it has sections that might be valuable for specialists, its strength is that it serves as an excellent introduction to photosynthesis in the ocean for graduate students and undergraduates, and even for advanced high school students. When describing photosynthesis in the ocean, the authors place it into the context of the evolutionary history of the planet/?atmosphere and the massive changes in O2, CO2, and UV light that have occurred over the last three billion years. The book also provides a glimpse into the various types of photosynthetic organisms, from the macrophytic algae such as Porphyra and Ulva, to the coccolithophore-??producing algae responsible for creating the calcium carbonate deposits of the white cliffs of Dover, to diatoms and their silica frustules, model green algae such as Chlamydomonas, and prokaryotic cyanobacteria with their ability to fix nitrogen and synthesize photoprotective UV absorbing compounds.

  9. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  10. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  11. Algal polysaccharides as source of plant resistance inducers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marciel J., Stadnik; Mateus B. de, Freitas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Algal compounds exhibit great potential to enhance plant growth and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. This review focuses on aspects concerning the physical-chemical properties, function and biological activity of macroalgae polysaccharides. Updated results of the main poly- and oligosaccha [...] rides studied for the control of plant diseases are discussed and summarized. The carrageenans from red algae have a well-established obtaining system, but its high market value discourages its use in plant protection. The fucans found in the cell walls of brown algae are present in several fertilizers and accounted for the benefits of such commercial products on plant physiology. The laminarans, from brown algae mainly Laminaria digitata, are currently the main algal polysaccharides on the phytosanitary market. The ulvans, from cell the walls of Ulva spp., open new ways to obtain polysaccharides able to induce resistance due to its abundance worldwide. All these algal polysaccharides show ability to activate multiple plant defense mechanisms against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Taking into account the promising results reported in the literature and the enormous biochemical diversity of these biopolymers, it is likely that they will provide new types of resistance inducers in a near future.

  12. Polonium-210 in seaweeds of the Krusadai island, Gulf of Mannar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 210Po, an alpha emitter of the natural uranium series was measured in some commercial seaweeds, collected from Krusadai island, the south east coast of Tamil Nadu. The concentration of 210Po in water and sediment samples was found to be 2.80 mBq/l and 36.2 Bq/kg respectively. The 210Po was observed to be non-uniformly distributed among the seaweeds, which maintained the following descending order: Ulva reticulata (30.0 Bq/kg > Cystophyllum murictum (24.9 Bq/kg) > Sargassum wightti (22.1 Bq/kg) > Sargassum ilicifolium (19.6 Bq/kg) > Hypnea valentiae (15.09 Bq/kg) > Gracilaria follifera (14.87 Bq/kg) > Gracilaria edulis (10.12 Bq/kg) > Turbinaria conoides (8.5 Bq/kg) > Gelidiella acerosa (5.80 Bq/kg). The general range of CFs for the macro algae varies between 103 and 104. The distribution of 210Po in the seaweeds and its relation to the protein content is discussed. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

    2013-03-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  14. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline P., Martins; Nair S., Yokoya; Pio, Colepicolo.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiese [...] l, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya), Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta), and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta), comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU) and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl). The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  15. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B?rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  16. Evaluation of the contamination of marine algae (seaweed) from the St. Lawrence River and likely to be consumed by humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, D.; Cote, I.; Dumas, P.; Ferron, L.A.; LeBlanc, A. [CHUQ, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the contamination of marine algae (seaweeds) growing in the St. Lawrence River estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and to evaluate the risks to human health from the consumption of these algae. Algae were collected by hand at low tide. A total of 10 sites on the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence as well as in Baie des Chaleurs were sampled. The most frequently collected species of algae were Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria Longicruris, Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, and Fucus distichus. Alga samples were analyzed for metals iodine, and organochlorines. A risk assessment was performed using risk factors. In general, concentrations in St. Lawrence algae were not very high. Consequently, health risks associated with these compounds in St. Lawrence algae were very low. Iodine concentration, on the other hand, could be of concern with regard to human health. Regular consumption of algae, especially of Laminaria sp., could result in levels of iodine sufficient to cause thyroid problems. For regular consumers, it would be preferable to choose species with low iodine concentrations, such as U. lactuca and P. palmata, in order to prevent potential problems. Furthermore, it would also be important to assess whether preparation for consumption or cooking affects the iodine content of algae. Algae consumption may also have beneficial health effects. Scientific literature has shown that it is a good source of fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin B{sub 12}.

  17. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  18. Stable isotope tracer to determine uptake and efflux dynamics of ZnO Nano- and bulk particles and dissolved Zn to an estuarine snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R; Laycock, Adam; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Larner, Fiona; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S; Luoma, Samuel N; Rehkämper, Mark; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most commercialized engineered nanomaterials. Their biological impact in aquatic organisms has been associated with dissolution, but there is also evidence of nanospecific effects. In this study the waterborne uptake and efflux kinetics of isotopically labeled (68)ZnO NPs (7.8 ± 1.2 nm), in comparison to aqueous (68)Zn and (68)ZnO bulk particles (up to 2 ?m), were determined for the estuarine snail Peringia ulvae following a 7 d exposure (nominally 20 ?g (68)Zn L(-1)) and 28 d depuration. Detection of the (68)Zn label was achieved by high precision multiple-collector ICP-MS (MC-ICP-MS). Previous characterization in artificial estuarine water revealed that the NPs underwent initial aggregation and solubilized up to 60% within 1-2 days. Bulk and aqueous forms were significantly more bioavailable than (68)ZnO NPs (p < 0.05), but after correcting for dissolution, aqueous (0.074 L(-1) g(-1) d(-1)) and NP (0.070 L(-1) g(-1) d(-1)) uptake rate constants were highly comparable. The rate constant of loss for (68)Zn aqueous (0.012 ± 0.005 d(-1)) and (68)ZnO NPs (0.012 ± 0.007 d(-1)) were identical. These results strongly suggest that in this exposure scenario the bioaccumulation of Zn from ZnO NPs is primarily dependent upon solubility. PMID:23802799

  19. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BangsØ Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species – harvested in Denmark – for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 WC) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids1 (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 ml g VS1 for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS1 for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS1 for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5–2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during ‘green tides’ in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  1. Flow-through system for field measurements of production by marine macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottom, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous flow-through chamber for the in situ measurement of primary production in macrophytic algae (as exemplified by Ulva lactuca) is described. Rapid mixing occurred within the chamber independent of flow rate or amount of algal tissue, so that the ''complete-mix reactor'' model of sanitary engineering was closely approximated. Field experiments with the apparatus revealed a rapid response to short-term variations in production rate as well as a close correlation between production and changing light levels. The flow-through apparatus was compared to a closed system (the traditional bell jar approach); when the water in the latter was mixed, the two methods gave similar results for incubations not longer than several hours. However, during longer incubations, the productivity in the static system was sometimes depressed, possibly due to nutrient depletion or to abnormally high levels of oxygen. Thus, the flow-through system permits reliable measurements of amcroalgal production for periods of 12 hours or longer. (Refs. 20).

