WorldWideScience
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Application of response surface method to evaluate the cytotoxic potency of Ulva fasciata Delile, a marine macro alga  

OpenAIRE

•Cytotoxicity of Ulva fasciata Delile; a marine macro alga was revealed for the first time.•In vitro cytotoxicity was carried out on HT-29, Hep-G2 and MCF-7.•Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the complete study.

Das, Mukesh Kumar; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar; Rao, G. Srinivasa; Mukkanti, K.; Silpavathi, L.

2014-01-01

2

Application of response surface method to evaluate the cytotoxic potency of Ulva fasciata Delile, a marine macro alga.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioprospecting of marine natural products has recently produced a substantial number of drug candidates. Ulva fasciata Delile, belonging to the family Ulvaceae, is a green marine macro alga that grows profusely on the coastal seashore of South India. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic potential of a methanolic extract of U . fasciata Delile (MEUF) using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against human colon carcinoma (HT-29), human hepatocyte carcinoma (Hep-G2), and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied using central-composite experimental design (CCD) to obtain optimum combined effect of concentration and cancer cells with highest cytotoxicity. The effect of concentration, cancer cell lines as independent variables on absorbance (OD), percent cell survival and percent cell inhibition as dependent variables was investigated. Maximum cytotoxic activity of MEUF was established for Hep-G2 with lowest OD or percent cell survival; highest percent cell inhibition with significant difference (p > 0.05) was compared to HT-29 and MCF-7. PMID:25473362

Das, Mukesh Kumar; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar; Rao, G Srinivasa; Mukkanti, K; Silpavathi, L

2014-12-01

3

Isolation and structure determination of algicidal compounds from Ulva fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven species of seaweeds including 10 Chlorophyta, 13 Phaeophyta, and 14 Rhodophyta collected from the coast of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, were screened for algicidal activity against the red-tide phytoplankton Heterosigma akashiwo. The green alga Ulva fasciata (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) showed the strongest algicidal activity among the seaweeds tested. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of U. fasciata led to isolation of three algicidal compounds whose structures were determined to be hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (HDTA), octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid (ODTA), and alpha-linolenic acid on the basis of spectroscopic information. These polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed potent algicidal activity against H. akashiwo (LC(50) 1.35 microg/ml, 0.83 microg/ml, and 1.13 microg/ml for HDTA, ODTA, and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively), and the result demonstrated the potential of these PUFAs for practical harmful algal bloom control. PMID:16306701

Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Hirao, Shotaro; Ishibashi, Fumito; Fujita, Yuji

2005-11-01

4

FACILE GREEN SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES WITH GREAT CATALYTIC ACTIVITY USING ULVA FASCIATA  

OpenAIRE

We report a facile, green, and high yielding approache for the synthesis and stabilization of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using green seaweed Ulva fasciata extract. Characterization of the obtained AuNPs was performed using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the yield of the gold nanoparticles. The UV-visible absorption spectrum showed a characte...

Sugantha Kumari, V.; Sivagammi Sundari, G.; Khaleel Basha, S.

2014-01-01

5

Separation, preliminary characterization, and moisture-preserving activity of polysaccharides from Ulva fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfated polysaccharide (UFP31) extracted from the marine algae Ulva fasciata (UFP) was a heteropolysaccharide, and consisted of rhamnose, xylose, and glucose in a ratio of 1:0.46:0.27 with a (1?4)-linked glycosyl backbone. The rheology of UFP31 solution has been investigated by steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory experiments. The effects of concentration, temperature, and time were systematically investigated. Steady-shear rheological measurement in a range of shear rate (1-1000s(-1)) exhibited that UFP31 has a Newtonian behavior in diluted solutions (1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%, w/v), dilatant flow behavior at higher concentrations (7.0% and 9.0%, w/v). Speci?cally, UFP31 solution (7%, w/v) exhibited antithixotropic behavior. In small amplitude oscillatory experiments, both the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G") of UFP31 solution (7%, w/v) increased with frequency swept but G' increased more quickly. As a consequence, G' tends to overcome G" at 2.7Hz. The capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention of the polysaccharide was also respectively examined gravimetrically in comparison with those of glycerol. It revealed that UFP31 exhibited a higher ability both in the moisture-absorption and moisture-retention test throughout the entire experiment. These results clearly establish the possibility that UFP31 could be employed as a new material of nature moisturizer. PMID:25451747

Shao, Ping; Shao, Jiamei; Han, Longfei; Lv, Ruiling; Sun, Peilong

2015-01-01

6

A bioactive dipeptide derivative from Malachra fasciata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chloroform extract of the air-dried leaves of Malachra fasciata afforded aurantiamide acetate (1). The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by synthesis. Aurantiamide acetate was found to be active against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans, and T. mentagrophytes and inactive against S. aureus, E. coli and A. niger at a dosage of 80 ?g. It was found to reduce the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C by 32%. (Author)

7

The complete mitochondrial genome of Parabotia fasciata (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Parabotia fasciata is a small-sized benthopelagic fish species in the family Cobitidae. In the present study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P fasciata. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. fasciata was 16,590?bp in length, which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region, and an L-strand replication origin (OL). Besides, its overall nucleotide base composition of mitogenome was 31.28% for A, 25.83% for T, 15.72% for G and 27.17% for C, as well as an AT content of 57.11%. PMID:25317640

Wei, Min; Yu, Peng; Yang, Yingming; Wan, Quan

2014-10-15

8

Efek Inotropik Dan Kronotropik Ekstrak Etanol Daun Afrika (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) Pada Isolat Jantung Tikus  

OpenAIRE

African leaves (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) classified as Asteraceae. It is traditionally used as antidiabetic, hypertensive anticancer drugs. African leaves contain vernonioside compound which is similar to digoxin structure. This study aims to determine characteristic of simplex and extract, phytochemical screening, also inotropic and chronotropic effect of African leaves (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) ethanol extract. African leaves simplex was extracted by percolation usin...

Sembiring, Indra Gunanta

2014-01-01

9

Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

2011-11-15

10

A new subspecies of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from Oregon (Aves: Timaliinae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographic variation in plumage color of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from northern California and southern Oregon is related to climate. A new subspecies, Chamaea fasciata margra, is described from a disjunct population of southern interior Oregon. Colonization of C. fasciata in interior Oregon was perhaps from birds crossing coniferous forests via isolated balds of Ceonothus. Recent increases of Wrentits in interior Oregon may be in response to habitat alterations (deforestation, fires) and concurrent global warming.

Browning, M. Ralph

1992-01-01

11

Relaciones entre la comunidad de anfípodos y las macroalgas a las que están asociados, en una plataforma rocosa del litoral central de Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

The present paper examines the relationships between the amphipod community on a rocky shelf off the central Venezuelan coast and seven species of associated algae which are morphologically different: Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh, 1822); Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1753); Gracilaria cervicornis (Turner, 1808-1809); Sargassum platycarpum Montagne, 1856; Padina gymnospora (Kützing, 1859); Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813; and Laurencia filiformis (C. Agardh, 1822). The complexity of ea...

Ayala, Y.; Marti?n, A.

2003-01-01

12

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae.The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

Gupta Satish Chand

2012-07-01

13

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  

OpenAIRE

Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae).The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids...

Gupta Satish Chand; Shenoy Sumanth; Kotecha Mita

2012-01-01

14

Physiological and biochemical responses of Ulva prolifera and Ulva linza to cadmium stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses of Ulva prolifera and Ulva linza to Cd(2+) stress were studied. We found that the relative growth rate (RGR), Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (Yield) of two Ulvaspecies were decreased under Cd(2+) treatments, and these reductions were greater in U. prolifera than in U. linza. U. prolifera accumulated more cadmium than U. linza under Cd(2+) stress. While U. linza showed positive osmotic adjustment ability (OAA) at a wider Cd(2+) range than U. prolifera. U. linza had greater contents of N, P, Na(+), K(+), and amino acids than U. prolifera. A range of parameters (concentrations of cadmium, Ca(2+), N, P, K(+), Cl(-), free amino acids (FAAs), proline, organic acids and soluble protein, Fv/Fm, Yield, OAA, and K(+)/Na(+)) could be used to evaluate cadmium resistance in Ulva by correlation analysis. In accordance with the order of the absolute values of correlation coefficient, contents of Cd(2+) and K(+), Yield, proline content, Fv/Fm, FAA content, and OAA value of Ulva were more highly related to their adaptation to Cd(2+) than the other eight indices. Thus, U. linza has a better adaptation to Cd(2+) than U. prolifera, which was due mainly to higher nutrient content and stronger OAA and photosynthesis in U. linza. PMID:23533346

Jiang, He-ping; Gao, Bing-bing; Li, Wen-hui; Zhu, Ming; Zheng, Chun-fang; Zheng, Qing-song; Wang, Chang-hai

2013-01-01

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Description of Atrocalopteryx fasciata spec. nov. from Yunnan, China (Odonata: Calopterygidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Atrocalopteryx fasciata Yang, Hämäläinen & Zhang, spec. nov. (holotype ?, from China, Yunnan, Dehong, Yingjiang, deposited at Odonata Collection of College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan, China) is described and illustrated from the male sex. It is compared with Atrocalopteryx laosica (Fraser, 1933). PMID:24871733

Yang, Guo-Hui; Hämäläinen, Matti; Zhang, Hao-Miao

2014-01-01

16

Photoperiod and Temperature Effects on the Adult Eclosion and Mating Rhythms in Pseudopidorus fasciata (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily distributions of eclosion and mating activities of Pseudopidorus fasciata Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) were recorded under natural and various laboratory conditions. Eclosion of this insect exhibited circadian gating in constant darkness (DD) but not in constant light (LL) at 28°C. Under natural conditions, the majority of adults emerged in midmorning with an eclosion peak around 1000 hours. The eclosion distribution was significantly affected by ambient temperature but not by photoperiod under laboratory conditions. Eclosion was more spread out at 22°C than at higher temperatures, and peak eclosion times were advanced at higher temperatures up to 30°C. Under natural and laboratory diurnal cycles, adults of P. fasciata preferred to mate at dusk, within a few hours before the start of the scotophase. Photoperiod and ambient temperature interacted in regulating the mating distribution in P. fasciata. Mating rhythmicity disappeared under DD and LL, under which the insect either mated arrhythmically (DD) or barely mated (LL). Overall, eclosion rhythm in this insect was predominantly regulated by temperature rather than photoperiod, whereas photoperiod appeared to be more influential than temperature in rhythmic gate of mating patterns. PMID:25479201

Wu, Shaohui; Refinetti, Roberto; Kok, Loke T; Youngman, Roger R; Reddy, Gadi V P; Xue, Fang-Sen

2014-12-01

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Avaliação do desempenho do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei e das macroalgas Gracilaria birdiae e Ulva fasciata num sistema de cultivo multitrófico integrado  

OpenAIRE

The aquaculture is growing fast, responding to the increase of aquatic products demand. This growth requires sustainable practices. Taking advantages from the complementary functions of the organisms in the ecosystem, the bioremediation technology Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture proposes to balance the abundance of organisms, avoiding the instability caused by the massive introduction of fed aquaculture. In this study, developed in the Rio Grande do Norte State (Brazil), juvenile shrimps ...

Raposo, Diogo Manuel Trindade

2013-01-01

18

Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)  

OpenAIRE

Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch o...

Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

2014-01-01

19

Methods for the Induction of Reproduction in a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva  

OpenAIRE

The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3). The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies) was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C) for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved fil...

Carl, Christina; Nys, Rocky; Lawton, Rebecca J.; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

20

Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta) from Poland  

OpenAIRE

Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz.) M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845) was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and ma...

Beata Messyasz; Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Andrzej Massalski; Bohuslav Uher; Andrzej Rybak; Lidia Szendzina; Marta Pikosz

2013-01-01

21

Chemical and biological studies from an Azorean macroalga: Ulva rigida  

OpenAIRE

New drugs from natural sources have been targets of the drug discovery program and some bioactive compounds from macroalgae such as sulfated polysaccharides, steroids and diterpens have found their applications in the pharmaceutical industry.[1,2] Consequently, we have investigated the chemical composition and the in vitro antitumor potential of the metabolites isolated from the macroalga Ulva rigida, collected from the Azorean coast, an environmentally healthy habitat with a high level of bi...

Silva, Madalena; Vieira, Lui?s M. M.; Almeida, Ana Paula; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake; Seca, Ana M. L.; Barreto, Maria Do Carmo

2012-01-01

22

Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

1984-05-01

23

Microhabitat factors affecting nest site selection and breeding success of tree-nesting Bonelli's eagles (Aquila fasciata)  

OpenAIRE

A nidificação arborícola é uma estratégia reprodutora pouco comum nas populações europeias de águia de Bonelli (Aquila fasciata). A selecção do habitat de nidificação desta espécie em meio florestal é pouco conhecida, tendo sido apenas divulgado um estudo sobre a nidificação da espécie em pinheiro da Calabria (Pinus brutia) no Chipre. Desta forma, o presente estudo pretendeu identificar as características das árvores mais relevantes na escolha do local de nidificação pela...

Ferreira, Ana Rita Dos Anjos Maia

2011-01-01

24

Projecting Invasion Risk of Non-Native Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon) in the Western United States  

OpenAIRE

Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to project the potential distribution of introduced species outside their native range. Such studies rarely explicitly evaluate potential conflicts with native species should the range of introduced species expand. Two snake species native to eastern North America, Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon, have been introduced to California where they represent a new stressor to declining native amphibians, fish, and reptiles. To project th...

Rose, Jonathan P.; Todd, Brian D.

2014-01-01

25

Intra-organismal distribution of tetrodotoxin in two species of blue-ringed octopuses (Hapalochlaena fasciata and H. lunulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth studies on the intra-organismal distribution of toxin may yield valuable clues about potential ecological functions. The distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in previously unexamined tissues of two species of blue-ringed octopuses, wild-caught Hapalochlaena fasciata and Hapalochlaena lunulata from the aquarium industry, was surveyed. Tissues from each individual were examined separately. Tetrodotoxin was detected in posterior salivary gland (PSG), arm, mantle, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland, testes contents, brachial heart, nephridia, gill, and oviducal gland of H. fasciata. By contrast TTX was found only in the PSG, mantle tissue, and ink of H. lunulata. The highest concentrations of TTX resided in the PSG of both species; however, the arms and mantle contained the greatest absolute amounts of TTX. Minimum total amounts of TTX per octopus ranged from 60 to 405 microg in H. fasciata and from 0 to 174 microg in H. lunulata and correlated well with the amounts in the PSG. Transport of TTX in the blood is loosely suggested by the presence of the toxin in blood-rich organs such as the gill and brachial hearts. The distributional data also suggest both offensive and defensive functions of TTX. PMID:19481562

Williams, Becky L; Caldwell, Roy L

2009-09-01

26

The origin of the Ulva macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea in 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green algal blooms have occurred in the Yellow Sea for seven consecutive years from 2007 to 2013. In this study, satellite image analysis and field shipboard observations indicated that the Ulva blooms in 2013 originated in the Rudong coast. The spatial distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules in the Southern Yellow Sea also supported that the blooms originated in the Rudong coast. In addition, multi-source satellite data were used to evaluate the biomass of green algae on the Pyropia aquaculture rafts. The results showed that approximately 2784 tons of Ulva prolifera were attached to the rafts and possessed the same internal transcribed spacer and 5S rDNA sequence as the dominant species in the 2013 blooms. We conclude that the significant biomass of Ulva species on the Pyropia rafts during the harvesting season in radial tidal sand ridges played an important role in the rapid development of blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:25444626

Zhang, Jianheng; Huo, Yuanzi; Wu, Hailong; Yu, Kefeng; Kim, Jang Kyun; Yarish, Charles; Qin, Yutao; Liu, Caicai; Xu, Ren; He, Peimin

2014-12-15

27

Avaliação da ação da macroalga marinha Ulva lactuca em animais de experimentação  

OpenAIRE

Ulva lactuca é uma macroalga verde marinha comum em ambientes de temperatura elevada e com grandes variações de salinidade. A flora ficológica marinha vem sendo objeto de estudo por apresentar propriedades farmacoterapêuticas sobre o metabolismo animal, além de oferecer uma alternativa viável no tratamento de patologias que acometem o ser humano e afeta a sua qualidade de vida, ela é bastante utilizada na culinária, como iogurte, sushi. Objetivando avaliar a toxicidade aguda da Ulva ...

Carla Andrea de Moura; Evandro Valentim da Silva; George Chaves Jimenez; Fálba Bernadete Ramos dos Anjos; Ana Maria de França Bezerra; Ivone Antônia de Souza

2013-01-01

28

The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production  

OpenAIRE

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous...

Carl, Christina; Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

29

[Research on the characteristics of Ulva. Prolifera in Shandong Peninsula during 2008-2012 based on MODIS data].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the MODIS data were used to monitor the situation of Ulva. prolifera in the Shandong Peninsula waters during the period of 2008-2012. Those studies mainly calculate the area of NDVI, and get the information of the time, area , scope , floating path of Ulva prolifera by using threshold segmentation method. The feasibility of monitoring Ulva. prolifera information based on MODIS data and the macroscopic regularity of the outburst of Ulva. prolifera was elementally studied. The results showed that Ulva. prolifera first generated in the middle of May or early June, the time, area, scope of Ulva. prolifera reached a maximum, but the relative crowding density was earlier or later when Ulva. prolifera developed into a outburst. Finally, Ulva. prolifera died away after existing for 71 days in the late July or the early August. Wholly, the floating path moved to the northwest from off the coast to offshore. Based on those aspects above, the outburst of Ulva. prolifera in 2008 and 2009 was more serious than others. PMID:25095429

Wu, Meng-Quan; Guo, Hao; Zhang, An-Ding; Jia, Li-Li; Xiao, Lu-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Pu

2014-05-01

30

Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia)  

OpenAIRE

Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud). Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, es...

Nates-Parra Guiomar; Rodríguez Calderón Ángela Teresa

2006-01-01

31

Does the abundance of girellids and kyphosids correlate with cover of the palatable green algae, Ulva spp.? A test on temperate rocky intertidal reefs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed whether the abundance of girellids and kyphosids was related to cover of the palatable green algae, Ulva australis and Ulva compressa, on rocky intertidal reefs in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. No relationship was found between Ulva spp. cover and abundance of Girella tricuspidata, Girella elevata and Kyphosus sydneyanus during a period of relatively low Ulva spp. cover (i.e. February 2011 to March 2011), but during a period of significantly higher Ulva spp. cover (i.e. October 2011 to November 2011) there was a strong correlation between Ulva spp. cover and G. tricuspidata abundance. Spatial analysis indicated that the abundance of G. tricuspidata was consistent across time, suggesting G. tricuspidata were not moving between reefs in response to variation in Ulva spp. cover between periods but rather that large schools of G. tricuspidata resided on reefs that had relatively higher Ulva spp. cover at certain times of the year. PMID:25557432

Ferguson, A M; Harvey, E S; Rees, M J; Knott, N A

2015-01-01

32

Effects of UV-B radiation on the growth interaction of Ulva pertusa and Alexandrium tamarense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced UV-B (280 - 320 nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion is one of global environmental problems. Not only marine organisms but also marine ecosystems can be affected by enhanced UV-B radiation. The effects of UV-B radiation on interaction of macro-algae and micro-algae were investigated using Ulva pertusa Kjellman and Alexandrium tamarense as the materials in this study. The results demonstrated that UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa and Alexandrium tamarense when they were both mono-cultured, and the growth inhibition of algae was more significant with increasing doses of UV-B radiation. Alexandrium tamarense could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa in mixed culture, and the growth inhibition was more significant when increasing the initial cell density. However, Ulva pertusa could inhibit the growth of Alexandrium tamarense in early phase and stimulate the growth in latter phase when they were grown in mixed culture. Lower initial cell density (10(2) cell/ml) of Alexandrium tamarense could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa under UV-B radiation treatment, however, with the initial cell density increasing (10(3) and 10(4) cell/ml), the growth of Ulva pertusa was stimulated under lower dose of UV-B radiation and inhibited under higher dose of UV-B radiation by Alexandrium tamarense. Compared with that in mixed culture, Ulva pertusa showed more positive inhibition to the growth of Alexandrium tamarense under UV-B radiation treatment. PMID:16158588

C ai, Heng-Jiang; Tang, Xue-Xi; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Dong, Dong; Qu, Liang

2005-01-01

33

Ulva prolifera monitoring by GF-1 wide field-of-view sensor data  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva prolifera, a kind of green macroalgae, is nontoxic itself, however, its bloom has bad effects on the marine environment, coastal scene, water sports and seashore tourism. Monitoring of the Ulva prolifera by remote sensing technology has the advantages of wide coverage, rapidness, low cost and dynamic monitoring over a long period of time. The GF-1 satellite was launched in April 2013, which provides a new suitable remote sensing data source for monitoring the Ulva prolifera. At present, segmenting image with a threshold is the most widely used method in Ulva prolifera extraction by remote sensing data, because it is simple and easy to operate. However, the threshold value is obtained through visual analysis or using a fixed statistical value, and could not be got automatically. Facing this problem, we proposed a new method, which can obtain the segmentation threshold automatically based on the local maximum gradient value. This method adopted the average NDVI value of local maximum gradient points as the threshold, and could get an appropriate segmentation threshold automatically for each image. The preliminary results showed that this method works well in monitoring Ulva prolifera by GF-1 WFV data.

Liang, Wenxiu; Li, Junsheng; Zhou, Demin; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Haobin

2014-11-01

34

Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

Nates-Parra Guiomar

2006-06-01

35

Microdistribution of tetrodotoxin in two species of blue-ringed octopuses (Hapalochlaena lunulata and Hapalochlaena fasciata) detected by fluorescent immunolabeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blue-ringed octopuses (genus Hapalochlaena) possess the potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX). We examined the microdistribution of TTX in ten tissues of Hapalochlaena lunulata and Hapalochlaena fasciata by immunolabeling for fluorescent light microscopy (FLM). We visualized TTX throughout the posterior salivary gland, but the toxin was concentrated in cells lining the secretory tubules within the gland. Tetrodotoxin was present just beneath the epidermis of the integument (mantle and arms) and also concentrated in channels running through the dermis. This was suggestive of a TTX transport mechanism in the blood of the octopus, which would also explain the presence of the toxin in the blood-rich brachial hearts, gills, nephridia, and highly vascularized Needham's sac (testes contents). We also present the first report of TTX in any cephalopod outside of the genus Hapalochlaena. A specimen of Octopus bocki from French Polynesia contained a small amount of TTX in the digestive gland. PMID:22983011

Williams, Becky L; Stark, Michael R; Caldwell, Roy L

2012-12-01

36

Post-testicular change in the reptile sperm surface with particular reference to the snake, Natrix fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sperm surface changes occurring in the reptile Wolffian duct have been explored with particular references to the snake, Natrix fasciata. In the snake Wolffian duct there are several proteins not present in serum, the pattern of which changes in concert with the seasonal testicular cycle. Whereas testicular spermatozoa did not bind antibody to duct secretions, all Wolffian duct spermatozoa did so over both head and tail, according to immunofluorescence patterns. Thus, on entering the Wolffian duct, the entire surface of N. fasciata spermatozoa acquires one of more of the duct's secretory components. As indicated by immunofluorescence, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunodiffusion, epitopes on at least some molecules that bind to spermatozoa or that remain free in the duct fluid are shared with those in other Natrix species, but not in more distant reptiles (turtle, anole lizard), nor chicken, rat, or rabbit. In regard to glycoproteins, one prominent con A-reactive band was present in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of snake fluid and more were evident in fluid collected from the turtle duct. However, such lectin-reactive elements did not bind to spermatozoa as judged by an absence of any change in snake, turtle and lizard sperm lectin-binding patterns in passing from the testis into and through the Wolffian duct. In all, evidence from these and other species studied begins to suggest that the nature of the post-testicular sperm surface modification displayed in most vertebrates that fertilize internally may differ in sub-therian and therian groups, respectively. There appears to be a relative emphasis on glycosyl-rich surface elements in the latter. The possible significance of these changes for sperm function in the different groups is discussed briefly in terms of sperm survival/storage, as well as capacitation and sperm binding to the zona. PMID:2435838

Esponda, P; Bedford, J M

1987-01-01

37

[Analysis of fatty acid composition of Ulva pertusa Kjellm by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was established to determine the fatty acids of Ulva pertusa Kjellm. The total lipids of Ulva pertusa Kjellm were extracted using Folch method, derivatized with HCl-CH3OH solution, and analyzed by GC/MS. The fragmentation patterns and mass spectrometry characteristics of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were analyzed and concluded by regular patterns of organic mass spectrometry. According to the database index and standard controls, twenty-four fatty acid components in Ulva pertusa Kjellm were identified, and the contents of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoic acid and 6,9,2,15-octadecatetraenoic acid accounted for 45.14% of the total fatty acids. The qualitative results of fatty acids in Ulva pertusa Kjellm show that it is very useful in identifying fatty acid methyl esters by characteristic ions, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. PMID:21046785

Lou, Qiaoming; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu; Sun, Zhaomin

2010-07-01

38

Spatio-temporal differentiation in the population structure of Hydrobia ulvae on an intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oleron Bay, France)  

OpenAIRE

Spatio-temporal changes in density, breeding cycle, growth and population structure of Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) were studied by monthly sampling of a wide bare mudflat in Marennes-Oleron Bay. Four stations, located along a cross-shore transect and characterized by different geomorphological structures, were investigated from March 2000 to February 2001. Hydrobia ulvae was mainly distributed in the upper half part of the mudflat and no individuals were found in the lower part...

Haubois, Anne-gaelle; Guarini, Jean-marc; Richard, Pierre; Blanchard, Gerard; Sauriau, Pierre-guy

2002-01-01

39

Effects of Ulva rigida on the Growth, Feed Intake and Body Composition of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is the first trial to evaluate algae meal, Ulva rigida, as an inexpensive and locally available feed ingredient in the diet of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Five experimental diets were supplemented with Ulva meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% (C0, U5, U10, U15 and U20, respectively to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat meal by Ulva meal for common carp, Cyprinus carpio during a 112-day growth trial. Carp fingerlings, each initially weighing 3.1 g, were stocked into 60 l-glass tanks and were fed to apparent satiation three times daily. Performances of fish fed the test diets were evaluated in terms of survival, final mean weight, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and body composition. Poorest growth performance was recorded from fish fed the diet with 20% Ulva meal supplementation (U20 (p< 0.05. Fish group fed with 5% Ulva meal inclusion (U5 achieved the best growth performance (p>0.05. Results suggested that the dietary Ulva meal inclusion of 5 to 15% replacing wheat meal in carp diets could be acceptable.

Ibrahim Diler

2007-01-01

40

Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds. PMID:24918075

Girard, Yvette A; Rogers, Krysta H; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M; Lenaghan, Scott C; Woods, Leslie W; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D; Johnson, Christine K

2014-04-01

41

Role of Ulva lactuca Extract in Alleviation of Salinity Stress on Wheat Seedlings  

OpenAIRE

Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismuta...

Ibrahim, Wael M.; Ali, Refaat M.; Hemida, Khaulood A.; Sayed, Makram A.

2014-01-01

42

Comparative Studies of the Pyrolytic and Kinetic Characteristics of Maize Straw and the Seaweed Ulva pertusa  

OpenAIRE

Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min?1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate tha...

Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

2010-01-01

43

New locality of macroalga Ulva prolifera (Ulvaceae) in the Wielkopolska Region  

OpenAIRE

New inland locality of Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller [=Enteromorpha prolifera (O. F. Müller) J. Agardh, Enteromorpha salina Kützing] was found in flowing pond in the Kopla valley, near Tulce country (Wielkopolska Region, locality coordinates: 52o20?35?N; 17o04?40?E). Macroalga thallus had been watched since May till August 2008. U. prolifera thalluses reached significant sizes (above 200 cm long). Thalluses of such sizes have not been described in the literature yet. Macroalga thall...

Rybak, Andrzej; Messyasz, Beata

2009-01-01

44

EFECTO DE Ulva spp. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE Argopecten purpuratus EN LA BAHÍA DE PARACAS  

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Full Text Available Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada uno con tres unidades experimentales de 1m 2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con 10 (T2 y 20 (T3 kg/m 2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1, es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repetición (30 por tratamiento y se registró la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gónada. La supervivencia se evaluó contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registró la temperatura y oxígeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registró diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentración de oxígeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluyó que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extracción.

Daniel Arce Castro

2014-01-01

45

Preliminary results on laboratory simulations of the decomposition of the green algae Ulva rigida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ulva Rigida is a cosmopolitan green algae characteristic of many eutrophic and mesotrophic coastal environments. The effect of its growth and decomposition on the cycle of trace metals has been studied by using enclosures in the site Loutropyrgos over a number of years. The present study is a continuation of that research. Its main aim was to simulate a number of the field experiments in the laboratory, under more controlled conditions and understand better the impact of the decomposition of algae on sea water and sediment

46

In situ growth potential of the subtidal part of green tide forming Ulva spp. stocks  

OpenAIRE

Ulva spp., the algae most responsible for green tides in Brittany (France), are found on the foreshore and in the most beachward wave area (MBWA) of many bays during green tide phenomena. These algae have recently been seen drifting at greater depths (reaching -20 m). In view of the significant quantities of algae found at these depths, and the less favorable conditions for algal growth than in the intertidal zone, we attempted to determine if they could grow there. For that, during their max...

Merceron, Michel; Antoine, Virginie; Auby, Isabelle; Morand, P.

2007-01-01

47

Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 ?g kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 ?g kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. PMID:25261178

Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

2014-11-15

48

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

Mauffret, A., E-mail: aourell.mauffret@icman.csic.e [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Rico-Rico, A. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Temara, A. [The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels (Belgium); Blasco, J. [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

2010-02-15

49

Trophic plasticity of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae within an intertidal bay (Roscoff, France): A stable isotope evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the trophic ecology of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae in different habitat types within an intertidal bay. The results point out two major trophic pathways involving H.ulvae in this bay. On the one hand, in sandy/muddy sediments Hydrobia derives most of its energy from allochtonous detritus derived from Enteromorpha sp and the total SOM pool. In addition, in these sediments, the phototrophic purple bacteria mats played a substantial trophic role in the diet of Hydrobia. On the other hand, in a Spartina maritima marsh, the gastropod appears firstly dependent of autochtonous detritus derived from this plant. The minor contribution of microphytobenthos to the diet of Hydrobia is consistent with a relatively low presence of epipelic diatoms at the sampling sites. These results provide evidence that the trophic ecology of H.ulvae inhabiting intertidal sediments is quite plastic and does not necessarily rely primarly on microphytobenthos. Consequently, in a single bay, the small spatial scale variability in the origin and availability of detritus have direct implications on the food incorporation by H.ulvae.

Riera, P.

2010-01-01

50

The effect of different primary producers on Hydrobia ulvae population dynamics: a case study in a temperate intertidal estuary  

OpenAIRE

The effect of macroalgal blooms and the consequent disappearance of Zostera noltii meadows on Hydrobia ulvae population dynamics and production was studied in the Mondego estuary based on data obtained from January 1993 to September 1995. Sampling was carried out at a non-eutrophicated area, covered with Z. noltii, and also at an eutrophicated area, where seasonal Enteromorpha spp. blooms occur.

Cardoso, P. G.; Lillebø, A. I.; Pardal, M. A.; Ferreira, S. M.; Marques, J. C.

2002-01-01

51

The impact of mercury contamination on the population dynamics of Peringia ulvae (Gastropoda) on a temperate coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)  

OpenAIRE

Foram avaliados os efeitos da contaminação de mercúrio na estrutura e dinâmica populacional do gastrópode Peringia ulvae (também conhecida como Hydrobia ulvae) e o seu impacto na cadeia trófica, ao longo de um gradiente de mercúrio, na Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). O gastrópode revelou ser uma espécie tolerante ao contaminante, pois os valores de densidade, biomassa e produção secundária mais elevados foram registados na zona de contaminação intermédia, seguidos da ...

Sousa, Eva Carvalho

2013-01-01

52

Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1) y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy. PMID:21044839

Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

2011-02-01

53

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil / Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em [...] 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos. Abstract in english The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20) (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile) (20), that were purchased in drugstores and mar [...] kets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Liliana de O., Rocha; Maria Magali S. R., Soares; Cristiana Leslie, Corrêa.

2004-12-01

54

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Liliana de O. Rocha

2004-12-01

55

Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and fluctuating levels of nitrogen sources. Our understanding of the influences of this varying condition on the uptake and growth responses of U. lactuca is limited. In this present work, we examined the growth response of U. lactuca exposed to different sources of nitrogen (NH4+; NO3?; and the combination NH4NO3) by using photo-scanning technology for monitoring the growth kinetics of U. lactuca. The images revealed differential increases of the surface area of U. lactuca disks with time in response to different N-nutrient enrichments. The results showed a favorable growth response to ammonium as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 ?M of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4?±?0.18% day?1 and 9.4?±?0.72% day?1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5?±?0.24 mg DW m?2·day?1. The presence of ammonium apparently discriminated the nitrate uptake by U. lactuca when exposed to NH4NO3. Apart from showing the significant differential growth response of U. lactuca to different nitrogen sources, the work exhibits the applicability of a photo-scanning approach for acquiring precise quantitative growth data for U. lactuca as exemplified by assessment of the growth response to two different N-sources.

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, JØrn Dalgaard

2011-01-01

56

Allelopathic interactions between the macroalga Ulva pertusa and eight microalgal species  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of Ulva pertusa and eight microalgal species, Heterosigma akashiwo, Skeletonema costatum, Tetraselmis subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros gracile, Chroomonas placoidea 1967, Isochrysis galbana 8701, and Alexandrium tamarense, was examined in a series of batch, semi-continuous and isolated co-cultures ( U. pertusa and one microalgal species). The results of the experiments with co-cultures confirmed the secretion of allelopathic substances by U. pertusa. Growth was significantly ( p<0.05) suppressed in each of the macroalgal species in batch co-cultures, nutrient replete semi-continuous co-cultures and isolated co-cultures. The percentage growth reduction varied between 42 and 100% in batch co-cultures, between 28 and 100% in semi-continuous co-cultures, and between 21 and 100% in isolated co-cultures. In addition, we examined the potential allelopathic effect of U. pertusa culture filtrate. The Ulva culture filtrate significantly ( p<0.01) inhibited the growth of C. placoidea from 2 days after incubation until the end of the experiment, and it exhibited no inhibitory effect on the growth of the other microalgal species. This may suggest that the allelochemicals released from U. pertusa are rapidly degradable. The microalgae tested exhibited different (stimulatory, inhibitory or no) effects on the growth of U. pertusa. U. pertusa grew faster with H. akashiwo (+16%) and S. costatum (+9%), less with T. subcordiformis (-20%), N. closterium (-23%) and C. gracile (-30%), but was not significantly affected by I. galbana, A. tamarense and C. placoidea. The microalgae tested exhibited no clear allelopathic effects on U. pertusa.

Nan, Chunrong; Zhang, Haizhi; Zhao, Guangqiang

2004-11-01

57

Algal Bioremediation of Waste Waters from Land-Based Aquaculture Using Ulva: Selecting Target Species and Strains  

OpenAIRE

The optimised reduction of dissolved nutrient loads in aquaculture effluents through bioremediation requires selection of appropriate algal species and strains. The objective of the current study was to identify target species and strains from the macroalgal genus Ulva for bioremediation of land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia. We surveyed land-based aquaculture facilities and natural coastal environments across three geographic locations in Eastern Australia to determine wh...

Lawton, Rebecca J.; Mata, Leonardo; Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2013-01-01

58

Ocorrência de Ulva spp., Polysiphonia sp., e Microcystis aeruginosa nas praias do Saco do Laranjal, Pelotas, RS  

OpenAIRE

O trabalho relata a ocorrência de algas indicadoras de processos de eutrofização no Saco do Laranjal (Lagoa dos Patos) no período compreendido entre 2005 e 2012. A ocorrência de grandes quantidades da alga macroscópica verde Ulva L. (Chlorophyta), formando marés verde, foram registradas nos verão de 2008, 2009 e 2012. A cianofícea potencialmente tóxica, Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. foi observada em quase todos os anos, nos meses de verão e, em floração massiva, no verã...

Vanessa Correa da Rosa; Marinês Garcia

2013-01-01

59

Hydrobia ulvae imposex levels at Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal) between 1998 and 2007: a counter-current bioindicator?  

OpenAIRE

Imposex expression in prosobranch gastropods has been widely used as a biomarker of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. Estuaries have been described as the most affected areas by this problem since they usually enclose the main TBT sources—ports, dockyards and marinas—resulting from the compound’s application as a biocide in antifouling paints on ships. Using Hydrobia ulvae as a bioindicator, the current work addresses the most reliable methods to reduce the influence of cri...

Galante-oliveira, S.; Oliveira, I.; Pacheco, M.; Barroso, C. M.

2010-01-01

60

Evidence of Coexistence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in a Green-Tide-Forming Alga, Ulva prolifera  

OpenAIRE

Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C3 photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C4 photosynthesis, so C4 photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C3 and C4 p...

Xu, Jianfang; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

61

Comparative Studies of the Pyrolytic and Kinetic Characteristics of Maize Straw and the Seaweed Ulva pertusa  

Science.gov (United States)

Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min?1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n?=?3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n?=?2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol?1, respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy. PMID:20844751

Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

2010-01-01

62

Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides  

Science.gov (United States)

Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L?1 significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L?1 (p0.05). Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community. PMID:22496758

Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

63

Composition, uniqueness and variability of the epiphytic bacterial community of the green alga Ulva australis  

Science.gov (United States)

Green Ulvacean marine macroalgae are distributed worldwide in coastal tidal and subtidal ecosystems. As for many living surfaces in the marine environment, little is known concerning the epiphytic bacterial biofilm communities that inhabit algal surfaces. This study reports on the largest published libraries of near full-length 16S rRNA genes from a marine algal surface (5293 sequences from six samples) allowing for an in-depth assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacterial community on a green Ulvacean alga. Large 16S rRNA gene libraries of surrounding seawater were also used to determine the uniqueness of this bacterial community. The surface of Ulva australis is dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes, especially within the Rhodobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Sapropiraceae families. Seawater libraries were also dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes sequences, but were shown to be clearly distinct from U. australis libraries through the clustering of sequences into operational taxonomic units and Bray–Curtis similarity analysis. Almost no similarity was observed between these two environments at the species level, and only minor similarity was observed at levels of sequence clustering representing clades of bacteria within family and genus taxonomic groups. Variability between libraries of U. australis was relatively high, and a consistent sub-population of bacterial species was not detected. The competitive lottery model, originally derived to explain diversity in coral reef fishes, may explain the pattern of colonization of this algal surface. PMID:21048801

Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Lewis, Matt; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2011-01-01

64

Growth inhibition to three red tide microalgae by extracts of Ulva pertusa  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth inhibition effect of different concentration of distilled water extract and four polar organic solvent (methanol, acetone, ether and chloroform) extracts of Ulva pertusa on three typical red tide microalgae ( Heterosigma akashiwo, Alexandrium tamarense and Prorocentrum micans) were investigated. Liquid-liquid fractionation and HPLC analysis for methanol extract of U. pertusa were carried out. Growth of the three microalgae was significantly inhibited by the distilled water extract of U. pertusa at relatively higher concentration. However, the cells of the three microalgae did not die completely even at high concentration. Methanol extract of U. pertusa showed the highest growth inhibition on the three microalgae, and all the cells of the three microalgae were killed at relatively high concentration. The other three organic solvent extracts of U. pertusa had no apparent effect on the three microalgae. The results of bioassays and HPLC analysis suggested that the inhibitory substances in U. pertusa to the microalgal growth had relatively high polarities. H. akashiwo was the most sensitive one while A. tamarense was the most tolerant one to the growth inhibitory substances.