  2. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  3. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokn, T.L. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Moy, F.E. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Murray, S.N. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    1993-12-31

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 30.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  4. Accumulation of platinum group elements by the marine gastropod Littorina littorea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Rachel [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The accumulation and trophic transfer of the platinum group elements (PGE): Rh, Pd and Pt; have been studied in short-term (5 day) exposures conducted in aquaria containing the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, and/or the grazing mollusc, Littorina littorea. Metals added to sea water (to concentrations of 20 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were taken up by U. lactuca in the order Rh, Pt > Pd and by L. littorea in the order Pd {>=} Pt {>=} Rh, with greatest metal accumulation in the latter generally occurring in the visceral complex and kidney. When fed contaminated alga, accumulation of Rh and Pd by L. littorea, relative to total available metal, increased by an order of magnitude, while accumulation of Pt was not readily detected. We conclude that the diet is the most important vector for accumulation of Rh and Pd, while accumulation of Pt appears to proceed mainly from the aqueous phase. - Research highlights: > Platinum group elements are accumulated by, Littorina littorea. > The aqueous phase and diet are important vehicles for Rh and Pd accumulation by the snail. > Grazing molluscs may serve as biomonitors of coastal PGE contamination. - Platinum group elements are accumulated by the marine snail, Littorina littorea, from both the aqueous phase and the diet.

  5. Temporal changes of {sup 210}Po in temperate coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildgust, M.A.; White, K.N. [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); McDonald, P. [Westlakes Research Limited, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-18

    The temporal variation of Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) was examined in coastal sea water, the mussel Mytilus edulis, the winkle Littorina littorea and green algae Ulva lactuca in order to investigate the entry of {sup 210}Po into the marine food chain. More than 99% of {sup 210}Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved {sup 210}Po concentrations peaked during the spring phytoplankton bloom and it is suggested this is related to preferential scavenging of {sup 210}Po by the increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in L. Littorea {sup 210}Po specific activity are thought not to be related to food, but to a drop in body weight following spawning. Much of the {sup 210}Po accumulated by M. edulis was located in the digestive gland. The specific activity of {sup 210}Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was shown to be strongly correlated with changes in sea water suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metal (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni Sb, Se, Sn and Zn) variations in the digestive gland revealed that class B and borderline metals had a strong positive correlation with {sup 210}Po. On-going work is investigating whether the accumulation and loss of {sup 210}Po is affected by the presence of metallothioneins

  6. The effect of desiccation on the emission of volatile bromocarbons from two common temperate macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Phang, S.-M.; Sturges, W. T.; Malin, G.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of intertidal macroalgae during low tide has been linked to the emission of a variety of atmospherically-important trace gases into the coastal atmosphere. In recent years, several studies have investigated the role of inorganic iodine and organoiodides as antioxidants and their emission during exposure to combat oxidative stress, yet the role of organic bromine species during desiccation is less well understood. In this study the emission of dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and bromoform (CHBr3) during exposure and desiccation of two common temperate macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis, is reported. Determination of the impact exposure may have on algal physiological processes is difficult as intertidal species are adapted to desiccation and may undergo varying degrees of desiccation before their physiology is affected. For this reason we include comparisons between photosynthetic capacity (Fv/Fm) and halocarbon emissions during a desiccation time series. In addition, the role of rewetting with freshwater to simulate exposure to rain was also investigated. Our results show that an immediate flux of bromocarbons occurs upon exposure, followed by a decline in bromocarbon emissions. We suggest that this immediate bromocarbon pulse may be linked to volatilisation or emissions of existing bromocarbon stores from the algal surface rather than the production of bromocarbons as an antioxidant response.

  7. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250?CFU gram?1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  8. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250?CFU gram-1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  9. Using textured PDMS to prevent settlement and enhance release of marine fouling organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucko, M J; Poole, A J; Carl, C; Sexton, B A; Glenn, F L; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2014-01-01

    The antifouling efficacy of a series of 18 textured (0.2-1000 ?m) and non-textured (0 ?m) polydimethylsiloxane surfaces with the profiles of round- and square-wave linear grating was tested by recording the settlement of fouling organisms in the laboratory and in the field by monitoring the recruitment of a multi-species fouling community. In laboratory assays, the diatoms Nitzschia closterium and Amphora sp. were deterred by all surface topographies regardless of texture type. Settlement of propagules of Ulva sp. was lower on texture sizes less than the propagule size, and settlement of larvae of Saccostrea glomerata and Bugula neritina was lower on texture sizes closest to, but less than, the sizes of larvae. After a six month field trial, all textured surfaces lost their deterrent effect; however, the foul-release capabilities of textures were still present. High initial attachment was correlated with most fouling remaining after removal trials, indicating that fouling organisms recruited in higher numbers to surfaces upon which they attached most strongly. PMID:24111593

  10. The development of marine biofilms on two commercial non-biocidal coatings: a comparison between silicone and fluoropolymer technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Thomason, Jeremy C

    2011-09-01

    The antimicrobial performance of two fouling-release coating systems, Intersleek 700® (IS700; silicone technology), Intersleek 900® (IS900; fluoropolymer technology) and a tie coat (TC, control surface) was investigated in a short term (10 days) field experiment conducted at a depth of ca 0.5 m in the Marina Bandar Rawdha (Muscat, Oman). Microfouling on coated glass slides was analyzed using epifluorescence microscopy and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry. All the coatings developed biofilms composed of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, seven species of diatoms (2 species of Navicula, Cylindrotheca sp., Nitzschia sp., Amphora sp., Diploneis sp., and Bacillaria sp.) and algal spores (Ulva sp.). IS900 had significantly thinner biofilms with fewer diatom species, no algal spores and the least number of bacteria in comparison with IS700 and the TC. The ATP readings did not correspond to the numbers of bacteria and diatoms in the biofilms. The density of diatoms was negatively correlated with the density of the bacteria in biofilms on the IS900 coating, and, conversely, diatom density was positively correlated in biofilms on the TC. The higher antifouling efficacy of IS900 over IS700 may lead to lower roughness and thus lower fuel consumption for those vessels that utilise the IS900 fouling-release coating. PMID:21864210