Qiu, Jin; Shuanglin, Dong; Changyun, Wang

2006-06-01

65

Toxicity of the amphoteric surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine, to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degradation of the synthetic, amphoteric surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and its toxicity to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been evaluated using several different physiological test end-points over different periods of exposure up to 120 h. Droplet surface angle measurements revealed that, following a period of acclimation of about 24 h, CAPB began to degrade and that primary degradation was complete within 120 h. Effective quantum yield (?F/F(m)') and relative growth rates (RGRs) were the most sensitive measures of phytotoxicity, with CAPB concentrations at and above 10 mg l(-1) eliciting irreversible, time-dependent and/or dose-dependent responses. Cell membrane damage, estimated from measurements of ion leakage, was detected only at a concentration of 40 mg l(-1) after 48 h of exposure to CAPB but by 120 h damage was evident at all measured concentrations above 10 mg l(-1). These observations suggest that both CAPB and its metabolites are intrinsically toxic to U. lactuca. The findings of this study are discussed in terms of the environmental consequences of applying CAPB to control harmful algal blooms. PMID:21082243

Vonlanthen, Sofie; Brown, Murray T; Turner, Andrew

2011-01-01

66

Role of Ulva lactuca extract in alleviation of salinity stress on wheat seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased with increasing the algal extract concentration while activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased with increasing concentration of algal extract more than 1% (w/v). The protein pattern of wheat seedling showed 12 newly formed bands as result of algal extract treatments compared with control. The bioactive components in U. lactuca extract such as ascorbic acid, betaine, glutathione, and proline could potentially participate in the alleviation of salinity stress. Therefore, algal presoaking is proved to be an effective technique to improve the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress conditions. PMID:25436231

Ibrahim, Wael M; Ali, Refaat M; Hemida, Khaulood A; Sayed, Makram A

2014-01-01

67

VARIACIONES EN LA MORFOMETRÍA DE ULVA LACTUCA L (ULVOPHYCEAE) EN DOS ZONAS CONTAMINADAS DE LA BAHÍA DE SANTIAGO DE CUBA  

OpenAIRE

El presente trabajo expone los resultados obtenidos acerca de la dinámica de crecimiento de la especie Ulva lactuca L en dos zonas contaminadas de la bahía de Santiago de Cuba, durante el período de febrero a mayo de 2007. En cada zona se efectuaron cada 15 días tres transectos para analizar las variaciones morfométricas. El largo de los frondes presentó variaciones entre 0,8 cm y 24,6 cm y el ancho entre 3,0 cm y 42,5 cm. La estación más idónea para el crecimiento de la especie fue ...

Ngel Castell-puchades, Miguel U. C.; Leticia Delgado-Cobas; Mez-luna, Liliana Mar U. Eda G. U. F.

2013-01-01

68

Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca  

OpenAIRE

The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L-1). The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L-1 was the same as 20 and 30 mg L-1

Hanan Hafez Omar

2008-01-01

69

In situ growth potential of the subtidal part of green tide forming Ulva spp. stocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva spp., the algae most responsible for green tides in Brittany (France), are found on the foreshore and in the most beachward wave area (MBWA) of many bays during green tide phenomena. These algae have recently been seen drifting at greater depths (reaching - 20 m). In view of the significant quantities of algae found at these depths, and the less favorable conditions for algal growth than in the intertidal zone, we attempted to determine if they could grow there. For that, during their maximum growth period (from May to July), algae were picked up at three stations located on the foreshore, in the MBWA and in the subtidal (deep) zones of the Bay of Douarnenez, and their nitrogen, carbon and chlorophyll a + b contents were determined, and their photosynthetic activity was compared in the laboratory. The intracellular concentrations did not differ much from one station to another, although in the subtidal zone, the irradiance and the nitrogen concentration in the ambient water were much lower than those measured on the foreshore and in the MBWA. Photosynthetic activity characterized by maximum amounts of oxygen produced at different irradiances and by saturating and compensating irradiance levels, was also quite similar at the three stations. The irradiance, temperature and salinity of the subtidal environment, together with the chemical and photosynthetic characteristics of the algae found in that area, are consistent with the hypothesis that they grow there, and that their nitrogen supply comes from nitrogen releases from sediments. Nevertheless, their growth rate is probably less than that of algae in the MBWA. PMID:17568657

Merceron, Michel; Antoine, Virginie; Auby, Isabelle; Morand, Philippe

2007-10-01

70

Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

2015-01-01

71

Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Sediment and Macroalgae (Ulva Sp. and Enteromorpha Sp. on the Mersin Coast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mersin ili s?n?rlar? içerisinde halk taraf?ndan yo?un olarak kullan?lan dört plajda makroskobik ye?il algler(Ulva sp. ve Enteromorpha sp. ve sedimentte a??r metallerin birikiminin belirlenmesi amac?yla, Alüminyum(Al, Krom (Cr, Mangan (Mn, Demir (Fe, Nikel (Ni, Bak?r (Cu, Çinko (Zn, Kur?un (Pb, veKadmiyum (Cd düzeyleri ayl?k olarak tespit edilmi?tir. Yap?lan analizler sonucunda Cu ve Zn istasyon 1,Cd istasyon 2 ve Al, Mn, Fe ve Ni ise istasyon 4’de alglerde en yüksek birikimi gösteren a??r metallerolmu?lard?r. A??r metallerin birikim düzeylerinin alglerde ve sedimentte s?ralanmas?, Ulva sp.’de Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd; Enteromorpha sp.’de Fe>Al>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd;sediment örneklerinde ise Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>Cr>Zn>Pb>Cd>Cu ?eklinde tespit edilmi?tir.

Mehmet Tahir ALP

2012-03-01

72

The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

2014-10-01

73

Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ?pH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA) to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration) could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG)) were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ?pH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast. PMID:24250793

Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

2013-01-01

74

Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb

75

Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

2007-04-15

76

Freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) as a bioaccumulator of selected heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) and alkaline earth metals (Ca and Mg).  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the ability of freshwater taxa of the genus Ulva (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) to serve as bioindicators of metal in lakes and rivers. Changes in heavy metal (Ni, Cd and Pb) and alkaline earth metal (Ca and Mg) concentrations in freshwater Ulva thalli were investigated during the period from June to August 2010. The study was conducted in two ecosystems in Western Poland, the Malta lake (10 sites) and the Nielba river (six sites). Three components were collected for each sample, including water, sediment and Ulva thalli. The average concentrations of metals in the water sample and in the macroalgae decreased in the following order: Ca>Mg>Ni>Pb>Cd. The sediment revealed a slightly altered order: Ca>Mg>Pb>Ni>Cd. Ca and Mg were found at the highest concentrations in thalli due to the presence of carbonate on its surface. Among the examined heavy metals in thalli, Ni was in the highest concentration, and Cd found in the lowest concentration. There were statistically significant correlations between the levels of metals in macroalgae, water and sediment. Freshwater populations of Ulva exhibited a greater efficiency to bioaccumulate nickel as compared to species derived from marine ecosystems. PMID:22726424

Rybak, Andrzej; Messyasz, Beata; ??ska, Bogus?awa

2012-11-01

77

Macroalgae mitigation potential for fish aquaculture effluents: an approach coupling nitrogen uptake and metabolic pathways using Ulva rigida and Enteromorpha clathrata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture effluents are rich in nitrogen compounds that may enhance local primary productivity, leading to the development of algae blooms. The goal of this study was to assess the potential use of naturally occurring green macroalgae (Ulva and Enteromorpha) as bioremediators for nitrogen-rich effluents from a fish aquaculture plant, by evaluating their respective uptake dynamics under controlled conditions. Ulva and Enteromorpha were incubated separately in aquaculture effluent from a local pilot station. Algae tissue and water samples were collected periodically along 4 h. For each sample, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations were quantified in the effluent, while internal algae reserve pools and nitrate reductase activity (NRA) were determined within the algae tissues. Both macroalgae absorbed all dissolved inorganic nitrogen compounds in less than 1 h, favoring ammonia over nitrate. Ulva stored nitrate temporarily as an internal reserve and only used it after ammonia availability decreased, whereas Enteromorpha stored and metabolized ammonia and nitrate simultaneously. These distinct dynamics of ammonia and nitrate uptake supported an increase in NRA during the experiment. This study supports the hypothesis that Ulva or Enteromorpha can be used as bioremediators in aquaculture effluents to mitigate excess of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. PMID:24338110

Aníbal, Jaime; Madeira, Hélder T; Carvalho, Liliana F; Esteves, Eduardo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Rocha, Carlos

2014-12-01

78

Seasonal patterns and recruitment dynamics of green tide-forming Ulva species along the intertidal rocky shores of the southern coast of Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

The abundance of two Ulva species in unmanipulated and artificial plots was investigated to better understand the ecological aspects of green tides on the intertidal rocky shore of the southern coast of Korea from July 1998 to January 2001. Artificial substrates were made on ceramic tiles (200 cm2) using a mixture of cement and rock and were set up on the rocky substrate in the lower intertidal zone using a hammer and anchor bolts. These settling plates were replaced every 1-2 months. Two Ulva species were recruited continuously for 3-4 months each year. U. pertusa was recruited during summer-autumn, whereas U. linza was recruited during winter-early spring or spring-early summer. However, U. pertusa dominated in the monitoring plots compared with the experimental period, with the exception of 2 months (February and March 2000). These results indicated that U. pertusa may be the main contributor to green tides along the intertidal rocky shores. The two Ulva species showed a positive relationship between density and biomass. This suggests that the physical removal of Ulva masses should be conducted during the early growing season. I hope this study provides valuable information for determining management policies for green tides on intertidal rocky shores.

Park, Sang Rul

2014-12-01

79

Population structure, dynamics and production of Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) along an eutrophication gradient in the Mondego estuary (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

Eutrophication in the Mondego estuary gave rise to qualitative changes in the benthic community, involving the replacement of eelgrass, Zostera noltii, by green algae such as Enteromorpha spp. and Ulva sp. It seems reasonable to assume that, through time, such changes may determine a selected new trophic structure. Hydrobia ulvae, a dominant species in terms of abundance and biomass, was studied with regard to life history, population dynamics and productivity in relation to changing environmental conditions along the eutrophication gradient. The purpose was to examine to what extent this species may adapt to the new emergent conditions. During the study period, H. ulvae population exhibited both temporal and spatial density variations. The settlement pattern did not change along the eutrophication gradient, and took place in March, June, July and September. However, the population was denser in the less eutrophied areas, corresponding to Z. noltii meadows, when compared to the eutrophied ones, where Enteromorpha spp. blooms are usually observed. Growth was continuous through life but growth rates were higher during spring, decreased from early summer to mid fall and practically ceased during winter, and then gradually increased again up to spring. Life span was estimated as 21 ± 3 months. Growth productivity (P) was estimated as 93.7 g AFDW .m -2.year -1in the Z. noltii meadows, 15.2 g AFDW .m -2.year -1in the eutrophied area, and 30.3 g AFDW .m -2.year -1in the strongly eutrophied area. Elimination productivity (E) was estimated as 30.0 g AFDW .m -2.year -1in the Z. noltii meadows, 51.8 g AFDW .m -2.year -1in the eutrophied area, and 97.5 g AFDW .m -2.year -1in the strongly eutrophied area. The average annual biomass ( overlineB) (standing stock) of the population was estimated as 70.2 g AFDW .m -2in the Z. noltii meadows, 5.5 g AFDW .m -2in the eutrophied area, and 7.4 g AFDW .m -2in the strongly eutrophied area. ratios were estimated as 1.3 and 4.8 in the Z. noltii meadows, 2.8 and 9.5 in the eutrophied area, and 4.5 and 13.2 in the strongly eutrophied area, respectively. As a pattern, the standing stock decreased as a function of increasing eutrophication, while P/ overlineBand E/ overlineBratios increased following the same gradient. There is evidence that H. ulvae population structure and annual production are seriously affected by eutrophication, namely by macroalgal bloom dynamics. Moreover, results suggest that H. ulvae might be suffering a change in its adaptive strategy along the eutrophication gradient, becoming closer to a typical `r' strategist in the strongly eutrophied areas.

Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Marques, João Carlos

1999-07-01

80

Photobiological characteristics and photosynthetic UV responses in two Ulva species (Chlorophyta) from southern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of different wavebands of artificial UV (UVB and UVA) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was assessed in two species of the genus Ulva, U. olivascens and U. rotundata, from southern Spain in order to test for possible differences in acclimation of photosynthesis. Both species share similar morphology but are subject to different light environments: U. rotundata is an estuarine alga, inhabiting subtidal locations, while U. olivascens is an intertidal, sun-adapted organism. Algae were exposed to three different UV conditions, PAR+UVA+UVB, PAR+UVA and PAR for 7 d. Short-term exposure (6 h) was also carried out, using two PAR levels, 150 and 700 micromolm(-2)s(-1). Pigment contents and photosynthesis vs. irradiance curves from oxygen evolution were used to contrast sun- and shade adaptation between these species. O2-based net photosynthesis (Pmax) and PAM-chlorophyll fluorescence (optimal quantum yield, Fv/Fm) were used as parameters to evaluate photoinhibition of photosynthesis in the experiments. The results underline different photobiological characteristics among species: the subtidal U. rotundata had higher contents of pigments (Chl a, Chl b and carotenoids) than the sun-adapted U. olivascens, which resulted in higher thallus absorptance and P-I parameters characterized by higher photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiances (alpha) and lower saturating points for photosynthesis (Ek). After 7 d exposure, photoinhibition of Fv/Fm was close to 40-45% in both species. Differences between UV treatments were seen in U. rotundata after 5 d and after 7 d in U. olivascens, in which PAR+UVA impaired strongly photosynthesis (80%). Such patterns were correlated with a progressive decrease in pigment contents, specially chlorophylls. In short-term (6 h) exposures, combinations of UVA+UVB and high PAR level resulted in high rates of photoinhibition of chlorophyll fluorescence (68-92%) in U. rotundata, whereas in U. olivascens photoinhibition ranged between 42% and 53%. Photoinhibition under low PAR combined to UV radiation was lower than observed under high PAR. Net O2-Pmax revealed similar response among the species, with maximal photoinhibition rates close to 60% in algae incubated under high PAR+UVA+UVB. In the case of UV exposure in combination with low PAR, the highest photoinhibition rates were measured in U. rotundata. PMID:14644564

Figueroa, Felix L; Nygård, Charlotta; Ekelund, Nils; Gómez, Iván

2003-12-01

81

Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of {Delta}H{sup o} and the negative value of {Delta}G{sup o} show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy {Delta}S{sup o} shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

Rathinam, Aravindhan [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Zou, Linda, E-mail: linda.zou@unisa.edu.au [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

2010-12-15

82

Effects of ulvoid (Ulva spp.) accumulation on the structure and function of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) bed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of ulvoid (Ulva spp.) accumulation on the structure and function of an eelgrass bed by the coast of Iwakuni, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We monitored eelgrass shoot density and volume of ulvoid accumulation in the study site and evaluated effects of the accumulated ulvoid canopy on the percent survival, seedling density, growth rates, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and carbon contents of eelgrass. Eelgrass shoot density decreased by the accumulation of ulvoid. Also, seedling density decreased by the increase in the ulvoid volumes. Shoot density, seedling density and leaf elongation were negatively correlated with ulvoid volume. Carbon contents in eelgrass decreased by the accumulation of ulvoid (canopy height: 25cm). These results suggest that accumulation of ulvoid bloom has significant negative impacts on the structure and function of eelgrass bed, i.e. decreases in vegetative shoot density, seedling density, shoot height and growth rate. PMID:17692339

Sugimoto, Kenji; Hiraoka, Kiyonori; Ohta, Seiji; Niimura, Yoko; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

2007-10-01

83

Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100?mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500?mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67?±?0.38) and (5.42?±?0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30?µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60?µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p?

Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

2013-12-13

84

The influence of sediment cohesiveness on bioturbation effects due to Hydrobia ulvae on the initial erosion of intertidal sediments: A study combining flume and model approaches  

OpenAIRE

Laboratory experiments performed in a recirculating flume were designed to quantify the bioturbation influence of the mud snail Hydrobia ulvae, one of the most abundant deposit feeders on European intertidal mudflats. Variations in sediment moisture content that occur between bedforms in shore-normal, ridge and runnel systems of intertidal mudflats were added to the model definition. Sediment erosion thresholds, erosion rates and the microalgal pigment composition of resuspended material were...

Orvain, F.; Sauriau, Pierre-guy; Bacher, Cedric; Prineau, Michel

2006-01-01

85

Ulva conglobata, a marine algae, has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in murine hippocampal and microglial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that inflammatory processes are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the treatment of AD using anti-inflammatory agents slows the progress of AD. Marine algae have been utilized in food products as well as in medicine products for a variety of purposes. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of methanol extracts of Ulva conglobata (U. conglobata), a marine algae, on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line and the anti-inflammatory effects on interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced microglial activation in BV2 cells. U. conglobata methanol extracts significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity induced by glutamate in HT22 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production induced by IFN-gamma in BV2 cells. U. conglobata methanol extract treatments were also examined and it was found that they almost completely suppressed the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These results suggest that U. conglobata possesses therapeutic potential for combating neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation. PMID:16644126

Jin, Da-Qing; Lim, Chol Seung; Sung, Jin-Young; Choi, Han Gil; Ha, Ilho; Han, Jung-Soo

2006-07-10

86

Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

2013-06-15

87

Evidence of coexistence of C? and C? photosynthetic pathways in a green-tide-forming alga, Ulva prolifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C? photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C? photosynthesis, so C? photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C? and C? photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C? metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). To investigate whether the alga operates a C?-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature). The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C?-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:22616009

Xu, Jianfang; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

88

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (?Go, ?Ho and ?So) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics

89

Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biomass yields from some species of macroalgae exceed the yields in traditional terrestrial production systems. This renewable carbon source possesses a potential for energy purposes and thus reduction in fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Previous experiments have indicated that nitrous oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2?) and nitrate (NO3?) and at a light intensity of 225?molphotonsm?2s?1. No emission of N2O was observed in darkness. The N2O emission increased in a Michaelis–Menten characteristic manner with increasing concentrations of both NO3? and NO2?. The light dependency indicated that the N2O emission was related to algal photosynthesis, and not bacterial activity. As algal NO3? reductase (NR) converts NO3? to NO2? in light, and N2O emissionwas observed from both NO3? and NO2?, it is proposed that NO2? reductase (NiR) activity may have generated the observed N2O, however the mechanism needs further investigation. This apparent N2O production by algae emphasizes the need for experiments under natural conditions in order to evaluate potential greenhouse gas balances associated with large-scale productions for energy purposes.

Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette

2013-01-01

90

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 ?g L?¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g?¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ?10?-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl? through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K? ion channels. PMID:23117203

Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

2012-12-01

91

A method for genotype validation and primer assessment in heterozygote-deficient species, as demonstrated in the prosobranch mollusc Hydrobia ulvae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In studies where microsatellite markers are employed, it is essential that the primers designed will reliably and consistently amplify target loci. In populations conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, screening for unreliable markers often relies on the identification of heterozygote deficiencies and subsequent departures from HWE. However, since many populations naturally deviate from HWE, such as many marine invertebrates, it can be difficult to distinguish heterozygote deficiencies resulting from unreliable markers from natural processes. Thus, studies of populations that are suspected to deviate from HWE naturally would benefit from a method to validate genotype data-sets and test the reliability of the designed primers. Levels of heterozygosity are reported for the prosobranch mollusc Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant together with a method of genotype validation and primer assessment that utilises two primer sets for each locus. Microsatellite loci presented are the first described for the species Hydrobia ulvae; the five loci presented will be of value in further study of populations of H. ulvae. Results We have developed a novel method of testing primer reliability in naturally heterozygote deficient populations. After the design of an initial primer set, genotyping in 48 Hydrobia ulvae specimens using a single primer set (Primer set_A revealed heterozygote deficiency in six of the seven loci examined. Redesign of six of the primer pairs (Primer set_B, re-genotyping of the successful individuals from Primer set_A using Primer set_B, and comparison of genotypes between the two primer sets, enabled the identification of two loci (Hulv-06 & Hulv-07 that showed a high degree of discrepancy between primer sets A and B (0% & only 25% alleles matching, respectively, suggesting unreliability in these primers. The discrepancies included changes from heterozygotes to homozygotes or vice versa, and some individuals who also displayed new alleles of unexpected sizes. Of the other four loci examined (Hulv-01, Hulv-03, Hulv-04, & Hulv-05, all showed more than 95% agreement between primer sets. Hulv-01, Hulv-03, & Hulv-05 displayed similar levels of heterozygosity with both primer sets suggesting that these loci are indeed heterozygote deficient, while Hulv-08 showed no deficiency in either primer set. Conclusion The simple method described to identify unreliable markers will prove a useful technique for many population studies, and also emphasises the dangers in using a single primer set and assuming marker reliability in populations shown to naturally deviate from HWE.

Brownlow Robert J

2008-08-01

92

[Seasonal variations of metal contents (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in seaweed Ulva lactuca from the coast of El Jadida city (Morocco)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of El Jadida Atlantic coastal water was monitored from April 1998 to March 1999 by measuring hydrological parameters (dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, phosphates and nitrites) and using the seaweed Ulva lactuca as a quantitative bio-indicator of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc contamination. Metal content in seaweeds, collected every month from four stations characterized by the discharge of urban and industrial waste water, showed significant variations depending on the station and sampling period. However, the seaweed of El Jadida exhibited generally lower contents compared to those of similar species from other geographical areas. PMID:15212368

Kaimoussi, Aziz; Mouzdahir, Abdelkrim; Saih, Abdelkbir

2004-04-01

93

Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae), Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in outdoor culture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of solar radiation on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence associated to photosystem II (PS II) was determined in the Phaeophyta Macrocystis pyrifera, the Rhodophyta Chondrus crispus and the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca by oxygen evolution and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence. The algae were maintained in 1.2 m3 outdoor tanks with constant aeration and at 8, 26 and 100% incident irradiance (E(o)). All three species showed a decrease in deltaF/F'm values during solar noon compared to values in the morning and afternoon, suggesting a photoinhibition of photosynthesis. In general, photoinhibition was negatively correlated to increasing daily irradiance in all three species. Photoinhibition in C. crispus occurred in tissue incubated at 8, 26 and 100% E(o), while in M. pyrifera and U. lactuca a decrease in deltaF/F'm values was only observed in tissue incubated at 100% E(o). This suggests that species that naturally grow at greater depths might be more susceptible to excessive light when cultured in shallow waters compared to species that naturally inhabit shallower depths. In M. pyrifera, deltaF/F'm values were lower in the afternoon than those in the morning, suggesting slower repair mechanisms of the photosystem II compared to the other species. The results suggest that photoinhibition could be reduced by reducing incident irradiance to culture systems or increasing of biomass to promote self-shading. Gross oxygenic photosynthesis increased linearly at low electron transport rates after which it saturated in all three species. This suggests that chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as an indicator of the physiological status of macroalgae maintained in dense aquaculture systems. PMID:11154083

Cabello-Pasini, A; Aguirre-von-Wobeser, E; Figueroa, F L

2000-09-01

94

Combined effects of light intensity and NH{4/+}-enrichment on growth, pigmentation, and photosynthetic performance of Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity and enhanced nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis of the green-tide macroalga, Ulva prolifera. Thalli of U. prolifera were grown in natural or NH{4/+}-enriched seawater under two different light intensities for 7 days, and then the growth rate, pigmentation, and photosynthetic performance of the thalli were evaluated. The results show that the relative growth rate (RGR) was markedly higher under the high light level than under the low light level. Enrichment with NH{4/+} enhanced the RGR under high light intensity, but did not affect RGR under low light intensity. In low light conditions, NH{4/+} -enrichment resulted in a marked decrease in the maximal photosynthetic rate ( P m) and the maximum carbon fixation rate ( V max), but it did not affect the half saturation constant for carbon ( K 0.5) or the ratio of V max to K 0.5, which reflects the carbon acquisition efficiency. In high light conditions, P m, K 0.5, and the dark respiration rate ( R d) increased under NH{4/+} enrichment, but V max and the V max / K 0.5 ratio decreased. Regardless of the light intensity, NH{4/+}-enrichment did not affect the apparent photosynthetic efficiency ( ?), which reflects the ability of the alga to use light energy at low light levels. Under both low and high light intensities, the chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and carotenoids (Car) contents in thalli were higher in NH{4/+}-enriched than in natural seawater, except that there was a decrease in the Chl b content of thalli in NH{4/+}-enriched seawater under low light intensity. Therefore, NH{4/+} enrichment improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of U. prolifera under high light intensity, but not under low light intensity. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying these physiological responses.

Xu, Zhiguang; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Sun, Fuxin; Sun, Jianzhang; Wang, Guangce

2014-09-01

95

Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer e na Barra do Furado (Barra, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m em relação ao Píer (2,2 m. Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos estressante. As diferenças observadas na distribuição vertical dos organismos bênticos, principalmente na extensão das faixas superiores, evidenciam condições de exposição a ondas variáveis.The present study aims to compare the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic communities in two sites composed by granitic boulders with distint hydrodynamics due to different wave swells at Farol de São Tomé (Pier and Barra do Furado beaches (Barra, both in northern state of Rio de Janeiro. Quadrats of 400 cm² were overlapped along three vertical profiles on each site and were sampled by the photoquadrat method from 0.2 m of the tide level to the upper limit of Littorina spp. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at Barra site (3.8 m than at Píer site (2.2 m. Nine species were common to both sites. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq, and Grateloupia sp. were unique to Barra, whereas Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie, and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux occurred only at Píer boulders. On both sites species richness and diversity were superior at the intermediate quadrats of the intertidal zone. The highest values were recorded at Barra. The most pronounced assemblage differences between equivalent areas of either site occurred on the lower upper eulittoral band followed by the lower eulittoral and the sub-littoral fringe, respectively. The littoral fringe assemblage was the only one that did not show significant differences among the studied sites, yet a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas, such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 on upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 on the sub-littoral fringe. At Píer, the intertidal zone showed an even distribution, reflecting a less stressful environment. The differences on vertical distribution of the local benthic,

Bruno P. Masi

2008-12-01

96

Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

2015-01-01

97

Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seagrasses that are distributed over a large area of the Swan Lake, Weihai, China, support a productive ecosystem. In recent years, however, frequent macroalgal blooms have changed the ecosystem structure and threatened the seagrasses. To understand the bloom-forming macroalgae we conducted a yearly field survey of Swan Lake. Results indicated that the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa both exhibited a much higher productivity and attained a greater maximum biomass (of 1712±780gDWm(-)(2) and 1511 ± 555 gDW m(-2), respectively) than was the case for the seagrasses. The mean annual atomic ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P in C. linum were 14.31 ± 4.45, 402.82 ± 130.25, and 28.12±2.08, respectively. The ?(15)N values (11.09 ± 0.91‰ for C. linum; 9.27 ± 2.83‰ for U. pertusa) indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the macroalgal blooms. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lagoon, particularly near the river mouth, supported the blooms. PMID:25444622

Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-12-15

98

Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile, Jania rubens, and Dictyota dichotoma from Rabta Bay, Jijel (Algeria).  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in algae samples collected from the Rabta Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Algeria. The levels of heavy metals in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Dictyota dichotoma (brown algae) recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Zn was the most predominant metal in the seaweeds. The obtained HM contents indicate that different species demonstrate various degree of metal accumulation and the obtained higher values in site 1 of the studied zone can be attributed to the discharge influence of two rivers (Mouttas and Larayeche Rivers), entering the Mediterranean Sea and local pollutant emissions. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the macroalgae samples was found in the order below: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd from the studied zone. The highest amounts of heavy metals in algae samples were Cd, Cu, and Pb in brown algae, and Cr and Zn in green and brown algae from the studied zone (Rabta Bay). PMID:21755430

Laib, Essaid; Leghouchi, Essaid

2012-03-01

99

Anti-peroxidative and anti-hyperlipidemic nature of Ulva lactuca crude polysaccharide on D-galactosamine induced hepatitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To find whether pretreatment of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) extract could be effective against D-Galactosamine (500 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced anomaly in rat. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), tissue lipoperoxides (LPO), hepatic protein thiols, non-enzymatic anti-oxidants glutathione (GSH) and vitamins (E and C) were examined using spectrophotometer. The ultra structural changes of liver during D-Galactosamine and protection offered by ULP were examined by electron microscopy. Seaweed histology and chemical composition of polysaccharides in seaweed were examined. Alcian blue staining showed the presence of sulphated polysaccharide with total sugar (65.4%), sulphate (17.4%), and uronic acid (17.2%) content. D-Galactosamine intoxicated rats showed significant (pliver damage with acute aberration in serum lipid profile, hepatic protein thiols and tissue non-enzymatic anti-oxidants. Assorted deposits of lipid droplets and abnormal appearance of mitochondria was observed in electron microscopy study. Rats pretreated with ULP (30 mg/kg body weight/day/for 21 days) showed a significant inhibition (panti-peroxidative and anti-hyperlipidemic property. PMID:18706469

Sathivel, Arumugam; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

2008-10-01

100

Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). PMID:19897016

Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

2010-01-14

101

Activity of commercial enzymes on settlement and adhesion of cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, spores of the green alga Ulva linza, and the diatom Navicula perminuta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fouling species produce adhesive polymers during the settlement, adhesion and colonization of new surfaces in the marine environment. The present paper tests the hypothesis that enzymes of the appropriate specificity may prevent biofouling by hydrolysing these adhesive polymers. Seventeen commercially available enzyme preparations designed originally for bulk use in a range of end-use applications were tested for their effects on the settlement and/or adhesion of three major fouling species, viz. the green alga Ulva linza, the diatom Navicula perminuta and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. The serine-proteases were found to have the broadest antifouling potential reducing the adhesion strength of spores and sporelings of U. linza, cells of N. perminuta and inhibiting settlement of cypris larvae of B. amphitrite. Mode-of-action studies on the serine-protease, Alcalase, indicated that this enzyme reduced adhesion of U. linza in a concentration-dependent manner, that spores of the species could recover their adhesive strength if the enzyme was removed and that the adhesive of U. linza and juvenile cement of B. amphitrite became progressively less sensitive to hydrolysis as they cured. PMID:15804714

Pettitt, M E; Henry, S L; Callow, M E; Callow, J A; Clare, A S

2004-12-01

102

The effect of Hydrobia ulvae and microphytobenthos on cohesive sediment dynamics on an intertidal mudflat described by means of numerical modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous investigations have documented spatial and temporal variations in the erosion threshold, erosion rate, and suspended sediment settling characteristics on an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal coastal plain estuary in the Danish Wadden Sea. The differences seem to be very much controlled by the effects of benthic biology rather than by physical parameters. In order to test to what extend biology may interact with the dynamics of fine-grained sediment in an entire estuarine system, these results have been transformed into four different sets of erodibility and settling characteristics which have been used as input to the 2D hydrodynamic numerical model MIKE 21 MT. The model was used to investigate the effect that differences in the benthic communities may have on the net deposition. The model included computation of hydrodynamics, wave fields and cohesive sediment dynamics. Based on the modelling results presented it is suggested that the benthic biological activity affects the net sedimentation pattern at the investigated site. The modelling results suggest that the presence of large numbers of the destabilising mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae results in higher net accumulation on the intertidal mudflat investigated. In contrast, biofilms may change net deposition by decreasing erosion, suspended sediment concentration and consequently the resulting settling flux of the suspended material. This study suggests that a numerical hydrodynamic model in combination with a fieldwork-based set-up of a cohesive sediment transport model may be used to describe and explain net sediment dynamics in a shallow coastal plain estuary. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lumborg, Ulrik; Andersen, ThorbjØrn Joest

2006-01-01

103

A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ? 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results indicate that SCMs can be successfully applied to sorbents as daunting as marine organic matter. Despite remnant challenges, for instance resolving the contributions of individual groups to the aggregate sorption signal, our approach helps formalize seaweed’s avowed promise as an ideal biomonitor or biofilter of metal pollution in environments ranging from freshwaters to brines by uncovering what chemical mechanisms underlie its pronounced affinity for YREEs and other surface-reactive elements.

Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

2012-11-01

104

Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens / Eficiencia de absorción de nutrientes de Gracilaria chilensis y Ulva lactuca en un sistema multitrófico integrado con el abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se analizó la eficiencia de captación de nutrientes de Ulva lactuca y Gracilaria chilensis, cultivadas en estanques asociados a aguas de desecho proveniente de un cultivo del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens. Los experimentos consideraron evaluar diferentes densidades de cultivo de algas (1200, 1900, [...] 2600 and 3200 g m-2) y tasas de recambio de agua (60, 80, 125 y 250 L h-1). Los resultados mostraron que tanto U. lactuca como G. chilensis fueron eficientes en la captación de nutrientes inorgánicos provenientes del cultivo de abalón, en todas las condiciones probadas, con remoción total de los nutrientes aportados por el cultivo. De la misma forma se realizó un experimento anual con U. lactuca, siendo cultivada con densidad de 1900 g m-2 y tasa de recambio de agua de 125 L h-1 para evaluar cambios estacionales en la eficiencia de captación de nutrientes, así como en la productividad y tasa de crecimiento de U. lactuca. Los resultados confirmaron una alta eficiencia de captación de U. lactuca durante todo el año, equivalente a la remoción del 100% del NH4, NO3 y PO4 aportado por el cultivo de abalón. La tasa de crecimiento y la productividad de U. lactuca presentó una marcada estacionalidad, incrementando de otoño al verano, variando de 0,5 ± 0,2 a 2,6 ± 0,2% d-1 y 10 ± 6,1 a 73,6 ± 8,4 g m-2 d-1, respectivamente. Se concluye que existen antecedentes suficientes que demuestran que es altamente posible cambiar la actividad tradicional de cultivo de abalón por un sistema integrado multitrófico, alcanzando externalidades ambientales positivas que incluyen U. lactuca como unidad de biofiltración. Abstract in english The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2) and water exchange [...] rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1). The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

Juan, Macchiavello; Cristian, Bulboa.

2014-07-01

105

Synseed production for storage and conservation of ochradenus baccatus delile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ochradenus baccatus is a medicinal plant of high value, spread over sandy and stony places of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and most of the desert regions of Egypt. This species contains several flavanoids and specific constituents which are important as these have already been effectively used in lowering cholesterol in the blood of rats and high inhibition potential of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Synseeds were produced from stem segments and apical bud of O. baccatus growing In vitro. Two sets of synseeds were produced, one non-dried and the other dried under running laminar air-flow for 30 min. Regeneration and regrowth were evaluated for 16 weeks storage under various temperatures (4, 8 and 12degree C). The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets was achieved on the MS medium containing 1.0 micro M BA in encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 degree C. Rooting in these shoots was induced by the pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA for 10 days, and the rooted shoots were transferred on the MS medium devoid of any PGR. Fair percent rooting occurred after one week of transfer on the MS medium. Plantlets were successfully established. No phenotypic variations were observed between the synseed originated plants with mother plant. Genetic stability of synseed grown plants and mother plant was evaluated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The mother plant as well as regenerated plants from synseed resulted in a monomorphic banding pattern developed from ISSR markers confirming genetic stability among the clones. This protocol will help multiply and conserve the plant as well as for short-term storage of germplasm for commercial use and exchange. (author)

106

EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES  

OpenAIRE

Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea); and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria ) collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL) (as % of total lipid) were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. ato...

El Baroty Gamal S; El-Baz; Farouk K; Abd-Elmoein Ibtisam; Abd El Baky Hanaa H; Ali Mohamed M.; Ibrahim Eman A

2011-01-01

107

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

OpenAIRE

The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhib...

Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas; Figueiredo, Marcia A. O.

2004-01-01

108

Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta) do litoral catarinense (Brasil) Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta) from southern Brazilian coast  

OpenAIRE

O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna) foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninn...

Melissa dos Santos Raymundo; Paulo Horta; Roseane Fett

2004-01-01

109

Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae  

OpenAIRE

The sulfolipid classes (SLs) in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea), one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria) were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% ...

El Baz, F. K.; El Baroty, G. S.; Abd El Baky, H. H.; Abd El-salam, O. I.; Ibrahim, E. A.

2013-01-01

110

Cross talk among calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide and activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases in Ulva compressa exposed to copper excess.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the copper-induced cross talk among calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the calcium-dependent activation of gene expression, the marine alga Ulva compressa was treated with the inhibitors of calcium channels, ned-19, ryanodine, and xestospongin C, of chloroplasts and mitochondrial electron transport chains, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and antimycin A, of pyruvate dehydrogenase, moniliformin, of calmodulins, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide, and of calcium-dependent protein kinases, staurosporine, as well as with the scavengers of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and of H(2)O(2), ascorbate, and exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 ?m) for 24 h. The level of NO increased at 2 and 12 h. The first peak was inhibited by ned-19 and 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and the second peak by ned-19 and antimycin A, indicating that NO synthesis is dependent on calcium release and occurs in organelles. The level of H(2)O(2) increased at 2, 3, and 12 h and was inhibited by ned-19, ryanodine, xestospongin C, and moniliformin, indicating that H(2)O(2) accumulation is dependent on calcium release and Krebs cycle activity. In addition, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoxglutarate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities of the Krebs cycle increased at 2, 3, 12, and/or 14 h, and these increases were inhibited in vitro by EGTA, a calcium chelating agent. Calcium release at 2, 3, and 12 h was inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and ascorbate, indicating activation by NO and H(2)O(2). In addition, the level of antioxidant protein gene transcripts decreased with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide and staurosporine. Thus, there is a copper-induced cross talk among calcium, H(2)O(2), and NO and a calcium-dependent activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases. PMID:22234999

González, Alberto; Cabrera, M de Los Ángeles; Henríquez, M Josefa; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-03-01

111

Cross Talk among Calcium, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Nitric Oxide and Activation of Gene Expression Involving Calmodulins and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Ulva compressa Exposed to Copper Excess1[C][W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze the copper-induced cross talk among calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the calcium-dependent activation of gene expression, the marine alga Ulva compressa was treated with the inhibitors of calcium channels, ned-19, ryanodine, and xestospongin C, of chloroplasts and mitochondrial electron transport chains, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and antimycin A, of pyruvate dehydrogenase, moniliformin, of calmodulins, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide, and of calcium-dependent protein kinases, staurosporine, as well as with the scavengers of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and of H2O2, ascorbate, and exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 ?m) for 24 h. The level of NO increased at 2 and 12 h. The first peak was inhibited by ned-19 and 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and the second peak by ned-19 and antimycin A, indicating that NO synthesis is dependent on calcium release and occurs in organelles. The level of H2O2 increased at 2, 3, and 12 h and was inhibited by ned-19, ryanodine, xestospongin C, and moniliformin, indicating that H2O2 accumulation is dependent on calcium release and Krebs cycle activity. In addition, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoxglutarate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities of the Krebs cycle increased at 2, 3, 12, and/or 14 h, and these increases were inhibited in vitro by EGTA, a calcium chelating agent. Calcium release at 2, 3, and 12 h was inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and ascorbate, indicating activation by NO and H2O2. In addition, the level of antioxidant protein gene transcripts decreased with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide and staurosporine. Thus, there is a copper-induced cross talk among calcium, H2O2, and NO and a calcium-dependent activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases. PMID:22234999

González, Alberto; Cabrera, M. de los Ángeles; Henríquez, M. Josefa; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-01-01

112

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

OpenAIRE

Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial...

Paradas, Wladimir C.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

2007-01-01

113

Phenology of Posidonia Oceanica (Linneaus Delile in the West Coast of Algeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Posidonia oceanica seagrass in the western coast of Algeria on the subject of annual monitoring from November 2008 to November 2009.Two sites are selected and each are represented by a station located 10meters deep. The first is Cap Carbon which is polluted site subject to various major releases, and the second one is Ain Franin considered as a reference site relatively far from sources of pollution other than pollution considered sporadic during the summer where there is a rare attendance of holidaymakers. A study of the phenology of Posidonia oceanica meadows, on the leaf biometry, the coefficient "A" and the surface shows that these parameters are strongly influenced by seasonal factors and not by the depth as our samples were made at same depth.

F. Chahrour

2013-01-01

114

Lulwoana sp., a dark septate endophyte in roots of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica is the most common, widespread and important monocotyledon seagrass in the Mediterranean Basin, and hosts a large biodiversity of species, including microorganisms with key roles in the marine environment. In this study, we ascertain the presence of a fungal endophyte in the roots of P. oceanica growing on different substrata (rock, sand and matte) in two Sicilian marine meadows. Staining techniques on root fragments and sections, in combination with microscope observations, were used to visualise the fungal presence and determine the percentage of fungal colonisation (FC) in this tissue. In root fragments, statistical analysis of the FC showed a higher mean in roots anchored on rock than on matte and sand. In root sections, an inter- and intracellular septate mycelium, producing intracellular microsclerotia, was detected from the rhizodermis to the vascular cylinder. Using isolation techniques, we obtained, from both sampling sites, sterile, slow-growing fungal colonies, dark in colour, with septate mycelium, belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSEs). DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region identified these colonies as Lulwoana sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lulwoana sp. as DSE in roots of P. oceanica. Moreover, the highest fungal colonisation, detected in P. oceanica roots growing on rock, suggests that the presence of the DSE may help the host in several ways, particularly in capturing mineral nutrients through lytic activity. PMID:25262834

Torta, L; Lo Piccolo, S; Piazza, G; Burruano, S; Colombo, P; Ottonello, D; Perrone, R; Di Maida, G; Pirrotta, M; Tomasello, A; Calvo, S

2014-09-29

115

Magnitude of herbivory in "Poseidonia oceanica" (L.) Delile and factors responsible for spatial variation  

OpenAIRE

La revaluació a gran escala espacial (> de 300 Km) i mitjançant mètodes de quantificació directa, del impacte de l'herbivorisme en els ecosistemes de Posidonia oceanica va revelar pèrdues de biomassa foliar molt superiors a les estimes anteriors basades en mètodes indirectes (i.e. freqüència de marques d'acció). En promig anual, els herbívors causen la pèrdua de aproximadament el 57% de la producció foliar, si bé existeixen diferències estacionals importants i las majors pressio...

Prado Villegas, Patricia

2007-01-01

116

SEDIMENTS OXIDATION BY SEAGRASSES: INFLUENCE ON THE S CYCLE IN POSIDONIA OCEANICA (L.) DELILE INTERMATTES DYNAMIC  

OpenAIRE

The Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica forms meadows and develops a complex of rhizomes, roots and sediment which is called “matte”. P. oceanica meadows show discontinuity patterns in the form of sand or dead matte (matte without living shoots) patches, called “intermattes”, which can have natural or anthropogenic origins. Mechanical processes (e. g. currents, anchoring) can initiate intermattes formation but their dynamic after creation seems to be linked with t...

Abadie, Arnaud; Lejeune, Pierre; Pergent, Ge?rard; Gobert, Sylvie

2014-01-01

117

An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (?13C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

118

Modelling the spatial distribution of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 along the North African coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica is a seagrass species endemic to the Mediterranean sea, which is considered as an indicator of environment quality in coastal areas. This species forms large meadows, which are sensitive to several anthropogenic pressures, as a result the decrease in their extension of is considered a priority issue for the Mediterranean sea. The aim of this study was to develop a Species Distribution Model for P. oceanica, to be applied to the Mediterranean North African coast, in order to obtain an estimation of the potential distribution of this species in the region. As the study area is a data-poor zone with regard to seagrass distribution, the SDM was calibrated using data from 5 Mediterranean sites, located in Italy and Spain and validated using available data concerning the NA coast. The probability of presence of the species in a given area was modeled as a function of the bathymetry and some water characteristics (i.e. water transparency; dissolved organic matter; chlorophyll concentration) obtained from Earth Observations (EOs), mainly derived from MERIS imagery. Water transparency plays a major role, but also other variables, such as chlorophyll concentration (probably related to nutrients availability), are important in explaining meadows distribution. The availability of high resolution time-series of the input data allowed us to apply the validated model to the whole NA coast. These results (maps of potential distribution) are combined with the use of ecosystem service indicators in order to assess the importance of seagrass habitat within the NA coastal ecosystem.

Zucchetta, Matteo; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

2014-05-01

119

Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile)  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana

2013-09-01

120

Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan  

OpenAIRE

Dietary intake of phytochemicals having antioxidant activity is associated with a lower risk of mortality from many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of leaves of Acacia nilotica by using various methods. The results of the present study revealed that ethanol extract was the most effective and IC50 value was found to be 53.6??g?mL?1 for Vero cell lines and 28.9??g?mL?1 for Hela cell lines i...

Kalaivani, T.; Rajasekaran, C.; Suthindhiran, K.; Lazar Mathew

2011-01-01

121

Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control salinity (37), while mortality was lowest for this treatment. However, no significant differences were detected with other salinity levels (39-49). In contrast, salinity appears to play an important role in seedling development. The number of blades, the length of the primary root and the maximum length of leaves of seedlings were significantly reduced with increased salinities. The results observed in the present study are consistent with those obtained for mature P. oceanica shoots, and suggest that hypersalinities, such as those associated with brine discharge of a desalination plant, may limit P. oceanica seedling recruitment, affecting the expansion and recovery of Posidonia meadows.

Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

2013-03-01

122

In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.Ex Delile Bark and Leaves  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fracti...

Nadeem Badar, Zafar Iqbal

2011-01-01

123

Evaluation of the effects produced by the construction and expansion of marinas on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows  

OpenAIRE

New legislation in the Valencian Community (Decree 36/2002, 5th of March) has allowed the expansion of the existent marinas in this region of the SE of Spain, affecting in a significant way the Alicante province that possesses over thirty nautical facilities of this type. Of particular importance are the effects that expansion of these ports would have on marine ecosystems, especially on Posidonia oceanica beds. This species is of a great ecological and biological importance, and is very sens...

Ferna?ndez Torquemada, Yolanda; Gonza?lez Correa, Jose? Miguel; Marti?nez Pe?rez, Jose? Emilio; Sa?nchez Lizaso, Jose? Luis

2005-01-01

124

Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

2004-12-01

125

FRESHWATER ULVA (CHLOROPHYTA) AS A BIOACCUMULATOR OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN NIELBA RIVER (WIELKOPOLSKA REGION)  

OpenAIRE

Human activities still increase and causes negative impact to environment and consequently lead to ecological degradation. Water pollution, whose source are pesticides and chemical fertilizers from catchment areas, in result enrich the aquatic environment in heavy metals. These water contamination is accumulated in tissues of living organisms. A high degree of accumulation of dissolved metals is noticeable in macroalgae. To the one of the most tolerant group to high levels of water contaminat...

Messyasz, Beata; Rybak, Andrzej; Pikosz, Marta

2012-01-01

126

Composition, uniqueness and variability of the epiphytic bacterial community of the green alga Ulva australis  

OpenAIRE

Green Ulvacean marine macroalgae are distributed worldwide in coastal tidal and subtidal ecosystems. As for many living surfaces in the marine environment, little is known concerning the epiphytic bacterial biofilm communities that inhabit algal surfaces. This study reports on the largest published libraries of near full-length 16S rRNA genes from a marine algal surface (5293 sequences from six samples) allowing for an in-depth assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacte...

Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Lewis, Matt; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2010-01-01

127

Assessment of Posidonia Oceanica (L. Delile conservation status by standard and putative approaches: the case study of Santa Marinella meadow (Italy, W Mediterranean  

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Full Text Available The conservation status of the Posidonia oceanica meadow at Santa Marinella (Rome was evaluated through both standard (bed density, leaf biometry, "A" coefficient, Leaf Area Index, rhizome production and biochemical/genetic approaches (total phenol content and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA marker. The bio-chemical/genetic results are in agreement with those obtained by standard approaches. The bed under study was ranked as a disturbed one, due to its low density, and high heterogeneity in leaf biometry, LAI values, "A" coefficient and primary production. This low quality ranking is confirmed by both mean phenol content in plants, quite high and scattered, and by the low genetic variability in the meadow, with a very high similarity of specimen at a local scale. Hence, these two putative approaches clearly identify the endangered conservation status of the meadow. They link plant biodiversity and ecophysiology to ecosystem 'health'. Furthermore, they are repeatable and standardizable and could be usefully introduced in meadows monitoring to check environmental quality.

Alice Rotini

2011-08-01

128

Evaluation of a temporal trend heavy metals contamination in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, (1813) along the western coastline of Sicily (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of biological species in the monitoring of marine environmental quality allows the evaluation of biologically available levels of contaminants in the ecosystem and the effects of contaminants on living organisms. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is a useful bioindicator because through the lepidochronology technique it is possible to obtain a historical contamination trend of a given area. This study aims to assess the temporal trend contamination by heavy metal investigations on dead sheaths of 100 samples of P. oceanica collected in the Protected Marine Area of "Plemmirio" (Sicily) and in the Siracusa bay. Important results were obtained because data show a significant negative temporal trend for the metals analysed especially for As, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, U and V that in the past had higher concentrations, with a stronger contamination in the Plemmirio area, the site much more exposed to the pollution of the nearby petrochemical complex. This study confirms the relevance of the use of P. oceanica as a biological indicator of metal contamination in coastal ecosystems. Thus the usefulness of P. oceanica as a tracer of spatial metal contamination and as a good tool for water quality evaluation is reinforced. PMID:22101939

Copat, Chiara; Maggiore, Riccardo; Arena, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Stanislao; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

2012-01-01

129

Temporal Variations of the Chemical Composition of Three Seaweeds in Two Tropical Coastal Environments  

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Full Text Available The seaweeds Chaetomorpha antennina, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae and Ulva fasciata were studied regarding tissue concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total protein, hydrosoluble protein, total carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and total carotenoid throughout a 39-month survey in two coastal environments of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. One of the sites (Itapuca Stone has high concentrations of dissolved nutrients and an intense long-term process of cultural eutrophication; the second site (Bananal Inlet is thought to have lower concentrations of dissolved nutrients and no relevant anthropic impact. Seaweeds experienced changes in the concentrations of the substances in the thalli; however they did not show any cyclic seasonal pattern, except for pigments, with lower values in summer in both sites. The differences found for each species in each sampling at the sites were small (e.g. U. fasciata, more total nitrogen at Itapuca Stone or absent (e.g. C. antennina, no significant differences for hydrosoluble protein in the sites. Differences in the concentrations of dissolved nutrients in the sites did not generate contrasting chemical profiles in the seaweeds. There is no evidence of nitrogen- or phosphorus-limitation in any season. It is presumable that the concentrations of dissolved nutrients at the nutrient-poorer site are sufficient to generate high concentrations of the substances in the thalli of the species tested, similar to the concentrations measured in the eutrophic site. Experimental data are needed to elucidate the factors that promote the success of the species tested under contrasting nutrient availability and environmental disturbance.

Andyara Nascimento

2014-02-01

130

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

1996-08-01

131

Alternative Electron Transports Participate in the Maintenance of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase Activity of Ulva sp. under Low Irradiance  

OpenAIRE

The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ?pH required for acti...

Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

2013-01-01

132

Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 ?g mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 ?g mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato observado entre todas estas especies de algas (desde 0,13 hasta 0,21%. Todos los SL se caracterizaron por un alto contenido de ácido palmítico (C16:0, que osciló entre 30,91% en G. cylindriea a 63,11% en T. atomatia. Sulfoquinovosyl-di-acilglicerol y acilglicerol sulfoquinovosyl fueron identificados como los principales constituyentes de los sulfolípidos de estas algas. Los sulfolípidos de las diferentes especies de algas estudiadas mostraron una notable actividad antiviral contra el virus del herpes simple tipo 1 (VHS-1 con una IC50 que osciló entre 18,75 y 70. 2 g mL–1. Por otra parte, los sulfolípidos de estas algas inhibieron el crecimiento de células tumorales de mama y células de cáncer de hígado humano con valores de IC50 que van desde 0,40 hasta 0,67 g mL–1 para las células de adenocarcinoma de mama humano (MCF7.

El Baz, F. K.

2013-12-01

133

Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L. Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil® e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf, bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp. Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05. Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água. Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp. Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05. Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água. Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp. Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas.Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil® and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final disease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp. Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P < 0.05. In most of the experimental cycles, significant differences were observed in the sanity and yield of the treatments compared to the control (plants treated with water. Overall, both preparations reduced the final disease severity (Yf and Yp (by 41-62% and the AUDPCs by 28-58%. Treatments of plants with silicate clay and seaweed extract increased the fresh weight of leaves by 46% and 32%, respectively. Although this study indicates that silicate clay and seaweed extract have the potential for disease control, further studies are needed to elucidate the control levels of these treatments in different edaphoclimatic conditions.

Isaac B. Araújo

2012-10-01

134

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf  

OpenAIRE

The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using ...

Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-nejad, Ramazan-ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

2014-01-01

135

Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

Roberto Ramos

2010-01-01

136

Preliminary morphometric and habitatat characteristics of green alga Ulva prolifera O.F. Müller J. Agardh 1883 (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) at freshwater site in the Wielkopolska region (W Poland)  

OpenAIRE

Badania nad morfometri? i czynnikami fizyczno-chemicznymi kszta?tuj?cymi rozwój U. prolifera (Enteromorpha prolifera) prowadzono od maja do ko?ca lipca 2008 r. Stanowisko badawcze zlokalizowano na stawie przep?ywowym we wsi Tulce pod Poznaniem (Wielkopolska). Stwierdzone miejsce wyst?powania U. prolifera jest szóstym ?ródl?dowym stanowiskiem tego gatunku w Polsce. Do analiz morfometrycznych i struktury plechy pobrano szereg prób. Odnaleziony gatunek makrozielenicy cechowa? si? z...

Messyasz, Beata; Rybak, Andrzej

2009-01-01

137

Nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of two green seaweeds (Ulva pertusa and U. intestinalis) from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition, amino acid, and element contents, as well as some physicochemical properties of Ulvapertusa and U. intestinalis, collected from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand in the rainy and summer seasons of 2007–2008, were investigated in order to gain more nutritional information. It was found that the two green seaweed speciescontained high level of protein (14.6–19.5% DW), lipid (2.1–8.7% DW), ash (25.9–28.6% DW), soluble fiber (25.3–39.6% DW),insoluble fiber (...

Ommee Benjama; Payap Masniyom

2011-01-01

138

50 CFR 216.180 - Specified activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...seal (Phoca vitulina ), spotted seal (P. largha ), ribbon seal (P. fasciata ), gray seal (Halichoerus...seal (Monachus monachus ), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus ), southern fur seal (Arctocephalus spp. ), harp...

2010-10-01

139

77 FR 37000 - Marine Mammals; File No. 814-1899  

Science.gov (United States)

...bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), spotted seal (Phoca larga), ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata), bowhead whale (Balaena...whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) in...

2012-06-20

140

77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), spotted seal (Phoca larga), ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata), bowhead whale (Balaena...minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus), and...

2012-06-19

141

Death in the octopus’ garden: fatal blue-lined octopus envenomations of adult green sea turtles  

OpenAIRE

The blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata contains the powerful neuromuscular blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), which causes muscle weakness and respiratory failure. H. fasciata is regarded as one of the most venomous marine animals in the world, and multiple human fatalities have been attributed to the octopus. To date, there have been no recorded incidents of an envenomation of a wild animal. Here, we present a newly developed, multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry technique that provides uneq...

Townsend, Kathy A.; Altvater, Jens; Thomas, Michael C.; Schuyler, Qamar A.; Nette, Geoffrey W.

2011-01-01

142

EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris  

OpenAIRE

Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn) poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, ...

Sazada Siddiqui

2014-01-01

143

Epidermal studies of three species of Vernonia Schreb. in Southern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Kemka-Evans CI, Okoli B, Nwachukwu CU. 2014. Epidermal studies of three species of Vernonia Schreber in Southern Nigeria. Biodiversitas 15: 137-141.The leaf epidermal studies of three species of Vernonia namely V. cinerea (L) Less, V. amygdalina Delile. (bitter leaf and non-bitter leaf variety) and V. conferta Benth. were undertaken with the aim of revealing their foliar characters which will enhance their identification and determination of their taxonomic relationship. Matured leaves were s...

CATHERINE IJEOMA KEMKA-EVANS; BOSA OKOLI; CHIB UIKE NWACHUKWU

2014-01-01

144

Extensive direct measurements of Posidonia oceanica consumption confirms the importance of herbivorism in temperate seagrass meadows.  

OpenAIRE

The rates of seagrass defoliation exerted by the herbivorous fish Sarpa salpa and by the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were evaluated through both direct (tethering experiment) and indirect (bite marks) methods. Sampling was conducted once per season in 10 shallow meadows of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile from the continental NW Mediterranean coast covering a spatial scale of >300 km. Results indicated that a large proportion (ca. 57%) of the annual leaf production is lost to ...

Prado, Patricia; Toma?s, Fiona; Alcoverro, Teresa; Romero, Javier

2007-01-01

145

Seagrass meadow structure alters interactions between the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and its predators  

OpenAIRE

Predation on sea urchins, which are important structuring agents in seagrass communities, can be modulated by habitat structural complexity. Here we examine the importance of meadow structure (leaf length and presence of unburied root-rhizome layer) in determining predation pressure on the main invertebrate herbivore of the temperate seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). The attributes of seagrass habitat complexity are subject to co...

Farina, S.; Toma?s, Fiona; Prado, Patricia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

2009-01-01

146

The effects of epiphytes on light harvesting and antioxidant responses in the seagrass posidonia oceanica  

OpenAIRE

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a subtidal seagrass whose leaves are commonly colonized by epiphytes. Epiphytes pose physical barriers to light penetration within the leaves, with possible significant impacts on photosynthesis. Furthermore, epiphytes can indirectly be responsible for leaf chlorosis, necrosis and senescence which are known to be related with the increase of oxygen reactive species (ROS) levels, potentially leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this work was ...

Costa, Monya; Silva, Joa?o; Olive?, Irene; Barrote, Isabel; Alexandre, A.; Albano, Si?lvia; Santos, Rui

2013-01-01

147

Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indic...

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K.

2011-01-01

148

Adiciones a la flora alicantina  

OpenAIRE

Se dan a conocer algunas de las últimas novedades de plantas encontradas en la provincia de Alicante, siendo muchas de ellas primera cita para este territorio. Biarum dispar (Schott) Talavera, Spergularia tangerina P. Monnier, Verbascum dentifolium Delile, Coleostephus myconis (L.) Reichenb. fil., Ononis laxiflora Desf., Vicia narbonensis L., Anthemis altissima L., destacan por su originalidad y rareza en la mitad oriental de la Península Ibérica.

Serra I Laliga, Lluis; Juan, Ana; Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito

1995-01-01

149

Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia...

Randazzo Davide; Rotini Alice; Migliore Luciana; Albanese Nadia N; Giallongo Agata

2007-01-01

150

Nuevos datos sobre la floración, fructificación y germinación de fanerógamas marinas en Andalucía  

OpenAIRE

Nuevos datos sobre la floración, fructificación y germinación de fanerógamas marinas en Andalucía. Se aportan todos los datos conocidos sobre las floraciones y fructificaciones de las distintas fanerógamas marinas presentes en las provincias de Almería y Granada. Se presentan datos sobre las floraciones de Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile detectadas en la provincia de Almería en los últimos años, y un caso de floración en la provincia de Granada, así como las fructificaciones y frut...

Moreno Lampreave, Diego; Guirado Romero, Jose? S.

2006-01-01

151

Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de las fanerógamas marinas en las provincias de Almería y Granada (SE España)  

OpenAIRE

Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de las fanerógamas marinas en las provincias de Almería y Granada (SE España). Se estudia la distribución de las distintas especies de fanerógamas marinas en el litoral de las provincias de Almería y Granada. Se detallan las áreas cubiertas por praderas de Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile en la provincia de Almería y las localidades donde todavía se encuentran manchas de esta especie en la provincia de Granada. Se aportan datos sobre la distribución...

Moreno Lampreave, Diego; Guirado Romero, Jose? S.

2003-01-01

152

Antagonistic Effect of Epiphytic Bacteria from Marine Algae, Southeastern India  

OpenAIRE

Aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epibiotic bacteria from seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Dictyota dichotoma and Padina tetrastromatica against some potent human pathogens. The epibiotic bacteria of Ulva lactuca shows higher level of inhibition properties than the other species. The strain UL1 shows broad spectrum inhibitory activity against 7 pathogens. The inhibitory level of epibiotic bacteria ranged from low to moderate activity. The present inve...

Alex John, A.; Raja, P.; Chellaram, C.; Krithika, S.

2013-01-01

153

50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Surnia ulula Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus...Sayornis sayaPIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas...Oceanodroma castro,Band-rumped Storm-Petrel...Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed PigeonStreptopelia...acadicus, Northern Saw-whet OwlOrder...

2010-10-01

154

Trace metals in Mediterranean area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible use of six marine organisms as cosmopolitan bio monitors of trace metals in the Mediterranean area was evaluated. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the gastropod molluscs Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi. The selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. The potential of each species as trace metal bio monitor is discussed in view of its diffusion, reliable taxonomic identification and accumulation capability

155

“Most likely you go your way and I’ll go mine”: A Rock Star’s Guide to Abandoning your Audience “Most likely you go your way and I’ll go mine”, ou comment abandonner son public lorsqu’on est une star du rock  

OpenAIRE

L’analyse du roman de Don DeLillo Great Jones Street constituera le fil conducteur de ce travail. Elle nous permettra de confronter la réclusion du personnage de Bucky Wunderlick et la retraite de Bob Dylan dans la maison appelée « Big Pink », à West Saugerties, New York, où l’auteur- compositeur-interprète enregistre avec The Band les fameuses Basement Tapes. À la recherche d’oubli et d’annihilation que motive le retrait de la scène rock protestataire du personnage de DeLill...

Adrian Smith

2009-01-01

156

Death in the octopus' garden: fatal blue-lined octopus envenomations of adult green sea turtles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata contains the powerful neuromuscular blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), which causes muscle weakness and respiratory failure. H. fasciata is regarded as one of the most venomous marine animals in the world, and multiple human fatalities have been attributed to the octopus. To date, there have been no recorded incidents of an envenomation of a wild animal. Here, we present a newly developed, multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry technique that provides unequivocal evidence for two cases of envenomation of two ~110 kg herbivorous green sea turtles by two tiny cryptic blue-lined octopuses (~4 cm body length). These cases of accidental ingestion provide evidence for the first time of the antipredator effect of TTX and highlight a previously unconsidered threat to turtles grazing within seagrass beds. PMID:24391271

Townsend, Kathy A; Altvater, Jens; Thomas, Michael C; Schuyler, Qamar A; Nette, Geoffrey W

2012-01-01

157

Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast  

OpenAIRE

Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú) yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea). Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ecto...

Oliva, Marcelo E.; Luque, Jose? L.

1998-01-01

158

Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry micr...

Chikako Asada; Keita Doi; Chizuru Sasaki; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

2012-01-01

159

Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq. J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962 and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

Galileo Maria Helena M.

2003-01-01

160

Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05364-1 [Dicty_cDB  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available Contig-U05364-1 no gap 304 1 3556434 3556707 PLUS 1 1 U05364 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Show Co ... rome b ... 36 0.37 AJ628174_1( AJ628174 |pid:none) Hapalochlaena ... fasciata mitochondri... 36 0.37 AJ628176_1( AJ6281 ... 76 |pid:none) Hapalochlaena ... maculosa mitochondri... 36 0.37 FJ603518_1( FJ6035 ...

161

A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran  

OpenAIRE

The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran) is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet), E. aurantii (Howard), E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard), E. citrina (Craw), E. elegans (Masi), E. elongata (Dozier), E. fasciata (Malenotti), E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker), E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli), E. lutea ...

Ghahari Hassan; Huang Jian; Abd-Rabou Shaaban

2011-01-01

162

Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) and increased erosion rate (E), since their feeding activities diminished the surface stabilizing effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microphytobenthos. S. plana had the highest and H. ulvae the lowest impact when related to density (factor of 29 for uc and factor of 19 for E), while H. ulvae was more important than S. plana when related to biomass (factor of 4 for uc and factor of 6 for E). N. diversicolor had intermediate density-specific (4-6 times higher than H. ulvae) and lowest biomass-specific (2-3 times lower than S. plana) effects on erosion. It appears that faunal erosion impacts preferably should be reported in biomass units for comparative purposes because individual behavioural effects of a small-bodied species like H. ulvae functionally can be relatively more important than those of a 100 times heavier S. plana individual. This is clearly evidenced from the strongly diminished response in suspended Chlorophyll-a content in the presence of the former than the latter species, which is caused by an efficient microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae. It is also important to emphasize that the total faunal impact on erosion threshold in a certain area is dictated by combination of contributions from individual species. The total outcome is unpredictable and controlled by synergistic and antagonistic species-specific effects, species interactions as well as environmental and sediment conditions.

Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

2013-12-01

163

Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ?-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ?-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time. PMID:23870975

Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Teixeira, Natércia; Andrade, Paula B

2013-12-01

164

Poly-(Epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: Morphology and thermal-mechanical properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

165

Macroalgae, pore water sulfides and eelgrass in Yaquina estuary, Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis that relatively high nutrients in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) can lead to eutrophication and degradation of critical eelgrass habitat was examined. Yaquina estuary was surveyed for cover and above-ground biomass of benthic macroalgae (Ulva spp.) and n...

166

Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity  

OpenAIRE

The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzy...

Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; El-fayoumy, Eman A.

2011-01-01

167

Distribusi Makroalga pada Ekosistem Lamun dan Terumbu Karang di Pulau Bonebatang, Kec. Ujung Tanah, Kel. Barrang Lompo, Makassar  

OpenAIRE

Untuk kajian struktur komunitas maka dilakukan penghitungan Indeks Keanekaragaman dan Indeks Keseragaman. Untuk distribusi hasil inventarisasi makroalga pada setiap ekosistem dimasukkan dalam tabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di perairan Pulau Bonebatang ditemukan 14 species yang terdiri dari 9 ordo, 11 family, 13 genera. Terdapat 8 species dari divisi Chlorophyta yakni : Caulerpa lentillifera, Caulerpa recemosa, Chaetomorpha crassa, Ulva reticulata, Boergesenia forbesii, Enteromorpha...

Palallo, Alfian

2013-01-01

168

MAPPING GREEN MACROALGAE BLOOMS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY VIA 35-MM AERIAL PHOTOS  

Science.gov (United States)

Summer blooms of green macroalgae (mainly Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) on intertidal mudflats of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were documented using oblique 35-mm color-infrared aerial photographs taken at low tide. Costs were controlled by use of a small airplane from a loc...

169

Eufriesea nigrescens y E. Pretiosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini: un caso de oportunismo o simbiosis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Una colonia mixta se forma cuando un nido es ocupado por más de una especie (Michener 1974. En Bombus, este tipo de colonias son muy comunes de manera natural; la reina de una especie invade el nido de otra, mata a la reina hospedera y pone sus propias crías (Michener 1974. Este tipo de relaciones interespecíficas son raras en otros apidos y han sido registradas una sola vez entre dos especies de Meliponini: Melipona fuliginosa y M. panamica (= M. fasciata (Roubik 1981, Roubik, como pers., y dos especies de Euglossini: Eulaema cingulata y E. polychroma (Roubik 1990.

González B. Victor Hugo

2000-12-01

170

New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four species of Trupanea Shrank (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are considered new synonyms of Trupanea, and the following species are transferred from Celidosphenella to Trupanea: Acinia bella Blanchard, 1852; Acanthiophilus benoisti Séguy, 1933; Tephritis diespasmena Schiner, 1868; Celidosphenella maculata Hendel, 1914; Sphenella poecila Schiner, 1868; Trypanea simulata Malloch, 1933; Trupanea stonei Stuardo, 1946; and Trypanea vidua Hering, 1942. Aphyllocladus spartioides Wedd. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) is reported as a probable host plant for Trupanea dimorphica. PMID:24989757

Norrbom, Allen L; Neder, Lilia Estela

2014-01-01

171

Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

2012-12-01

172

Antireflection-enhanced color by a natural graded refractive index (GRIN) structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanostructured materials like graded refractive index (GRIN) structures in moth eyes have inspired the design of novel antireflective coatings. Such structures are more flexible than uniform coatings, but applications have been mainly limited to broadband antireflection in solar cells and LEDs. Here we show that cylindrical pigment granules in two bird species (Polyplectron bicalcaratum and Patagioenas fasciata) form a GRIN that suppresses interference and expands the range of colors produced by a multilayer. These results demonstrate that a GRIN structure can function like a pigment (i.e. through selective, independent wavelength blocking) to generate unique colors and may inspire the design of novel antireflective and structurally colored coatings. PMID:24922372

Eliason, Chad M; Shawkey, Matthew D

2014-05-01

173

A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet, E. aurantii (Howard, E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard, E. citrina (Craw, E. elegans (Masi, E. elongata (Dozier, E. fasciata (Malenotti, E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker, E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, E. lutea (Masi, E. luteola Howard, E. mineoi Viggiani, E. perniciosi (Tower, and 4 Eretmocerus species (Eretmocerus cadabae Viggiani, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, Eretmocerus nikolskajae Myartseva, Eretmocerus serius Silvestre were collected.

Ghahari Hassan

2011-01-01

174

Assessment of trace metals in fish species of urban rivers in Bangladesh and health implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of six metals i.e. chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in three fish species (Channa punctatus, Heteropneustes fossilis and Trichogaster fasciata) from three urban rivers in Bangladesh were measured. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb in fish species were 0.75-4.8, 0.14-3.1, 1.1-7.2, 0.091-0.53, 0.007-0.13, and 0.052-2.7mg/kg ww, respectively. The analyzed metals were significantly different between species and seasons (privers are not completely safe for human health. PMID:25553576

Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

2015-01-01

175

The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. PMID:25467874

La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

2015-01-15

176

EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

Sazada Siddiqui

2014-05-01

177

Temporal and spatial variations of biodeposits—A preliminary investigation of the role of fecal pellets in the Sylt-Rømø tidal area  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal pellets of Heteromastus filiformis and Hydrobia ulvae are abundant on the sediment surface of the Sylt-Rømø tidal flats. Although Cerastoderma edule is present in most parts of the study area, only small amounts of its pellets could be found. Fecal pellets are non-randomly distributed in the study area. Large amounts of H. ulvae pellets are found in the mud flats and smaller amounts in the mised flats and sand flats, where H. filiformis pellets predominate as biogenic component. This distribution pattern varies with time under the influence of environmental factors. Marked temperature fluctuations provide seasonal signals reflecting distinct patterns. The results show a net balance of biodeposit components in the sediment. This could be a result of the sheltered location of the area and this fits in well with the mostly stable sedimentological picture.

Austen, Ingrid

1997-12-01

178

Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine coastal ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary results are reported from field and laboratory studies on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms of Northwest Pacific coastal ecosystems. Chemical methods for the characterization of test solutions for specific hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, and heptodecane) were developed concurrently with population and community studies of the effects of short-term and chronic exposures. Results are reported from studies on algae (Ulva), clams (protothaca staminea), crustaceans (Anomyx and Neomysis) and burrowing worms

179

Long-term abundance patterns of macroalgae in relation to environmental variables in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal and inter-annual patterns of macroalgal abundance in a Tagus Estuary oyster reef are described. Macroalgal abundance was estimated as canopy percent cover by three permanent point intercept transects over a 7-year period. Four categories were defined, corresponding to bare substrate and three different macroalgal functional-form groups: (1) ULVA, foliose group, included Ulva spp.; (2) GRACIL, terete corticated macrophyte group, included only Gracilaria gracilis; and (3) FILAM, small (ULVA were associated with long and hot days, being usually dominant during spring and especially summer; (2) FILAM were associated with mild temperatures and relatively long days, abundant in spring but showed frequent peaks in summer; and (3) GRACIL were also favoured by spring season, although associated to lower temperature and less daylight hours than FILAM. GRACIL and FILAM were present throughout the year. On the contrary, ULVA were absent or with low cover during colder periods. A negative correlation between GRACIL and FILAM seems to indicate competition between the two categories. The applied models explained 23.3% of the temporal variance in category abundance. Rainfall negatively affected macroalgal cover, as indicated by the positive correlation between rainfall and bare substrate. Our conclusions are in agreement with previous studies that consider algae as excellent environmental integrators, even on a small scale, due to a strong link between the macroalgal communities and relevant environmental variables. It is also relevant that this study used open-access databases of environmental variables, which open up new possibilities for mining existing data resources in new ways. Due to large inter-annual variability, long-term studies are essential to understand population dynamics in estuarine phytobenthic communities.

Sousa-Dias, Abel; Melo, Ricardo A.

2008-01-01

180

Operational modelling of nutrients and phytoplancton in the bay of biscay and english channel  

OpenAIRE

Nitrate loadings to the French coastal waters of the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel have increased from 5 to 10 times during the four last decades, due to runoff on intensively fertilized agricultural watersheds. Eutrophication of this coastal zone is now a recurrent problem, with wellknown direct impacts (Ulva “green tides” on beaches, excessive phytoplanktonic blooms responsible for “coloured waters” and bottom hypoxia events offshore), but also indirect enhancement of the to...

Menesguen, Alain; Dussauze, Morgan; Lecornu, Fabrice; Dumas, Franck; Thouvenin, Benedicte

2014-01-01

181

Selective extraction of bacterial DNA from the surfaces of macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method has been developed for the selective extraction of DNA from surface-associated bacterial communities from the two model marine benthic algae Ulva australis and Delisea pulchra. The extracted DNA had no detectable contamination with host DNA, was recovered in high yield and quality, and was representative of the bacterial community on the algal surfaces. The DNA is suitable for a variety of subsequent applications, including the construction of large-insert clone libraries and metagenomic sequencing. PMID:18978081

Burke, Catherine; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

2009-01-01

182

Specific epibacterial communities on macroalgae: phylogeny matters more than habitat  

OpenAIRE

Epibacterial communities on thalli of the algal species Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Laminaria saccharina, Ulva compressa, Delesseria sanguinea and Phycodrys rubens were analysed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based DGGE. Individuals of all species were collected in the Kiel Fjord (Baltic Sea) and in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland (North Sea). DGGE gels as well as cluster and multidimensional scaling analysis based on the DGGE band patterns of the epibacterial community showed signific...

Lachnit, Tim; Blu?mel, Martina; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Wahl, Martin

2009-01-01

183

Etude de la prolifération des algues vertes dans le bassin d'Arcachon  

OpenAIRE

Introduction : Les proliférations massives d'algues et, particulièrement de macroalgues vertes, sont connues sur tous les continents depuis quelques décennies. Elles concernent des sites littoraux variés et sont le fait de diverses espèces (Ulva, Enteromorpha et Cladophora en particulier). Ce sont plus de 80 000 m3 d'ulves qui ont été ramassés mécaniquement, par les communes concernées, sur le littoral de la Bretagne-Nord en 1990. Jusqu'à une période récente, le Bassin d'Arcacho...

Manaud, Francois; Maurer, Daniele; Trut, Gilles; Auby, Isabelle

1994-01-01

184

Dynamics of green algae and its associated fauna in the Ria Formosa: is herbivory important?  

OpenAIRE

The Ria Formosa is a system of salt marshes and tidal flats, separated from the Atlantic by a belt of sand dunes that extends for 55 Km along the southern coast of Portugal. A striking phenomenon, which has been registered every winter since 1988, is an intense bloom of green macroalgae, mainly Ulvales (Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) These blooms appear the first rain falls in autumn and disappear gradually during the following spring (Sprung, 1994). A distinct community of benthic fauna is...

Ani?bal, J.; Sprung, Martin

1998-01-01

185

Taux de croissance et rapports ARN/ADN chez le bivalve dépositivore Abra ovata nourri à partir de différents détritus  

OpenAIRE

We measured growth rates and RNA/DNA ratios of deposit-feeding bivalves Abra ovata cultured for five months in the laboratory where they were fed on fresh detritus derived from twelve macrophytes (Rissoella verruculosa, Cystoseira mediterranea, Corallina elongata, Stypocaulon scoparium, Padina pavonica, Ulva rigida, Cystoseira compressa, Colpomenia sinuosa, Posidonia oceanica, Codium vermilara, Asparagopsis armata, and Dilophus spiralis). Growth rates and RNA/DNA ratios were significantly aff...

Frantzis, A.; Gremare, A.; Vetion, G.

1993-01-01

186

Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

Kazuyo Ukai; Teruaki Nishikawa; Takeshi Fujiwara; Michio Namikoshi

2006-01-01

187

A new genus and nine new species of Neotropical spittlebugs (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following new taxa of South American Cercopidae are described: Ferorhinella gen. nov., with type species Sphenorhina brevis Walker, 1851; Deois (Deois knighti sp. nov. (Brazil, Deois (Deois sexpunctata sp. nov. (Brazil, Deois (Pandysia constricta sp. nov. (Brazil, Mahanarva (Ipiranga bahiaensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Maxantonia bifurcata sp. nov. (Brazil, Neosphenorhina curvipenis sp. nov. (Brazil, Sphenorhina brevispina sp. nov. (Ecuador, Sphenorhina nigricephala sp. nov. (Ecuador, Sphenorhina minuta sp. nov. (Brazil, Tropidorhinella onorei sp. nov. (Colombia, Zuata luteofascia sp. nov. (Colombia. Ferorhinella brevis (Walker, 1851 comb. nov. In addition, descriptions are given for a new colour form of Mahanarva (M. phantastica (Breddin, 1904 and a newly found variation in the male genitalia of Deoisella fasciata Costa & Sakakibara, 2002.Um gênero novo e nove espécies novas de cigarrinhas Neotropicais (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae. Os seguintes novos táxons de Cercopidae sul-americanos são descritos: Ferorhinella gen. nov., com a espécie-tipo Sphenorhina brevis Walker, 1851; Deois (Deois knighti sp. nov. (Brasil, Deois (Deois sexpunctata sp. nov. (Brasil, Deois (Pandysia constricta sp. nov. (Brasil, Mahanarva (Ipiranga bahiaensis sp. nov. (Brasil, Maxantonia bifurcata sp. nov. (Brasil, Neosphenorhina curvipenis sp. nov. (Brasil, Sphenorhina brevispina sp. nov. (Equador, Sphenorhina nigricephala sp. nov. (Equador, Sphenorhina minuta sp. nov. (Brasil, Tropidorhinella onorei sp. nov. (Colômbia, Zuata luteofascia sp. nov. (Colômbia. Ferorhinella brevis (Walker, 1851 comb. nov. São fornecidas, também, descrições de um novo padrão de colorido de Mahanarva (M. phantastica (Breddin, 1904 e de uma variação constatada recentemente na genitália do macho de Deoisella fasciata Costa & Sakakibara, 2002.

Gervasio S. Carvalho

2004-01-01

188

HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las QuijadasThe National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

Analía Guerreiro

2005-01-01

189

Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

Maria Helena M. Galileo

2005-09-01

190

Toxin and species identification of toxic octopus implicated into food poisoning in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A food poisoning incident due to ingestion of unknown octopus occurred in Taipei in December, 2010. The serum and urine from victims (male 38 and 43 years old) were collected, determined the toxicity, and identified tetrodotoxin (TTX) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It was found that only urine contained the trace of TTX. Then, two retained specimen (one without blue ring in the skin and another with small blue ring in the skin) were collected from victims and examined for the toxicity and toxin. Meanwhile, 6 specimens of octopus without blue ring in the skin and 4 specimens of octopus with blue ring in the skin were re-collected from the market. Both retained octopus samples were found to contain TTX. However, re-collected market's octopus without blue ring in the skin did not show to contain TTX the and was identified as Octopus aegina by using the analysis of cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Only octopus with blue ring in the skin contained TTX and was identified as Hapalochlaena fasciata by using the analysis of Cyt b and COI. Therefore, this octopus food poisoning was caused by toxic octopus H. fasciata and the causative agent was TTX. PMID:25286395

Wu, Ya-Jung; Lin, Chun-Lan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Jen, Hsiao-Chin; Jian, Shi-Jie; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

2014-12-01

191

Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae  

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Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.

Roger Beaver

2010-09-01

192

Desiccation enhances phosphorylation of PSII and affects the distribution of protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane.  

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Desiccation has significant effects on photosynthetic processes in intertidal macro-algae. We studied an intertidal macro-alga, Ulva sp., which can tolerate desiccation, to investigate changes in photosynthetic performance and the components and structure of thylakoid membrane proteins in response to desiccation. Our results demonstrate that photosystem II (PSII) is more sensitive to desiccation than photosystem I (PSI) in Ulva sp. Comparative proteomics of the thylakoid membrane proteins at different levels of desiccation suggested that there were few changes in the content of proteins involved in photosynthesis during desiccation. Interestingly, we found that both the PSII subunit, PsbS (Photosystem II S subunit) (a four-helix protein in the LHC superfamily), and light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) proteins, which are required for non-photochemical quenching in land plants and algae, respectively, were present under both normal and desiccation conditions and both increased slightly during desiccation. In addition, the results of immunoblot analysis suggested that the phosphorylation of PSII and LHCII increases during desiccation. To investigate further, we separated out a supercomplex formed during desiccation by blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified the components by mass spectrometry analysis. Our results show that phosphorylation of the complex increases slightly with decreased water content. All the results suggest that during the course of desiccation, few changes occur in the content of thylakoid membrane proteins, but a rearrangement of the protein complex occurs in the intertidal macro-alga Ulva sp. PMID:25132456

Gao, Shan; Gu, Wenhui; Xiong, Qian; Ge, Feng; Xie, Xiujun; Li, Jian; Chen, Weizhou; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

2014-08-18

193

Changes in epiphytic bacterial communities of intertidal seaweeds modulated by host, temporality, and copper enrichment.  