  11. Extracts of North Sea macroalgae reveal specific activity patterns against attachment and proliferation of benthic diatoms: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C; Grage, A; Schulz, D; Schulte, A; Harder, T

    2008-01-01

    A variety of macroalgae (Ceramium rubrum, Corallina officinalis, Palmaria palmata, Mastocarpus stellatus, Fucus vesiculosus, Cladophora rupestris, Ulva sp.) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to visualize epiphytic colonizers. The macroalgae differed in terms of their epiphytic coverage of bacteria, fungi and diatoms. Macroalgae, largely devoid of epiphytic diatoms, were hypothesized to employ effective antifouling means to reduce epiphytic coverage, whilst heavily fouled macroalgae were proposed to lack antifouling strategies. To test these hypotheses from an allelochemical perspective with regard to fouling diatoms, dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) crude extracts of macroalgae were concentrated in dimethylsulfoxide and investigated in diatom attachment and proliferation assays using four benthic diatoms (Nitzschia sp., Navicula phyllepta, Navicula arenaria and Amphora sp.). Algal extracts exhibited a distinct pattern of activity against the test diatoms, suggesting a targeted and selective effect of macroalgal metabolites on individual fouling diatoms. The main outcome of this study was that visual inspection and quantitative categorization of epiphytic colonizers on macroalgal thalli could not be used to predict reliably whether macroalgae employed a chemical defense mechanism. PMID:18092216

  12. Attachment point theory revisited: the fouling response to a microtextured matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, A J; Guenther, J; de Nys, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines attachment point theory in detail by testing the fouling attachment of several fouling groups to a microtextured matrix. Static bioassays were conducted on polycarbonate plates with nine equal regions, comprising eight scales of microtexture (4-512 microm) and one untextured region. The microtextures examined were continuous sinusoidal ridges and troughs of defined height and width. Attachment over the microtextured plates was examined for the diatom Amphora sp., the green alga Ulva rigida, the red alga Centroceras clavulatum, the serpulid tube worm Hydroides elegans and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. It was found that the size of the microtexture in relation to the size of the settling propagules/larvae was important in the selection of attachment sites. Attachment was generally lower when the microtexture wavelength was slightly smaller than the width of the settling propagules/larvae and increased when the wavelength was wider than their width. The effect of attachment points was weak for small motile microfoulers (Amphora sp. and U. rigida) (7 microm), strong for large macrofouling larvae (H. elegans and B. neritina) (129-321 microm) and non-existent for the non-motile algal spores (C. clavulatum) (37 microm). This study reinforces the potential of using attachment points to develop surfaces with increased fouling resistance or, alternatively, surfaces which promote the attachment of selected target sizes of motile propagules or larvae. PMID:18066730

  13. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 ?g L-1 and 30.1 ?g L-1) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 ?g L-1) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  14. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Siobhan; McLoughlin, Peter; O'Donovan, Orla

    2012-08-01

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11'53.68'N, 6°49'34.64'W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. PMID:22575098

  15. Disruption-free imaging by Raman spectroscopy reveals a chemical sphere with antifouling metabolites around macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Katharina; Zedler, Linda; Schmitt, Michael; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen; Pohnert, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of the surface chemistry of marine organisms are essential to understand their chemically mediated interactions with fouling organisms. In this context, the concentration of natural products in the immediate vicinity of algal surfaces, as well as their biological activity, are of particular importance. However, due to lack of appropriate methods, the distribution of compounds within the chemical sphere around marine algae is unknown. This study demonstrates the suitability of confocal resonance Raman microspectroscopy for the determination of metabolites around algal surfaces with a micrometer resolution. The spatial distribution of carotenoids in the diffusion boundary layer of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and the green alga Ulva sp. was determined using the disruption-free optical method. A gradient of carotenoids was determined within 0 to 150 ?m from the surface of the algae, thereby demonstrating the release of the non-polar metabolites involved in antifouling processes. The differences in the carotenoid composition of the brown and green algae were reflected in the spectra. Resonance Raman microspectroscopy also allowed visualization of the lateral distribution of fucoxanthin on the algal surface and localization of concentration maxima within a 50 × 50 ?m(2) area. The results from this work show clearly that established dipping techniques suitable for the extraction of the diffusion boundary layer of macroalgae only provide an average of the local strongly variable concentrations of metabolites on algal surfaces. PMID:22783962

  16. Winter colonisation and succession of filamentous macroalgae on artificial substrates and possible relationships to Fucus vesiculosus settlement in early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Ruuskanen, Ari T.; Nappu, Niko; Kiirikki, Mikko

    2007-05-01

    During the reproduction period of Fucus vesiculosus, which occurs only once a year (in May-June) along the Finnish coast of the northern Baltic Sea, a thick carpet of filamentous algae often covers hard substrates suitable for zygote settlement. By placing out artificial substrates into the field, monthly over a period of eight months prior to F. vesiculosus settlement (October 2001-June 2002), we investigated the autumn/winter/spring colonisation and succession of filamentous algae and their possible relationships with the settlement success of F. vesiculosus under naturally variable field conditions. The substrates exposed in October 2001 became covered by filamentous brown algal Pilayella littoralis mats, which persisted over the settlement period of F. vesiculosus, but now also were accompanied by large amounts of the filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata. The substrates exposed from November 2001 onwards hosted smaller amounts of P. littoralis during the winter and different filamentous algal communities at the time of F. vesiculosus settlement, i.e. less P. littoralis and C. glomerata, but Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus, Ceramium tenuicorne and Ulva intestinalis instead. We observed recruits of F. vesiculosus on all substrates, except on the ones placed out in October 2001. Significantly more P. littoralis and C. glomerata on the October substrates may explain the failed F. vesiculosus recruitment, although we could not establish direct causal or correlational relationships between filamentous algae and F. vesiculosus settlement. We compared the results with a previous un-replicated pilot study in the same area demonstrating similar response patterns.

  17. Actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de extractos de algas marinas venezolanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurby Ríos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron las propiedades bioactivas antibacterianas y antimicóticas de 33 extractos (etanol, diclorometano, hexano obtenidos de 11 especies de algas marinas recolectadas en las localidades de San Juan de Los Cayos y Chichiriviche, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. La actividad antibiótica y antimicótica de los extractos se evaluó mediante la aparición de halos de inhibición contra bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococ- cus aureus, Gram negativas (Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y el hongo Candida albicans. De los 33 extractos ensayados sólo 17 presentaron actividad antibacteriana (5 con etanol, 6 con diclorometano y 6 con hexano, resultando activos 14 frente a las especies Gram(- y 4 contra la especie Gram(+. Las especies algales que mostraron actividad antibacteriana fueron: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incras- sata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp. Ninguno de los extractos de algas ensayados presentó actividad antimicótica sobre Cándida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que las algas de la costa occidental de Venezuela, presentan compuestos bioactivos con actividad antibacteriana.

  18. Mussel (Mytilus edulis) byssus deposition in response to variations in surface wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, N; Ista, L K; Callow, M E; Callow, J A; Lopez, G P; Clare, A S

    2006-02-22

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are economically important in their role as an aquaculture species and also with regard to marine biofouling. They attach tenaciously to a wide variety of submerged surfaces by virtue of collagenous attachment threads termed 'byssi'. The aim of this study was to characterize the spreading of the byssal attachment plaque, which mediates attachment to the surface, on a range of surfaces in response to changes in wettability. To achieve this, well characterized self-assembled monolayers of omega-terminated alkanethiolates on gold were used, allowing correlation of byssal plaque spreading with a single surface characteristic--wettability. The present results were inconsistent with those from previous studies, in that there was a positive correlation between plaque size and surface wettability; a trend which is not explained by conventional wetting theory for a three-phase system. A recent extension to wetting theory with regard to hydrophilic proteins is discussed and the results of settlement assays are used to attempt reconciliation of these results with those of similar previous studies and, also, with recent data presented for the spreading of Ulva linza spore adhesive. PMID:16849215

  19. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  20. Development of an inhibitive enzyme assay for copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, M Y; Bakar, N A; Othman, A R; Yunus, I; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2009-01-01

    In this work the development of an inhibitive assay for copper using the molybdenum-reducing enzyme assay is presented. The enzyme is assayed using 12-molybdophosphoric acid at pH 5.0 as an electron acceptor substrate and NADH as the electron donor substrate. The enzyme converts the yellowish solution into a deep blue solution. The assay is based on the ability of copper to inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme from the molybdate-reducing Serratia sp. Strain DRY5. Other heavy metals tested did not inhibit the enzyme at 10 mg l(-1). The best model with high regression coefficient to measure copper inhibition is one-phase binding. The calculated IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) is 0.099 mg l(-1) and the regression coefficient is 0.98. The comparative LC50, EC50 and IC50 data for copper in different toxicity tests show that the IC50 value for copper in this study is lower than those for immobilized urease, bromelain, Rainbow trout, R. meliloti, Baker's Yeast dehydrogenase activity Spirillum volutans, P. fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophilia and synthetic activated sludge assays. However the IC50 value is higher than those for Ulva pertusa and papain assays, but within the reported range for Daphnia magna and Microtox assays. PMID:20112861

  1. [Monitoring "green tide" in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea using multi-temporal and multi-source remote sensing images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qian-Guo; Zheng, Xiang-Yang; Shi, Ping; Hao, Jia-Jia; Yu, Ding-Feng; Liang, Shou-Zhen; Liu, Dong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Landsat-TM (Theme Mapper) and EOS (Earth Observing System)-MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrora-diometer) Terra/Aqua images were used to monitor the macro-algae (Ulva prolifera) bloom since 2007 at the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. At the turbid waters of Northern Jiangsu Shoal, there is strong spectral mixing behavior, and satellite images with finer spatical resolution are more effective in detection of macro-algae patches. Macro-algae patches were detected by the Landsat images for the first time at the Sheyang estuary where is dominated by very turbid waters. The MODIS images showed that the macro-algae from the turbid waters near the Northern Jiangsu Shoal drifted southwardly in the early of May and affected the East China Sea waters; with the strengthening east-asian Summer Monsoon, macro-algae patches mainly drifted in a northward path which was mostly observed at the Yellow Sea. Macro-algae patches were also found to drift eastwardly towards the Korea Peninsular, which are supposed to be driven by the sea surface wind. PMID:21847950

  2. Using a macroalgal ?15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Green macroalgae exposed to nutrient solutions exhibited changes in tissue 15N signatures. ? Macroalgae exhibited no fractionation with NO3 and slight fractionation with NH4. ? Algae exposed to cruise ship waste water had increased tissue ?15N indicating a heavy N source. ? Field bioassays exhibited decreased ?15N indicating isotopically light riverine ?15N-NO3 was likely the dominant N source. ? Algal bioassays could not detect a ?15N cruise ship waste water signal in this system. - Abstract: Green macroalgae bioassays were used to determine if the ?15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in a small harbor. Opportunistic green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) were collected, cultured under nutrient depleted conditions and characterized with regard to N content and ?15N. Samples of algae were used in controlled incubations to evaluate the direction of isotope shift from exposure to CSWWE. Algae samples exposed to CSWWE exhibited an increase of 1-2.5 per mille in ?15N values indicating that the CSWWE had an enriched isotope signature. In contrast, algae samples exposed to field conditions exhibited a significant decrease in the observed ?15N indicating that a light N source was used. Isotopically light, riverine nitrogen derived from N2-fixing trees in the watershed may be a N source utilized by algae. These experiments indicate that the ?15N CSWWE signature was not detectable under the CSWWE loading conditions of this experiment.

  3. Distribution of lignin monomers and the evolution of lignification among lower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiñeira, J M; Novo Uzal, E; Gómez Ros, L V; Carrión, J S; Merino, F; Ros Barceló, A; Pomar, F

    2011-01-01

    Through application of chemical, biochemical and histochemical analyses, we provide new data on the absence/presence of syringyl lignins in the algal species Mastocarpus stellatus, Cystoseira baccata and Ulva rigida, the bryophytes Physcomitrella patens and Marchantia polymorpha, the lycophytes Selaginella martensii, Isoetes fluitans and Isoetes histrix, the sphenophyte Equisetum telmateia, the ferns Ceratopteris thalictroides, Ceratopteris cornuta, Pteridium aquilinum, Phyllitis scolopendrium and Dryopteris affinis, and the angiosperm Posidonia oceanica. Lignins, and especially syringyl lignins, are distributed from non-vascular basal land plants, such as liverworts, to lycopods and ferns. This distribution, along with the already reported presence of syringyl lignins in ginkgoopsids, suggests that syringyl lignin is a primitive character in land plant evolution. Here, we discuss whether the pathway for sinapyl alcohol recruitment was iterative during the evolution of land plants or, alternatively, was incorporated into the earliest land plants and subsequently repressed in several basal liverworts, lycopods, equisetopsids and ferns. This last hypothesis, which is supported by recent studies of transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of lignins, implies that lignification originated as a developmental enabler in the peripheral tissues of protracheophytes and would only later have been co-opted for the strengthening of tracheids in eutracheophytes. PMID:21143726