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This study reports on the factors involved in regulating the composition and structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on intertidal macroalgae, exploring their temporal variability and the role of copper pollution. Culture-independent, molecular approaches were chosen for this purpose and three host species were used as models: the ephemeral Ulva spp. (Chlorophyceae) and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae) and the long-living Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The algae were collected from two coastal areas in Northern Chile, where the main contrast was the concentration of copper in the seawater column resulting from copper-mine waste disposals. We found a clear and strong effect in the structure of the bacterial communities associated with the algal species serving as host. The structure of the bacterial communities also varied through time. The effect of copper on the structure of the epiphytic bacterial communities was significant in Ulva spp., but not on L. nigrescens. The use of 16S rRNA gene library analysis to compare bacterial communities in Ulva revealed that they were composed of five phyla and six classes, with approximately 35 bacterial species, dominated by members of Bacteroidetes (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) and ?-Proteobacteria, in both non-polluted and polluted sites. Less common groups, such as the Verrucomicrobiae, were exclusively found in polluted sites. This work shows that the structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on macroalgae is hierarchically determined by algal species > temporal changes > copper levels. PMID:20333374

Hengst, Martha B; Andrade, Santiago; González, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A

2010-08-01

194

Analytic methods for predicting biosettlement on patterned surfaces  

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Marine organism fouling of surfaces has significant impact on our environment and the economy. Increased fuel use due to drag costs approximately $600 million annually in the United States alone. The efficiency of marine vessels substantially decreases due to fouling. Toxins in some antifouling paints accumulate in the marine environment and produce negative effects on the marine ecology. There is a critical need for effective non-toxic, anti-fouling, marine coatings that reduce operational costs and the overall environmental impact of ocean vessels on the environment. Our approach is to investigate the interaction between the wettability of surfaces with the response of fouling organisms. One of the ways the wettability can be influenced is through the use of topography. Since the topographies have directionality, the direction dependence of the wettability was determined on several microscale topographies that have previously shown antifouling potential. Breaking microscale ridges into the discontinuous features in the antifouling topographies reduced the anisotropies in the contact angles, but did not eliminate anisotropy. The number of distinct features in the design and the area fraction of the topographic features were found to influence settlement of the fouling alga Ulva linza. A biosettlement model, refined from previous work, predicts the settlement of Ulva linza to three previously untested surfaces. These surfaces significantly reduced the settlement of these spores in vitro by up to 78%. The attachment of another species of fouler, the diatom Navicula perminuta, was reduced by approximately 35% on several surfaces that reduced Ulva linza settlement. The Navicula cells responded differently to the topographies than the Ulva linza spores. A mapping technique was developed to determine the two-dimensional settlement pattern of cells on the topographical surfaces. This technique revealed and quantified several preferential locations for Ulva linza settlement on engineered topographies. The characteristics of these locations can be further investigated to elucidate the driving factors for the interaction of these cells. Other applications, such as the medical devices and tissue scaffolds, could benefit from investigating the localized interactions between various cells and surface patterns.

Long, Christopher James

195

Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae) capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú / Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae), caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 [...] fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65). Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122). El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4). Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04%) mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33%) y 7 (6,66%) tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56) y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07). Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H') = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C) = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad. Abstract in english A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 female [...] s. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65). Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122) were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4). One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04%) showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33%) and seven (6.66%) had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07) were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H') = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C) = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

José, Iannacone.

2004-12-01

196

Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae, caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru  

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Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122. El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4. Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04% mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33% y 7 (6,66% tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56 y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07. Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H' = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad.A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 females. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122 were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4. One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04% showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33% and seven (6.66% had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07 were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H' = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

José Iannacone

2004-12-01

197

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comme [...] nts on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Marcelo E., Oliva; Jose L., Luque; Jose A., Iannacone.

1990-09-01

198

Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú) yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, [...] 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea). Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H) and evenness (J´) were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

Marcelo E, Oliva; José L, Luque.

1998-03-01

199

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844: an ecological approach  

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Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Marcelo E. Oliva

1990-09-01

200

Mercury Concentration of Four Dominant Species in the Bebar Peat Swampy Forest River, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Muscle, stomach and gill from four dominant fish species, Mytus nemurus, Pristolepis fasciata, Ompok bimaculatus and Osteochilus hasseltii, caught from Bebar peat swamp forest river were analyzed for mercury (Hg. The concentration of Hg was measured with a fast and sensitive Flow Injector Mercury Spectrometer (FIMS. The average Hg concentration of all species caught was 0.169 ?g g-1 dry weights, lower than a limit for human consumption recommended by the World Health Organization, 0.5 ?g g-1 dry weights. The mean concentration of Hg was relatively high in stomach (0.28x0.12 ?g g-1 dry weights followed by gill (0.17x0.06 ?g g-1 dry weights and lowest in muscle (0.05x0.02 ?g g-1 dry weights. The positive relationship of Hg with fish length and weight suggesting that the accumulation of Hg were formed in the fish.

B.Y. Kamaruzzaman

2007-01-01

201

Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data  

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Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

2004-02-20

202

Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast  

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Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

Oliva Marcelo E

1998-01-01

203

Radiolarian biostratigraphy of siliceous Eocene deposits in central California  

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Abundant Eocene siliceous deposits in California are located in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. The white shales to buff mudstones are characterized by radiolarians, diatoms, and silicoflagellates. Taxonomic descriptions and abundance data of key radiolarian species in existing monographs have limited biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretation. The California fauna is similar to faunas from the Norwegian Sea, Russian Platform, and southern oceans of Antarctica. Eocene faunas from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea differ considerably in diversity. In this study, the taxonomy and biostratigraphic information of species comprising more than 2% of the population are evaluated. Two radiolarian zones are erected for the middle Eocene of California, the Podocyrtis fasciata and Calocyclas semipolita Zones. Paleoenvironmental information suggests that some differences in the fauna may be environmentally controlled due to deposition in submarine canyons. -Authors

Blueford, J.

1988-01-01

204

Variations in the fecundity and body size of digenean (Opecoelidae) species parasitizing fishes from Northern Chile / Variaciones en la fecundidad y tamaño corporal de especies digeneas (Opecoelidae) que parasitan peces del norte de Chile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia de vida y estrategias de reproducción de los parásitos muestran una variabilidad significativa asociada con la identidad de hospedador y con factores ambientales. Este estudio evaluó la influencia de las especies hospedadoras sobre algunos rasgos de historia de vida de digeneos, como el [...] tamaño del cuerpo del parásito (PBL) y la fecundidad, de 3 especies: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia y Neoleburia georgenascimentoi. Además, se usaron marcadores moleculares (región V4 del gen 18S y CO-I)para confirmar la identidad específica de las especies parásitas en los diferentes hospedadores. Desde enero 2010 hasta junio 2012, 305 peces pertenecientes a Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus, Labrisomus philippii, Prolatilus jugularis y Pinguipes chilensis fueron capturados, por medio de buceo, desde la costa norte de Chile (24°S). En el laboratorio, los peces se midieron y se recolectaron todos sus parásitos. A cada parásito objetivo se le midió la longitud total y el ancho del cuerpo y todos sus huevos extraídos del útero se contabilizaron. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados (GLM) para identificar los factores que afectan la fecundidad de los digeneos. La fecundidad de H. nimia fue mayor en A. pictus y menor en L. philippii; la fecundidad de H. fasciata fue mayor en P. humeralis y menor en L. philippii y la fecundidad de N. georgenascimentoi fue mayor en P. chilensis. GLM mostraron que la fecundidad es afectada por el PBL y por la especie hospedadora. Las variaciones en PBL y fecundidad están aparentemente asociados con el tamaño de las especies hospedadoras: los parásitos más grandes (y con mayor fecundidad) se registraron en las especies de peces con mayores tamaños corporales (P. humeralis; A. pictus y P. chilensis). No obstante, los análisis moleculares mostraron que H. nimia presente en L. philippii difiere a las encontradas en A. pictus y P. humeralis, mientras que N. georgenascimentoi presente en P. jugularis es distinta a la encontrada en P. chilensis; por lo tanto, la identidad específica de los digeneos podría explicar la diferencia en su fecundidad entre especies de hospedadores. Abstract in english Parasite life history and reproductive strategies show considerable variability associated with host identity and/or environmental factors. In this study, we measured parasite body length (PBL) and fecundity of 3 digenean species: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia and Neoleburia georgenascim [...] entoi, in their different host species, to evaluate the host influence on these biological traits. Additionally, parasite identifications were confirmed using molecular markers (V4 region of 18S and CO-I genes). From January 2010 to June 2012, 305 fish belonging to Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus; Labrisomus philippii; Prolatilus jugularis and Pinguipes chilensis were captured, by diving, off the northern Chilean coast (24°S). In the laboratory, fish were measured and all their parasites collected. The total length and body width of each individual parasite were measured and all eggs were extracted from the parasites' uterus and counted. Generalized lineal models were used to identify factors affecting fecundity of digeneans. Fecundity of H. nimia was highest in A. pictus and lowest in individuals from L. philippii; fecundity of H. fasciata was highest in P. humeralis and lowest in L. philippii and fecundity of N. georgenascimentoi was highest in P. chilensis. GLM showed that variations in fecundity of digeneans are explained by host fish species and by PBL. Variations in PBL and fecundity are apparently associated with host species sizes: longer parasites (with more eggs per parasite) were recorded in larger fish species (P. humeralis, A. pictus and P. chilensis). However, molecular analyses showed that H. nimia from L. philippii should be considered a distinct species from specimens found in A. pictus and P. humeralis, while N. georgenascimentoi from P. jugularis should be co

M. Teresa, González; Vania, Henríquez; Zambra, López.

2013-12-01

205

Rediscovery of Clivina morio Dejean with the description of Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini  

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Full Text Available Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille, is established for C. americana Dejean and its relatives, whose collective geographical range includes the Western Hemisphere Nearctic Region and the Eastern Hemisphere Palaearctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical Regions. Previously, these taxa were included in the subgenus Reichardtula Whitehead, 1977, a taxon now confined to the Eastern Hemisphere. Members of Leucocara differ from those of other Nearctic Clivina by the presence of a small, apically truncate preapical protuberance on the mesotibia with its seta inserted apically. Clivina morio, previously known only from the holotype, is reported here from Louisiana and Texas, confirming its presence on the North American continent; the species is also included in Leucocara. The following new synonymies are proposed: C. dilutipennis Putzeys, 1866, C. insularis Jacquelin du Val, 1857, C. klugii Putzeys, 1846, C. sculptifrons Putzeys, 1846 with C. fasciata Putzeys, 1846 and C. morula LeConte, 1857 with C. americana Dejean, 1831.

Yves Bousquet

2009-10-01

206

A new genus and nine new species of Neotropical spittlebugs (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um gênero novo e nove espécies novas de cigarrinhas Neotropicais (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae). Os seguintes novos táxons de Cercopidae sul-americanos são descritos: Ferorhinella gen. nov., com a espécie-tipo Sphenorhina brevis Walker, 1851; Deois (Deois) knighti sp. nov. (Brasil), Deois (De [...] ois) sexpunctata sp. nov. (Brasil), Deois (Pandysia) constricta sp. nov. (Brasil), Mahanarva (Ipiranga) bahiaensis sp. nov. (Brasil), Maxantonia bifurcata sp. nov. (Brasil), Neosphenorhina curvipenis sp. nov. (Brasil), Sphenorhina brevispina sp. nov. (Equador), Sphenorhina nigricephala sp. nov. (Equador), Sphenorhina minuta sp. nov. (Brasil), Tropidorhinella onorei sp. nov. (Colômbia), Zuata luteofascia sp. nov. (Colômbia). Ferorhinella brevis (Walker, 1851) comb. nov. São fornecidas, também, descrições de um novo padrão de colorido de Mahanarva (M.) phantastica (Breddin, 1904) e de uma variação constatada recentemente na genitália do macho de Deoisella fasciata Costa & Sakakibara, 2002. Abstract in english The following new taxa of South American Cercopidae are described: Ferorhinella gen. nov., with type species Sphenorhina brevis Walker, 1851; Deois (Deois) knighti sp. nov. (Brazil), Deois (Deois) sexpunctata sp. nov. (Brazil), Deois (Pandysia) constricta sp. nov. (Brazil), Mahanarva (Ipiranga) bahi [...] aensis sp. nov. (Brazil), Maxantonia bifurcata sp. nov. (Brazil), Neosphenorhina curvipenis sp. nov. (Brazil), Sphenorhina brevispina sp. nov. (Ecuador), Sphenorhina nigricephala sp. nov. (Ecuador), Sphenorhina minuta sp. nov. (Brazil), Tropidorhinella onorei sp. nov. (Colombia), Zuata luteofascia sp. nov. (Colombia). Ferorhinella brevis (Walker, 1851) comb. nov. In addition, descriptions are given for a new colour form of Mahanarva (M.) phantastica (Breddin, 1904) and a newly found variation in the male genitalia of Deoisella fasciata Costa & Sakakibara, 2002.

Gervasio S., Carvalho; Michael D., Webb.

207

Evaluación de germoplasma de achiote Bixa orellana L.: estudios básicos sobre asociaciones fenotípicas y biología floral  

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Full Text Available 150 Bixa genetic resources was collected by National University of Colombia for purposes of conservation, evaluation and utilization in genetic breeding program. 21 accessions was evaluated for color production, seed production per plant and color porcentaje. B-Col 12, B-Col 16 and B-Co156 accessions showed highest values for seed production per plant and color percentaje. The achiote flower is hermafrodite, regular, calix formed by 5 sepales, coro le formed by 5 petales, numerous estames, superior and unilocular ovary. Antesis is 5:30 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. range. Protandria is present in achiote: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata and Trigona sp. are the pollinizator insects. A methodoly for controlled polinization was carried out.En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, seccional de Palmira se formó una colección de achiote Bixa orellana L. con 70 introducciones nacionales y 80 extranjeras. En 21 introducciones se encontró amplia variación fenotípica para los caracteres rendimiento de colorante por árbol y rendimiento de semilla por árbol. La variabilidad del carácter porcentaje de colorante fue menor. Las introducciones B-Col 12, B-Col 16 y B-Col 56 presentaron valores altos para los caracteres rendimiento de semilla por árbol y porcentaje de colorante. La flor del achiote es hermafrodita, regular, cáliz compuesto de cinco sépalos, corola por cinco pétalos libres, numerosos estambres, gineceo constituido por un ovario súpero unilocular. La antesis floral ocurre entre las 5:30 a.m. y las 8:00 a.m. Se presenta el fenómeno de protandria. Los principales insectos polinizadores son: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata y Trigona sp. Se determinó una metodología para efectuar hibridación artificial en achiote.

Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

1991-12-01

208

Cross-shelf transport of sub-thermocline nitrate by the internal tide and rapid (3-6 h) incorporation by an inshore macroalga  

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During summer in shallow waters off Baja California, Mexico, the internal tide is a dominant thermal feature of the water column. However, its importance for sub-thermocline nutrient provision to benthic macroalgae is unknown. In order to determine if internal motions provide nutrients to macroalgae in summer, Ulva lactuca was outplanted at inshore stations for short (3 and 6 h) intervals, at the surface, 5 and 10 m depth, and tissue nitrogen content was measured before and after each deployment. Concurrently temperature, currents, and nutrients were measured using moored thermistors, current profilers, CTDs, Niskin bottles, and an in-situ UV absorbance nitrate sensor (ISUS). Discrete pulses of cool, nutrient-rich water were horizontally displaced at least 4 km on the shelf and shoaled more than 20 m depth at the semidiurnal frequency, resulting in more than a 10-fold change in the concentration of nitrate. Inshore, tissue nitrogen of Ulva outplants increased significantly during longer exposures to this cool water. At this site, the semidiurnal signal dominates water column temperature fluctuations from April to November, with summer showing the greatest cooling (up to 5 °C) in a one-hour period. We estimated that 11% of the days of a year show internal waves that would cause a significant change in nutrient availability to macroalgae at 5 m depth. This study supports the hypothesis that nitrate can reach and be rapidly incorporated by inshore macroalgae such as Ulva through transport forced by the internal tide, and that even very short (<1 h) nutrient pulses in nature are reflected in macroalgal tissue. We propose that at this site, the internal tide provides a significant, yet understudied, high frequency nutrient source to inshore primary producers, particularly in summer.

Ladah, Lydia B.; Filonov, Anatoliy; Lavín, Miguel F.; Leichter, James J.; Zertuche-González, José A.; Pérez-Mayorga, Diana M.

2012-07-01

209

Effect of soda ash industry effluent on protein content of two green seaweeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to check the effect of soda ash industry effluent on the protein content of the seaweed Ulva faciata and Chaetomorpha antennina. Study shows that the effluent has positive effect on the protein content of the alga and thus these species can be used to reduce the effect of soda ash industry pollution because the rise of up to 35% of protein level is found in these species of alga due to uptake of polluted water. Thus, these seaweeds can be cultivated on a large scale in the effluent affected region and thus clean the environment while getting the proteinous food as by product. PMID:17662523

Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

2008-03-01

210

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of attached Ulvaceae species and free-floating Enteromorpha from Qingdao coasts in 2007  

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Based on the sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8 S, and ITS 2, the molecular phylogeny was analyzed on Ulvaceae species collected from Qingdao coasts in summer of 2007, including 15 attached Ulva and Enteromorpha samples from 10 locations and 10 free-floating Enteromorpha samples from seven locations. The result supported the monophyly of all free-floating Enteromorpha samples, implying the unialgal composition of the free-floating Enteromorpha, and the attached Ulvaceae species from Qingdao coasts were grouped into other five clades, suggesting that they were not the biogeographic origin of the free-floating Enteromorpha in that season.

Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jinfeng; Cui, Yulin; Li, Youxun; Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2008-08-01

211

Genetically controlled food preference: biochemical mechanisms.  

OpenAIRE

Food choice is known to be correlated with genotype in the crustacean Gammarus palustris. Given a choice of Enteromorpha intestinalis (E) over Ulva lactuca (U), individuals homozygous for the Amy II.52 allele have a greater preference for E than do Amy II.55 homozygotes. To account for this correlation, we hypothesized that the proportions of saccharides released by the enzymatic action of Amy II.52 on E or Amy II.55 on U starches differ from and better stimulate feeding than those released b...

Guarna, M. M.; Borowsky, R. L.

1993-01-01

212

Occurrence of Enteromorpha compressa (Chlorophyta) in the Wielkopolska Region  

OpenAIRE

The new inland positions of Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Ness [Ulva compressa L.] are located in Pozna? streams: Micha?ówka, Dworski and ?wi?tnica. Taking into account the morphology the freshwater form of E. compressa is very different from its see forms. Mature thallus reach impressive size from 180 cm in length to 8 cm width. All positions of that see-like macroalga are located near the A2 route (Nowy Tomy?l - Stryków). Sewage coming from the route fall into streams, in which great m...

Messyasz, Beata; Rybak, Andrzej

2008-01-01

213

Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences  

OpenAIRE

We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land pl...

Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-lak; Osawa, Syozo

1985-01-01

214

Phytochemical and biological studies on some Egyptian seaweeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of four species of seaweeds, Ulva lactuca L. (green), Liagora farinosa Lamouroux (red), Padina pavonia L. and Turbinaria ornata Turn (brown), were screened for their antimicrobial, and antimalarial activities, and binding affinity for human opioid receptors. Phytochemical analysis led to the isolation and identification of 10 constituents: fucosterol, stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, beta-sitosterol, glycerol-1-olyl-3-palmotyl-2-galactoside, and glycerol-1,3-diolyl, The last two compounds displayed strong binding affinity to delta opioid receptors. PMID:23074910

Elsayed, Khaled N M; Radwan, Mohamed M; Hassan, Sherif H M; Abdelhameed, Mohamed S; Ibraheem, Ibraheem B; Ross, Samir A

2012-09-01

215

Rol de las macroalgas en el biomonitoreo de la contaminación en «Marchica», la laguna de Nador / Role of macroalgae in biomonitoring of pollution in «Marchica», the Nador lagoon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish La contaminación de los sistemas acuáticos por los contaminantes orgánicos y metales pesados es uno de los problemas más graves a los que están expuestos el medio ambiente y los organismos. La acumulación de estos contaminantes se debe a la actividad antropogénica, principalmente al uso intensivo de [...] fertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos en los cultivos. En este trabajo, hemos comparado los niveles de clorofila, proteínas y carbohidratos (glucosa y sacarosa) en algunas algas rojas (Alsidium sp. y Gracilaria sp.) y verdes (Ulva sp.) recogidas en Mohandis, cerca de Kariat y Bou Areg. Nuestros resultados indican que las algas recogidas cerca de Bou Areg, una zona bien conocida por su alta actividad agrícola, contienen altos niveles de pigmentos, proteínas y azúcares. A partir de los resultados de clorofila podemos concluir que Ulva sp. es un buen indicador para el registro de la eutroficación. No obstante, Gracilaria sp. puede ser utilizada en la fitorremediación debido a la alta tasa de síntesis de carbohidratos lo que la hace mucho más resistente a la contaminación. Abstract in english The Aquatic system contamination by organic pollutants and heavy metals is one of the most serious problems that might face the environment and organisms as a whole. Interestingly, the accumulation of these pollutants is due to the anthropogenic activity, namely the intensive use of fertilizers to o [...] btain high yields in crop production. In this paper, we compared the levels of chlorophylls, proteins, dry weight and sucrose in some red (Alsidium sp. and Gracilaria sp.) and green algae (Ulva sp.) collected from Mohandis, near Kariat and Bou Areg. Our results indicate that the algae collected nearby Bou Areg, an area well-known for its high agricultural activity, contained high levels of pigments, proteins and sugars. From the chlorophyll results, we conclude that Ulva sp. is the best indicator for eutrophication biomonitoring. Nevertheless, the Gracilaria sp. can be used in phytoremediation due to its high carbohydrate synthesis that makes it much more pollutant resistant.

K, Ben Chekroun; A, Moumen; N, Rezzoum; E, Sánchez; M, Baghour.

2013-06-01

216

Sorption of Yttrium and the Rare Earth Elements on Non-Living Macroalgal Tissue  

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We have investigated sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on tissue of the green macroalga Ulva lactuca, commonly known as sea lettuce. Due to its nearly worldwide distribution in coastal waters, very simple morphology, and prodigious capacity for trace metal uptake from seawater, members of the Ulva genus serve as a basic but representative model of marine organic substrates in this type of study. In order to exclude active biological uptake effects, allowing us to focus on passive chemical mechanisms, we performed our initial experiments with sea lettuce Certified Reference Material consisting of a dehydrated, powdered tissue homogenate. A small quantity of this powder was suspended in NaCl solutions containing all YREEs, except Pm, at pH 3 and T = 25°C. The extent of YREE sorption was determined as a function of pH at constant temperature by titrating the solution with dilute NaOH and measuring the YREE concentrations of 0.2-?m filtered aliquots with an ICP-MS at regular time intervals after each pH adjustment. In NaCl solutions with an ionic strength approaching that of seawater, distribution coefficients, which quantify the proportion of sorbed and dissolved metal concentrations, are a highly linear function of pH in the range 3-8. The slope of the line suggests a sorption mechanism that involves ion exchange with both H+ and Na+ on surface functional groups. The shape of solution YREE patterns indicates that these functional groups are probably carboxylates at low and intermediate pH, but that other groups may contribute at high pH. The identification of carboxylate functional groups appears to be confirmed by preliminary results from EXAFS spectroscopic analyses of individual REE sorbed on the surface of Ulva lactuca tissue under similar conditions, conducted at the ANL Advanced Photon Source. In dilute NaCl solutions the distribution coefficient is largely independent of pH. We believe that prolonged exposure of the tissue to a low ionic strength solution may modify the chemical structure of the cell wall and make it permeable to organic ligands that otherwise sequester the YREEs in the cell interior. Chemical extraction of filtered solutions from the low ionic strength experiment with silica-bonded C18, showing that a substantial fraction of dissolved YREEs is distinctly hydrophobic, seems to support this hypothesis. Additional experiments to clarify these observations, including acid-base titrations of the Ulva lactuca tissue to assess the number of different functional groups and their surface densities, are currently ongoing.

Schijf, J.; Straka, A. M.

2007-12-01

217

Seaweed and chlorophyll as biomarkers of metals in the Persian Gulf, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algal chlorophyll content and chlorophyll type ratios, as biomarkers of stress, were investigated. Ulva intestinalis and Sargassum angustifolium were sampled at low tide, in the intertidal zone of Bushehr Province in January and May, 2010. The mean concentrations of metals in the algae were in the following order: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. High negative correlations between chlorophyll a content (r = -0.84, p angustifolium (r = -0.93, p < 0.001) and Ni concentration in this algae shows that both the content and ratio of chlorophyll may clearly reflect a negative effect of high metal concentrations in this algae. PMID:22766631

Alahverdi, M; Savabieasfahani, M

2012-09-01

218

Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

Randazzo Davide

2007-07-01

219

Effect of Acacia nilotica Fruit Extract on Serum Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effects of Acacia nilotica Delile (Fabaceae fruit extract on serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in control and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: Normal Control Rats (NC, normal control rats administered A. nilotica (NC+AN, Diabetic Control rats (DC and diabetic rats administered A. nilotica (DC+AN. Each group comprised 10 to 14 rats. The methanolic extract A. nilotica fruit was orally administered at a concentration of 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. for 5 consecutive weeks. The A. nilotica fruit extract significantly (pA. nilotica fruit extract administration did not change significantly. The A. nilotica extract showed a strong hypolipidemic effect on diabetic rats and significantly decreased serum levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pA. nilotica fruit extract could be beneficial for treatment of diabetes related-complications and hyperlipidemia.

Abuelgassim O. Abuelgassim

2013-01-01

220

Chernobyl radionuclides in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, 1986-1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 26 April and 1 June 1986, the nuclear reactor accident of unit 4 at Cherobyl led to the release of a large quantity of radioactive material, part of which reached the Mediterranean environment. Radionuclides such as 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 141Ce and 144Ce were immediately detected in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. A survey of this species showed a selective distribution amongst its tissues and a preferential contamination of the adult leaves. The rhizomes, which are perennial parts, recorded early contamination by 110mAg, located by sectioning the annual segments (lepidochronology). Variations in the concentrations of several radionuclides found in adult leaves reveal the rapid decay and distribution of contamination in Mediterranean waters in 1986 and 1987, although the eastern part of the French coast had higher concentrations in 1986. Since adult leaves are continuously renewed and because of their rapid accumulation of radionuclides, they may be particularly interesting immediate sentinel accumulators in the event of a nuclear accident as well as in monitoring chronic contamination. It is suggested that a 'Posidonia Watch' could be set up around the Mediterranean Sea. (author)

221

Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L. leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods, enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological understanding of these plant materials. PMID:11837686

Saleem, A; Ahotupa, M; Pihlaja, K

2001-01-01

222

Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35?N, 8°43?E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, François; De Troch, Marleen

2015-01-01

223

What factors drive seasonal variation of phytoplankton, protozoans and metazoans on leaves of Posidonia oceanica and in the water column along the coast of the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia?  

Science.gov (United States)

A hierarchical sampling design was used during two seasons (spring (May) and summer (August) 2006). Using this design, three regions of the Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia) were analyzed for the distribution of microalgal, protozoan and metazoan assemblages in two different habitats: (1) the water column; and (2) on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (P. oceanica) leaves in shallow meadows. A total of 85 species were obtained. In particular, the diatom family Naviculacea consistently dominated (both numerically and in their diversity) the micro-algae in all regions for the two seasons of the study and in both habitats. In the Chergui region, which is the closest area to a source of impact, fast growing centric diatoms (such as Thalassionema, Rhizosolenia, Striatella, and Skeletonema) were identified as indicators of high organic matter and nutrient enrichment in water bodies. Protozoan and metazoan species abundance in the different regions indicate a non-random spatial and temporal distribution of the epiphytic organisms on leaves of P. oceanica that correlated with phytoplankton. The results also indicate that (1) the abundance of micro- and macroorganisms in the three regions were higher on P. oceanica leaves than in the water column for the two seasons; (2) environmental factors such as currents and tide influenced assemblages; and (3) the highest abundance was due to direct exposure to the polluted coast of Sfax and the effect of tidal asymmetries generating nutrient-rich inputs from the city. PMID:23498657

Mounir, Ben Brahim; Asma, Hamza; Sana, Ben Ismail; Lotfi, Mabrouk; Abderrahmen, Bouain; Lotfi, Aleya

2013-06-15

224

Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

Reusch Thorsten BH

2011-01-01

225

Marine macroalgae as a source for osmoprotection for Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

At elevated osmolarity of the mineral medium M63, marine macroalgae constitute important osmoprotectants and nutrients sources for Escherichia coli. Growth of bacterial population (16 strains) was improved by supplementing M63 salts medium with either aqueous or ethanolic algal extracts obtained from Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Enteromorpha ramulosa, Ulva lactuca, and Palmaria palmata. In their presence, growth was still observed even at 1.02 M NaCl. Furthermore, the E. coli ZB400 growth in presence of whole macroalgae thalli in M63/0.85 M NaCI reached its maximum within 24 h (5 × 10(7) - 5 × 10(8) colony-forming units [CFU] per milliliter). In the presence of A. nodosum, bacterial growth was inhibited. In the same experimental conditions, ethanolic extracts improved E. coli growth significantly, because the yield reached 10(11) CFU per milliliter. Ulva lactuca and P. palmata allowed the better growth. The Dragendorff-positive compounds extracted from bacterial cells growing on each ethanolic extract exhibited an osmoprotective effect as proved by a disk-diffusion assay. On the other hand, the -onium compounds (quaternary ammonium [betaines] and tertiary sulphonium) and total free amino acid contents of U. lactuca ethanolic extracts were higher than in others. Fucaceae extracts demonstrated especially high protein content. Algal extracts constitute not only an appreciable osmoprotection source for E. coli but also nutrient sources. PMID:24185483

Ghoul, M; Minet, J; Bernard, T; Dupray, E; Cormier, M

1995-09-01

226

Community composition of the rocky intertidal at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

At the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea), the distribution and abundances of intertidal communities were assessed and the effects of wave exposure and tidal height on the spatial distribution patterns of the communities were evaluated. Macroalgae and invertebrates were sampled quantitatively along line transects in three intertidal locations, a semi-exposed, an exposed and a sheltered one. The semi-exposed location was characterised by (1) Ulva spp. at the high intertidal ( Ulva-community), (2) mussels and periwinkles at the mid intertidal ( Mytilus-community) and (3) Corallina officinalis and mainly the large brown alga Fucus serratus at the low intertidal ( Fucus-community). The exposed location encompassed the mid and low intertidal; at both zones the Fucus-community occurred. The sheltered location was characterised by (1) barnacles ( Balanus-community) and (2) bryozoans, hydrozoans and mainly the large brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ( Ascophyllum-community). At the semi-exposed, but not at the exposed location the communities changed with the intertidal position. A relationship between wave exposure and the occurrence of specific communities was shown for the sheltered location; in contrast, communities of the semi-exposed and the exposed location appear to be little influenced by wave exposure directly. The community concept and the potential causes of distribution patterns of the defined communities are discussed and suggestions for a future monitoring are given. Variations in the communities at different spatial scales speak in favour of a multiple scale sampling design to monitor changes in the intertidal communities at Helgoland.

Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich; Giménez, Luis

2008-12-01

227

Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

1988-01-01

228

Microscopic observation of pyrenoids in Order Ulvales (Chlorophyta) collected from Qingdao coast  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrenoids found in green algae Order Ulvales have taxonomical significance. Their morphology, microstructure, and the location and number in the cells have been widely used as identification criteria. As these traits can be affected by environmental conditions, it is necessary to look for other different characteristics. Here pyrenoids in several algae species collected along the Qingdao coast were studied for such purpose. The morphology and distribution of pyrenoids in the cells, as well as their change in different parts of the frond and at different times were studied with light microscope. The results are as follows. Pyrenoids appeared to be spherical or oval in observed Ulvales' algae cells. They were embedded in chloroplasts with the number of 1-3 per cell on average. The number of pyrenoids for Ulva pertusa could change drastically with continuing culture and could reach up to 10-20 per cell in late-growth stages. Generally, the pyrenoids in the marginal part were more observable than those in the central part for Ulva pertusa. In addition, the basal part of frond had more distinct pyrenoids with an average diameter of 2.42 ?m for Enteromorpha linza. For some species the pyrenoids were difficult to be observed while dark treatment made them more distinguishable. The apoptosis rate of pyrenoids in different species varied under continuing dark treatment, which could be used to identify different species. Pyrenoids disappeared faster in E. linza than those in E. intestinalis.

Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Lu, Qinqin

2011-09-01

229

Antifouling potential of Subtilisin A immobilized onto maleic anhydride copolymer thin films.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteinaceous nature of the adhesives used by most fouling organisms to attach to surfaces suggests that coatings incorporating proteolytic enzymes may provide a technology for the control of biofouling. In the present article, the antifouling (AF) and fouling release potential of model coatings incorporating the surface-immobilized protease, Subtilisin A, have been investigated. The enzyme was covalently attached to maleic anhydride copolymer thin films; the characteristics of the bioactive coatings obtained were adjusted through variation of the type of copolymer and the concentration of the enzyme solution used for immobilization. The bioactive coatings were tested for their effect on the settlement and adhesion strength of two major fouling species: the green alga Ulva linza and the diatom Navicula perminuta. The results show that the immobilized enzyme effectively reduced the settlement and adhesion strength of zoospores of Ulva and the adhesion strength of Navicula cells. The AF efficacy of the bioactive coatings increased with increasing enzyme surface concentration and activity, and was found to be superior to the equivalent amount of enzyme in solution. The results provide a rigorous analysis of one approach to the use of immobilized proteases to reduce the adhesion of marine fouling organisms and are of interest to those investigating enzyme-containing coating technologies for practical biofouling control. PMID:19387876

Tasso, Mariana; Pettitt, Michala E; Cordeiro, Ana L; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Werner, Carsten

2009-01-01

230

Biomass and abundance of macrofauna in intertidal sediments of Königshafen in the northern Wadden Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Intertidal sediments of Königshafen (Island of Sylt, North Sea) were sieved for mesofauna (>0.25 mm) and macrofauna (>1 mm) in spring and autumn 1990. Although sediments are coarser than in other parts of the Wadden Sea, the macrobenthic fauna was very similar but with a tendency towards higher species density, abundance and biomass. Taking into account the areal size of sandy flats, seagrass beds, mud flats and mussel beds, the average biomass is calculated to be 65 g ash-free dry weight m-2 The lugworm Arenicola marina dominates the biomass (28%), followed by the bivalves Mytilus edulis (21%), Mya areanaria (16%), Cerastoderma edule (10%) and the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae (9%). While spring and autumn biomass are almost alike, abundance is highly variable and entirely dominated by H. ulvae. Mesofauna is mainly composed of oligochaetes, small and juvenile polychaetes. Abundance is similar to that of macrofauna, while biomass is only about 1 g m-2. Macrophyte biomass amounted to 9% of that macrofauna. In the course of the centurym mussel beds expanded while muddy areas declined. The concomitant effects on biomass presumably compensated each other.

Reise, K.; Herre, E.; Sturm, M.

1994-06-01

231

Primer registro de Caprella scaura y Caprella penantis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) en la laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, México / First record of Caprella scaura and Caprella penantis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) in the Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se registran por primera vez los anfípodos caprélidos Caprella scaura y C. penantis en la laguna Madre de Tamaulipas. Ambas especies son cosmopolitas y con numerosos registros exóticos alrededor del mundo. El registro de C. scaura es también el primero en el suroeste del golfo de México. Este caprél [...] ido se recolectó entre mantos del alga verde Ulva lactuca adheridos en rocas de arenisca en la boca de Catán de esta laguna. Mientras que los especímenes de C. penantis se recolectaron entre el pasto marino Halodule wrightii. Abstract in english The caprellid amphipods Caprella scaura and C. penantis are recorded for first time in the Laguna Madre from Tamaulipas. Both species are cosmopolitan and with exotic numerous records worldwide. The finding of C. scaura is also the first record for the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. This caprellid was [...] collected among green-algae Ulva lactuca that colonized tidal inlets at Laguna Madre. While that specimens of C. penantis were collected between seagrass Halodule wrightii.

Gabino A., Rodríguez-Almaraz; Víctor M., Ortega-Vidales.

2013-09-01

232

Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed  

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Full Text Available The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR, chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be more than the control. Protein content was slightly more than the control at 0.25% fly ash while that of lipid at 0.5 and 2.5% concentrations. In Caulerpa scalpelliformis, fly ash at all the concentrations induced reduced DGR and lipid content but increased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b amount. The amount of protein was more than the control at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% fly ash. In Padina tetrastomatica, at almost all the concentrations of fly ash, the amount of Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and protein exceeded over the control. In the present study, of the four experimental seaweeds, the red seaweed Gracilaria corticata was found to be most tolerant as this exhibited enhanced growth and biochemical content at most of the concentrations of fly ash.

Sornalakshmi V

2014-01-01

233

Experimental and mathematical modelling of the consumer influence on the productivity of algae in a model aquatic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Based upon the experimental and theoretical results the possibility of increasing the microalgal productivity in the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle (Chlorella vulgaris - Paramecium caudatum) has been considered. The experiment was held on the device with spatially divided links, which consists of a fermenter for Chlorella cultivation (the "producer" link) and a fermenter for Paramecia growing (the "consumer" link). The direct relation between the reproduction of Paramecia at consuming Chlorella and emission of nitrogen in ammonium form, which is the most preferable for growing Chlorella, has been revealed. In the result of theoretical study of the model of the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle with spatially divided links the contribution of Paramecia to the nitrogen cycle has been proved. It was shown that simultaneously with the increase of concentration of nitrogen evolved in the process of Paramecia metabolism, the biomass of Chlorella increases as well. The possibility of increasing the productivity of agal growth in the presence of a predator in a different way (due to decrease of limitation on light) has been considered. A laboratory growth experiment revealed a positive effect of Gammarus presence on Ulva spp. growth, probably caused by removal of epiphytic diatoms from the Ulva spp. thalli.

Pisman, T. I.; Galayda, Y. V.; Shirobokova, I. M.

234

Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations  

Science.gov (United States)

In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and probably part of a single macromolecular scaffold. Fresh Ulva tissue appears to contain the same three functional groups but at lower concentrations, based on wet weight. The titration in natural seawater was largely dominated by the non-carbonate alkalinity of the solution and could not be robustly modeled. Results of fits with ionic strengths fixed at their experimental values indicate that the pKas of all three groups display prominent Debije-Hückel-type behavior, hence that these acid dissociation reactions involve a different mechanism than metal-proton exchange reactions on mineral surfaces, whose distribution coefficients (i.e., equilibrium constants) generally show a weak ionic strength dependence.

Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

2008-12-01

235

Substratos alternativos ao xaxim na produção de bromélia ornamental / Alternative substrates to fern tree fiber in the production of ornamental bromeliad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar substratos alternativos para o cultivo da bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley) Baker, para substituir com eficiência as misturas formuladas com o xaxim Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook. Foram testados os substratos: casca de Pinus, casca de Eucalyptus, coxim, f [...] ibra de coco e xaxim, misturados com turfa e perlita, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1. O experimento foi realizado em condições de estufa com cobertura de polietileno, sombreada com tela a 70%. As bromélias foram cultivadas durante 435 dias, até o início do florescimento - estádio de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram as massas de matéria seca de: folhas, raiz, inflorescência, escapo floral e caule; além da massa de matéria seca total e a qualidade comercial. Os substratos formulados com xaxim ou casca de Pinus, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1, e com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, na proporção 2:7:1, foram as misturas que apresentaram os melhores resultados. Os substratos formulados com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, com 10% de turfa e 10% de perlita, na proporção 8:1:1, apresentaram os piores resultados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the cultivation of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata (Lindley) Baker, to substitute the formulated mixtures with fern tree fiber from Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook. Tested substrates were: Pinus bark, Eucalyptus bark, coxim (ma [...] de of coconut fiber), coir or fern tree fiber, mixed with peat and perlite, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse covered with polyethylene and shaded with shade cloth 70%. The bromeliads were cultivated during 435 days, until the beginning of the flowering, when they were suitable for commercialization. The evaluated parameters were dry masses of leaf, root, inflorescence, floral scape, and stem, besides total dry mass and the commercial quality. The substrates formulated with fern tree fiber or Pinus bark, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1, and with Eucalyptus bark, coir or coxim, in the proportion 2:7:1, showed the best results. The substrates formulated with Eucalyptus bark, coir or coxim in the proportion 8:1:1 presented the poorest results.

Shoey, Kanashiro; Keigo, Minami; Teresa, Jocys; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos, Dias; Armando Reis, Tavares.

1319-13-01

236

Substratos alternativos ao xaxim na produção de bromélia ornamental Alternative substrates to fern tree fiber in the production of ornamental bromeliad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar substratos alternativos para o cultivo da bromélia Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, para substituir com eficiência as misturas formuladas com o xaxim Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Foram testados os substratos: casca de Pinus, casca de Eucalyptus, coxim, fibra de coco e xaxim, misturados com turfa e perlita, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1. O experimento foi realizado em condições de estufa com cobertura de polietileno, sombreada com tela a 70%. As bromélias foram cultivadas durante 435 dias, até o início do florescimento - estádio de comercialização. As variáveis analisadas foram as massas de matéria seca de: folhas, raiz, inflorescência, escapo floral e caule; além da massa de matéria seca total e a qualidade comercial. Os substratos formulados com xaxim ou casca de Pinus, nas proporções 2:7:1, 5:4:1 e 8:1:1, e com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, na proporção 2:7:1, foram as misturas que apresentaram os melhores resultados. Os substratos formulados com casca de Eucalyptus, fibra de coco ou coxim, com 10% de turfa e 10% de perlita, na proporção 8:1:1, apresentaram os piores resultados.The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative substrates for the cultivation of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata (Lindley Baker, to substitute the formulated mixtures with fern tree fiber from Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl. Hook. Tested substrates were: Pinus bark, Eucalyptus bark, coxim (made of coconut fiber, coir or fern tree fiber, mixed with peat and perlite, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse covered with polyethylene and shaded with shade cloth 70%. The bromeliads were cultivated during 435 days, until the beginning of the flowering, when they were suitable for commercialization. The evaluated parameters were dry masses of leaf, root, inflorescence, floral scape, and stem, besides total dry mass and the commercial quality. The substrates formulated with fern tree fiber or Pinus bark, in the proportions 2:7:1, 5:4:1 and 8:1:1, and with Eucalyptus bark, coir or coxim, in the proportion 2:7:1, showed the best results. The substrates formulated with Eucalyptus bark, coir or coxim in the proportion 8:1:1 presented the poorest results.