  4. Deoxy-liquefaction of three different species of macroalgae to high-quality liquid oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guoming; Chen, Ming; Li, Jiedong; Yang, Yaoyao; Zhu, Qiuyan; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Haichao

    2014-10-01

    Three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica and Gelidium amansii) were converted into liquid oils via deoxy-liquefaction. The elemental analysis, FTIR and GC-MS results showed that the three liquid oils were all mainly composed of aromatics, phenols, alkanes and alkenes, other oxygen-containing compounds, and some nitrogen-containing compounds though there were some differences in terms of their types or contents due to the different constituents in the macroalgae feedstocks. The oxygen content was only 5.15-7.30% and the H/C molar ratio was up to 1.57-1.73. Accordingly, the HHV of the three oils were 42.50, 41.76 and 40.00 MJ/kg, respectively. The results suggested that U. lactuca, L. japonica and G. amansii have potential as biomass feedstock for fuel and chemicals and that deoxy-liquefaction technique may be an effective way to convert macroalgae into high-quality liquid oil. PMID:25038506

  5. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ? 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ? 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. PMID:24433792

  6. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web. PMID:26275753

  7. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bismuth in the coastal environment using three species of macroalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, James; Turner, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly defined. In this study, we exposed three different species of macroalga (the chlorophyte, Ulva lactuca, the phaeophyte, Fucus vesiculosus, and the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus) to different concentrations of Bi (up to 50 ?g L(-1)) under controlled, laboratory conditions. After a period of 48-h, the phytotoxicity of Bi was measured in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and adsorption and internalisation of Bi determined by ICP after EDTA extraction and acid digestion, respectively. For all algae, both the internalisation and total accumulation of Bi were proportional to the concentration of aqueous metal. Total accumulation followed the order: F. vesiculosus > C. crispus > U. lactuca; with respective accumulation factors of about 4200, 1700 and 600 L kg(-1). Greatest internalisation (about 33% of total accumulated Bi) was exhibited by C. crispus, the only macroalga to display a phytotoxic response in the exposures. A comparison of the present results with those reported in the literature suggests that Bi accumulation by macroalgae is significantly lower than its accumulation by marine plankton (volume concentration factors of 10(5) to 10(7)), and that the phytotoxicity of Bi is low relative to other heavy metals like Ag and Tl. PMID:26552530

  8. A biomonitoring study: Heavy metals in macroalgae from eastern Aegean coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Idil; Kucuksezgin, Filiz

    2011-03-01

    The concentrations of metals were measured in macroalgae species seasonally at eight coastal stations along the eastern Aegean coast. Sediment and seawater samples were also collected to detect their metal contents in order to gain more information on the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. The aim of this study is, to gather more information on the use of selected species as cosmopolitan biomonitors for the eastern Aegean; to provide information on the marine environmental quality by the use of macroalgae and to determine which algae species are suitable as biomonitoring species for the study area. The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae decreases in the order: Fe-Zn-Cu-Cr-Cd-Hg-Pb and seawater: Fe-Zn-Pb-Cu-Cr-Cd-Hg. In sediment the distribution order from higher to lower was Fe-Cr-Zn-Pb-Cu-Hg-Cd. The brown algae Cystoseira sp., the green algae Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha sp. possess high potential as cosmopolitan biomonitors for trace metals in the Aegean Sea. PMID:21276989

  9. Seaweed extracts as a natural control against the monogenean ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp., infecting farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Kate S; Mata, Leonardo; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-12-01

    Aqueous extracts from common tropical seaweeds were evaluated for their effect on the life cycle of the commercially important ectoparasite, Neobenedenia sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea), through the survival of attached adult parasites, period of embryonic development, hatching success and oncomiracidia (larvae) infection success. There was no significant effect of any extract on the survival of adult parasites attached to fish hosts or infection success by oncomiracidia. However, the extracts of two seaweeds, Ulva sp. and Asparagopsis taxiformis, delayed embryonic development and inhibited egg hatching. The extract of A. taxiformis was most effective, inhibiting embryonic development of Neobenedenia sp. and reducing hatching success to 3% compared with 99% for the seawater control. Furthermore, of the 3% of eggs that hatched, time to first and last hatch was delayed (days 14 and 18) compared with the seawater control (days 5 and 7). Asparagopsis taxiformis shows the most potential for development as a natural treatment to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the embryo stage. PMID:23068914

  10. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 ?g/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 ?g/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  11. Macroinvertebrate diet in intertidal seagrass and sandflat communities : a study using C, N, and S stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most seagrass community food-web studies using stable isotopes have been carried out in subtidal habitats during one sampling event. We used C, N, and S stable isotopes to characterise the diet of the dominant macroinvertebrates found in intertidal Zostera capricorni and sandflat communities of southern New Zealand in late summer and winter. The range of ?13C and ?34S values for Z. capricorni was wide (>5 permille), which highlights the importance of accounting for spatial and temporal variability in primary producer isotopic signatures. The range of ?15N values for Z. capricorni was comparatively small (13C and ?15N signatures suggested that Z. capricorni was a potentially important contributor (24-99%) to the diet of most consumers sampled at the seagrass site, whereas microphytobenthos dominated the diet of the same consumers at the sandflat site. The main exception was the bivalve Austrovenus stutchburyi, which had a diet consisting mostly (up to 85%) of Ulva and Polysiphonia spp. at both sites. S isotopes proved to be of limited use owing to the difficulty of sampling microphytobenthos and to potential non-dietary sources of 34S-depleted sulfur to consumers. Mixing models also suggested that Z. capricorni contributed more to the diet of deposit feeders in August (late winter) than in March (late summer). (author). 75 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  13. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  14. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  15. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  16. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with ?-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of ?-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ? 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  17. Biological impact of eutrophication in the bay of somme and the induction and impact of anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, M.; Rybarczyk, H.; Wilson, J. G.; Ducrotoy, J. P.; Sueur, F.; Olivesi, R.; Elkaim, B.