Shoey Kanashiro

2008-10-01

237

Variación entre años de la fauna de parásitos metazoos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae en Lima, Perú Between-year variation of metazoan parasite fauna on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Lima, Peru  

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Full Text Available Se evalúa la estructura comunitaria de los parásitos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, y se analiza si la composición, riqueza, diversidad, prevalencia e intensidad media de sus comunidades parasitarias cambia entre muestras tomadas con 20 años de diferencia en Lima, Perú, entre agosto 1987 y julio 1988 y de agosto a septiembre del 2008 en peces de similar longitud corporal. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. La abundancia total fue de 1,7 (0 a 13 y la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 0,7 (0 a 2 especies de parásitos por pez. Treinta hospederos mostraron infección con al menos un parásito (60%. Se encontraron siete taxa de parásitos: dos monogeneos Cynoscionicola sciaenae y Hargicotyle sciaenae; un digeneo Helicometra fasciata; un nemátodo Dycheline amaruincai, un acantocéfalo Tegorhynchus sp., y dos copépodos Caligus callaoensis y Lernanthropus huamani. Un análisis comparativo entre los parásitos de S. deliciosa entre 1987-1988 y 2008, muestran una disminución en la prevalencia de Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochusperuensis y Neobrachiella oralis. La intensidad media aumentó para C. americana y Tegorhynchus sp. y disminuyó para C. callaoensis. Las diferencias entre años pudieran estar influenciadas por las variaciones en la temperatura del agua que afectaron los estados larvales y/o reproducción de los copépodos, en la amplitud del periodo de estudio y en el tamaño de la muestra.The community structure of parasites on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, is evaluated and eventual changes are analyzed in the composition, richness, diversity, prevalence and mean intensity of parasite communities on fish specimens that were similar in body length but were sampled 20 years apart (August 1987 to July 1988 vs. August to September 2008 in Lima, Perú. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. Total abundance was 1.7 (0-13 and parasite species richness was 0.7 (0-2 parasite species per fish. Thirsty hosts (60% were infected by at least with one parasite. Seven parasite taxa were found: two monogeneans (Cynoscionicola sciaenae, Hargicotyle sciaenae, a digenean (Helicometra fasciata, a nematode (Dycheline amaruincai, an acanthocephalan (Tegorhynchus sp., and two copepods (Caligus callaoensis, Lernanthropus huamani. This comparative analysis (parasites of S. deliciosa in 1987-1988 vs in 2008, showed a decreased prevalence of Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochus peruensis, and Neobrachiella oralis. The mean intensity increased for C americana and Tegorhynchus sp. and diminished for C callaoensis. Differences between years could be influenced by variations of sea temperature that affect larval stages and/or copepod reproduction over the course of the study period and size of the sample.

José Iannacone

2010-01-01

238

Variación entre años de la fauna de parásitos metazoos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) en Lima, Perú / Between-year variation of metazoan parasite fauna on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Lima, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evalúa la estructura comunitaria de los parásitos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846), y se analiza si la composición, riqueza, diversidad, prevalencia e intensidad media de sus comunidades parasitarias cambia entre muestras tomadas con 20 años de diferencia en Lima, Perú, entre agosto 1987 y ju [...] lio 1988 y de agosto a septiembre del 2008 en peces de similar longitud corporal. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. La abundancia total fue de 1,7 (0 a 13) y la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 0,7 (0 a 2 especies de parásitos por pez). Treinta hospederos mostraron infección con al menos un parásito (60%). Se encontraron siete taxa de parásitos: dos monogeneos Cynoscionicola sciaenae y Hargicotyle sciaenae; un digeneo Helicometra fasciata; un nemátodo Dycheline amaruincai, un acantocéfalo Tegorhynchus sp., y dos copépodos Caligus callaoensis y Lernanthropus huamani. Un análisis comparativo entre los parásitos de S. deliciosa entre 1987-1988 y 2008, muestran una disminución en la prevalencia de Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochusperuensis y Neobrachiella oralis. La intensidad media aumentó para C. americana y Tegorhynchus sp. y disminuyó para C. callaoensis. Las diferencias entre años pudieran estar influenciadas por las variaciones en la temperatura del agua que afectaron los estados larvales y/o reproducción de los copépodos, en la amplitud del periodo de estudio y en el tamaño de la muestra. Abstract in english The community structure of parasites on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846), is evaluated and eventual changes are analyzed in the composition, richness, diversity, prevalence and mean intensity of parasite communities on fish specimens that were similar in body length but were sampled 20 years apart [...] (August 1987 to July 1988 vs. August to September 2008) in Lima, Perú. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. Total abundance was 1.7 (0-13) and parasite species richness was 0.7 (0-2 parasite species per fish). Thirsty hosts (60%) were infected by at least with one parasite. Seven parasite taxa were found: two monogeneans (Cynoscionicola sciaenae, Hargicotyle sciaenae), a digenean (Helicometra fasciata), a nematode (Dycheline amaruincai), an acanthocephalan (Tegorhynchus sp.), and two copepods (Caligus callaoensis, Lernanthropus huamani). This comparative analysis (parasites of S. deliciosa in 1987-1988 vs in 2008), showed a decreased prevalence of Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochus peruensis, and Neobrachiella oralis. The mean intensity increased for C americana and Tegorhynchus sp. and diminished for C callaoensis. Differences between years could be influenced by variations of sea temperature that affect larval stages and/or copepod reproduction over the course of the study period and size of the sample.

José, Iannacone; Luis, Morón; Sandra, Guizado.

239

Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent eradications using aerial bait application, the risk of mortality to exposed individual fish or shellfish appears very low. There is also a very low risk of adverse effects on humans that consume fish or shellfish containing residual concentrations in the ranges reported here. Furthermore, any brodifacoum residues that occur in marine wildlife decline to below detectable concentrations over a period of weeks. Thus potential human exposure to brodifacoum through consumption of marine wildlife containing residual brodifacoum could be minimized by defining 'no take' periods for harvest following bait application and regular monitoring to confirm the absence of detectable residues in relevant marine wildlife. PMID:25437099

Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

2015-03-01

240

Ehl-i Sünnet Aç?s?ndan Bilgi ve De?eriKnowledge and its Value in Terms of the Ahl As-Sunnah  

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Full Text Available Kelâm ilmînin amac?, dinî inançlar? kesin deliller kullanarak ispat etmektir. Bu nedenle kelâmc?lar Kur’an’? ve iki k?sma ay?rd?klar? Sünnet’in ilk k?sm?nda yer alan mütevâtir haberleri esas alm??lard?r. Kelâm ilminde üç bilgi edinme yolu oldu?u kabul edilmi?tir. Bunlar, be? duyu, ak?l ve haber-i sâd?k’t?r. Bilgi edinme yollar?ndan ilk ikisini olu?turan be? duyu ve ak?l ile elde edilen bilgiler ile Sünnet’in ilk k?sm?nda yer alan mütevâtir haberin de?eri konusunda ?slâm âlimleri aras?nda bir ihtilâf söz konusu de?ildir. Hicretin II. asr?ndan itibaren, sünnetin ikinci k?sm?n? olu?turan haber-i vahid’in de?eri ve itikâdî konularda delil te?kil edip etmeyece?i konusunda âlimler tarihsel süreç içinde birbirinden farkl? görü?ler ortaya koymu?lard?r. Böylelikle problem günümüze kadar devam etmi?tir. Konu hakk?nda fikir yürüten âlimler, Kelâmc?lar ve Selefiyye olmak üzere iki ana gruba ayr?lm??lard?r. Bu çal??man?n amac?, haber-i vâhid hakk?ndaki fikir ayr?l?klar?n?n nedenlerini, kelâmc?lar taraf?ndan bilgi edinme yollar?ndan biri olarak kabul edilen haber-i sâd?k? dikkate alarak ara?t?rmakt?r. Abstract The purpose of the Kalam science is to prove the religious beliefs by using definitive evidences. For this reason, the Kalam scholars are inclined to Koran and the mutawatir reports which are included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah divided into two parts. In the Kalam science, it has been accepted that there are three ways of attaining knowledge. These are the five senses, intelligence, and precise reports. It is not the case that Islamic scholars have a disagreement on not only knowledges obtained through the five senses and intelligence but the value of mutawatir reports included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah. As of the second century of Hegira, the scholars have put forward different opinions about whether the value of imprecise reports will constitute an evidence in matters of faith in the historical process or not. Thus, the problem has continued to the present day. The scholars who speculate about the issue have been divided into two main groups as Kalam scholars and Salafism. The purpose of this study is to research the reasons for the disagreements on imprecise reports by taking precise reports into account, which has been accepted by Kalam scholars as one of the ways of attaining knowledge.

ismail yüceda?

2014-06-01

241

Epidermal studies of three species of Vernonia Schreb. in Southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Kemka-Evans CI, Okoli B, Nwachukwu CU. 2014. Epidermal studies of three species of Vernonia Schreber in Southern Nigeria. Biodiversitas 15: 137-141.The leaf epidermal studies of three species of Vernonia namely V. cinerea (L Less, V. amygdalina Delile. (bitter leaf and non-bitter leaf variety and V. conferta Benth. were undertaken with the aim of revealing their foliar characters which will enhance their identification and determination of their taxonomic relationship. Matured leaves were soaked in Sodium Oxochlorate II for 24hours to separate the epidermal surfaces. Data from the measurement of stomata and epidermal cells were analyzed. The presence of diagnostic characters such as contiguous stomata and sinuous anticlinal walls on the abaxial leaf surface of non-bitter variety of V. amygdalina and on both leaf surfaces (adaxial and abaxial of V. cinerea are of taxonomic importance. The irregular T-shaped trichomes on the leaf surfaces of V. amygdalina (bitter leaf and the cuticular striations on the adaxial surface of the same taxa could be used to delimit the taxa from the other species. The distribution of the stomata show hypoamphistomatic in all the three species studied. Anomocytic stomata occurred on all the taxa studied. Anisocytic stomata were found on the abaxial surface of V. conferta. These characters examined revealed interspecies relationship among the three species and also suggest that V. amygdalina (non bitter leaf is a variety of V. amygdalina (bitter leaf and should not be regard as another species of Vernonia. The epidermal leaf characters of V. amygdalina (non-bitter leaf is also been reported for the first time.

CATHERINE IJEOMA KEMKA-EVANS

2014-10-01

242

Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.  

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In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-12-01

243

Influence of fuelwood trees on sodic soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The persistent acute fuelwood shortage problem in India has necessitated having tree plantations on waste lands to obtain renewable energy. Fuelwood production screening trials initiated in 1981 at the Biomass Research Centre in Banthra, India identified babul, Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile, and mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC., to be the most promising and suitable leguminous trees in terms of biomass production on sodic sites. A study was carried out to assess soil enrichment due to the growth of these fuelwood trees planted a decade past on sordic soil that had had no other amendments. Results showed preferential nutrient accumulation and greater reduction in soil pH (from 9.5 to 7.9) and exchangeable sodium (from 30 to 8%) at the P. juliflora plantation compared with at the A. nilotica plantation. There was also a reduction in surface soil (0-15 cm) bulk density, but an enhancement in porosity and water holding capacity, making soil more friable. The P. juliflora plantation produced markedly more leaf litter than the A. nilotica plantation. Both the species had fibrous lateral root systems on the surface in the sodic soil. However, the penetration and spread of roots were almost 2-fold greater in P. juliflora than in A. nilotica. Thus, the potential magnitude of changes in soil properties was related to the distribution of roots and amount of litter falling on the soil surface. Prosopis juliflora appeared to be better than A. nilotica under adverse sodic soil conditions in establishing an enlarged plant-litter nutrient cycle relationship. This study also provides an assessment of soil amelioration by leguminous trees under short-rotation forestry practices. 16 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Garg, V.K.; Jain, R.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India))

1992-01-01

244

Antifouling properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers.  

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The antifouling (AF) properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), using four different proteins, zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza and cells of the diatom Navicula incerta, were investigated. The SAM-forming alkylthiols, which contained 1, 2 or 3 lactose units, showed significant variation in AF properties, with no differences in wettability. Non-specific adsorption of albumin and pepsin was low on all surfaces. Adsorption of lysozyme and fibrinogen decreased with increasing number of lactose units in the SAM, in agreement with the generally observed phenomenon that thicker hydrated layers provide higher barriers to protein adsorption. Settlement of spores of U. linza followed an opposite trend, being greater on the bulkier, more hydrated SAMs. These SAMs are more ordered for the larger saccharide units, and it is therefore hypothesized that the degree of order, and differences in crystallinity or stiffness between the surfaces, is an important parameter regulating spore settlement on these surfaces. PMID:25629533

Nugraha, Roni; Finlay, John A; Hill, Sophie; Fyrner, Timmy; Yandi, Wetra; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Ederth, Thomas

2015-01-01

245

Long-term changes in Prosobranchia (Gastropoda) abundances on the German North Sea coast: the role of the anti-fouling biocide tributyltin  

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Tributyltin (TBT) has been used as a biocide in marine anti-fouling paints since the early 1970s. Due to its strong ecotoxicity and the relatively high levels in the water column as well as in port sediments on the German North Sea coast, it probably has negative ecological effects on organisms other than those targeted. An analysis of the long-term development of prosobranch stocks in the inner German Bight reveals a decrease in abundance of many species. For most species the decline cannot be attributed to TBT, but in four prosobranch species ( Buccinum undatum, Hydrobia ulvae, Littorina littorea and Nucella lapillus) significant ecological effects by TBT pollution are very probable. Although research for alternative non-TBT anti-fouling paints (e.g. biocide-free types on the basis of silicone) has been intensified, the potential threats to ecosystems and the ecotoxicological profiles of these alternatives have to be carefully evaluated.

Nehring, S.

2000-05-01

246

The role of sewage effluent in the accumulation of macroalgal mats on intertidal mudflats in two basins in Southern England  

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Two intertidal basins in southern England, Portsmouth Harbour and Langstone Harbour, both support large crops of the macroalgae Ulva and Enteromorpha each summer. Both harbours have received discharges of sewage but the discharge in Portsmouth has been removed. Data from surveys of algal distribution, standing biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and water column nutrient concentration have been evaluated in order to determine the relationship between effluent discharge and macroalgal growth. No direct relationship between water column nutrient concentration and macroalgae biomass or area cover was found in the field. Concentrations of Nitrogen and Nitrogen: Phosphorus ratio in the tissue suggest that Nitrogen is stored in excess during the growing season. It is concluded that the evidence strongly indicates that further increases in sewage derived nutrient will not result in higher standing crops of algae than currently observed.

Soulsby, P. G.; Lowthion, D.; Houston, M.; Montgomery, H. A. C.

247

Volatile Halogenated Organic Compounds Released to Seawater from Temperate Marine Macroalgae  

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Volatile halogenated organic compounds synthesized by various industrial processes are troublesome pollutants because they are persistent in terrestrial ecosystems and because they may be present in sufficient quantities to alter the natural atmospheric cycles of the halogens. Certain of these compounds, including polybromomethanes and several previously unobserved alkyl monohalides and dihalides, appear to be natural products of the marine environment. A variety of temperate marine macroalgae (the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosis, the green algae Enteromorpha linza and Ulva lacta, and the red alga Gigartina stellata) not only contain volatile halogenated organic compounds but also release them to seawater at rates of nanograms to micrograms of each compound per gram of dry algae per day. The macroalgae may be an important source of bromine-containing material released to the atmosphere.

Gschwend, Philip M.; Macfarlane, John K.; Newman, Kathleen A.

1985-03-01

248

Germination and anchorage of Enteromorpha spp. in sediments of the Wadden Sea  

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Large quantities of filamentous green algae ( Enteromorpha spp.) have regularly occurred on muddy and sandy tidal flats in Königshafen, on the island of Sylt (North Sea), since 1979 — covering the sediments in thick mats during the summer months. While spores of Enteromorpha were encountered in both mud and sand, germling formation was restricted to sand. However, mud snails ( Hydrobia ulvae Pennant) were overgrown with small Enteromorpha filaments in both habitats, about 50% of them at a muddy site and 20% at a sandy one. Filaments, several cm in length and still adhering to the snails, became tangled into clusters. At the sandy site, with abundant Arenicola marina L., these clusters slid into the feeding funnels of lugworm burrows; the importance of this secondary anchorage is demonstrated by a field experiment. We suggest that the primary and secondary attachment of Enteromorpha filaments provided by benthic fauna is an essential step in the development of green algal mats on sedimentary tidal flats.

Schories, D.; Reise, K.

1993-10-01

249

Seasonal variations of vegetation patterns and biomass constituents in the rocky eulittoral of Helgoland  

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Seasonal changes in vegetation patterns and biomass of benthic algae were recorded over a 14-month period in the rocky eulittoral of the North Sea island of Helgoland. The area is characterized by the dominance of Fucus serratus throughout most of the eulittoral and this is reflected in higher biomass of F. serratus ranged seasonally from 4.3 kg to 15 kg m-2 in the center of its extensive distribution. Biomass was also recorded monthly, when the plants were present, for Blidingia spp., Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca, Fucus spiralis, F. vesiculosus, Porphyra linearis, P. umbilicalis, Chondrus crispus, Corallina officinalis, Dumontia incrassata, Petalonia fascia, P. zosterifolia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. New generations of several species which reappeared after a destructive winter storm showed a higher protein content than in the previous year. The winter and early spring flora of Helgoland shows several resemblances in species composition to the summer flora of Scandinavia.

Munda, I. M.; Markham, J. W.

1982-06-01

250

Engineered microtopographies and surface chemistries direct cell attachment and function  

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Harrison, in 1914, first recognized that cells respond to physicochemical cues such as substratum topography when he observed that fibroblasts elongated while cultured on spider silk. Recently, techniques developed in the micro-electronics industry have been used to create molds for producing microscaled topographies with various shapes and spatial arrangements. Although these patterning techniques are well-established, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying cell sensing and response to microtopographies. In this work cellular micro-environments with varying surface topographies and chemistries were evaluated with marine organisms and mammalian cells to investigate cellular sensing and response. Biofouling---the accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on submerged surfaces---is an environmental and economic concern. Engineered topographies, replicated in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMSe) and functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogels, were evaluated for inhibition of marine fouling organism attachment. Microtopographies replicated in PDMSe inhibited attachment of the marine bacterium, Cobetia marina up to 99% versus smooth. The average normalized attachment densities of cells of C. marina and zoospores of the green algae Ulva on PDMSe topographies scaled inversely with the Engineered Roughness Index (ERIII), a representation of surface energy. Attachment densities of Ulva from four assays and C. marina from two growth phases to PDMSe surfaces scaled inversely with one equation: ERI II multiplied by the Reynolds number of the organism (Re) (R 2 = 0.77). The same microtopographies created in PDMSe reduced the initial attachment density and attachment strength of cells of the diatoms Navicula incerta and Seminavis robusta compared to smooth PDMSe. The average normalized attachment density of Navicula after exposure to shear stress (48 Pa) was correlated with the contact area between the diatom and a topographically modified surface (R2=0.82). Functionalized PEGDMA hydrogels significantly reduced attachment and attachment strength of Navicula and C. marina. These hydrogels also reduced attachment of zoospores of Ulva compared to PDMSe. Attachment of Ulva to microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA negatively correlated with ERIII*Re (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.99, respectively). Incorporating a surface energy term into this equation created a correlation between the attachment densities of cells from two evolutionarily diverse groups on substrates of two surface chemistries with an equation that describes the various microtopographies and surface chemistries in terms of surface energy (R2 = 0.80). The current Attachment Model can now be used to design engineered antifouling surface microtopographies and chemistries that inhibit the attachment of organisms from three evoluntionarily diverse groups. Hydrogels based on PEGDMA were also chosen as a substratum material for mammalian cell culture. Capturing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and inducing differentiation into the endothelial cell (EC) phenotype is the ideal way to re-endothelialize a small-diameter vascular graft. Substratum elasticity has been reported to direct stem cell differentiation into specific lineages. Functionalized PEGDMA hydrogels provided good compliance, high fidelity of topographic features and sites for surface modification with biomolecules. Fibronectin grafting and topography both increased EC attachment. This combination of adjustable elasticity, surface chemistry and topography has the potential to promote the capture and differentiation of EPCs into a confluent EC monolayer. Engineered microtopographies replicated in PDMSe directed elongation and alignment of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) compared to smooth surfaces. Engineered cellular micro-environments were created with specific surface energies defined by chemistry and topography to successfully direct cell attachment and function.

Magin, Chelsea Marie

251

Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea  

Science.gov (United States)

The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

2009-10-01

252

Adhesion of marine fouling organisms on hydrophilic and amphiphilic polysaccharides.  

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Polysaccharides are a promising material for nonfouling surfaces because their chemical composition makes them highly hydrophilic and able to form water-storing hydrogels. Here we investigated the nonfouling properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) against marine fouling organisms. Additionally, the free carboxyl groups of HA and CS were postmodified with the hydrophobic trifluoroethylamine (TFEA) to block free carboxyl groups and render the surfaces amphiphilic. All coatings were tested with respect to their protein resistance and against settlement and adhesion of different marine fouling species. Both the settlement and adhesion strength of a marine bacterium (Cobetia marina), zoospores of the seaweed Ulva linza, and cells of a diatom (Navicula incerta) were reduced compared to glass control surfaces. In most cases, TFEA capping increased or maintained the performance of the HA coatings, whereas for the very well performing CS coatings the antifouling performance was reduced after capping. PMID:23425225

Bauer, Stella; Arpa-Sancet, Maria Pilar; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Rosenhahn, Axel

2013-03-26

253

Preparation of High Yields of Algal Protoplasts Using Buccal Juice of Sea Hare and Commercial Cellulase.  

Science.gov (United States)

; Buccal juice of the sea hare Aplysia juliana was found to degrade algal polysaccharides. The optimal enzyme composition for protoplast preparation from Undaria pinnatifida was protein at 48 µg/ml buccal juice from sea hare, 10 mg/ml cellulase Onozuka-RS, 0.4 M NaCl, 0.8 M sorbitol, 2 mg/ml dextran sulfate sodium salt, and 1 µl/ml 2-mercaptoethanol in 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0). Protoplasts of Eisenia bicyclis, Endarachne binghamiae (Phaeophyta), and Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) could also be prepared in a similar manner. Yields of these protoplasts were about 10(7) cells per gram of fresh weight alga. PMID:10489421

Wakabayashi; Kuboi; Tuboi; Kaji; Hara

1999-07-01

254

Screening and formulation of chemoattractant coatings for artificial reef structures.  

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This study was carried out to augment the colonization of marine benthic communities on artificial reef structure. Increasing marine pollution along with various natural hazards cause severe damages to marine algae and associated fauna. In recent years, artificial reefs have been deployed in coastal regions of several parts of the world in order to increase the marine productivity. They are mainly built with concrete materials, however their leachates have considerable impacts on algae. Therefore to increase the algal colonization five chemoattractants such as ferrous sulfate, zinc oxide, ammonium nitrate, sodium phosphate and ferrous lactate were screened against spores of a fouling alga, Ulva pertusa. FeSO4 / ZnO (8:2) and ferrous lactate coatings showed the highest spore attachment with 52 +/- 5.2 cm2 and 79.5 +/- 10.2 cm2 spores respectively (pcomposition of coating formulations and their chemoattractive properties were evaluated. PMID:19195405

Lee, Han Seong; Sidharthan, M; Shim, Cheol Soo; Kim, Young Do; Lim, Chi Young; Ko, J W; Han, Man Deuk; Rang, Maeng Joo; Bim, Lee Sae; Cho, Hwan Sung; Shin, H W

2008-07-01

255

Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M(w) = 1500 g mol(-1)) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M(w) = 300, 475, 1100 g mol(-1)), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2. PMID:22087876

Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M; Finlay, John A; Brewer, Lenora H; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Wendt, Dean E; Hillmyer, Marc A; DeSimonea, Joseph M

2011-01-01

256

Facilitation of macroalgae by the sedimentary tube forming polychaete Diopatra cuprea  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine foundation organisms such as seagrasses, corals, and kelps facilitate the distribution of numerous organisms by creating refuges from environmental stressors and by providing food and substrate for settlement and growth. Barren soft-sediment systems often have faunal organisms that facilitate other species by habitat modification. We investigated how an abundant (21 m -2) tube cap forming polychaete, Diopatra cuprea, facilitates macroalgal distribution in Hog Island Bay, a turbid shallow tidal lagoon in Virginia (USA). Seventy percent of the number of mudflat macroalgae were found incorporated into protruding D. cuprea tube caps and field experiments showed that D. cuprea facilitates algal persistence by providing a stable substrate retaining algae against hydrodynamic forces such as tidal flushing and storm surge. If tube caps were removed, simulating storm-induced erosion, they were rebuilt within days and new drift algae incorporated. Also, D. cuprea facilitated the algal assemblage by fragmenting thalli in the attachment process, thereby ensuring a constant fragment supply for vegetative re-growth if storm-induced pruning occurs. On a species-specific level, Gracilaria verrucosa and Ulva curvata benefited more from tube cap construction compared to Fucus vesiculosus, Agardhiella subulata and the alien Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. This was partly because G. verrucosa and U. curvata were incorporated and fragmented more readily, and partly because they probably have physiological, morphological and biomechanical traits that enable them to better co-exist with D. cuprea. These results suggest that macroalgal distribution throughout Hog Island Bay to a large extent is linked to the distribution of D. cuprea. The processes of algal attachment, retainment, recovery, re-growth and fragmentation, can have important ecosystem implications because of the sheer abundance of the Diopatra- Gracilaria/Ulva association.

Thomsen, M. S.; McGlathery, K.

2005-01-01

257

Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and associated taxa were distributed throughout the spectrum of sites surveyed. Implications for the identification and conservation of saline lagoons are discussed.

Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

2005-12-01

258

Mudflat surface morphology as a structuring agent of algae and associated macroepifauna communities: A case study in the Ria Formosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Although mudflats seem relatively planar, closer inspection reveals a succession of meso-topographical features, including consecutive convex and concave meso- and micro-topographical features. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of meso-scale surface sediment morphology on the dynamics of the macroalgae Ulvales (Chlorophyta) and associated macroepifauna in the Ria Formosa tidal lagoon (southern coast of Portugal). Four sites in the Ria Formosa were sampled monthly. Two were located on convex sections (mounds) of the mudflat and the other two on concave sections (depressions). Macroalgae and related macroepifauna were sampled at each station. Biomass was quantified by determination of the ash-free dry weight (AFDW). Data were analysed using the software package 'PRIMER' (Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research). Results show a clear distinction between convex and concave areas. In convex sections, Enteromorpha dominated, to the point of being the only algal species present during part of the year. Conversely, biomass and dynamics of Enteromorpha and Ulva were almost the same in concave sections. The associated macroepifauna was also different in protruding or depressed sections of the mudflat. In the convex areas, the macroepifauna population showed less diversity and was dominated by the snail Hydrobia ulvae. In concave areas, the species diversity was larger, but dominated in terms of biomass by the amphipod Melita palmata and the gastropod Nassarius pfeifferi. Results of the study indicate that the benthic communities associated with concave or convex features were different. No relevant differences in texture and sediment physico-chemical characteristics were found between convex and concave sections. The inference is that the morphological nature of the bottom in tidal mudflats can act as a structuring agent of benthic communities.

Aníbal, J.; Rocha, C.; Sprung, M.

2007-01-01

259

Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings IX: an investigation of novel antifouling/fouling-release coatings containing quaternary ammonium salt groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polysiloxane coatings containing chemically-bound ("tethered") quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties were investigated for potential application as environmental-friendly coatings to control marine biofouling. A combinatorial/high-throughput approach was applied to the investigation to enable multiple variables to be probed simultaneously and efficiently. The variables investigated for the moisture-curable coatings included QAS composition, ie alkyl chain length, and concentration as well as silanol-terminated polysiloxane molecular weight. A total of 75 compositionally unique coatings were prepared and characterized using surface characterization techniques and biological assays. Biological assays were based on two different marine microorganisms, a bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica and a diatom, Navicula incerta, as well as a macrofouling alga, Ulva. The results of the study showed that all three variables influenced coating surface properties as well as antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) characteristics. The incorporation of QAS moieties into a polysiloxane matrix generally resulted in an increase in coating surface hydrophobicity. Characterization of coating surface morphology revealed a heterogeneous, two-phase morphology for many of the coatings investigated. A correlation was found between water contact angle and coating surface roughness, with the contact angle increasing with increasing surface roughness. Coatings based on the QAS moiety containing the longest alkyl chain (18 carbons) displayed the highest micro-roughness and, thus, the most hydrophobic surfaces. With regard to AF and FR properties, coatings based on the 18 carbon QAS moieties were very effective at inhibiting C. lytica biofilm formation and enabling easy removal of Ulva sporelings (young plants) while coatings based on the 14 carbon QAS moities were very effective at inhibiting biofilm growth of N. incerta. PMID:18368587

Majumdar, Partha; Lee, Elizabeth; Patel, Nehal; Ward, Kaley; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; Chisholm, Bret J; Boudjouk, Philip; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Thompson, Stephanie E M

2008-01-01

260

Strategies for the micropropagation of bromeliads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bromeliads are tropical plants that are native to the Americas with a wide distribution in the rain forests, deserts and coastal areas. They are mostly epiphytes and terrestrial, diverse and important from the ecological point of view, they are found in microhabitats in strong interactions with fauna. Most of the ecosystems where they naturally occur are now endangered. Bromeliads are also one of the bases of the ornamental industry worldwide, being commercialized according to the features and colour of the foliage and flowers. This industry relies also on breeding programmes generating new hybrid bromeliads with improved bloom and foliage. Thus, advanced propagation systems based on micropropagation are valuable tools for both bromeliad germplasm conservation and for the mass clonal propagation of a selected genotype. In this chapter, a series of in vitro regenerative protocols for bromeliad mass propagation are described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the Brazilian native species, mainly those from the Atlantic Forest biome. The morphogenetic pathway based on nodule cluster culture is stressed, as (a) it seems to be recurrent in bromeliads, (b) it results in high regenerative rates, and (c) it is easy to handle. Protocols based on somatic embryogenesis and encapsulated units using hydrogel are presented. Finally, the use of temporary immersion systems (TIS) for mass propagation is described in detail for two bromeliads: Aechmea fasciata, and Vriesea brusquensis. PMID:20099090

Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Dal Vesco, Lirio Luiz

2010-01-01

261

Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae  

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Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov., and T. taura sp. nov. A key to the species groups and unplaced species is provided for Tolania males. The following species, previously placed in Tolania, are considered species incertae sedis: Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. One new synonymy is proposed: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858 = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry sp. rev., is reinstated from synonymy with T. femoralis. Lectotypes are designated for T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraterna, and T. scutata.O gênero de soldadinhos Tolania Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Nicomiinae, Nicomiini e 69 espécies válidas (59 novas espécies são descritos e ilustrados baseado na morfologia de adultos. Dez grupos informais de espécies são reconhecidos baseados em uma análise filogenética previamente publicada: (1 o grupo de espécies dira inclui T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov. e T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 grupo fasciata inclui T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov. e T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 grupo femoralis inclui T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål e T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 grupo furcata inclui T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov. e T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 grupo hispida inclui T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov. e T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 grupo malefica inclui T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker e T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 grupo obtusa inclui T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov. e T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 grupo opponens inclui T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. tri

Jesse L. Albertson

2006-12-01

262

Reestruturação do gênero Deois Fennah; descrição de um novo gênero e de novas espécies (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Restructure of the genus Deois Fennah; description of a new genus and new species (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae). The genus Deois Fennah is reviewed and some changes in the taxonomy are introduced. The genus and its four subgenera are redefined, having now the following composition: 1) subgen [...] us Deois (Deois) with: D. (D.) correntina (Berg, 1879), D. (D.) grandis Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D.) knoblauchii (Berg, 1879) (formerly in D. (Pandysia)), D. (D.) morialis (China & Myers, 1934), D. (D.) mourei Cavichioli & Sakakibara, 1994, D. (D.) piraporae Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D.) pseudoflavopicta (Lallemand, 1938) comb. nov. (formerly in Mahanarva) = D. (D.) similis Sakakibara, 1979 syn. nov., D. (D.) rubropicta Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D.) spinulata sp. nov., D. (D.) terrea (Germar, 1821), D. (D.) uniformis (Distant, 1909). 2) subgenus Deois (Pandysia) with: D. (P.) bergi sp. nov., D. (P.) crenulata sp. nov., D. (P.) schach (Fabricius, 1787) = Sphenorhyna transiens Walker, 1851 syn. nov.. 3) Deois (Fennahia) with: D. (F.) coerulea (Lallemand, 1924), D. (F.) flexuosa (Walker, 1851). 4) Deois (Acanthodeois) with: D. (A.) flavopicta (Stål, 1854), Deois (A.) incompleta (Walker, 1851). The genus Orodamnis Fennah, 1953 stat. nov. (formerly Deois (Orodamnis)) with: Orodamnis rhynchosporae (China & Myers, 1934) comb. nov. The genus Deoisella gen. nov. is described for: Deoisella fasciata sp. nov. (type species) and Deoisella picklesi (China & Myers, 1934) comb. nov.

Antonio Claudio Ferreira da, Costa; Albino Morimasa, Sakakibara.

263

Reestruturação do gênero Deois Fennah; descrição de um novo gênero e de novas espécies (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae  

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Full Text Available Restructure of the genus Deois Fennah; description of a new genus and new species (Homoptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae. The genus Deois Fennah is reviewed and some changes in the taxonomy are introduced. The genus and its four subgenera are redefined, having now the following composition: 1 subgenus Deois (Deois with: D. (D. correntina (Berg, 1879, D. (D. grandis Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D. knoblauchii (Berg, 1879 (formerly in D. (Pandysia, D. (D. morialis (China & Myers, 1934, D. (D. mourei Cavichioli & Sakakibara, 1994, D. (D. piraporae Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D. pseudoflavopicta (Lallemand, 1938 comb. nov. (formerly in Mahanarva = D. (D. similis Sakakibara, 1979 syn. nov., D. (D. rubropicta Sakakibara, 1979, D. (D. spinulata sp. nov., D. (D. terrea (Germar, 1821, D. (D. uniformis (Distant, 1909. 2 subgenus Deois (Pandysia with: D. (P. bergi sp. nov., D. (P. crenulata sp. nov., D. (P. schach (Fabricius, 1787 = Sphenorhyna transiens Walker, 1851 syn. nov.. 3 Deois (Fennahia with: D. (F. coerulea (Lallemand, 1924, D. (F. flexuosa (Walker, 1851. 4 Deois (Acanthodeois with: D. (A. flavopicta (Stål, 1854, Deois (A. incompleta (Walker, 1851. The genus Orodamnis Fennah, 1953 stat. nov. (formerly Deois (Orodamnis with: Orodamnis rhynchosporae (China & Myers, 1934 comb. nov. The genus Deoisella gen. nov. is described for: Deoisella fasciata sp. nov. (type species and Deoisella picklesi (China & Myers, 1934 comb. nov.

Antonio Claudio Ferreira da Costa

2002-01-01

264

Metal speciation in sediment and their bioaccumulation in fish species of three urban rivers in bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six trace metals (chromium [Cr], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd] and lead [Pb]) were measured in sediments and soft tissues of three commonly consumed fish species (Channa punctatus, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Trichogaster fasciata) collected from three urban rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The abundance of total metals in sediments varied in the decreasing order of Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu > As > Cd. Sequential extraction tests showed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction followed by the organically bound phase. The range of metal concentration in fish species were as follows: Cr (0.75-4.8), Ni (0.14-3.1), Cu (1.1-7.2), As (0.091-0.53), Cd (0.008-0.13), and Pb (0.052-2.7 mg/kg wet weight [ww]). The rank of biota-sediment accumulation factor for fish species were in the descending order of Cu > As > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd. Metal concentrations in fish exceeded the international permissible standards suggesting that these species are not safe for human consumption. PMID:25213477

Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

2015-01-01

265

Distribution and habitat association of benthic fish on the Condor seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores) from in situ observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of fish assemblages and habitat associations of demersal fishes on the Condor seamount were investigated by analyzing in situ video imagery acquired by the Remotely-Operated Vehicles ROV SP300 and Luso 6000. A total of 51 fish taxa from 32 families were inventoried. Zooplanktivores (10 species) were the most abundant group followed by carnivores (23 species) and benthivores (18 species). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses were performed on dive segments to visualize the spatial relationships between species and habitat type, substrate type or depth, with depth being the most significant parameter influencing fish distribution. Four major fish groups were identified from their vertical distribution alone: summit species (generally to Callanthias ruber, Anthias anthias and Lappanella fasciata) had higher affinity to coral habitats compared to non-coral habitats. A coherent specialized fish assemblage associated to coral habitats could not be identified, because most species were observed also in non-coral areas. On the seamount's slope (300-1100 m), no relationship between fish and coral habitats could be identified, although these might occur at larger scales. This study shows that in situ video imagery complements traditional fishing surveys, by providing information on unknown or rarely seen species, being fundamental for the development of more comprehensive ecosystem-based management towards a sustainable use of the marine environment.

Porteiro, Filipe M.; Gomes-Pereira, José N.; Pham, Christopher K.; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

2013-12-01

266

Râzî’nin, Kur’an’daki Yeryüzü (Arz Âyetleriyle ?lgili Tefsir-i Kebir’deki Yorumlar?: Modern Jeoloji Biliminin Verileriyle K?sa Bir Mukayese  

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Full Text Available ÖzetBat? dünyas?nda bilimsel bulu? ve ke?iflerin yeni ba?lad??? bir dönemde, ?slam dünyas?nda birçok bilimsel bulu? ve ke?if Müslüman bilim adamlar? taraf?ndan ortaya konulmu?tur. Bu bulu? ve ke?iflerin yap?ld??? alanlardan biri de Jeoloji (yer ilmidir. Bu konuyu tefsirinde etrafl?ca ele alan Râzî (ö. 606/1210, yer ile ilgili âyetleri kendi döneminin ilmi verileri do?rultusunda ayr?nt?l? bir ?ekilde tefsir etmi?tir. Bu yüzden onun baz? aç?klamalar?, zaman zaman modern Jeoloji ilminin verilerine ters dü?ebilmektedir. Onun, bu âyetleri tefsir ederken en temel amac?, bunlar? Allah’?n varl???na ve birli?ine delil getirmesi olmu?tur.AbstractDuring a period when the scientific inventions and discoveries were just beginning in the West, many inventions and discoveries had been done by Muslim Scientists in Muslim world. One of the areas where these inventions and discoveries were carried out was Geology the science of the Earth. Al-Râzî (606/1210 who discussed this subject in his commentary, translates the verses about the Earth with the help of the scientific knowledges of his age in a detailed way.Therefore, some of his explanations may be the opposite of the facts of modern Geology from time to time. His main goal -while commenting these verses- was to make them an evidence for the existence and oneness of Allah.RésuméA une époque où les nouvelles inventions et les découvertes scientifiques ont commencé à apparaître dans le monde occidental, plusieurs inventions et découvertes scientifiques étaient déjà découvertes par les scientifiques musulmans dans le monde islamique. L’un des domaines de ces inventions et découvertes est la géologie. Râzi (m. 606/1210, qui a examiné ce sujet en détail dans son exégèse coranique, a interprété les versets concernés à la terre d’une manière détaillée conformément aux données scientifiques de son temps. De ce fait, certaines de ses explications s’opposent de temps en temps aux données scientifiques de la géologie moderne. L’objectif principal de l’auteur – lorsqu’il interprète les versets coraniques en cause – était de les utiliser comme preuves de l’existence et de l’unicité de Dieu.???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? (????? . ????? ?????? (606/1210 ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????????. ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????.