    The first effects of eutrophication in the Bay of Somme became apparent in the years 1982-1985, when the cockle population collapsed. Areas of high mortality were mapped. Following exceptionally high summer temperatures, other effects were seen in 1982, 1983 and 1989, notably a mass mortality of the benthos. It appeared that the mortality of the benthos was a direct result of anoxia in the water promoted by phytoplankton blooms which were due to high nitrogen levels (nitrates from river and land runoff; ammonium from estuarine bivalve populations). Effects from the change in the benthic community (the disappearance of Cerastoderma edule and the proliferation of Pygospio elegans) were also apparent higher up in the food chain, viz. changes in the diet of the two main predators of the bivalve, the oystercatcher ( Haematopus ostralegus) and the common gull ( Larus canus). Following respirometry measurements of the water, sediment and the major macrobenthic species ( Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae), a model for anoxia was constructed.

  18. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  19. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilma Mota da, Silva; Luciana Almeida, Silva; Jailson B. de, Andrade; Márcia C. da Cunha, Veloso; Gislaine Vieira, Santos.

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by ther [...] mogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  20. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  1. Interactions between macro-algal mats and invertebrates in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, D.

    Blooms of opportunistic green macro-algae are a common feature of coastal areas and their effects on mudflat invertebrates can be dramatic. On the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, we have carried out a number of manipulative field experiments designed to evaluate the effects on invertebrates of different species of macro-algae with contrasting ecologies, and the effects of invertebrates on the development of the blooms. Macro-algal mats were found to have dramatic nega- tive effects on the density of the amphipod Corophium volutator, with higher algal biomasses having greater impact. The mechanism for this interaction seems to be interference by the algal filaments with the feeding behaviour of the amphipod. In contrast, the polychaete Capitella spp. increases in abundance under macro-algal mats due to enrichment of the sediment with organic material. These two interactions are seen at all scales, in areas of less than 1 m2 to the scale of the entire estuary, irrespective of the species composition of the macro- algal mats. Bioturbation by Corophium and grazing by the snail Hydrobia ulvae had little effect on macro-algal biomass, but there were less algae when the polychaete Nereis diversicolor was present. The most significant interaction in this system is the pronounced negative impact of algal mats on the abundance of Corophium, probably the most important invertebrate species in the diets of the estuary's shorebirds, fish and epibenthic crustaceans.

  2. Macroalgal mats and species abundance: a field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, S. C.

    1987-11-01

    A field experiment was carried out whereby the density of macroalgae ( Enteromorpha spp.) was manipulated and the resultant changes in sediment infaunal density were monitored. Four densities of Enteromorpha spp. were used: 0,0·3, 1, and 3 kg FW m -2, corresponding to control, low-, medium-, and high-density plots. The experiment ran from May to October 1985 and was sampled on three occasions. By July, the density of Corophium volutator was reduced at all weed levels when compared to control plots, whereas densities of Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, and Capitella capitata, all increased. Samples taken in October when the weed mats were buried in the sediment showed fewer differences than in July. Macoma, Nereis, and Capitella were still significantly more abundant at medium and high weed densities. Corophium showed no significant treatment effect. There was, however, a highly significant difference in population size structure for Corophium. Measurements of sediment redox potential and silt content under medium- and high-density plots revealed rapid anoxia with a significant increase in siltation.

  3. Associations between macrobenthos and invasive cordgrass, Spartina anglica, in the Danish Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a survey to provide knowledge on mechanisms controlling spatial and temporal variability of macrobenthos in an intertidal Wadden Sea area partly covered by invasive Spartina anglica. Benthic macrofauna was collected seasonally at seven stations along a transect covering non-vegetated mudflat and vegetated marsh areas. Shannon diversity index was consistently higher for macrobenthos in the open mudflat compared to the marsh area. Infaunal species, like Arenicola marina, Tubificoides benedeni and Macoma balthica, were more abundant in the mudflat than the marsh, while the opposite was evident for epifaunal species, like Hydrobia ulvae and Littorina littorea. The infaunal crustacean, Corophium volutator, on the other hand, appeared particularly attracted to the mudflat-marsh boundary. The biomass of below-ground plant materials and macrodetritus was positively correlated with the total macrofaunal abundance, while the biomass of dead below-ground plant materials alone showed a significant negative correlation with infaunal abundance. Total macrofaunal abundance was highest during summer in the mudflat, while no seasonal pattern was evident in the marsh. The negative influence of S. anglica invasions on infaunal abundance may have serious implications for higher trophic levels, such as waterbirds, that forage in Wadden Sea areas and thus for the overall biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

  4. Influence of macrofaunal assemblages and environmental heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in experimental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Kirstie E; Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Raffaelli, David G; White, Piran C L; Paterson, David M

    2007-10-22

    Despite the complexity of natural systems, heterogeneity caused by the fragmentation of habitats has seldom been considered when investigating ecosystem processes. Empirical approaches that have included the influence of heterogeneity tend to be biased towards terrestrial habitats; yet marine systems offer opportunities by virtue of their relative ease of manipulation, rapid response times and the well-understood effects of macrofauna on sediment processes. Here, the influence of heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in synthetic estuarine assemblages is examined. Heterogeneity was created by enriching patches of sediment with detrital algae (Enteromorpha intestinalis) to provide a source of allochthonous organic matter. A gradient of species density for four numerically dominant intertidal macrofauna (Hediste diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica) was constructed, and microphytobenthic biomass at the sediment surface was measured. Statistical analysis using generalized least squares regression indicated that heterogeneity within our system was a significant driving factor that interacted with macrofaunal density and species identity. Microphytobenthic biomass was highest in enriched patches, suggesting that nutrients were obtained locally from the sediment-water interface and not from the water column. Our findings demonstrate that organic enrichment can cause the development of heterogeneity which influences infaunal bioturbation and consequent nutrient generation, a driver of microphytobenthic production. PMID:17698480

  5. [Larvae and postlarvae production of the green-white sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in culture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Esperanza; Lodeiros Seijo, César

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the biological feasibility of massive larvae and postlarvae production of the Caribbean green-white urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Experiments were designed to choose the initial larval density and microalgae diets under culture, to study metamorphosis, postlarval and juvenile growth. Massive production of competent larvae 650 microm long at 12-13 days is possible using larval densities of 0.25 to 1 larva/ml. The microalgae Rhodomonas sp. was suitable for the optimization of larval growth and survival. Metamorphosis of 100% of the larvae can be induced with films of bentic diatoms (Navicula sp. and Amphora sp.), after 96 h; however, diatoms are not adequate for postlarval development and a food supply of Ulva lactuta is necessary for proper growth. For juveniles, a diet of macroalgae (U. lactuta) and/or commercial marine shrimp culture pellet food is enough for growth, but the best results were obtained with shrimp or U. lactuta used alone (85-86%, against 46% with the mixed diet). We recommend future experiments on nutritional requirements to optimize growth of these and subsequent stages. PMID:17469262

  6. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m?2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m?2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m?2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m?2), respectively.