Enver Bayram

2012-03-01

267

Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae) / Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The subfamily Anyphaeninae is revised at genera level in the Neotropical region. Anyphaeninae is diagnosed by the tracheal spiracle approximately in the midway of venter or between the midway of venter and the epigastric groove; retromargin of chelicerae with more than four denticles; and male palp [...] with tegulum basket-like or cup-like, without the basal lightly sclerotized area. The subfamily contais 32 genera, 14 of which are new: Aljassa (type species Teudis annulipes Caporiacco), Buckupiella (type species B. imperatriz sp.n., from Brazil and Argentina), Hatitia (type species H.yhuaia sp.n., from Peru) Iguarima (type species Anyphaena censoria Keyserling), Ilocomba (type species I. marta sp.n., from Colombia), Italaman (type species I. santamarina sp.n., from Brazil, Colombia and Argentine), Jessica (type species Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão), Katissa (type from Jamaica), Otoniela (type species O. adisi sp.n., from Brazil), Pippuhana (type species P. gandu sp.n., from Brazil), Timbuka (type species T. boquete sp.n., from Costa Rica, Panamá and Colômbia), Umuara (type species Clubiona fasciata Blackwall), Xiruana (type species Aysha gracilipes Keyserling). Other new species and the male of Bromelina zuniala are described: Iguarima pichinha and Lepajan edwardsi from Ecuador; Temnida rosário, Umuara pydanieli and U. juquia from Brazil; Umuara junin, Hatitia conchaque from Peru; Ilcomba perija from Colombia. Twelve new synonyms are presenteei: Wuljilopsis keyserlingi soares & Camargo witn W. tenuips (Keyserling); Teudis foliatus Schmidt with Patrera ruber (F.O.P. - Cambridge); Teudis moreirae Mello-Leitão with Teudis angusticeps (Keyserling); Anyphaena rufibarbis Mello-Leitão with Jessica osoriana (Mello-Leitão); Aysha cinereoviítata Mello-Leitão with Iguarima censoria (Keyserling); Teudis bucolicus Chickering with Katissa simplicipalpis (Simon); Gayenna minutissima Petrunkevitch with Lupetíiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge); Teudis adfabilis (Keyserling) and Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall); Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling); Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling) with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch). Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling); W. pygmaea (Keyserling); W. tenuipes (Keyserling); W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão); Patrera apora (Chamberlin); P.armata (Chickering); P.auricoma (L. Koch); P. cita (Keyserling); P. lauta (Chickering); P. longipes (Keyserling); P. procera (Keyserling); P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge); P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge); P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge); P. virgata (Keyserling); Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren); T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão); T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo); T. morenus (Mello-Leitão); Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna); J. glabra (Keyserling); J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo); J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão); J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão); J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão); Iguarima censoria (Keyserling); Katissa delicatula (Banks); K. elegans (Banks); K. lycosoides (Chickering); K. simplicipalpis (Simon); K. zimarae (Reimoser); Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon); Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge); L. parvula (Banks); L. perpusilla (Banks); L. spinosa (Bryant); Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch); T. granadensis (Keyserling); T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge), T. masseneti (Berland); T.meridiana (L. Koch); Tafana quelchii (pocock); T. silhavyi (Caporiacco); T. straminea (L. Koch); Umuara fascia J(Blackwall); Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo); A. diversicolor (Keyserling); A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão); A. gentilis (Keyserling); A. helvola (Keyserling); A. robusta (Keyserling); A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling); A. striolata (Keyserling); A. subruba (Keyserling); Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão); X. gracilipes (Keyserling); X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão); X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão); Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco); A. notata (Keyserling); A. poicila (Chamberlin); A. subpallida(L. Koch); A. venezuelica (Caporiacco); Pip

Antonio Domingos, Brescovit.

1996-12-01

268

Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subfamily Anyphaeninae is revised at genera level in the Neotropical region. Anyphaeninae is diagnosed by the tracheal spiracle approximately in the midway of venter or between the midway of venter and the epigastric groove; retromargin of chelicerae with more than four denticles; and male palp with tegulum basket-like or cup-like, without the basal lightly sclerotized area. The subfamily contais 32 genera, 14 of which are new: Aljassa (type species Teudis annulipes Caporiacco, Buckupiella (type species B. imperatriz sp.n., from Brazil and Argentina, Hatitia (type species H.yhuaia sp.n., from Peru Iguarima (type species Anyphaena censoria Keyserling, Ilocomba (type species I. marta sp.n., from Colombia, Italaman (type species I. santamarina sp.n., from Brazil, Colombia and Argentine, Jessica (type species Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão, Katissa (type from Jamaica, Otoniela (type species O. adisi sp.n., from Brazil, Pippuhana (type species P. gandu sp.n., from Brazil, Timbuka (type species T. boquete sp.n., from Costa Rica, Panamá and Colômbia, Umuara (type species Clubiona fasciata Blackwall, Xiruana (type species Aysha gracilipes Keyserling. Other new species and the male of Bromelina zuniala are described: Iguarima pichinha and Lepajan edwardsi from Ecuador; Temnida rosário, Umuara pydanieli and U. juquia from Brazil; Umuara junin, Hatitia conchaque from Peru; Ilcomba perija from Colombia. Twelve new synonyms are presenteei: Wuljilopsis keyserlingi soares & Camargo witn W. tenuips (Keyserling; Teudis foliatus Schmidt with Patrera ruber (F.O.P. - Cambridge; Teudis moreirae Mello-Leitão with Teudis angusticeps (Keyserling; Anyphaena rufibarbis Mello-Leitão with Jessica osoriana (Mello-Leitão; Aysha cinereoviítata Mello-Leitão with Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Teudis bucolicus Chickering with Katissa simplicipalpis (Simon; Gayenna minutissima Petrunkevitch with Lupetíiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; Teudis adfabilis (Keyserling and Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia defolonguei (Berland; H. riveti (Berland; H. sericea (L. Koch. Two spedes are revalidated: Sillus du

Antonio Domingos Brescovit

1996-12-01

269

Italian Dermestidae: notes on some species and an updated checklist (Coleoptera).  

Science.gov (United States)

An up-to-date checklist of the Italian Dermestidae is provided. The presence of 95 species in Italy is confirmed, while further 5 species (Dermestes (Dermestes) vorax Motschulsky, 1860, Thorictuspilosus Peyron, 1857, T. wasmanni Reitter, 1895, Attagenus (Attagenus) simonis Reitter, 1881 and Globicornis (G.) breviclavis (Reitter, 1878)) and 1 subspecies (A. (A.) tigrinus pulcher Faldermann, 1835) are excluded from the Italian fauna. Attagenus (Attagenus) calabricus Reitter, 1881 and A. (A.) lobatus Rosenhauer, 1856 are for the first time recorded from Abruzzi and Tuscany respectively; A. (A.) silvaticus Zhantiev, 1976 is recorded for the first time from mainland Italy (Apulia); Anthrenus (Anthrenus) angustefasciatus Ganglbauer, 1904 is new to northern Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), central Italy (Tuscany), Apulia and Basilicata; A. (A.) munroi Hinton, 1943 is new to central Italy (Elba Island); A. (A.) delicatus Kiesenwetter, 1851 is for the first time recorded from Apulia; Globicornis (Globicornis) fasciata (Fairmaire & Brisout de Barneville, 1859) is new to southern Italy (Basilicata); G. (Hadrotoma) sulcata (C.N.F. Brisout de Barneville, 1866) is for the first time recorded from central Italy (Abruzzi), Campania and Sicily, whileTrogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 is new to Apulia. Seven species (Dermestes (Dermestes) peruvianus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, D. (Dermestinus) carnivorus Fabricius, 1775, D. (Dermestinus) hankae Háva, 1999, D. (Dermestinus) intermedius intermedius Kalík, 1951, D. (Dermestinus) szekessyi Kalík, 1950, Anthrenus (Anthrenops) coloratus Reitter, 1881 and Trogodermaangustum (Solier, 1849)) recently recorded from Italy (without further details) are discussed. The lectotype and a paralectotype are designated forAttagenus (A.) calabricus Reitter, 1881 from Calabria. Attagenus pellio (Linnaeus, 1758) var. pilosissimus Roubal, 1932 is removed from synonymy with A. (A.) pellio and recognized as a valid species (stat. prom.); it is known from Lombardy, Apulia and Calabria. PMID:24363591

Nardi, Gianluca; Háva, Ji?í

2013-01-01

270

Italian Dermestidae: notes on some species and an updated checklist (Coleoptera)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract An up-to-date checklist of the Italian Dermestidae is provided. The presence of 95 species in Italy is confirmed, while further 5 species (Dermestes (Dermestes) vorax Motschulsky, 1860, Thorictuspilosus Peyron, 1857, T. wasmanni Reitter, 1895, Attagenus (Attagenus) simonis Reitter, 1881 and Globicornis (G.) breviclavis (Reitter, 1878)) and 1 subspecies (A. (A.) tigrinus pulcher Faldermann, 1835) are excluded from the Italian fauna. Attagenus (Attagenus) calabricus Reitter, 1881 and A. (A.) lobatus Rosenhauer, 1856 are for the first time recorded from Abruzzi and Tuscany respectively; A. (A.) silvaticus Zhantiev, 1976 is recorded for the first time from mainland Italy (Apulia); Anthrenus (Anthrenus) angustefasciatus Ganglbauer, 1904 is new to northern Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), central Italy (Tuscany), Apulia and Basilicata; A. (A.) munroi Hinton, 1943 is new to central Italy (Elba Island); A. (A.) delicatus Kiesenwetter, 1851 is for the first time recorded from Apulia; Globicornis (Globicornis) fasciata (Fairmaire & Brisout de Barneville, 1859) is new to southern Italy (Basilicata); G. (Hadrotoma) sulcata (C.N.F. Brisout de Barneville, 1866) is for the first time recorded from central Italy (Abruzzi), Campania and Sicily, whileTrogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 is new to Apulia. Seven species (Dermestes (Dermestes) peruvianus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, D. (Dermestinus) carnivorus Fabricius, 1775, D. (Dermestinus) hankae Háva, 1999, D. (Dermestinus) intermedius intermedius Kalík, 1951, D. (Dermestinus) szekessyi Kalík, 1950, Anthrenus (Anthrenops) coloratus Reitter, 1881 and Trogodermaangustum (Solier, 1849)) recently recorded from Italy (without further details) are discussed. The lectotype and a paralectotype are designated forAttagenus (A.) calabricus Reitter, 1881 from Calabria. Attagenus pellio (Linnaeus, 1758) var. pilosissimus Roubal, 1932 is removed from synonymy with A. (A.) pellio and recognized as a valid species (stat. prom.); it is known from Lombardy, Apulia and Calabria. PMID:24363591

Nardi, Gianluca; Háva, Ji?í

2013-01-01

271

Comparative bioavailability of radionuclides in macroalgae from Black sea coastal environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide and heavy metal content is measured by gamma spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in the commonest species of the Black Sea red, brown, and green macroalgae, sampled in the period 1996 - 2002. Radionuclide content was measured in ten different macrophytic algae species (five green: Cladophora vagabunda, Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha intestinal, Chaetomorpha gracilis, Bryopsis plumosa; two brown: Cystoseira crinita and Cystoseira barbata; three red: Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis) from eleven sampling locations for eight consecutive years. The measured concentrations of artificial and natural gamma emitters in algae depend on the alga species. The obtained range for 137Cs in algae is 1.2 - 26 Bq/kg. The average values for the natural nuclides are 238U - 13 Bq/kg; 232Th - 6 Bq/kg and for 226Ra - 8 Bq/kg. The measured natural nuclides in the species Bryopsis plumosa are with two orders of magnitude higher than other species at the same location. Significant differences in Cs-137 concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions at same locations, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. Cs-137 content in collected sea algae follows the descending order: Ceramium rubrum , Cladophora vagabunda, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira crinita, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis, Chaetomorpha gracilis. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the accumulation degree is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. Higher levels are obtained in the northern part of the Black Sea basin due to current circulation originating from the outflow of the rivers Danube, Dnyepr and Dnester, also at the south part of the Black sea coast. It is concluded that the general dispersion of Cs-137 results from the water circulation regime within the Black Sea and at some locations was found to be below the LLD. A comparison between the results of nuclides and heavy metals content in different alga phylums was made. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast but there is a tendency of decreasing the Chernobyl impact in the West Black Sea region with time. (authors)

272

Tidal and seasonal effects on the short-term temporal patterns of bacteria, microphytobenthos and exopolymers in natural intertidal biofilms (Brouage, France)  

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Relationships between bacteria, microphytobenthos and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that make up microbial biofilms over bare mudflats were investigated at an hourly frequency during two 14-day spring-neap cycles in winter and summer 2008. Bacterial abundance and total chl a concentration were lower in summer (0.78 × 108 ± SD 0.39 × 108 cell.m- 2 and 59.0 ± SD 10.42 mgchla.m- 2) than in winter (3.7 × 108 ± SD 1.9 × 108 cell.m- 2 and 106.64 ± SD 11.29 mgchla.m- 2), coinciding with a high abundance of the gastropod Peringia ulvae in summer, which subsequently impacted 1st-cm chl a concentration by intense grazing. Bound and colloidal EPS carbohydrate temporal patterns were similar in winter (5.71 ± SD 3.95 and 4.67 ± SD 3.45 ?g.g- 1, respectively) but were different in summer (14.9 ± SD 4.05 and 5.60 ± SD 4.50 ?g.g- 1, respectively). Carbohydrate colloidal EPS appeared to be related to light and salinity, while 1st-mm chl a concentration was negatively affected by strong salinities and predation pressure by P. ulvae. The fluctuations of colloidal carbohydrates were remarkably similar in the two seasons with peaks just after spring tides when the highest irradiance was received by microphytobenthic cells. Apparently, colloidal EPS carbohydrates can protect cells against the high salinity values ranging from 32.3 to 50.4 PSU. The presence of bound EPS carbohydrates may be linked to sediment colonization and resistance of biofilm activity. Proteins in EPS were absent in winter and represented a small proportion in summer (10%), but they appeared to be a good indicator of potential synergistic effects between MPB and bacteria in summer. Conversely, bound EPS carbohydrates reached high levels in winter, while the number of bacteria decreased simultaneously, suggesting a negative effect on bacterial growth in the absence of proteins in EPS. There was a lower proportion (31%) of low molecular weight EPS in summer than in winter (83%), possibly in relation to desiccation.

Orvain, Francis; De Crignis, Margot; Guizien, Katell; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Mallet, Clarisse; Takahashi, Eri; Dupuy, Christine

2014-09-01

273

Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S) / Tasas de crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai en cultivos en estanques en el sur de Chile (41,5°S)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El incremento de las actividades de acuicultura en Chile involucra principalmente cultivo de salmónidos, ostiones, algas, mitílidos y otras especies, y en menor escala especies como los abalones rojo (Haliotis rufescens) y japonés (Haliotis discus hannai). El objetivo del presente estudio fue evalua [...] r el crecimiento de Haliotis rufescens y Haliotis discus hannai alimentados con diferentes dietas a base de pellet Macrocystis sp. y Ulva sp., cultivados en estanques durante 13 meses. Los resultados para ambas especies denotaron que hubo incremento en longitud y biomasa durante el periodo experimental, existiendo bajas tasas de crecimiento durante invierno austral (julio-septiembre) e incremento durante el verano austral (diciembre-enero). Los resultados concuerdan con las descripciones de la literatura en que hay altas tasas de crecimiento durante el verano usando dieta a base de algas pardas. Desde el punto de vista económico el cultivo de abalones sería una actividad económicamente viable para la acuicultura local, si se considera los requerimientos de calidad de agua y alimentación. Abstract in english The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Ha [...] liotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September) and increase during the austral summer (December-January). Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

Alfonso, Mardones; Alberto, Augsburger; Rolando, Vega; Patricio de Los, Ríos-Escalante.

2013-11-01

274

Protective effects of polar lipids and redox-active compounds from marine organisms at modeling of hyperlipidemia and diabetes  

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Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus are leading causes of mortality in modern society. The search for a novel effective remedy represents an important task for modern medicine. A total mixture of phospho- and glycolipids from sea macrophytes Sargassum pallidum, Ulva fenestrata, Zostera marina was separated and the fatty acid composition was determined. The biological activity of the mixtures of polar lipids and natural redox-active compounds (echinochrome A from the flat sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis and a polyphenolic complex from the sea grass Zostera marina was studied under conditions of impairments of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Doses and compositions of mixtures of pola lipids and redox-active compounds possessing high corrective activity were optimized in mice with the experimental model of hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Based on these results possible mechanisms of the effects of polar lipids containing various polyunsaturated fatty acids and the investigated redox-active compounds (echinochrome A, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and its sulphate conjugates have been proposed. The developed compositions may be used for creation of new biologically active additives and remedies.

Olga N. Krivoshapko

2013-05-01

275

The effect of desiccation on the emission of volatile bromocarbons from two common temperate macroalgae  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of intertidal macroalgae during low tide has been linked to the emission of a variety of atmospherically-important trace gases into the coastal atmosphere. In recent years, several studies have investigated the role of inorganic iodine and organoiodides as antioxidants and their emission during exposure to combat oxidative stress, yet the role of organic bromine species during desiccation is less well understood. In this study the emission of dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and bromoform (CHBr3) during exposure and desiccation of two common temperate macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis, is reported. Determination of the impact exposure may have on algal physiological processes is difficult as intertidal species are adapted to desiccation and may undergo varying degrees of desiccation before their physiology is affected. For this reason we include comparisons between photosynthetic capacity (Fv/Fm) and halocarbon emissions during a desiccation time series. In addition, the role of rewetting with freshwater to simulate exposure to rain was also investigated. Our results show that an immediate flux of bromocarbons occurs upon exposure, followed by a decline in bromocarbon emissions. We suggest that this immediate bromocarbon pulse may be linked to volatilisation or emissions of existing bromocarbon stores from the algal surface rather than the production of bromocarbons as an antioxidant response.

Leedham Elvidge, E. C.; Phang, S.-M.; Sturges, W. T.; Malin, G.

2015-01-01

276

Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats  

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Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

Senthil Arun Kumar

2015-02-01

277

Sulfathiazole: Analytical methods for quantification in seawater and macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The awareness of the interconnection between pharmaceutical residues, human health, and aquaculture has highlighted the concern with the potential harmful effects it can induce. Furthermore, to better understand the consequences more research is needed and to achieve that new methodologies on the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals are necessary. Antibiotics are a major class of drugs included in the designation of emerging contaminants, representing a high risk to natural ecosystems. Among the most prescribed are sulfonamides, with sulfathiazole being the selected compound to be investigated in this study. In the environment, macroalgae are an important group of producers, continuously exposed to contaminants, with a significant role in the trophic web. Due to these characteristics are already under scope for the possibility of being used as bioindicators. The present study describes two new methodologies based on liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfathiazole in seawater and in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Results show both methods were validated according to international standards, with MS/MS detection showing more sensitivity as expected with LODs of 2.79ng/g and 1.40ng/mL for algae and seawater, respectively. As for UV detection the values presented were respectively 2.83?g/g and 2.88?g/mL, making it more suitable for samples originated in more contaminated sites. The methods were also applied to experimental data with success with results showing macroalgae have potential use as indicators of contamination. PMID:25473819

Leston, Sara; Nebot, Carolina; Nunes, Margarida; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

2014-11-22

278

Accumulation of platinum group elements by the marine gastropod Littorina littorea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation and trophic transfer of the platinum group elements (PGE): Rh, Pd and Pt; have been studied in short-term (5 day) exposures conducted in aquaria containing the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, and/or the grazing mollusc, Littorina littorea. Metals added to sea water (to concentrations of 20 ?g L-1) were taken up by U. lactuca in the order Rh, Pt > Pd and by L. littorea in the order Pd ? Pt ? Rh, with greatest metal accumulation in the latter generally occurring in the visceral complex and kidney. When fed contaminated alga, accumulation of Rh and Pd by L. littorea, relative to total available metal, increased by an order of magnitude, while accumulation of Pt was not readily detected. We conclude that the diet is the most important vector for accumulation of Rh and Pd, while accumulation of Pt appears to proceed mainly from the aqueous phase. - Research highlights: ? Platinum group elements are accumulated by, Littorina littorea. ? The aqueous phase and diet are important vehicles for Rh and Pd accumulation by the snail. ? Grazing molluscs may serve as biomonitors of coastal PGE contamination. - Platinum group elements are accumulated by the marine snail, Littorina littorea, from both the aqueous phase and the diet.

279

Winter colonisation and succession of filamentous macroalgae on artificial substrates and possible relationships to Fucus vesiculosus settlement in early summer  

Science.gov (United States)

During the reproduction period of Fucus vesiculosus, which occurs only once a year (in May-June) along the Finnish coast of the northern Baltic Sea, a thick carpet of filamentous algae often covers hard substrates suitable for zygote settlement. By placing out artificial substrates into the field, monthly over a period of eight months prior to F. vesiculosus settlement (October 2001-June 2002), we investigated the autumn/winter/spring colonisation and succession of filamentous algae and their possible relationships with the settlement success of F. vesiculosus under naturally variable field conditions. The substrates exposed in October 2001 became covered by filamentous brown algal Pilayella littoralis mats, which persisted over the settlement period of F. vesiculosus, but now also were accompanied by large amounts of the filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata. The substrates exposed from November 2001 onwards hosted smaller amounts of P. littoralis during the winter and different filamentous algal communities at the time of F. vesiculosus settlement, i.e. less P. littoralis and C. glomerata, but Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus, Ceramium tenuicorne and Ulva intestinalis instead. We observed recruits of F. vesiculosus on all substrates, except on the ones placed out in October 2001. Significantly more P. littoralis and C. glomerata on the October substrates may explain the failed F. vesiculosus recruitment, although we could not establish direct causal or correlational relationships between filamentous algae and F. vesiculosus settlement. We compared the results with a previous un-replicated pilot study in the same area demonstrating similar response patterns.

Kraufvelin, Patrik; Ruuskanen, Ari T.; Nappu, Niko; Kiirikki, Mikko

2007-05-01

280

Isolation and characterization of high quality DNA from marine benthic macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation of high quality DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and endonuclease restriction digestion based techniques. An easy and inexpensive protocol has been developed for extracting genomic DNA from seven species of algae viz. Lola capillaries, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium sp belonging to Chlorophyceae, Catenella nipae, Polysiphonia mollis belonging to Rhodophyceae and Dictyota ceylanica belonging to Phaeophyceae group were collected from the coastal regions of Sunderban delta in West Bengal, India dominantly growing on mud flats, bark of different mangrove trees, pneumatophores, stilt roots, concrete surfaces, wooden and bamboo poles, sides of the boats and other water vehicles inundated during high tides. The DNA was found suitable for restriction endonuclease digestion and PCR amplification with randomely amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. The A260/A280 ratio of 1.15 0.14 to 1.94 indicated little contamination from proteins and polysaccharides. The PCR amplification with RAPD primers showed its suitability in PCR based techniques and the restriction digestion with Eco RV confirmed its suitability for hybridization based techniques. The protocol is equally good for isolating DNA from both fresh as well as preserved materials. PMID:19297990

Chakraborty, S; Vijayan, K; Nair, C V; Santra, S C; Bhattacharya, T

2008-11-01

281

Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioelectricity production from a phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73 +/- 1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m(2) (277 W/m(3)) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m(2) (215 W/m(3)) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. PMID:19418564

Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Curtis, Tom P; Logan, Bruce E

2009-08-15

282

Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds  

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Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 ?g/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 ?g/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

Deniz Tasdemir

2013-10-01

283

Patterns in estuarine macrofauna body size distributions: The role of habitat and disturbance impact  

Science.gov (United States)

Schwinghamer's (1981) habitat architecture hypothesis for body mass spectra in marine sediments predicts a single macrofauna mode in response to the bulk nature of the sediment. This proposition was examined for intertidal macrofauna from a well-studied estuarine system, using kernel density estimation to define modality and the locations of peaks and troughs. Three sedimentary environments and habitats were examined along a disturbance gradient related to eutrophication. Our results indicate that bimodality is likely to occur within the macrofauna size range, which weakens the habitat architecture model and casts doubts on the mechanisms behind other modes in benthic size spectra. The location of the modes and intervening trough were not conservative and not apparently related to sediment grain size or habitat structure, but somewhat dependent on the presence of particular species: the presence or absence of large numbers of individuals of Hydrobia ulvae and larger-bodied taxa such as Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor. Alternative competing hypotheses are explored for the observed results, including Warwick's (1984) phylogenetic explanation, but taking into consideration both species composition and disturbance impact, it seems most likely Holling's (1992) textural discontinuity hypothesis, as a measure of resilience, could be a plausible explanation.

Dolbeth, Marina; Raffaelli, Dave; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

2014-01-01

284

Electron Transport-Dependent Chlorophyll-a Fluorescence Quenching by O(2) in Various Algae and Higher Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of chlorophyll-a fluorescence in brown algae (Macrocystis integrifolia, Fucus vesiculosis), green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Ulva sp.) and higher plants (bean, corn) show differences in the relative fluorescence intensities and induction time courses which characterize each type of plant. These differences are not reflected in either the maximum fluorescence emission in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (F(max)) or the nonvariable fluorescence (F(o)). Constancy of F(o) and F(max) suggests functional similarities of photosystem II and associated antennae pigments in the various classes of plants. The time course differences are observed only in the absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and appear, therefore, to be electron transport dependent. During induction, the peak in fluorescence (F(p)) is much lower in all of the algae studied than in the higher plants. Exogenous O(2) strongly quenches F(p) in all plants studied and our data indicate that the low F(p) in the algae can be partially accounted for by endogenous O(2) quenching. PMID:16663336

Bruce, D; Vidaver, W; Colbow, K; Popovic, R

1983-12-01

285

When dissolved is not truly dissolved--the importance of colloids in studies of metal sorption on organic matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

In controlled metal sorption experiments, the equilibrium distribution coefficient is a key variable quantifying sorbate partitioning across the solid-solution interface. Separation of metals into 'dissolved' and 'particulate' fractions is commonly achieved with syringe filtration, where the boundary is somewhat arbitrarily dictated by the limited selection of available pore sizes. Investigations involving natural organic matter, such as bacterial cells or plant tissues, are especially prone to experimental artifacts if the substrate releases abundant colloidal compounds that contribute to sorption by binding free metal cations in a pH-dependent fashion yet pass through conventional filters, causing the truly dissolved fraction to be grossly overestimated. We observed this phenomenon during a study of lanthanide sorption on a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, as a function of pH. At low ionic strength, distribution coefficients calculated for a 0.22-?m size cutoff falsely imply that metal sorption reverses to gradual release above pH 4.6, instead of continuing to increase. Centrifuging the filtrates in Amicon® Ultra units (30 and 3 kDa molecular weight cutoff) revealed a mounting proportion of colloid-bound metal, constituting up to 95% of the 'dissolved' (sorption on organic matter over a wide range of experimental conditions. Some implications are discussed for the use of biosorbents in the remediation of metal-contaminated waste waters. PMID:21652006

Schijf, Johan; Zoll, Alison M

2011-09-01

286

Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

287

Litter dynamics and particulate organic matter outwelling from a subtropical mangrove in Okinawa Island, South Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Litter dynamics and outwelling of particulate organic matter (POM) was investigated in a subtropical mangrove (Okinawa Island, South Japan) in order to quantify the impact of mangrove POM on adjacent intertidal sediments. A distinct seasonal pattern was found with maximum litter fall during the autumn season, and minimum during winter. Total litter production between sites did not differ significantly. Tall mangroves (average 7 m) did not show any higher contribution to the litter production than short mangroves (average 4 m). The mean annual litter production was 12.95 ± 2.95 t ha -1 (dry weight) with leaf fall contributing more than 70% of the total litter production. Analysis of fatty acids (FAs) in the surface sediments of an adjacent mud flat and sand flat during the winter, spring and autumn seasons indicated that outwelling of POM from the mangrove ecosystem occurs. However, it is spatially restricted to within 300 m from the mangrove forest. The magnitude of the outwelling increased during spring and autumn consistent with the increase in the total litter production. Despite the presence of mangrove-derived organic matter in the estuarine surface sediments, autochthonous sources of organic matter, green macroalgae ( Ulva pertusa and Enteromorpha intestinalis), diatoms and bacteria are the main contributors of sedimentary organic matter and ?3 and ?6 PUFAs than mangrove-derived (POM) during winter and spring. While the contribution of mangrove-derived POM to sedimentary organic matter is limited to the autumn season.

Mfilinge, Prosper L.; Meziane, Tarik; Bachok, Zainudin; Tsuchiya, Makoto

2005-04-01

288

Grazing on green algae by the periwinkle Littorina littorea in the Wadden Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

On sedimentary tidal flats in the Wadden Sea near the Island of Sylt, the periwinkle Littorina littorea occurred preferentially on clusters and beds of mussels and on shell beds (100 to 350 m-2), achieved moderate densities on green algal patches or mats (20 to 50 m-2), and remained rare on bare sediments (10% of sediment surface appeared in summer on approximately one third of the tidal zone, mainly in the upper and sheltered parts and almost never on mussel and shell beds. In feeding experiments, L. littorea ingested more of the dominant alge, Enteromorpha, than of Ulva, irrespective of whether or not algae were fresh or decaying. The tough thalli of Chaetomorpha were hardly consumed. Snails feeding on Enteromorpha produced fecal pellets from which new growth of Enteromorpha started. In the absence of periwinkles, Enteromorpha developed on mussels and the attached fucoids. Experimentally increased snail densities on sediments prevented green algal development, but the snails were unable to graze down established algal mats. It is concluded that natural densities of L. littorea hardly affect the ephemeral mass development of green algae on sediments. However, where the snails occur at high densities, i.e. on mussel beds, green algal development may be prevented.

Wilhelmsen, U.; Reise, K.

1994-06-01

289

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (Enteromorpha) and lowest to those fed the vascular plant Juncus maritimus. Recorded significant differences in enzymatic digestibility among detritus were found to explain ? 40% of differences recorded in AR, and the following regression could be fitted: AR = 0.232 (± 0.032) * Digestibility + 0,072 (± 0.015); r 2 = 0.415; F = 51.036; p Enteromorpha was found to be significantly correlated with cellulase activity in the digestive gland, whereas digestibility of Juncus, Spartina and Gracilaria was correlated with xylanase activity. Obtained correlations are discussed in the frame of contrasting conclusions in the literature regarding the importance of detritus as a food source for bivalves.

Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

2010-10-01

290

Macroalgal mats and species abundance: a field experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment was carried out whereby the density of macroalgae ( Enteromorpha spp.) was manipulated and the resultant changes in sediment infaunal density were monitored. Four densities of Enteromorpha spp. were used: 0,0·3, 1, and 3 kg FW m -2, corresponding to control, low-, medium-, and high-density plots. The experiment ran from May to October 1985 and was sampled on three occasions. By July, the density of Corophium volutator was reduced at all weed levels when compared to control plots, whereas densities of Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, and Capitella capitata, all increased. Samples taken in October when the weed mats were buried in the sediment showed fewer differences than in July. Macoma, Nereis, and Capitella were still significantly more abundant at medium and high weed densities. Corophium showed no significant treatment effect. There was, however, a highly significant difference in population size structure for Corophium. Measurements of sediment redox potential and silt content under medium- and high-density plots revealed rapid anoxia with a significant increase in siltation.

Hull, S. C.

1987-11-01

291

Bacterial diversity in surface water of the Yellow Sea during and after a green alga tide in 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

From May to August 2008, a large "green tide", consisting of the alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, occurred in the Yellow Sea, China, affecting the local marine ecosystem and human activities. We investigated the influence of the green tide on the microbial community in the surface seawater, at four sites from July to August 2008, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. We sequenced 228 clones of unique patterns identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. The results show that 228 sequenced clones fell into six bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (25%), Bacteroidetes (23%) and Cyanobacteria (9%) dominated the assemblage. Comparison between samples collected in July (during the tide) and those collected in August (after the tide) showed that, in the microbial community, diversities of Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria increased after the tide, while those of Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. These results indicate that the green tide influenced the growth of some bacteria, and provide information for further studies on the interactions and relationships between U. prolifera and the bacterial community. This study suggests that microbial community analysis is a good approach to monitoring green tides.

Guo, Cong; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

2011-11-01

292

Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 30.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

Bokn, T.L. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Moy, F.E. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Murray, S.N. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

1993-12-31

293

Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with the surfaces of several algal species  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted this study to assess the diversity of bacteria associated with the surfaces of algae based on 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Twelve strains of bacteria were obtained from the surfaces of the following four species of algae: Gracilaria textorii, Ulva pertusa, Laminaria japonica, and Polysiphonia urceolata. The isolated strains of bacteria can be divided into two groups: Halomonas and Vibrio, in physiology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of the isolates shows four obvious clusters, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio tasmaniensis, Vibrio lentus, and Vibrio splendidus. Isolates from the surface of P. urceolata are more abundant and diverse, of which strains P9 and P28 have a 16S rDNA sequence very similar (97.5%-99.8%) to that of V. splendidus. On the contrary, the isolates from the surfaces of G. textorii, U. pertusa and L. japonica are quite simple and distribute on different branches of the phylogenetic tree. In overall, the results of this study indicate that the genetic relationships among the isolates are quite close and display a certain level of host species specificity, and alga-associated bacteria species are algal species specific.

Wang, Zifeng; Xiao, Tian; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Min; Yue, Haidong

2009-09-01

294

Distribution of lignin monomers and the evolution of lignification among lower plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through application of chemical, biochemical and histochemical analyses, we provide new data on the absence/presence of syringyl lignins in the algal species Mastocarpus stellatus, Cystoseira baccata and Ulva rigida, the bryophytes Physcomitrella patens and Marchantia polymorpha, the lycophytes Selaginella martensii, Isoetes fluitans and Isoetes histrix, the sphenophyte Equisetum telmateia, the ferns Ceratopteris thalictroides, Ceratopteris cornuta, Pteridium aquilinum, Phyllitis scolopendrium and Dryopteris affinis, and the angiosperm Posidonia oceanica. Lignins, and especially syringyl lignins, are distributed from non-vascular basal land plants, such as liverworts, to lycopods and ferns. This distribution, along with the already reported presence of syringyl lignins in ginkgoopsids, suggests that syringyl lignin is a primitive character in land plant evolution. Here, we discuss whether the pathway for sinapyl alcohol recruitment was iterative during the evolution of land plants or, alternatively, was incorporated into the earliest land plants and subsequently repressed in several basal liverworts, lycopods, equisetopsids and ferns. This last hypothesis, which is supported by recent studies of transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis of lignins, implies that lignification originated as a developmental enabler in the peripheral tissues of protracheophytes and would only later have been co-opted for the strengthening of tracheids in eutracheophytes. PMID:21143726

Espiñeira, J M; Novo Uzal, E; Gómez Ros, L V; Carrión, J S; Merino, F; Ros Barceló, A; Pomar, F

2011-01-01

295

Macroalgal decomposition: Laboratory studies with particular regard to microorganisms and meiofauna  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial degradation of North Sea macroalgae was studied in laboratory microcosms, containing autoclaved seawater and a mixture of equal parts of air-dried Delesseria sanguinea, Ulva lactuca, and Laminaria saccharina (red, green and brown algae, respectively). To determine the influence of different organisms on the decomposition rate (expressed in terms of algal dry weight loss relative to the material present at time zero) and their development during decomposition processes, yeast, flagellates, ciliates, nematodes and a harpacticoid copepod species were introduced to the microcosms. Results show that microbial degradation compared to the controls was enhanced in the presence of non-axenic nematodes ( Monhystera sp.) and protozoans, including bacterivorous ciliates ( Euplotes sp. and a Uronema-like sp.) and flagellates. No enhancement occurred with yeast ( Debaryomyces hansenii) or with the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae. The most rapid algal dry weight loss (78.7% after 14 d at 18°C) occurred with the addition of raw seawater sampled near benthic algal vegetation and containing only the natural microorganisms present. These consisted mainly of bacteria with different morphological properties, whereby their numbers alone (viable counts) could not be correlated with algal dry weight loss. Although no single dominant species could be determined, lemon yellow pigmented colonies were frequently found. During decomposition in all microcosms the formation of algal particles 40 400 ?m was observed, which were rapidly colonized by the other organisms present.

Rieper-Kirchner, M.

1990-09-01

296

Resveratrol modulates innate and inflammatory responses in fish leucocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol (RESV; trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin that is produced by some plants, among other effects has well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities in mammals. In the present study, the effects of RESV on several functions of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), kidney leucocytes (KLs) related to the innate and inflammatory responses were investigated. RESV exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the migratory response and on the production of reactive oxygen species in KL, after stimulation of the respiratory burst activity with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). RESV also significantly inhibited the generation of the pro-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the supernatant of KL cultures stimulated with acidic sulphated polysaccharides (ASPs) from the seaweed Ulva rigida. The effects of the polyphenol on enzymatic activity and on myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene expression in neutrophils were also tested. It was found that RESV strongly inhibited intracellular and extracellular MPO activity, behaving as a noncompetitive and reversible inhibitor, and also induced a decrease in MPO mRNA levels in turbot neutrophils. These findings indicate that RESV exerts important modulatory effects on inflammatory responses in fish, and considering the importance of innate immunity in these vertebrates and the similarities with mammals, it may be possible to use fish for analysis of the effects of different substances on inflammatory responses. PMID:18644630

Castro, R; Lamas, J; Morais, P; Sanmartín, M L; Orallo, F; Leiro, J

2008-11-15

297

Associations between macrobenthos and invasive cordgrass, Spartina anglica, in the Danish Wadden Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a survey to provide knowledge on mechanisms controlling spatial and temporal variability of macrobenthos in an intertidal Wadden Sea area partly covered by invasive Spartina anglica. Benthic macrofauna was collected seasonally at seven stations along a transect covering non-vegetated mudflat and vegetated marsh areas. Shannon diversity index was consistently higher for macrobenthos in the open mudflat compared to the marsh area. Infaunal species, like Arenicola marina, Tubificoides benedeni and Macoma balthica, were more abundant in the mudflat than the marsh, while the opposite was evident for epifaunal species, like Hydrobia ulvae and Littorina littorea. The infaunal crustacean, Corophium volutator, on the other hand, appeared particularly attracted to the mudflat-marsh boundary. The biomass of below-ground plant materials and macrodetritus was positively correlated with the total macrofaunal abundance, while the biomass of dead below-ground plant materials alone showed a significant negative correlation with infaunal abundance. Total macrofaunal abundance was highest during summer in the mudflat, while no seasonal pattern was evident in the marsh. The negative influence of S. anglica invasions on infaunal abundance may have serious implications for higher trophic levels, such as waterbirds, that forage in Wadden Sea areas and thus for the overall biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

Tang, Min; Kristensen, Erik

2010-12-01

298

Enteromorpha compressa exhibits potent antioxidant activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (ascorbate oxidase and catalase). The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract) then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [2, 2 azino-bis ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and ?-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods). The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80%) compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%). However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated and identified from the promising ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:21869863

Shanab, Sanaa M M; Shalaby, Emad A; El-Fayoumy, Eman A

2011-01-01

299

Induction of antifouling diterpene production by Streptomyces cinnabarinus PK209 in co-culture with marine-derived Alteromonas sp. KNS-16.  

Science.gov (United States)

An active antifouling diterpene was isolated from marine actinomycete strain PK209 and productivity was induced in a co-culture experiment. The active constituent was identified as the diterpene lobocompactol by interpretion of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy data. A PK209 co-culture was designed and a lobocompactol-resistant bacterium, KNS-16, was selected as co-culture competitor to induce lobocompactol production. Adding a small volume of 16-h-old KNS-16 culture to the 96-h-old PK209 culture caused rapid induction of lobocompactol production. The final yield was 2.7 mg/L, 10.4-fold higher than that collected from a single PK209 culture. The two bacteria, strains PK209 and KNS-16, were identified as Streptomyces cinnabarinus and Alteromonas sp. based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Lobocompactol showed significant antifouling activity, of 0.18 and 0.43 µg/mL, for EC?? against the macroalga Ulva pertusa and the diatom Navicula annexa respectively. It showed activity with MIC of 61-112 µg/mL against fouling bacteria. PMID:23047094

Cho, Ji Young; Kim, Myoung Sug

2012-01-01

300

The performance of aminoalkyl/fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogel coatings against the marine alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum: relative roles of surface energy and charge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a series of xerogel coatings modified with aminoalkyl/fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon groups on the adhesion of a new test species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum, has been explored, and compared with the green alga Ulva linza. The results showed that E. crouaniorum adhered weakly to the less polar, low wettability coatings in the series, but stronger adhesion was shown on polar, higher surface energy coatings containing aminoalkyl groups. The results from a separate series of coatings tuned to have similar surface energies and polarities after immersion in artificial seawater (ASW), but widely different surface charges, demonstrated that surface charge was more important than surface energy and polarity in determining the adhesion strength of both E. crouaniorum and U. linza on xerogel coatings. No correlation was found between adhesion and contact angle hysteresis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of samples after immersion in ASW confirmed the presence of charged ammonium groups on the surface of the aminoalkylated coatings. PMID:23330687

Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gatley, Caitlyn M; Detty, Michael R; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

2013-01-01

301

Studies of directed adhesion of bio-organisms on functionalized polydimethylsiloxane elastomer  

Science.gov (United States)

This research involves the adhesion of organisms and cells to polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMSe). This research is accomplished while incorporating surface modification of PDMSe. The surface properties of interest for this research are elastic modulus, chemistry and topography. Organisms that have been studied are Balanus amphitrite barnacles, Ulva spores, Bugula neritina bryozoans, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts. Applications of this work are focused on preventing the accumulation of spores and barnacles on the hulls of boats, longer lasting synthetic vascular grafts and new diagnostic methods for cardiovascular disease. Currently, organisms on the sides of ship hulls are responsible for increased fuel consumption, increased pollution and greenhouse gasses and increased costs of cleaning. The current paint used saves $3 billion world wide, but is toxic to the environment. This approach is making use of a non toxic surface, PDMSe. PDMSe is modified and then subjected to settlement and release assays in order to further understand the mechanisms that may prevent biofouling. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. This research also involves ways to diagnose and prevent cardiovascular disease through investigation of adhesion of the cells that line the inside of our blood vessels. This is accomplished through chemistries to specifically bind endothelial cells to PDMSe. Once this has been accomplished, the cells may be counted and correlated to specific cardiovascular diseases.