  7. Hard disk failure and data recovery methods in computer forensicAdli bili?imde hard disk ar?zalar? ve ar?zal? disklerden veri kurtarma yöntemleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ziya Güllüce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the acceptation of digital data as evidence in courts, hard disks have been the most studied objects within a digital forensic examination.Data recovery is the recovery process of digital data from damaged, corrupted or inaccessible medias due to another cause which cannot be accessed in the normal way. Data recovery term in digital forensics literature is generally used for obtaining deleted, hidden or encrypted data. Detailed description of two different perspectives of data recovery will be made under logical a physical data recovery titles.Physical or logical problems may be the cause of inaccessibility of data in the recording media. Logical problem is the state of inability to reach data, although the recording media or the device which stores data works normally. On the other hand, physical malfunctions bring to mind the differing types of failures depending on the recording medium.The purpose of this article is to explain how to recover data from a hard disk which is corrupted due to any reason. Prior to that, data recovery concept,  data recovery types, physical structure of modern hard disk drives we use today and its internal components will be described, then encountered failures and intervention methods to the hard disk drives will be explained. ÖzetDijital verilerin mahkemelerde delil olarak de?erlendirilmesinden bu yana hard diskler adli bili?im incelemelerinin en çok çal???lan nesnelerinden biri olagelmi?tir.Veri kurtarma, zarar görmü?, bozulmu? veya ba?ka bir nedenden dolay? normal yollarla içinde bulundurdu?u dijital verilere ula??lamayan medyalardan verinin elde edilmesi veya kurtar?lmas? sürecidir. Adli bili?im literatüründe veri kurtarma terimi genellikle silinmi?, gizlenmi? veya kriptolu verilerin elde edilmesi anlam?nda kullan?lmaktad?r. Bu iki farkl? bak?? aç?s?n?n kar??l?k buldu?u yaz?l?msal ve donan?msal veri kurtarma türleri ile ilgili detayl? aç?klamalar yap?lacakt?r.Kay?t ortamlar?nda veri eri?iminin sa?lanmamas? yaz?l?msal veya donan?msal olabilir. Yaz?l?msal ar?zadan kas?t kay?t ortam?n?n veya verinin kay?tl? oldu?u cihaz?n çal???r durumda olmas?na ra?men veriye ula??lamama durumunu ifade eder. Donan?msal ar?zalar ise asl?nda kay?t ortam?na göre de?i?en, farkl?la?an ar?za türlerini akla getirmektedir.Bu makalenin amac? da herhangi bir sebepten dolay? bozulmu? olan hard disklerden nas?l veri kurtar?laca??n? izah etmektir. Bunun öncesinde veri kurtarma kavram?, veri kurtarma türlerinin neler oldu?u, günümüzde kullan?lan modern hard disklerin fiziksel yap?s? ve iç bile?enleri aç?klanacak, sonras?nda bu hard disklerde kar??la??lan ar?zalar ve müdahale yöntemleri de?erlendirilecektir.

  8. Marine mammal acoustic detections in the northeastern Chukchi Sea, September 2007-July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, David E.; Delarue, Julien; Mouy, Xavier; Martin, Bruce S.; Leary, Del; Oswald, Julie N.; Vallarta, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    Several cetacean and pinniped species use the northeastern Chukchi Sea as seasonal or year-round habitat. This area has experienced pronounced reduction in the extent of summer sea ice over the last decade, as well as increased anthropogenic activity, particularly in the form of oil and gas exploration. The effects of these changes on marine mammal species are presently unknown. Autonomous passive acoustic recorders were deployed over a wide area of the northeastern Chukchi Sea off the coast of Alaska from Cape Lisburne to Barrow, at distances from 8 km to 200 km from shore: up to 44 each summer and up to 8 each winter. Acoustic data were acquired at 16 kHz continuously during summer and on a duty cycle of 40 or 48 min within each 4-h period during winter. Recordings were analyzed manually and using automated detection and classification systems to identify calls. Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) whale calls were detected primarily from April through June and from September to December during their migrations between the Bering and Beaufort seas. Summer detections were rare and usually concentrated off Wainwright and Barrow, Alaska. Gray (Eschrichtius robustus) whale calls were detected between July and October, their occurrence decreasing with increasing distance from shore. Fin (Balaenoptera physalus), killer (Orcinus orca), minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) whales were detected sporadically in summer and early fall. Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) was the most commonly detected species between June and October, primarily occupying the southern edge of Hanna Shoal and haul-outs near coastal recording stations off Wainwright and Point Lay. Ringed (Pusa hispida) and bearded (Erignathus barbatus) seals occur year-round in the Chukchi Sea. Ringed seal acoustic detections occurred throughout the year but detection numbers were low, likely due to low vocalization rates. Bearded seal acoustic detections peaked in April and May during their breeding season, with much lower detection numbers in July and August, likely as a result of reduced calling rates after breeding season. Ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata) were only detected in the fall as they migrated south through the study area toward the Bering Sea. These results suggest a regular presence of marine mammals in the Chukchi Sea year-round, with species-dependent seasonal and spatial density variations.

  9. Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile) / Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RALF, RAUTENBERGER; ANDRÉS, MANSILLA; IVÁN, GÓMEZ; CHRISTIAN, WIENCKE; KAI, BISCHOF.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La actividad fotosintética de algas provenientes del Estrecho de Magallanes fue medida por primera vez con el propósito de determinar su fotoadaptación en terreno y su potencial de aclimatación a la radiación ultravioleta. Cinco especies fueron recolectadas desde la zona eulitoral y sublitoral super [...] ior: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides y D. ligulata. Curvas de fotosíntesis versus irradiancia (P-I) medidas en algas cultivadas en el laboratorio por más de una semana fueron usadas para determinar la aclimatación potencial de las algas en su habitat. Tanto las capacidades fotosintéticas, determinadas a través de la tasa máxima de transporte de electrones (ETRmax), como los puntos de saturación de fotosíntesis (Ik) fueron especies-específicas, no observándose correlaciones con la distribución vertical de las algas. Valores de Ik con rangos entre 80 y 215 ?mol m-2 s-1 indicaron una moderada adaptación a la luz en todas las especies estudiadas. La aclimatación a la radiación UV fue determinada a través del grado de disminución del rendimiento cuántico máximo del PSII (Fv/Fm) y su subsiguiente tasa de recuperación. Los resultados sugieren que bajo exposición a la radiación UV, la fotosíntesis no es dañada sino más bien regulada a la baja de forma transitoria. Además, no se observaron reducciones en ETRmax después de 4 h de exposición a la radiación UV-A y UV-B, y por consiguiente el ciclo de Calvin pudo no ser afectado. De este modo, Fv/Fm fue un parámetro mucho más sensitivo que ETRmax para explicar la aclimatación de fotosíntesis a la radiación UV. Tanto las tasas de inhibición como las tasas de recuperación no estuvieron correlacionadas con grupos morfofuncionales ni con la distribución vertical. Por tanto, aunque la capacidad para aclimatar a la radiación UV varió entre las diferentes especies, los resultados sugieren que estas respuestas están basadas en ajustamientos metabólicos o posiblemente estrategias fotoprotectoras. En conclusión, y tomando en cuenta las características de adaptación a la luz, todas las especies colectadas en el mesolitoral y sublitoral del Estrecho de Magallanes están bien aclimatadas a las dosis de UV-B que ocurren en su habitat, lo cual es un prerrequisito para tolerar aumentos de UV-B durante disminución de ozono o durante condiciones de alta radiación en verano. Abstract in english For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittora [...] l: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I) curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory under low white light intensities more than a week were used to assess the acclimation potential to irradiance conditions in the field. Both, photosynthetic parameters referred to as maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) and light saturation points of photosynthesis (Ik) were species-specific and did not correlate with the position on the shore. Ik ranging between 80 and 215 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 was indicative of moderate sun-adaptation in all studied species. The acclimation potential to UV-radiation was determined as the extent and the rates (m inh) of PSII inhibition (resulting from decreased maximum PSII-quantum yield (Fv/Fm)) after four hours of UV-exposure and as the subsequent rates of recovery (m ) in dim PAR. The results suggest that photosynthesis of each species during UV-exposure was transiently down regulated rather than damaged. Furthermore, no reductions in ETRmax were detected after 4 h exposure to UV-A and UV-B-radiation, and consequently the Calvin cycle could not be affected. Thus, Fv/Fm was a more sensitive parameter than ETRmax explaining the photosynthetic UV acclimat

  10. Seaweeds in closed systems; Zeewieren in gesloten systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P. ' t [Koers en Vaart, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, J. [Hortimare, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Seaweed is a potential source of green raw materials. They are used for human consumption, contain specific thickening agents such as alginates and carrageenans, and can be applied as growth-promoting fertilizers, in animal feed and for the cultivation of shellfish (abalones). In addition, extracts from seaweed are used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products and seaweeds also constitute a possible source of biofuels. Seaweed can possibly also serve as a protein platform for catering to the steadily growing demand for fish protein and soy protein. Though the Netherlands has a good reputation in offshore and hydraulic engineering as well as in seed cultivation and improvement, the knowledge of cultivating and harvesting seaweed is very limited. With the advent of wind farms in the North Sea and the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf, the opportunities for cultivating seaweed are now also being explored. Both extensive and intensive cultivation systems as used in agriculture and horticulture are being considered. Certain applications of seaweed require more controlled cultivation conditions. This is the case with specific plant substances, nutritional factors and with the propagation of seaweed for large-scale cultivation. Wherever the value of the cultivated seaweed increases, and hence the need for harvest security and risk control, closed systems are probably the best approach. As the cultivation conditions can be more easily controlled in closed systems, the yields are expected to be bigger, the quantities of plant substances more consistent and the overall quality better. In addition, pests are easier to control or prevent. In contrast with land-based seaweed cultivation, closed systems benefit from the abundant availability of clean and relatively low-mineral seawater. This makes it possible to control the temperature with the aid of seawater. The concept of seaweed in closed systems is in some ways comparable to greenhouse horticulture. Given the present prices for seaweed, the cultivation of mature plants in closed systems for industrial applications is not feasible. Even with fast-growing types and relatively expensive seaweeds, the investment costs of a closed cultivation system are too high. Palmaria Palmata can be commercially cultivated from basic material into mature plants for consumption using concrete tanks, but not using steel tanks. Ulva lactuca cannot be commercially cultivated for consumption purposes, whether in concrete tanks or steel tanks. In addition, consumer demand for Ulva lactuca in Europe is currently very small. Nurturing basic materials into young plants in steel tanks is feasible in economic, technical and social terms. The preference is for steel tanks with a tidal upweller system, which is very flexible and can also be used as a fully closed system. Young plants can also be nurtured in concrete tanks at sea. However, concrete tanks are more vulnerable and less flexible at sea compared to steel tanks. Young plants can also be nurtured in onshore tanks. In view of the great need for clean seawater, the problems in maintaining the right water temperature on land and the bigger risk of tank pollution, a closed offshore system is the preferred option. The use of offshore closed systems for propagating plant materials for large-scale cultivation appears to be an indispensable link in the chain. In view of the nature and scope of this feasibility study, not all questions can be answered in detail. However, the conclusion is that seaweed cultivation in offshore floating systems is viable in the Dutch situation. The nurturing of young plant material in closed systems may be an essential link in the large-scale offshore cultivation on lines and/or nets [Dutch] Zeewieren zijn een potentiele bron van groene grondstoffen. Ze worden gebruikt voor menselijke consumptie, bevatten specifieke bindmiddelen zoals alginaten en carragenen, en zijn toepasbaar als meststof met groeibevorderende eigenschappen, in diervoeders en voor de teelt van schelpdieren (zeeoor). Daarnaast worden extracten ui

  11. The introduced barnacle Balanus glandula (Darwin) in the Mar del Plata port as a structuring species in the intertidal community / El cirripedio introducido Balanus glandula (Darwin) en el puerto de Mar del Plata como una especie estructurante de la comunidad intermareal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Elías; Eduardo Alberto, Vallarino.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se analiza la dinámica poblacional del cirripedio introducido Balanus glandula en el área intermareal del puerto de Mar del Plata. El ciclo reproductivo de este cirripedio es discutido como una fuerza estructurante de la comunidad. Áreas replicadas, tanto en el intermareal alto como en la p [...] arte superior del intermareal, fueron mensualmente desnudadas. El reclutamiento, asentamiento acumulativo, mortalidad y crecimiento basal medio de B. glandula fue registrado, al igual que la sucesión de la fauna asociada. El primer asentamiento se registró en invierno (julio). La sucesión comenzó con un film de microorganismos, seguido por algas verdes (Ulva lactuca y Enteromorpha spp.) que dominaron hasta una comunidad final dominada por B. glandula a lo largo de todo el intermareal. La densidad de B. glandula fue significativamente más alta en la parte