Estes, Thomas G.

302

Effects on growth and accumulation of zinc in six seaweed species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seaweed species from a coastal area contaminated by heavy metals (Sepetiba Bay) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) presented different levels of Zn concentrations. In some species the levels were 20 times higher than that from a noncontaminated area. The present study was undertaken to investigate the capability of different species to tolerate and accumulate zinc. For this purpose six species, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha flexuosa, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum filipendula, Hypnea musciformis, and Spyridia filamentosa, were cultivated under laboratory semistatic conditions in five Zn concentrations in seawater, 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 micrograms.liter-1 for a period of 21 days. All species died at 5000 micrograms.liter-1 of Zn, two species (U. lactuca and E. flexuosa) died at 1000 micrograms.liter-1, and one, H. musciformis, died with 100 micrograms.liter-1. The lowest concentration of Zn that presented growth inhibition in the six species was 20 micrograms.liter-1. The brown alga P. gymnospora presented the highest accumulation level of Zn, and H. musciformis the lowest level. The results of tolerance and accumulation under laboratory conditions, associated with field results, indicate the species of Padina and Sargassum as the best species for monitoring heavy metals in tropical coastal areas, and the potential use of their biomass to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. PMID:9378088

Amado Filho, G M; Karez, C S; Andrade, L R; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y; Pfeiffer, W C

1997-08-01

303

Stable isotopes reveal habitat-related diet shifts in facultative deposit-feeders  

Science.gov (United States)

Seagrass patches interspersed in a sediment matrix may vary environmental conditions and affect feeding habits of consumers and food-web structure. This paper investigates diet shifts between bare sediments and a Zostera noltei (Hornemann, 1832) meadow for three facultative deposit-feeding macrofaunal consumers, notably the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778), the polychaete Hediste diversicolor (O.T. Müller, 1776), and the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1778). In July 2008, one eelgrass meadow and two bare sediment locations were chosen in the Mondego estuary (40° 08? N, 8° 50? W, Portugal) and sampled for stable isotope signatures (?13C and ?15N) of macrofauna consumers and some of their potential basal food sources, such as sedimentary organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos (MPB), seagrass shoots, leaves and seaweeds laying on the surface sediment. The ?15N of H. diversicolor was 3‰ higher in the eelgrass meadow than in bare sediment, indicating a change of trophic position, whereas the Bayesian stable-isotope mixing model showed that S. plana assimilated more macroalgal detritus than microphytobenthos in the eelgrass bed. Such habitat-related diet shifts have the potential to change structure and spatial dynamics of benthic food webs.

Rossi, Francesca; Baeta, Alexandra; Marques, João C.

2015-01-01

304

Algal polysaccharides as source of plant resistance inducers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Algal compounds exhibit great potential to enhance plant growth and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. This review focuses on aspects concerning the physical-chemical properties, function and biological activity of macroalgae polysaccharides. Updated results of the main poly- and oligosaccha [...] rides studied for the control of plant diseases are discussed and summarized. The carrageenans from red algae have a well-established obtaining system, but its high market value discourages its use in plant protection. The fucans found in the cell walls of brown algae are present in several fertilizers and accounted for the benefits of such commercial products on plant physiology. The laminarans, from brown algae mainly Laminaria digitata, are currently the main algal polysaccharides on the phytosanitary market. The ulvans, from cell the walls of Ulva spp., open new ways to obtain polysaccharides able to induce resistance due to its abundance worldwide. All these algal polysaccharides show ability to activate multiple plant defense mechanisms against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Taking into account the promising results reported in the literature and the enormous biochemical diversity of these biopolymers, it is likely that they will provide new types of resistance inducers in a near future.

Marciel J., Stadnik; Mateus B. de, Freitas.

2014-04-01

305

Spatial variability in structural and functional aspects of macrofauna communities and their environmental parameters in the Jade Bay (Wadden Sea Lower Saxony, southern North Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial distribution and functional structure of intertidal benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental variables in the Jade Bay (southern North Sea) were studied and compared with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea. A total of 128 stations covering the whole Jade Bay were sampled in summer 2009. A total of 114 taxa were found. Highest species numbers occurred in the subtidal areas, whereas highest mean abundances were found in the upper intertidal areas. Based on species abundance data, six significantly distinct macrofauna communities in the Jade Bay were identified and evaluated with multivariate statistics, univariate correlations and canonical correspondence analysis. Differences in these community patterns were caused by the response of the dominant species ( Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Pygospio elegans, Caulleriella killariensis, Scoloplos armiger, Urothoe poseidonis, Microprotopus maculatus) to prevailing environmental conditions along the gradient from the lower and exposed sandy intertidal areas via intermediate mixed sediments to the upper mudflat areas. Distribution patterns in relation to tidal zonation were best explained by variability in submergence time, Chlorophyll a (chl a) content and sediment composition (mud content), which are proxies for hydrodynamic conditions and food availability. Species inventory and species richness were comparable with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea, but the Jade Bay differs from these areas regarding dominant species. Differences in sediment composition and morphological characteristics (macrotidal versus mesotidal Wadden Sea areas) are discussed for comparison of regional differences.

Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Kröncke, Ingrid

2013-03-01

306

Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant. PMID:22335117

Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

2011-01-01

307

Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

2015-01-01

308

Engineered antifouling microtopographies: surface pattern effects on cell distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microtopography has been observed to lead to altered attachment behavior for marine fouling organisms; however, quantification of this phenomenon is lacking in the scientific literature. Here, we present quantitative measurement of the disruption of normal attachment behavior of the fouling algae Ulva linza by antifouling microtopographies. The distribution of the diatom Navicula incerta was shown to be unaffected by the presence of topography. The radial distribution function was calculated for both individual zoospores and cells as well as aggregates of zoospores from attachment data for a variety topographic configurations and at a number of different attachment densities. Additionally, the screening distance and maximum values were mapped according to the location of zoospore aggregates within a single unit cell. We found that engineered topographies decreased the distance between spore aggregates compared to that for a smooth control surface; however, the distributions for individual spores were unchanged. We also found that the local attachment site geometry affected the screening distance for aggregates of zoospores, with certain geometries decreasing screening distance and others having no measurable effect. The distribution mapping techniques developed and explored in this article have yielded important insight into the design parameters for antifouling microtopographies that can be implemented in the next generation of antifouling surfaces. PMID:25420235

Decker, Joseph T; Sheats, Julian T; Brennan, Anthony B

2014-12-23

309

[Immunostimulatory characteristics of a novel carrier on the basis of cucumarioside A2-2 and monogalactosyldiacylgycerol].  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel antigen carrier has been formulated on the basis of a cucumarioside-A2-2 triterpene glycoside (CD) complex with cholesterol and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol from Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis (MGDG(At)) and Ulva fenestrate (MGDG(Uf)). Morphological and immunostimulative characteristics of the carrier were studied. Electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the formation of homogeneous tubular structures in a mixture of CD, cholesterol, and MGDG in molar ratio of 1:2:3. In animals immunized by the carrier bearing pore forming protein monomer of pseudotuberculosis agent CD and MGDG synergically affected synthesis of specific antibodies, interleukin-2, and gamma-interferon and delayed hypersensitivity reaction when compared to Freund's complete adjuvant or to immunostimulatory complexes between Quillaja saponaria saponins and phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk. The immunostimulatory effect depends upon the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids of MGDG. The new tubular adjuvant carrier is a competitive adjuvant, as it includes CD obtained from far-eastern sea cucumber commercial species Cucumaria japonica, and MGDG from seaweed. PMID:19145978

Li, I A; Popov, A M; Tsybul'ski?, A V; Sanina, N M; Kostetski?, E Ia; Novikova, O D; Portniagina, O Iu; Maze?ka, A V

2008-01-01

310

[Distribution characteristics of benthic algae in intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago of Zhejiang Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the survey of benthic algae in the intertidal zone of Ma' an Archipelago from March to July 2007, the algal species composition, distribution, and temperature feature were studied. The dominant algal species in the study area were preliminarily analyzed by using similarity indices (S(c)) and index of relative importance (IRI(c)). A total of 31 species sampled in sublittoral area were identified, among which, 7 species of 5 genera belonged to Chlorophyta, 8 species of 5 genera belonged to Phaeophyta, and 16 species of 14 genera belonged to Rhodophyta. Topical and selective distribution species influenced by wave and tide were identified in the intertidal zone. Ulva pertusa and Sargassum thunbergii were found in all survey area. Rhodophyta was the dominant species, with the occurring frequency being up to 61.1%, and Chlorophyta showed quite uniformed horizontal distribution. In addition, 81% of sampled species were from low-tide zone, and some were extended from mid-tide zone to low-tide zone. The composition comparability between mid-tide and low-tide species was 0.47, and the convergence effect in mid-tide and low-tide zone was higher than that in high-tide and mid-tide zone. The sublittoral area of Ma' an Archipelago showed obvious vertical zoning character, with temperate species being absolute abundant, and the warm-water species dominant. The marine floral texture of Ma' an Archipelago belongs to warm temperate-subtropical transitional marine flora. PMID:19123370

Zhang, Shou-Yu; Liang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai

2008-10-01

311

Carboxymethylation of ulvan and chitosan and their use as polymeric components of bone cements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvan, extracted from the green algae Ulva lactuca, and chitosan, extracted from Loligo forbesis squid-pen, were carboxymethylated, yielding polysaccharides with an average degree of substitution of ?98% (carboxymethyl ulvan, CMU) and ?87% (carboxymethyl chitosan, N,O-CMC). The carboxymethylation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantified by conductimetric titration and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The average molecular weight increased with the carboxymethylation (chitosan, Mn 145?296 kDa and Mw 227?416 kDa; ulvan, Mn 139?261 kDa and Mw 368?640 kDa), indicating successful chemical modifications. Mixtures of the modified polysaccharides were tested in the formulation of polyacrylic acid-free glass-ionomer bone cements. Mechanical and in vitro bioactivity tests indicate that the inclusion of CMU in the cement formulation, i.e. 0.50:0.50 N,O-CMC:CMU, enhances its mechanical performance (compressive strength 52.4±8.0 MPa and modulus 2.3±0.3 GPa), generates non-cytotoxic cements and induces the diffusion of Ca and/or P-based moieties from the surface to the bulk of the cements. PMID:23816652

Barros, A A A; Alves, A; Nunes, C; Coimbra, M A; Pires, R A; Reis, R L

2013-11-01

312

Actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de extractos de algas marinas venezolanas  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron las propiedades bioactivas antibacterianas y antimicóticas de 33 extractos (etanol, diclorometano, hexano obtenidos de 11 especies de algas marinas recolectadas en las localidades de San Juan de Los Cayos y Chichiriviche, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. La actividad antibiótica y antimicótica de los extractos se evaluó mediante la aparición de halos de inhibición contra bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococ- cus aureus, Gram negativas (Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y el hongo Candida albicans. De los 33 extractos ensayados sólo 17 presentaron actividad antibacteriana (5 con etanol, 6 con diclorometano y 6 con hexano, resultando activos 14 frente a las especies Gram(- y 4 contra la especie Gram(+. Las especies algales que mostraron actividad antibacteriana fueron: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incras- sata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp. Ninguno de los extractos de algas ensayados presentó actividad antimicótica sobre Cándida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que las algas de la costa occidental de Venezuela, presentan compuestos bioactivos con actividad antibacteriana.

Nurby Ríos

2011-07-01

313

Transcript profiling of crown rootless1 mutant stem base reveals new elements associated with crown root development in rice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In rice, the major part of the post-embryonic root system is made of stem-derived roots named crown roots (CR. Among the few characterized rice mutants affected in root development, crown rootless1 mutant is unable to initiate crown root primordia. CROWN ROOTLESS1 (CRL1 is induced by auxin and encodes an AS2/LOB-domain transcription factor that acts upstream of the gene regulatory network controlling CR development. Results To identify genes involved in CR development, we compared global gene expression profile in stem bases of crl1 mutant and wild-type (WT plants. Our analysis revealed that 250 and 236 genes are down- and up-regulated respectively in the crl1 mutant. Auxin induces CRL1 expression and consequently it is expected that auxin also alters the expression of genes that are early regulated by CRL1. To identify genes under the early control of CRL1, we monitored the expression kinetics of a selected subset of genes, mainly chosen among those exhibiting differential expression, in crl1 and WT following exogenous auxin treatment. This analysis revealed that most of these genes, mainly related to hormone, water and nutrient, development and homeostasis, were likely not regulated directly by CRL1. We hypothesized that the differential expression for these genes observed in the crl1 mutant is likely a consequence of the absence of CR formation. Otherwise, three CRL1-dependent auxin-responsive genes: FSM (FLATENNED SHOOT MERISTEM/FAS1 (FASCIATA1, GTE4 (GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GROUP E4 and MAP (MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN were identified. FSM/FAS1 and GTE4 are known in rice and Arabidopsis to be involved in the maintenance of root meristem through chromatin remodelling and cell cycle regulation respectively. Conclusion Our data showed that the differential regulation of most genes in crl1 versus WT may be an indirect consequence of CRL1 inactivation resulting from the absence of CR in the crl1 mutant. Nevertheless some genes, FAS1/FSM, GTE4 and MAP, require CRL1 to be induced by auxin suggesting that they are likely directly regulated by CRL1. These genes have a function related to polarized cell growth, cell cycle regulation or chromatin remodelling. This suggests that these genes are controlled by CRL1 and involved in CR initiation in rice.

Van Anh Le Thi

2011-08-01

314

[Acute encephalopathy caused by cyanogenic fungi in 2004, and magic mushroom regulation in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two topics, related to mushroom poisoning of recent interest in Japan, have been presented. In autumn 2004, 59 cases of acute encephalopathy were reported across 9 prefectures in Japan (24 from Akita Prefecture with 8 deaths; age 48-93, average 70; female 14, male 10). Of 24 cases, 20 had kidney dysfunction. Four poisoned subjects showed no kidney trouble. Of the 24 poisoning cases, 23 people ate Pleurocybella porrigens, and one ate Grifola frondosa. The latter subject (female, late 40's) was receiving dialysis for more than 35 years. In August, she felt dizziness, headache and tinnitus. She visited hospital and asked to stay there. In the hospital she ate 5g of stewed G. frondosa and 10g of the same fungus boiled with chicken and taro on different days. Fourteen to 18 days after the eatings, she developed cramps and lost consciousness, and fell into a coma. Her cramp and coma continued for about 10 days almost until her death. Her symptoms caused by G. frondosa were similar to those observed for the above 23 cases of P. porrigens ingestion. Therefore, we concluded that encephalopathy experienced in Akita Prefecture caused by was the cyanogenic fungi such as P. porrigens , G. frondosa, Pleurotus eringii etc. Although the amounts of mushrooms eaten by poisoned subjects were not so clear, we estimated that the amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) taken into human bodies exceeded the detoxication limit of HCN, resulting in HCN poisoning. However, it has not been proved that the encephalopathy is directly or indirectly caused by the HCN poisoning. Many typhoons came across Japan and landed 10 times in 2004, and mushroom size was larger than usual one, and HCN contents in fruit-bodies seemed to be increased especially in the late-stage of their growth. Thirteen species of magic mushrooms were prohibited by the law from 2002 in Japan. They include Copelandia (Panaeolus) cyanescens, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Psilocybe argentipes, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe fasciata, Psilocybe lonchophorus, Psilocybe subaeruginascens, Psilocybe subcaerulipes, Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe tampanensis, and Psilocybe venenata. PMID:19344063

Gonmori, Kunio; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

2009-03-01

315

Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marine seaweed that is washed up on the coastline is a nuisance as its degradation produces a foul a smell and generates waste problems. Exploitation of coastline-polluting seaweeds such as Sargassum sp., Ulva sp., and other beach-cast seaweed species for various commercial applications will generate new valuable products that may help lessen coastal pollution by seaweeds and create new seaweed-based resources. Thus, utilization of these natural resources is of great importance. The objectives of this PhD study were to develop a technology to extract bioactive compounds from nuisance brown seaweeds, and investigate their bioactivity. To this effect, designed optimized extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and/or crude fucoidan from brown seaweed were performed, and the bioactivity of the isolated FCSPs was investigated. Moreover, to assess the potential of seaweed to assimilate nitrogen-based nutrients, a technology for accurate monitoring of differential seaweed growth responsesto nutrient assimilation was also developed. Fucoidan is a term used to describe a class of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed, which contains substantial amounts of fucose; varying amounts of galactose, xylose, and glucuronic acid; and differing glycosidic linkages, and are variously substituted with sulfate and acetyl groups and side branches containing fucose or other glycosyl units. These FCSPs principally consist of a backbone of (1?3)- and/or (1?4)-linked ?-L-fucopyranose residues that may be substituted with sulfate (SO3-) on C-2, C-3, or C-4 and acetyl groups at C-4 on the main chain or may have short fucoside side chains that are usually linked from the O-4 of one or several of the fucopyranose backbone residues. FCSPs are known to exhibit crucial biological activities including anti-tumor activity. Although differently extracted, purified, fucose-rich, modified fucoidans have been reported to exert bioactive properties such as anti-coagulant and enhance immune response activity, few studies have investigated the bioactivity of unfractionated FCSPs, notably FCSPs extracted using milder and fewer processing steps. Crude fucoidan from Sargassum sp. and Fucus vesiculosus were examined for their bioactivity against lung and skin cancer cell lines in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This study showed that unfractionated FCSPs hinder the in vitro proliferation of Lewis lung carcinoma and melanoma B16 cell lines by induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of crude fucoidan seems to be associated with an enhanced immune response as depicted by an increase in natural killer cell activity in mice. The classical extraction of FCSPs involving long, repetitive, multi-step acid and alkaline treatments is detrimental to its structural properties, yield, and compositional attributes. In this study, statistically designed, optimized extraction of a single-step extraction of FCSPs from Sargassum sp. was carried out. The effects of the different extraction parameters on the natural chemical composition of the isolated sulfated polysaccharides were also investigated. The data showed that classical multi-step extraction using ?0.2 M HCl at elevated temperature and extended time had a detrimental effect on the FCSPs yield, as this treatment apparently disrupted the structural integrity of the polymer and evidently degraded carbohydrate chains of fucose residues during extraction. The results also revealed a maximal FCSPs yield of approximately 7% dry weight with Sargassum sp. using 0.03 M HCl at 90°C and 4-h extraction conditions. Accurate monitoring of the differential growth response of seaweed to different nutrient assimilation is crucial to explore various applications of seaweed resources, such as biomass for bioenergy production and source of functional healthy components and bioactive compounds. A major prerequisite for the successful exploitation of cultivated seaweed like Ulva lactuca for commercial purposes is that the growth rate and yields should be optimized. In this study,

Ale, Marcel Tutor

2012-01-01

316

The introduced barnacle Balanus glandula (Darwin in the Mar del Plata port as a structuring species in the intertidal community El cirripedio introducido Balanus glandula (Darwin en el puerto de Mar del Plata como una especie estructurante de la comunidad intermareal  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The paper deals with the distribution pattern and population dynamics of the introduced barnacle Balanus glandula in the intertidal areas of Mar del Plata port. The reproductive cycle of this barnacle is discussed as a community structuring force. Replicated areas in both the high intertidal and the upper mid intertidal zones were monthly denuded. The recruitment, cumulative settlement, mortality and growth of B. glandula were recorded, as well as the succession pattern of the associated fauna. First settlement of B. glandula occurred in winter (July. Succession begins with a film of microorganisms followed by green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha spp. which dominate up to a final stage of B. glandula dominated community is reached all along the intertidal. B. glandula densities were significantly higher in the mid intertidal than in the high intertidal (19600 and 13600 ind. m-², respectively. Annual mean mortality was high in the port (up to 62% but heavy settlement allowed a final density 4 times greater than in the upper mid intertidal of exposed rocky shores, and twice the greatest density reached in the Northern Hemisphere. Winter reproduction of B. glandula, absence of predators, and the neutral or beneficial effect of algae allows this species to occupy in wave protected areas the whole intertidal zone, displacing the former B. amphitrite populations from the intertidal to the subtidal. In exposed rocky shores the species outcompete mussels from the high intertidal, establishing the typical barnacle fringeRESUMEN. Se analiza la dinámica poblacional del cirripedio introducido Balanus glandula en el área intermareal del puerto de Mar del Plata. El ciclo reproductivo de este cirripedio es discutido como una fuerza estructurante de la comunidad. Áreas replicadas, tanto en el intermareal alto como en la parte superior del intermareal, fueron mensualmente desnudadas. El reclutamiento, asentamiento acumulativo, mortalidad y crecimiento basal medio de B. glandula fue registrado, al igual que la sucesión de la fauna asociada. El primer asentamiento se registró en invierno (julio. La sucesión comenzó con un film de microorganismos, seguido por algas verdes (Ulva lactuca y Enteromorpha spp. que dominaron hasta una comunidad final dominada por B. glandula a lo largo de todo el intermareal. La densidad de B. glandula fue significativamente más alta en la parte superior del intermareal medio que en el intermareal alto (19.600 y 13.600 ind. m-², respectivamente. La mortalidad anual media fue grande en el puerto (más del 62%, pero elevados asentamientos permitieron una densidad final 4 veces mayor respecto a la zona rocosa expuesta al oleaje y dos veces superior a la mayor densidad alcanzada en el hemisferio norte. La reproducción invernal de B. glandula, la ausencia de predadores y el efecto benéfico o neutral de algas, permiten a esta especie ocupar la totalidad del intermareal, desplazando a las poblaciones de B. amphitrite del intermareal al submareal. En el intermareal rocoso expuesto al oleaje, la especie excluye a los bivalvos sólo del intermareal alto, formando la clásica franja de cirripedios

Rodolfo Elías

2001-01-01

317

Consumption and digestion of animal food by rocky intertidal herbivores: an evaluation of digestive flexibility and omnivory in three grazing species Consumo y digestión de alimento animal por herbívoros del intermareal rocoso: evaluación de flexibilidad digestiva y omnivoría en tres especies de pastoreadores  

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Full Text Available The ingestion of invertebrates by herbivores on rocky intertidal shores is traditionally considered a casual phenomenon. However, a recent study of 29 species in northern Chile shows that animal consumption is widespread, consistent, and important, suggesting that some of these herbivores may actually be omnivores. Therefore, we examined the capability of three common Chilean herbivores (the key-hole limpets Fissurella limbata and Fissurella pida and the polyplacophoran Chiton granosus to digest animal food. For each species, we conducted no-choice feeding experiments using artificial foods based on either algal or animal tissue from one of their frequent prey (Ulva rigida, Perumytilus purpuratus. After the feeding trials, we evaluated the total proteolytic activity (availability of free amino acids in the digestive contents of the species studied and, as a reference, we evaluated this activity in animals obtained directly from the field. We found that all three species were able to eat animal food, and this consumption was not significantly different from that of algal food, suggesting that both foods were not only edible but at least similarly palatable. In addition, we detected comparable levels of proteolytic activity under the three feeding conditions for the three species. No statistical differences were found for C. granosus, but activity was significantly higher with animal food in F. limbata and with algal food in F. pida. Our data show the high digestive flexibility of these species, suggesting their ability for adaptive modulation and the possibility that they are true omnivorous consumers. We discuss the implications of these results for our current view of the structure of rocky intertidal food webs.La ingestión de invertebrados por herbívoros de costas intermareales rocosas se considera tradi-cionalmente un fenómeno casual. Sin embargo, un estudio reciente en 29 especies del norte de Chile muestra que el consumo animal es generalizado, consistente e importante, sugiriendo que algunos de estos herbívoros pueden ser realmente omnívoros. Por tanto, se examinó la capacidad de tres herbívoros chilenos comunes para digerir alimento animal: las lapas Fissurella limbata y Fissurella pida, y el poliplacóforo Chiton granosus. Para cada especie, se efectuaron experimentos de alimentación sin elección usando alimentos artificiales basados en tejido animal o algal de algunas de sus presas frecuentes (Ulva rigida, Perumytilus purpuratus. Luego de los ensayos de alimentación se evaluó la actividad proteolítica total (disponibilidad de aminoácidos libres en sus contenidos digestivos, y como referencia, se determinó la actividad en animales obtenidos directamente desde condiciones de terreno. Se encontró que las tres especies fueron capaces de comer alimento animal, y este consumo no fue significativamente distinto al de alimento algal, sugiriendo que ambos alimentos fueron no sólo comestibles sino al menos similarmente palatables. Además, se detectaron niveles comparables de actividad proteolítica bajo las tres condiciones de alimentación en las tres especies, sin diferencias estadísticas en C. granosus, pero con una actividad significativamente más alta con alimento animal en F. limbata y con alimento algal en F. pida. Los datos muestran la alta flexibilidad digestiva de estas especies, sugiriendo su capacidad para modulación adaptativa y la posibilidad de que sean verdaderos omnívoros. Se discuten las implicancias de estos resultados sobre la visión actual de la estructura de tramas tróficas del intermareal rocoso.

Patricio A Camus

2009-01-01

318

Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y de la tasa de consumo de alimento de Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae) / Analysis of feeding behavior and food consumption rate of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los anfípodos talítridos son considerados los principales consumidores de residuos orgánicos en la zona intermareal de playas arenosas ya que retiran grandes cantidades de macrófitos. La cantidad y composición de los macrófitos depositados pueden influir en el consumo y la tasa demográfica de las es [...] pecies de talítridos. Sin embargo, en las costas con baja contribución de macrófitos, donde la materia orgánica consiste de detrito, fragmentos de algas y plantas vasculares, el comportamiento alimentario de los talítridos es escasamente conocido. En la costa sur de Brasil, el anfípodo Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis es la especie más abundante de la macrofauna en playas expuestas con escasos restos de algas. Para entender el comportamiento alimentario de esta especie, se realizaron experimentos sobre la preferencia de alimento y las tasas de consumo. La capacidad de alimentarse en la superficie y dentro del sustrato también se examinó. El alimento ofrecido incluyó el cangrejo de arena Emerita brasiliensis, el berberecho Donax hanleyanus, el pez Mugil sp. y el alga Ulva sp., especies que comúnmente comprenden el detrito varado. Los anfípodos adultos consumieron una amplia gama de alimentos. Las especies más consumidas fueron E. brasiliensis y D. hanleyanus, las cuales se consumieron más durante la noche, mientras que Mugil sp. fue el alimento menos consumido durante tanto el día como la noche. En el ensayo de preferencia de alimento, el consumo de algas fue insignificante por lo que se sugiere que los restos de animales son más importantes para la alimentación de esta especie. Los anfípodos prefirieron algas frescas más que algas secas cuando se ofrecieron simultáneamente. Nuestros resultados indican que los talítridos tienen diferente estrategia y comportamiento alimentario según el tipo de material orgánico depositado en la playa. Abstract in english Talitrid amphipods are considered one of the most important wrack-deposit consumers in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches due to their ability to remove extensive amounts of macrophytes. The quantity and composition of drift macrophytes can influence the consumption and demographic rates of talitr [...] id species. However, on coasts with a low contribution of macrophytes, where organic material is typically composed of debris, algal fragments, and vascular plants, the feeding behavior of talitrids is poorly understood. Along the south coast of Brazil, the amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis is the most abundant species of macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches that do not have a high abundance of macroalgal wrack. In order to understand the feeding behavior of this species, experiments on food preference and consumption rates were carried out, and the ability to feed on the surface or buried within the substrate was also tested. Food items offered included the sand crab Emérita brasiliensis, the wedge clam Donax hanleyanus, the mullet fish Mugil sp., and the alga Ulva sp., species that commonly comprise debris on the drift line. Adult amphipods showed a broad feeding range. The most commonly consumed food items were E. brasiliensis and D. hanleyanus, which were consumed more during the night, while Mugil sp. was the least consumed item during both the day and night. In the food preference trials, algal consumption was negligible, suggesting that feeding on debris is more important for this species. Amphipods preferred fresh algae rather than dried algae when simultaneously offered both food items. Our results indicate that talitrids have different feeding strategies and behavior according to the type of organic material deposited on the beach.

V, Gomes Veloso; I, Azevedo Sallorenzo; WK, Andrade Barros; G, Neves de Souza.

2012-12-01

319

Effects of low tide rainfall on the erodibility of intertidal cohesive sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Low tide rainfall may represent an important but little studied process affecting sediment fluxes on intertidal mudflats. In this study, we simulated rainfall events on an intertidal mudflat (median grain size=18.4 ?m) of low slope (1 in 300) then quantified effects on sediment erodibility. Treatments consisted of a high (4.1 mm min -1 for 6 min) and low (0.36 mm min -1 for 60 min) rain intensity, chosen to match naturally occurring events and experiments were conducted seasonally (May and August) to encompass variations in ambient sediment stability. Changes in bed elevation due to rainfall were estimated using marked rods and sediment erodibility parameters (mass of sediment eroded at a flow velocity of 0.3 m s -1 (ME-30, g m -2) and critical erosion velocity ( Ucrit, m s -1)) were determined in annular flumes (bed area=0.17 m 2). Ambient/control sediment erodibility in May (ME-30=211 g m -2, Ucrit=0.18 m s -1) was higher than in August (ME-30=30 g m -2, Ucrit=0.26 m s -1) and was correlated with changes in biological activity. In May, surface sediment was influenced by high densities of the bioturbating snail Hydrobia ulvae (1736 ind. m -2) and low biomass of the sediment stabilising microphytobenthos (5.7 ?g chlorophyll a cm -2). In contrast, in August H. ulvae densities were low (52 ind. m -2) and microphytobenthic biomass higher (9.2 ?g chlorophyll a cm -2). The high rain treatment caused a decrease in bed elevation of between 1.5 mm (May) and 4.4 mm (August) and significantly reduced sediment organic content and microphytobenthic biomass. Rainfall increased sediment erodibility; compared to ambient sediments ME-30 increased by a factor of 1.4× in May and 8.8× in August and caused a 10-30% decline in Ucrit. The seasonal difference in treatment effect was due to the change in ambient sediment stability. The low rain treatment in August had no effect on bed elevation, microphytobenthic biomass or sediment erodibility. In May, the same treatment caused a reduction in bed elevation (0.5 mm) and microphytobenthic biomass but counter-intuitively, a decrease in sediment erodibility (ME-30 was reduced by 40%, Ucrit increased by 5%) compared to controls. We attribute this result to removal by rainfall of easily eroded surface flocs and biogenic roughness which resulted in an underlying sediment with a smoother surface and greater resistant to erosion. Results suggest that high intensity rain events may destabilise intertidal sediments making them more susceptible to erosion by returning tidal currents and that the sediment eroded during such events may represent a considerable fraction (up to 25%) of the seasonal variation in shore elevation. The impact of natural rain events are likely to vary considerably due to variations in droplet size, intensity and duration and the interaction with ambient sediment stability.

Pilditch, C. A.; Widdows, J.; Kuhn, N. J.; Pope, N. D.; Brinsley, M. D.

2008-08-01

320

Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittoral: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory under low white light intensities more than a week were used to assess the acclimation potential to irradiance conditions in the field. Both, photosynthetic parameters referred to as maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax and light saturation points of photosynthesis (Ik were species-specific and did not correlate with the position on the shore. Ik ranging between 80 and 215 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 was indicative of moderate sun-adaptation in all studied species. The acclimation potential to UV-radiation was determined as the extent and the rates (m inh of PSII inhibition (resulting from decreased maximum PSII-quantum yield (Fv/Fm after four hours of UV-exposure and as the subsequent rates of recovery (m in dim PAR. The results suggest that photosynthesis of each species during UV-exposure was transiently down regulated rather than damaged. Furthermore, no reductions in ETRmax were detected after 4 h exposure to UV-A and UV-B-radiation, and consequently the Calvin cycle could not be affected. Thus, Fv/Fm was a more sensitive parameter than ETRmax explaining the photosynthetic UV acclimation. Both, the rates of inhibition and the rates of recovery were not correlated with the morpho-functional groups of macroalgae nor to their vertical distribution. Thus, although the capacity to acclimate to UV-radiation varied among the different species, data suggest that such responses are based on metabolic adjustments or possibly photoprotective strategies. In conclusion and taking into account the light adaptation characteristics, all species collected in the midlittoral and the upper sublittoral at the Strait of Magellan seem to be well acclimated to UV-B doses occurring at their habitat, which might be a pre-requisite to withstand enhanced solar UV-B during ozone depletion or summertime irradiance conditions.La actividad fotosintética de algas provenientes del Estrecho de Magallanes fue medida por primera vez con el propósito de determinar su fotoadaptación en terreno y su potencial de aclimatación a la radiación ultravioleta. Cinco especies fueron recolectadas desde la zona eulitoral y sublitoral superior: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides y D. ligulata. Curvas de fotosíntesis versus irradiancia (P-I medidas en algas cultivadas en el laboratorio por más de una semana fueron usadas para determinar la aclimatación potencial de las algas en su habitat. Tanto las capacidades fotosintéticas, determinadas a través de la tasa máxima de transporte de electrones (ETRmax, como los puntos de saturación de fotosíntesis (Ik fueron especies-específicas, no observándose correlaciones con la distribución vertical de las algas. Valores de Ik con rangos entre 80 y 215 ?mol m-2 s-1 indicaron una moderada adaptación a la luz en todas las especies estudiadas. La aclimatación a la radiación UV fue determinada a través del grado de disminución del rendimiento cuántico máximo del PSII (Fv/Fm y su subsiguiente tasa de recuperación. Los resultados sugieren que bajo exposición a la radiación UV, la fotosíntesis no es dañada sino más bien regulada a la baja de forma transitoria. Además, no se observaron reducciones en ETRmax después de 4 h de exposición a la radiación UV-A y UV-B, y por consiguiente el ciclo de Calvin pudo no ser afectado. De este modo, Fv/Fm fue un parámetro mucho más sensitivo que ETRmax para explicar la aclimatación de fotosíntesis a la radiación UV. Tanto las tasas de inhibición como las tasas de recuperación no estuvieron correla

RALF RAUTENBERGER

2009-03-01

321

Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile) / Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La actividad fotosintética de algas provenientes del Estrecho de Magallanes fue medida por primera vez con el propósito de determinar su fotoadaptación en terreno y su potencial de aclimatación a la radiación ultravioleta. Cinco especies fueron recolectadas desde la zona eulitoral y sublitoral super [...] ior: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides y D. ligulata. Curvas de fotosíntesis versus irradiancia (P-I) medidas en algas cultivadas en el laboratorio por más de una semana fueron usadas para determinar la aclimatación potencial de las algas en su habitat. Tanto las capacidades fotosintéticas, determinadas a través de la tasa máxima de transporte de electrones (ETRmax), como los puntos de saturación de fotosíntesis (Ik) fueron especies-específicas, no observándose correlaciones con la distribución vertical de las algas. Valores de Ik con rangos entre 80 y 215 ?mol m-2 s-1 indicaron una moderada adaptación a la luz en todas las especies estudiadas. La aclimatación a la radiación UV fue determinada a través del grado de disminución del rendimiento cuántico máximo del PSII (Fv/Fm) y su subsiguiente tasa de recuperación. Los resultados sugieren que bajo exposición a la radiación UV, la fotosíntesis no es dañada sino más bien regulada a la baja de forma transitoria. Además, no se observaron reducciones en ETRmax después de 4 h de exposición a la radiación UV-A y UV-B, y por consiguiente el ciclo de Calvin pudo no ser afectado. De este modo, Fv/Fm fue un parámetro mucho más sensitivo que ETRmax para explicar la aclimatación de fotosíntesis a la radiación UV. Tanto las tasas de inhibición como las tasas de recuperación no estuvieron correlacionadas con grupos morfofuncionales ni con la distribución vertical. Por tanto, aunque la capacidad para aclimatar a la radiación UV varió entre las diferentes especies, los resultados sugieren que estas respuestas están basadas en ajustamientos metabólicos o posiblemente estrategias fotoprotectoras. En conclusión, y tomando en cuenta las características de adaptación a la luz, todas las especies colectadas en el mesolitoral y sublitoral del Estrecho de Magallanes están bien aclimatadas a las dosis de UV-B que ocurren en su habitat, lo cual es un prerrequisito para tolerar aumentos de UV-B durante disminución de ozono o durante condiciones de alta radiación en verano. Abstract in english For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittora [...] l: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I) curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory under low white light intensities more than a week were used to assess the acclimation potential to irradiance conditions in the field. Both, photosynthetic parameters referred to as maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) and light saturation points of photosynthesis (Ik) were species-specific and did not correlate with the position on the shore. Ik ranging between 80 and 215 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 was indicative of moderate sun-adaptation in all studied species. The acclimation potential to UV-radiation was determined as the extent and the rates (m inh) of PSII inhibition (resulting from decreased maximum PSII-quantum yield (Fv/Fm)) after four hours of UV-exposure and as the subsequent rates of recovery (m ) in dim PAR. The results suggest that photosynthesis of each species during UV-exposure was transiently down regulated rather than damaged. Furthermore, no reductions in ETRmax were detected after 4 h exposure to UV-A and UV-B-radiation, and consequently the Calvin cycle could not be affected. Thus, Fv/Fm was a more sensitive parameter

RALF, RAUTENBERGER; ANDRÉS, MANSILLA; IVÁN, GÓMEZ; CHRISTIAN, WIENCKE; KAI, BISCHOF.

2009-03-01

322

Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in an intertidal zone, and emended description of the genus Maribacter.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2(T), was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5×0.4-0.6 µm), non-sporulating and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2(T) was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3?%) and 0.5-10?% (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5?%). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2(T) belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6?%, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20(T) (96.6?%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0 and unknown equivalent chain-length 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2(T) consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12207(T)?=?JCM 18466(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed. PMID:25269849

Hu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Qi; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zheng, Gang; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min

2015-01-01

323

The effect of surface colour on the formation of marine micro and macrofouling communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of substratum colour on the formation of micro- and macro fouling communities was investigated. Acrylic tiles, painted either black or white were covered with transparent sheets in order to ensure similar surface properties. All substrata were exposed to biofouling at 1?m depth for 40?d in the Marina Bandar al Rowdha (Muscat, Sea of Oman). Studies were conducted in 2010 over a time course of 5, 10 and 20?d, and in 2012 samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21?d. The densities of bacteria on the black and white substrata were similar with the exception of day 10, when the black substrata had a higher abundance than white ones. Pyrosequencing via 454 of 16S rRNA genes of bacteria from white and black substrata revealed that Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant groups. SIMPER analysis demonstrated that bacterial phylotypes (uncultured Gammaproteobacteria, Actibacter, Gaetbulicola, Thalassobius and Silicibacter) and the diatoms (Navicula directa, Navicula sp. and Nitzschia sp.) contributed to the dissimilarities between communities developed on white and black substrata. At day 20, the highest amount of chlorophyll a was recorded in biofilms developed on black substrata. SIMPER analysis showed that Folliculina sp., Ulva sp. and Balanus amphitrite were the major macro fouling species that contributed to the dissimilarities between the communities formed on white and black substrata. Higher densities of these species were observed on black tiles. The results emphasise the effect of substratum colour on the formation of micro and macro fouling communities; substratum colour should to be taken into account in future studies. PMID:23697809

Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Voolstra, Christian R

2013-01-01

324

Biogeochemical effects of macroalgae decomposition on intertidal microbenthos: a microcosm experiment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The decomposition of macroalgal detritus (tubular and planar Ulva spp.) was studied in a microcosm under a daily light:dark cycle to simulate the decomposition on intertidal sediment. The consequences of bloom decay were evaluated in the bulk water phase and in the sediment. Inorganic nutrients (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO32-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured in the inflowing and outflowing seawater. Vertical microprofiles of O2, pH and H2S at the sediment-water interface, sediment contents of organic matter (OM), inorganic and organic carbon (Corg), total nitrogen (N) and inorganic nutrients were measured before and after addition of macroalgal detritus. Changes in the taxonomic composition of microphytobenthos were studied by optical microscopy and by the analysis of photosynthetic pigments. Macroalgal detritus vanished from the sediment surface in 6 d. Macroalgal decomposition shifted the microcosm net balance to higher releases of DOC, DIC and inorganic nutrients, suggesting rapid release from macroalgal biomass. Besides being released to the water column, a fraction of macroalgal carbon and of nitrogen was incorporated into the sediment as indicated by a transient increase in Corg and N. Aerobic mineralization of macroalgal detritus reduced O2 in the water column and the sediment. Microbenthos photosynthetic activity was initially suppressed but recovered from the third day as macroalgal detritus decomposed. Photosynthetic O2 production by microbenthos largely determined the fraction of macroalgal detritus that was aerobically mineralised. Decomposition of macroalgal detritus favoured the dominance of cyanobacteria over diatoms in the microbenthos.

Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Corzo, Alfonso

2008-01-01

325

Effect of eutrophication upon radionuclide dynamics in the Sacca di Goro lagoon (Po River Delta, Italy): a combined field, experimental and modeling study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clues are provided about the dynamics of Cs-137 in terms of pathways, sinks, sources and cycling. - The focus of this paper is on the relationship between eutrophication and radionuclide circulation at the whole ecosystem scale in the shallow estuarine environment of the Sacca di Goro (Po River Delta, Italy). This lagoon is frequently affected by dystrophic crises, due to decomposition of huge amounts of macroalgae (mainly Ulva rigida), and critical conditions created at the interface between sediment and water are such that Cs-137 accumulated in the sediment can be mobilized and made available in the water column. The release of cesium from sediment in this ecosystem has been evaluated through a field experiment in which chemical conditions typical of anoxic crises were artificially created in enclosures. Also a lab experiment was carried out to shed light on possible cesium release by decomposing macroalgae. The two experiments allowed drawing conclusions on crucial factors controlling cesium release in the Sacca di Goro, the first objective of this research. The second objective was understanding the fate of radiocesium once transported in the water column. To this end ecological information gathered during the experiments and a yearly sampling campaign, has been converted into whole-system seasonal networks describing ecosystem flow structure for the Sacca di Goro. Analyzed by network analysis this model has provided clues about the dynamics of Cs-137 in terms of about the dynamics of Cs-137 in terms of preferential pathways, sinks, sources, and cycling activity. Sediment, together with seston and dissolved cesium, appear to be the most significant components in the circulation of Cs-137; while macroalgal biomasses play a crucial role as an indirect causal factor

326

Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from a danish estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

The diurnal variations in sulfur emission were studied at seven sites in a Danish estuary, Norsminde Fjord. The sites comprised grass vegetation, intertidal mud flats, accretions of green algae, an exposed shore and a river outlet. Direct measurements of emission rates from soil and water were done by a dynamic flux chamber technique in connection with gas Chromatographie detection and separation of the cryogenically trapped sulfur gases. Sulfur gas concentrations in air and sea water were measured together with emission rates at 0.5-1 h intervals over 25-40 h periods. DMS was the most important sulfur gas released from grass and algae, while mostly H 2S was released from intertidal mud flats. OCS, CH 3SH and CS 2 were released from most sites at lower rates. Emission of DMS followed the daylight variations, often with a delay towards maximum emission rates in the evening. H 2S was mostly emitted at night or in short outbursts during low tides. Total sulfur emission rates were 1-10?mol Sm -2 d -1. Extreme rates of 335?mol DMSm -2 d -1 were measured over decomposing green algae ( Ulva lactuca). H 2S emission fractions were < 10 -6 to 2.10 -4. H 2S was detected, along with DMS, CH 3SH, OCS and CS 2, in the oxic seawater of the estuary at diurnal mean concentrations of 0.1-6.5nmol S/ol -1. This may indicate a more widespread occurrence of H 2S in shallow, near-shore waters at nanomolar levels.

Barker Jørgensen, Bo; Okholm-Hansen, Bolette

327

Transport, sloughing and settling rates of estuarine macrophytes: Mechanisms and ecological implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of plant-bound nutrient transport has been largely neglected in estuaries. Lately however, it has been shown that nutrients bound to macroalgae and seagrasses can constitute a major part of the nutrient transport in shallow tidal estuaries. Organic detritus in estuaries comes from various sources. This paper looks into the source of detritus from sloughing, and the transport behaviour of plant detritus under unidirectional flows. In order to determine the extent of the sloughing of macrophytes, the threshold current velocities for the traction and resuspension of the most common submersed macrophytes in Venice Lagoon ( Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha sp., Ceramium rubrum, Cladophora sp., and Chaetomorpha linum) were studied in a laboratory flume. It was found that all macrophytes subjected to flows of 1.5-3.0 cm s -1 move initially as bed load. The threshold for suspension of the macrophyte tissue was at current speeds >3 cm s -1. The exception was the filamentous macroalgae, C. linum, which moved as bed load at all current speeds. This implies that the advection of plant-bound nutrients in Venice Lagoon is widespread and takes place over virtually all stages of the tide. Initial experiments were carried out on unattached macroalgae. A second study focused on the sloughing of attached macroalgae by steady currents. The threshold current speeds at which sloughing commenced varied between different types of algae, and sloughing rate was related largely to current speed. The resuspension rates were uniform between the different macrophyte groups. Our results help explain why plant matter has been trapped in nets close to the bed of Venice Lagoon on ebbing tides. It shows that a major component of the bedload is organic in origin. The results verify that a large proportion of the net nutrient export from estuaries is bound in macrophyte tissue. These findings need to be included in future ecological models that describe the resuspension, sloughing and settling of macrophytes.

Flindt, M. R.; Pedersen, C. B.; Amos, C. L.; Levy, A.; Bergamasco, A.; Friend, P. L.

2007-05-01

328

Laboratory production of bromoform, methylene bromide, and methyl iodide by macroalgae and distribution in nearshore southern California waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production rates of bromoform (CHBr[sub 3]), methylene bromide (CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2]), and methyl iodide (CH[sub 3]I) were measured in the laboratory for 11 species of marine macroalgae. Production rates of the volatile bromomethanes extrapolated to a global scale suggest that marine macroalgae produce 2 [times] 10[sup 11] g Br yr[sup [minus]1] (1 [times] 10[sup 9] mol Br yr[sup [minus]1]), 98% of which is bromoform. Laminarians (kelps) produce 61% of this organic Br. These calculations suggest that marine macroalgae are important in the biogeochemical cycling of Br. Seawater concentrations of CHBr[sub 3], CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2], and CH[sub 3]I were determined from various southern California coastal locales. High concentrations were measured in seawater from the canopy and the bottom of a dense bed of Macrocystis as compared to other sites. Surface seawater concentrations of these halomethanes showed a strong cross-shore gradient with the highest concentration in the kelp canopy and the lowest at 5 km offshore. Seawater adjacent to decaying macroalgae on the bottom of a submarine canyon was not enriched in halomethanes relative to surface water. Water exiting a productive estuary was enriched only with CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2], although two algal species that are abundant there (Ulva and Enteromorpha) showed high laboratory production rates of both CHBr[sub 3] and CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2]. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Manley, S.L. (California State Univ., Long Beach (United States)); Goodwin, K.; North, W.J. (California Inst. of Technology, Corona del Mar (United States))

1992-12-01

329

The anti-inflammatory activity of the polyphenol resveratrol may be partially related to inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) pre-mRNA splicing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study shows for the first time that the polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) blocks processing of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) pre-mRNA in mature mRNA. This study was carried out in turbot (Psetta maxima (L.)), a fish species that we are using to evaluate the effects of RESV on the inflammatory response in vertebrates. Treatment of turbot head kidney leucocytes with polysaccharides from the seaweed Ulva rigida (ulvan) resulted in an increase in TNF-alpha expression. RESV did not inhibit transcription but almost completely inhibited the production of mRNA in ulvan-induced cells and caused a notable increase in the level of unspliced TNF-alpha pre-mRNA. RESV also induced accumulation of IL-1beta pre-mRNA at the expense of mature mRNA, although the effects on IL-1beta were less evident than those on TNF-alpha. However, the housekeeping gene was not affected by RESV. We also evaluated the effects of RESV in vivo under an inflammatory stimulus and found an inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta pre-mRNA splicing in turbot head kidney at 24 and 48h post-injection. In addition, RESV also reduced migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity under the same inflammatory stimulus. The results show that this fish species may be a useful model for analysing the effects of RESV on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression, and suggest that RESV could be used to decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo and to reduce inflammatory reactions in certain inflammatory diseases. PMID:19945165

Leiro, José M; Varela, Monica; Piazzon, M Carla; Arranz, Juan A; Noya, Manuel; Lamas, Jesus

2010-02-01

330

Fatty acid composition of individual polar lipid classes from marine macrophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major glycolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG)) and phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)] as well as betaine lipid 1,2-diacylglycero-O-4'-(N,N,N-tri-methyl)-homoserine (DGTS) were isolated from Anfeltia tobuchiensis (Rhodophyta), Laminaria japonica, Sargassum pallidum (Phaeophyta), Ulva fenestrata (Chlorophyta) and Zostera marina (Embriophyta), harvested in the Sea of Japan. GC analysis of their fatty acid (FA) composition revealed that the n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) shared the most part of the sum of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs in PC and PE compared with glycolipids and PG. In algae, it was related to the prevalence of 20:4n-6 over 20:5n-3 in non-photosynthetic lipids. Percentage of n-6 PUFAs as well as the sum of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs decreased in the following sequence: PC-->PE-->PG. The saturation increased in the lines of MGDG-->DGDG-->SQDG and PC-->PE-->PG. PG was close to SQDG by the level of saturation. Distribution of C(18) and C(20) PUFAs in polar lipids depended on taxonomic position of macrophytes. Balance between C(18) and C(20) PUFAs was preferably shifted to the side of C(20) PUFAs in PC and PE that was observed in contrast to glycolipids and PG from L. japonica containing both series of FAs. The set of major FAs of polar lipid classes can essentially differ from each other and from total lipids of macrophytes. For example, MGDG was found to accumulate characteristic fatty acids 16:4n-3, 16:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3, 20:3n-6 in U. fenestrata, Z. marina, L. japonica and S. pallidum, respectively. PMID:15016568

Sanina, Nina M; Goncharova, Svetlana N; Kostetsky, Eduard Y

2004-03-01

331

Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands). Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight) were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW). The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the role of this ecosystem engineer may be variable and sometimes have no or even negative effects on stability, conversely to what it should be expected based on current research knowledge. PMID:23805256

Rossi, Francesca; Gribsholt, Britta; Gazeau, Frederic; Di Santo, Valentina; Middelburg, Jack J

2013-01-01

332

Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances. PMID:24596500

Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-Llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A; Aref, Ibrahim A

2014-01-01

333

Biophysical control of intertidal benthic macroalgae revealed by high-frequency multispectral camera images  

Science.gov (United States)

Intertidal benthic macroalgae are a biological quality indicator in estuaries and coasts. While remote sensing has been applied to quantify the spatial distribution of such macroalgae, it is generally not used for their monitoring. We examined the day-to-day and seasonal dynamics of macroalgal cover on a sandy intertidal flat using visible and near-infrared images from a time-lapse camera mounted on a tower. Benthic algae were identified using supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised classification techniques, validated with monthly ground-truthing over one year. A supervised classification (based on maximum likelihood, using training areas identified in the field) performed best in discriminating between sediment, benthic diatom films and macroalgae, with highest spectral separability between macroalgae and diatoms in spring/summer. An automated unsupervised classification (based on the Normalised Differential Vegetation Index NDVI) allowed detection of daily changes in macroalgal coverage without the need for calibration. This method showed a bloom of macroalgae (filamentous green algae, Ulva sp.) in summer with > 60% cover, but with pronounced superimposed day-to-day variation in cover. Waves were a major factor in regulating macroalgal cover, but regrowth of the thalli after a summer storm was fast (2 weeks). Images and in situ data demonstrated that the protruding tubes of the polychaete Lanice conchilega facilitated both settlement (anchorage) and survival (resistance to waves) of the macroalgae. Thus, high-frequency, high resolution images revealed the mechanisms for regulating the dynamics in cover of the macroalgae and for their spatial structuring. Ramifications for the mode, timing, frequency and evaluation of monitoring macroalgae by field and remote sensing surveys are discussed.

van der Wal, Daphne; van Dalen, Jeroen; Wielemaker-van den Dool, Annette; Dijkstra, Jasper T.; Ysebaert, Tom

2014-07-01

334

Photochemically prepared, two-component polymer-concentration gradients.  

Science.gov (United States)

A versatile, photochemical surface-modification approach using nitrene-insertion reactions has been employed to develop an ultrathin, two-component, polymer-gradient coating. Perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA) acted as the photosensitive moiety, forming a nitrene radical upon 254 nm UV exposure. Cationic poly(allyl amine) was grafted with PFPA and surface-anchored onto silicon wafers by means of electrostatic self-assembly. After spin-coating of polystyrene (PS), the substrate was illuminated from behind a moving shutter, thereby controlling the azide-to-nitrene conversion degree across the substrate, and leading to a gradually varying PS density after rinsing. Backfilling with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and re-exposing to UV light formed a two-component polymer-density gradient. The composition varied linearly following exposure to a linear UV exposure profile, as determined with spectroscopic ellipsometry (ELM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-spatial-resolution, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed a high degree of mixing between the two incompatible polymers on the micrometer scale. The dynamic water-contact angle (dCA) was found to depend strongly on the sample history, suggesting adaptive properties of the coating, which was further confirmed by angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS). To confirm the applicability of the system for biological investigations, gradients were exposed to zoospores of the macrofouling alga Ulva linza , and a critical PS composition of 70% was identified, above which settlement started to increase. It has been shown that a two-component polymer-density gradient can provide a high-throughput platform for determining critical surface properties of polymer blend materials. PMID:24059827

Sterner, Olof; Serrano, Ângela; Mieszkin, Sophie; Zürcher, Stefan; Tosatti, Samuele; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Spencer, Nicholas D

2013-10-22

335

Cesium-137 concentrations in marine macroalgae from different biotopes in the Aegean Sea (Greece).  

Science.gov (United States)

The commonest species of red, brown, and green macroalgae were sampled from a range of biotopes in the Aegean Sea during 1998 for their 137Cs content. Significant differences in 137Cs concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but is influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. 137Cs content in collected seaweeds were in the descending order: Ulva lactuca>Enteromorpha linza>Gracilaria verrucosa>Ceramium rubrum>Cystoseira barbata. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the degree of accumulation is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. The west side of Thermaikos Gulf, where the rivers Axios, Aliakmon, and Pinios flow, was highly contaminated as was the Strymonicos Gulf where the river Strymon flows. High cesium concentrations were also observed in algae from Lemnos Island near the mouth of the Dardanelles Channel, most likely due to the horizontal circulation of water masses from the Marmaras Sea to the Aegean Sea resulting in the discharge of 137Cs during the purification process in the Black Sea through the Dardanelles Straits. It is concluded that the general dispersion of 137Cs results from the water circulation regime within the Aegean Sea. Higher levels are present in the northern part of the basin due to current circulation originating from the Black Sea and from outflow of rivers. Levels decrease to the south and east, but increase again to the west of Crete where the Black Sea water mass can be periodically traced. PMID:12651181

Sawidis, Thomas; Heinrich, Gerorg; Brown, Murray-T

2003-03-01

336

The fractionation of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in macroalgae during the assimilation of nitrate  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine and understand the stable isotope fractionation of 18O and 15N manifested during assimilation of NO3- in marine macro-benthic algae, two species (Ulva sp. and Agardhiella sp.) have been grown in a wide range of NO3- concentrations (2-500 ?M). Two types of experiments were performed. The first was one in which the concentration of the NO3- was allowed to drift downward as it was assimilated by the algae, between 24 hour replacements of media. These experiments proceeded for periods of between 7 and 10 days. A second set of experiments maintained the NO3- concentration at a low steady-state value by means of a syringe pump. The effective fractionation during the assimilation of the NO3- was determined by measuring the ?15N of both the (i) new algal growth and (ii) residual NO3- in the free-drift experiments after 0, 12, 24 and 48 h. Modelling these data show that the fractionation during assimilation is dependent upon the concentration of NO3- and is effectively 0 at concentrations of less than ~2 ?M. The change in the fractionation with respect to concentration is the greatest at lower concentrations (2-10 ?M). The fractionation stablizes between 4 and 6‰ at concentrations of between 50 and 500 ?M. Although the ?18O and ?15N values of NO3- in the residual solution were correlated, the slope of relationship also varied with respect to NO3- concentration, with slopes of greater than unity at low concentration. These results suggest shifts in the dominant fractionation mechanism of 15N and 18O between concentrations of 1 and 10 ?M NO3-. At higher NO3- concentrations (>10-50 ?M), fractionation during assimilation will lead to ?15N values in algal biomass lower than the ambient NO3- and 15N enrichments in the residual NO3-.

Swart, P. K.; Evans, S.; Capo, T.; Altabet, M. A.

2014-11-01

337

Response of macrofauna to drifting tidal sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of hydrodynamically-mobilized sediment on abundance and vertical distribution of macrobenthic fauna was studied in Königshafen, a sheltered tidal bay at the northern end of the Island of Sylt (North Sea). Sediment drift tended to increase from high towards low tide level, while abundance of nearly all species decreased (with the polychaete Spio filicornis as a notable exception). To test whether this decrease could be attributed to water currents affecting sediment stability, experimental flumes with funnels at both ends were set up to enhance sediment mobility by increasing tidal current velocities. Abundance and vertical distribution of fauna inside and outside the flumes were compared. Responses of individual species depended on their vertical position in the sediment, and resembled those observed along the gradient of sediment drift between high and low tide levels. Mainly juveniles of Pygospio elegans, Scoloplos armiger, Hydrobia ulvae and Macoma balthica, and the small polychaete Microphthalmus sczelkowii were washed out of the sediment. No effect of increased erosion inside the flume was found on the numbers of Capitella capitata and the oligochaetes Tubificoides benedii and T. pseudogaster. These oligochaetes probably migrated downwards with increasing erosion in the flumes. Numbers decreased in the upper cm and tended to increase below. A storm had a similar effect on oligochaete vertical distribution, while under conditions of permanently high sediment mobility near low tide level, these species were rare or absent. It is concluded that even under sheltered conditions, differential degrees of sediment mobility may have effects on the zonation of the tidal flat macrofauna.

Zühlke, R.; Reise, K.

1994-06-01

338

Correlação entre parâmetros biométricos e produtivos em colônias de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) / Correlation between biometric and production parameters in colonies of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em colônias de melíponas, características biométricas podem estar associadas às características de produção; portanto, o estudo da correlação é de grande valia como ferramenta para o processo de seleção de colônias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre os parâmetros biométricos [...] e produtivos de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Foram analisadas 128 colônias, provenientes de 60 colônias parentais e duas gerações, F1 e F2. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso da rainha e colônia; número, largura e comprimento dos discos de cria; número, largura, profundidade e volume dos potes de mel; número, largura e profundidade dos potes de pólen; tamanho da glossa e a estimativa da população e da produção de mel. O peso da rainha apresentou correlação com o número de discos de cria (0,23), da população (0,23), da mesma forma que a característica de número de potes de pólen está relacionada com largura e comprimento dos discos de cria e população (0,88; 0,54 e 0,52, respectivamente). A característica produção de mel está relacionada com o número (0,93), largura (0,50) e volume (0,47) dos potes de mel. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de mel está correlacionada diretamente com as características de número, volume, diâmetro e altura dos potes de mel. Por outro lado, o tamanho da população demonstrou estar correlacionada com o número dos discos de cria e o número dos potes de pólen. Abstract in english In meliponini colonies, biometric characteristics may be associated with production traits, thus the study of correlations is extremely useful as a tool for colony selection process. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlations between biometric and productive parameters of Melipona quadri [...] fasciata anthidioides. We analyzed 128 colonies, from 60 parental and two generations, F1 and F2. The following parameters were evaluated: queen and colony weight; number, length and width of brood disks; number, width, depth and volume of honey pots; number, width and depth of pollen pots; glossa size, and estimate of the population and honey production. The queen weight was correlated with the number of brood disks (0.23) and population (0.23), as well as the characteristic number of pollen pots is related to the length and width of brood disks and population (0.88, 0.54 and 0.52, respectively). The characteristic honey production is related to the number (0.93), width (0.50) and volume (0.47) of honey pots. The results showed that honey production is directly correlated with number, volume, width and depth of honey pots. On the other side, the population size was correlated with the number of brood disks and pollen pots.

Patricia, Faquinello; Baden Bell Pereira, Brito; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de, Carvalho; Meiby Carneiro de, Paula-Leite; Rogerio Marcos de Oliveira, Alves.

2013-09-01

339

Biotoxinas emergentes em águas europeias e novos riscos para a saúde pública / Emergent biotoxins in European waters and new public health risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na Europa os problemas de saúde pública relacionados com biotoxinas marinhas têm estado largamente associados ao consumo de bivalves contaminados por microalgas tóxicas, à semelhança de outras zonas temperadas do planeta. No entanto, nos países mediterrâneos novos riscos para a saúde pública têm vin [...] do a tornar-se recorrentes desde o início do século xxi. As alterações climáticas parecem estar a favorecer a ocorrência de biotoxinas que habitualmente apenas afectavam zonas tropicais, em latitudes progressivamente superiores. Nesta revisão pretende-se resumir os principais problemas de biotoxinas emergentes que tem estado a afectar progressivamente o sul da Europa, em que estão envolvidas as palitoxinas, as tetrodotoxinas e as ciguatoxinas. A presença de palitoxinas levou à inclusão da via respiratória na transferência de biotoxinas para o Homen. Até recentemente apenas a via alimentar era conhecida na Europa. Já ocorreram diversos episódios graves do foro respiratório em Itália e Espanha. As biotoxinas envolvidas são produzidas pela microalga Ostreopsis ovata. Estes problemas surgiram em baías abrigadas, modificadas artificialmente, em períodos do verão em que se atingiram temperaturas elevadas da água do mar, afectando habitantes e veraneantes. A abertura do Canal do Suez permitiu a migração para o Mediterrâneo oriental do peixebalão Lagocephalus sceleratus oriundo do Mar Vermelho, contaminado com tetrodotoxinas. Já foram capturados por diversas vezes no mar Egeu e já causaram intoxicações em Israel, pelo que terão constituído populações permanentes no Mediterrâneo oriental. Os juvenis podem ser confundidos com outros peixes comerciais e consumidos por engano. Até 2004, as intoxicações por ciguatera registadas em países europeus derivavam de viagens prévias a zonas de risco como ilhas das Caraíbas ou do Oceano Índico ou Pacífico. Peixe contaminado com toxinas ciguatéricas foi capturado pela primeira vez em 2004 nas Ilhas Canárias. A recorrência do fenómeno mais a norte em meados de 2008, com peixe capturado nas Ilhas Selvagens do Arquipélago da Madeira, e em finais de 2008 com peixe novamente capturado nas Ilhas Canárias, levou ao estabelecimento de limites de captura para certas espécies de peixes. O peixe implicado nas intoxicações mais graves foi o charuteiro (Seriola spp.). A recente identificação de toxinas ciguatéricas em Seriola fasciata, e o registo progressivo da presença desta espécie desde o Mediterrâneo ocidental até ao Mar Egeu, levantam também preocupações sobre a futura expansão de peixes ciguatéricos no Mediterrâneo. Um caso isolado de uma intoxicação grave por búzios contaminados com tetrodotoxinas também questiona qual a possível extensão futura do problema causado pelas biotoxinas emergentes nesta região. Abstract in english In Europe, public health problems related to marine biotoxins have been largely related to consumption of bivalve contaminated by toxic microalgae, like in other temperate zones of the planet. However, in Mediterranean countries new public health risks have starting to be recurrent since the first d [...] ecade of the xxi century. Climate changing seems to be favouring the appearance of biotoxins common only in tropical zones at progressively higher latitudes. In this review the problems that progressively emergent biotoxins have been causing in Southern Europe, including palytoxins, tetrodotoxins and ciguatoxins, will be summarised. The presence of palytoxins in the Mediterranean sea led to the inclusion of the aerosol exposure route in the transfer of biotoxins to man. Until recently, only food ingestion was a known route. Exposure to marine aerosol was already responsible for a few outbreaks of respiratory symptoms in Italy and Spain. These biotoxins are produced by the microalgae Ostreopsis ovata. These problems occurred in summer time in sheltered bays, affecting inhabitants and tourists. The opening of the

Paulo, Vale.

2011-01-01

340

Estructura de la comunidad de moluscos y relaciones tróficas en el litoral rocoso del estado Sucre, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizó la estructura de la comunidad de moluscos y sus relaciones tróficas en seis localidades del litoral rocoso con diferentes grados de exposición al oleaje (área expuesta y área protegida, en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela. El muestreo se llevó a cabo durante el período de marzo 2003 a febrero 2004. La recolección del material biológico se realizó de forma manual con ayuda de una espátula, dentro de una cuadrícula de 0.25 m², estableciéndose tres zonas: supra, medio e infralitoral. Los organismos fueron preservados en frascos con formalina al 10% para su posterior análisis. En el laboratorio fueron identificados, contados, y pesados en una balanza de 0.001g de precisión. Se determinó la abundancia total de especies, biomasa, constancia específica y por medio de una revisión bibliográfica se le asignó a cada especie su categoría trófica, clasificándolos en: herbívoros, filtradores, carnívoros y herbívoros -filtradores. Se obtuvo un total de 14 581 individuos (6 397.945 g representado por 68 especies correspondientes a las clases Gastropoda (39, Bivalvia (23 y Polyplacophora (6; contenidas en nueve órdenes y 31 familias. Los herbívoros fueron el grupo dominante (49%, seguido por filtradores (37%, carnívoros (13 % y herbívoros-filtradores (1%. Las especies herbívoras y herbívoras-filtradoras dominaron en el área protegida, mientras que en el área expuesta, fueron las carnívoras y filtradoras. Las especies constantes en las seis localidades durante el período de estudio fueron Planaxis nucleus, Mitrella ocellata, M. nycteis, Littorina interrupta, Tegula fasciata, Acmaea leucopleura, Ostrea equestris y Chiton squamosus. La distribución de los moluscos y los diferentes grupos tróficos, pueden estar controlados por adaptaciones morfológicas, así como el nivel de exposición al oleaje y composición del sustrato.Mollusc community structure and trophic relations in the rochy littoral zone in Sucre State, Venezuela. We analyzed the structure of a mollusc community and its component trophic relations at six localities within a rocky littoral zone, in Sucre State, Venezuela, including areas that are both exposed to, and protected from, wave energy. Sampling was carried out from March 2003 to Febreuary 2004 period, in an area subdivided in to supralittoral, littoral and sublittoral zones. Samples were collected using hand-held spoons within 0.25 m² quadrats along transects sited perpendicular to the coast line transects. Collected organisms were preserved in 10% formalin for subsequent taxonomic classification. Specific richness and constance were determined, and the four trophic categories of herbivore, suspendivore, carnivore and herbivore-suspendivore were established. Overall 14 581 individual specimens were collected that represented 68 species, 31 families and 9 orders, in the classes Gasteropoda (n=39, Bivalvia (n=23 and Polyplacophora (nn=6. Suspension feeders were the dominant trophic category (49%, followed by carnivores (337%, herbivores (13% and herbivores-suspension feeders (11%. Herbivores and suspension feeders were dominant in the protected area, while carnivores and suspension feeders were dominant in the exposed area. Data indicate that mollusc distribution and intergroupal trophic relations are controlled by both morphological features and substrate composition. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 121-130. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

Johanna Fernández

2006-12-01

341

Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE. However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum. Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced not only the A-rich NUE but the complete poly(A signal in all chlorophytes investigated except Scherffelia (only NUE replaced and Pyramimonas (UGUAA completely missing. The UGUAA element is completely absent from streptophytes. However, the structure of the poly(A signal was often modified in streptophyte algae. In most species investigated, an A-rich NUE is missing; instead, these species seem to rely mainly on U-rich elements.

Glöckner Gernot

2007-04-01

342

Sequential resuspension of biofilm components (viruses, prokaryotes and protists) as measured by erodimetry experiments in the Brouage mudflat (French Atlantic coast)  

Science.gov (United States)

Resuspension thresholds in terms of friction velocity were experimentally quantified for the prokaryotes, protists and for the first time, viruses of intertidal mudflat biofilms. Differences in resuspension thresholds could be related to the type, behaviour and size of microorganisms and their association with particles. Free microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and some nanoflagellates) were resuspended by weak flow at friction velocities lower than 2 cm s- 1. Chlorophyll a, some nanoflagellates and attached bacteria were resuspended together with the bed's muddy sediment, which required friction velocities larger than 3 cm s- 1. Diatoms smaller than 60 ?m were resuspended at velocities between 3 and 5 cm s- 1, while those larger than 60 ?m were resuspended at higher friction velocities (5.5 to 6.5 cm s- 1). The thresholds of resuspension also depended on the micro-scale position of microorganisms in the sediment (horizontal and vertical distributions). In the field, the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a (a proxy of microphytobenthos) was skewed, with a maximum in the first 2 mm of sediment. Along the neap-spring tidal cycle, chlorophyll a revealed an increase in MPB biomass in the first 2 mm of the sediment, in relation to light increases with exposure durations. The horizontal distribution of chlorophyll a could be inferred from erosion experiments. During the initial phase of biofilm growth, the distribution of chlorophyll a seemed horizontally homogeneous, and was uniformly eroded at the beginning of the increase in chlorophyll a. From these results, we can make a hypothesis: in the subsequent phase of biofilm growth until the maximum of emersion duration, the eroded quantity of chlorophyll a was larger than expected based from chlorophyll a vertical distribution, suggesting that biofilm horizontal distribution became patchy and enriched chlorophyll a was preferentially eroded. When emersion duration and biofilm growth decreased, the trend was reversed, and eroded quantity of chlorophyll a was lower than expected from chlorophyll a vertical distribution, suggesting that areas with low chlorophyll a were preferentially eroded. Such erosion patterns when biofilm growth decreased probably resulted from the bulldozing activity of a surficial sediment bioturbator, the gastropod Peringia ulvae. Our study did not directly prove this horizontal distribution but it should be further discussed. This distribution needs to be studied to acquire real evidence of patchy distributions.

Dupuy, Christine; Mallet, Clarisse; Guizien, Katell; Montanié, Hélène; Bréret, Martine; Mornet, Françoise; Fontaine, Camille; Nérot, Caroline; Orvain, Francis

2014-09-01

343

Effects of commercial harvesting of intertidal macroalgae on ecosystem biodiversity and functioning  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, the European Union has defined an organic label for macroalgae, which implies that the commercial harvest of algae shall not cause a significant impact on ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study the effects of hand harvesting of three algae: Fucus serratus, Palmaria palmata, and Porphyra linearis on the associated biodiversity and metabolism of the ecosystem. We used the BACI (Before-After Control-Impact) design to assess the impact of the disturbance (i) on the recovery of the harvested species, (ii) on the specific and functional diversity of the associated algal and animal communities, and (iii) for F. serratus and P. linearis, on the metabolism of the area, using benthic chambers. Our work is based on a mix of fundamental and applied research to identify the effects of commercial harvesting regarding long-term changes, biological and functional interactions, and system responses (including socio-economic interactions). Results of the 12-month monitoring on F. serratus showed that canopy loss seemed to have a negative impact mainly on the diversity of the animal community and the metabolism of the studied area. No significant effects were observed on the algal community. The harvesting impact on the animal community was amplified by the settlement of an ephemeral canopy of Ulva spp., a seasonal opportunistic green alga. Results of the 12-month monitoring of P. palmata after harvesting did not show any significant impact. This alga was epiphytic on the dominant canopy of F. serratus, which was thus maintained, minimizing the impact of the harvest. Finally, results of the 12-month monitoring of P. linearis were difficult to interpret because of an unexpected but continuous sand burial of the study site, one month after the beginning of the study and still covering the population after eight months. Hence, effects of P. linearis harvesting were overshadowed by the natural variability. So far, our results have shown that commercial harvesting has different effects according to the target species, which emphasizes the necessity to continue long-term monitoring. Finally, this study also points out the valuable use of a "fundamental research" approach to deal with a practical management issue.

Stagnol, Doriane; Renaud, Michel; Davoult, Dominique

2013-09-01

344

Effects of epibionts on Sabellaria alveolata (L.) biogenic reefs and their associated fauna in the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenic structures built by ecosystem engineers such as corals, bivalves, polychaetes, and sea grasses provide habitat for benthic vertebrates and invertebrates. The polychaete Sabellaria alveolata is an important foundation species whose reef structure adds topographic complexity and high levels of biodiversity to the otherwise low-relief, low diversity, soft-bottom environments in the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel, France, where the largest such reef formations in Europe are found. In this bay, reefs are being increasingly colonised by oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) from local aquaculture operations and by green algae ( Ulva sp.) due to the increasing inputs of nitrates from terrestrial origin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible impacts of epibiotic oysters and green algae on the S. alveolata population and reef community structure in the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel, France. Univariate and multivariate comparisons of macrofauna were conducted for five reef types: controls (no epibionts), low oyster density, high oyster density, green algae, and oyster and green algae. Results showed that all the three reef types with oysters had significantly higher species richness and diversity values than control and algae-only reef types. Pairwise ANOSIM and SIMPER comparisons of controls versus the four reef types with epibionts revealed that all three of the reef types with oysters were significantly different from controls, but there was no significant difference between controls and algae-only reef types. A striking feature of the reef comparisons is that no single species in this species-rich system contributed more than 8.86% to the dissimilarity between the reef types. Thus, k-dominance curves for species abundances were not effective in revealing differences among the reef types. Our results demonstrate that recent anthropogenic inputs of oysters affect the reef species assemblage more strongly than algal epibionts. In addition, epibionts, especially green algae, alter S. alveolata population structure, causing a reduction in new recruits that over the long run may cause significant damage to the reef structure itself. These results are a first step towards understanding anthropogenic threats to S. alveolata reefs and may be useful in the development of strategies for their protection and management.

Dubois, Stanislas; Commito, John A.; Olivier, Frédéric; Retière, Christian

2006-07-01

345

Behavioural and physiological responses of limpet prey to a seastar predator and their transmission to basal trophic levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides the well-documented behavioural changes induced by predators on prey, predator-induced stress can also include a suite of biochemical, neurological and metabolic changes that may represent important energetic costs and have long-lasting effects on individuals and on the demography of prey populations. The rapid transmission of prey behavioural changes to lower trophic levels, usually associated with alteration of feeding rates, can substantially change and even reverse direction over the long term as prey cope with the energetic costs associated with predation-induced stress. It is therefore critical to evaluate different aspects and assess the costs of non-consumptive predator effects on prey. We investigated the behavioural and physiological responses of an herbivorous limpet, Fissurella limbata, to the presence of chemical cues and direct non-lethal contact by the common seastar predator, Heliaster helianthus. We also evaluated whether the limpets feeding behaviour was modified by the predator and whether this translated into positive or negative effects on biomass of the green alga, Ulva sp. Our experimental results show the presence of Heliaster led to increased movement activity, increased distances travelled, changes in time budget over different environmental conditions and increased feeding rate in the keyhole limpets. Moreover, additional experiments showed that, beyond the increased metabolic rate associated with limpet increased activity, predator chemical cues heighten metabolic rate as part of the induced stress response. Changes in individual movement and displacement distances observed through the 9-day experiment can be interpreted as part of the escape response exhibited by limpets to reduce the risk of being captured by the predator. Increased limpet feeding rate on algae can be visualized as a way individuals compensate for the elevated energetic costs of movement and heightened metabolic rates produced by the predator-induced stress, which can lead to negative effects on abundance of the lower trophic level. We suggest that in order to understand the total non-consumptive effect of predators in natural communities, it is necessary to evaluate not only short-term behavioural responses, but also the costs associated with the multiple interdependent pathways triggered by predator-induced stress, and determine how individuals cope with these costs in the long term. PMID:24428576

Manzur, Tatiana; Vidal, Francisco; Pantoja, José F; Fernández, Miriam; Navarrete, Sergio A

2014-01-15

346

Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Jeddah corniche algae, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57.40-185.13 mg/g dry weight), uronic acids (29.3-45.26 mg/g dry weight), sulfate (94.7-181.2 mg/g dry weight), amino acids (7.6-16.7 mg/g dry weight) and small amounts of betaines (2.38-8.47 mg/g dry weight). Hydrolyzed chemical composition analysis fractions of algal extract was shown a great proportion of sugars plus sulfate (as polysaccharide composed) ranges between 332 and 538.2 mg/g dry weight with trace amounts of uronic acids (?9%). All three algal extract showed antioxidant activities on lipoxygenase, DPPH and on Ames test. Two of aqueous extracts (U and D) inhibited lipoxygenase activity by less than 50%, where as the methanolic extract (S) caused 76% inhibition of the control. In all cases, the methanolic extract were more inhibitory than the aqueous extract. The (S) showed the highest antioxidant activity with DPPH (69%) in aqueous extract and in methanol extract with Ames test (85%). Both U and D showed antioxidant activity with DPPH in hexane by less of 25% where as in both aqueous and methanolic extracts by less than 50% of the control. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of U and D showed high inhibition by Ames test which caused 70% and 75% respectively. IR spectra of algal extracts (U; D and S) range from 1450 to 750 cm(-1) were very similar absorption band at 1430, 1370, 1250, 1130, 1110, 1050 and 1020 cm(-1). Absorption bands were due to uronic acids, glucosides and sulfate. The presence of sulfated polysaccharide material in the fractions UF2, DF2 and SF2 were found as cell wall storage of marine algae, confirmed by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. It is concluded that the algal species probably have a different components and can be used in the activities of antioxidant enzymes as reduced the risks of enzymes. But the correlation between the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of algal extracts needs further investigation. PMID:23961039

Al-Amoudi, Omar A; Mutawie, Hawazin H; Patel, Asmita V; Blunden, Gerald

2009-07-01

347

Macroalgae ?15N values in well-mixed estuaries: Indicator of anthropogenic nitrogen input or macroalgae metabolism?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nitrogen stable isotope ratio (?15N) in macroalgae is widely used as a bioindicator of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to the coastal zone, recent studies suggest the possible role of macroalgae metabolism in ?15N variability. Simultaneous determinations of ?15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) along the land-sea continuum, inter-species variability of ?15N and its sensitivity to environmental factors are necessary to confirm the efficiency of macroalgae ?15N in monitoring nitrogen origin in mixed-use watersheds. In this study, ?15N of annual and perennial macroalgae (Ulva sp., Enteromorpha sp., Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) are compared to ?15N-DIN along the Charente Estuary, after characterizing ?15N of the three main DIN sources (i.e. cultivated area, pasture, sewage treatment plant outlet). During late winter and spring, when human activities produce high DIN inputs, DIN sources exhibit distinct ?15N signals in nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH): cultivated area (+6.5 ± 0.6‰ and +9.0 ± 11.0‰), pasture (+9.2 ± 1.8‰ and +12.4‰) and sewage treatment plant discharge (+16.9 ± 8.7‰ and +25.4 ± 5.9‰). While sources show distinct ?N- in this multiple source catchment, the overall mixture of NO sources - generally >95% DIN - leads to low variations of ?N-NO at the mouth of the estuary (+7.7 to +8.4‰). Even if estuarine ?N-NO values are not significantly different from pristine continental and oceanic site (+7.3‰ and +7.4‰), macroalgae ?15N values are generally higher at the mouth of the estuary. This highlights high anthropogenic DIN inputs in the estuary, and enhanced contribution of 15N-depleted NH in oceanic waters. Although seasonal variations in ?N-NO are low, the same temporal trends in macroalgae ?15N values at estuarine and oceanic sites, and inter-species differences in ?15N values, suggest that macroalgae ?15N values might be modified by the metabolic response of macroalgae to environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, light, DIN concentrations). Differences between annual and perennial macroalgae indicate both a higher integration time of perennial compared to annual macroalgae and the possible role of passive versus active uptake mechanisms. Further studies are required to characterize the sensitivity of macroalgae fractionation to variable environmental conditions and uptake mechanisms.

Raimonet, Mélanie; Guillou, Gaël; Mornet, Françoise; Richard, Pierre

2013-03-01

348

The fractionation of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in macroalgae during the assimilation of nitrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to determine and understand the stable isotope fractionation of 18O and 15N manifested during assimilation of NO3? in marine macro-benthic algae, two species (Ulva sp. and Agardhiella sp. have been grown in a wide range of NO3- concentrations (2–500 ?M. Two types of experiments were performed. The first was one in which the concentration of the NO3? was allowed to drift downward as it was assimilated by the algae, between 24 h replacements of media. These experiments proceeded for periods of between seven and ten days. A second set of experiments maintained the NO3? concentration at a low steady state value by means of a syringe pump. The effective fractionation during the assimilation of the NO3? was determined by measuring the ?15N of both the (i new algal growth, and (ii residual NO3? in the free drift experiments after 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. Fitting models to these data show that the fractionation during assimilation is dependent upon the concentration of NO3? and is effectively zero at concentrations of less than 1 ?M. The change in the fractionation with respect to concentration is the greatest at lower concentrations (1–10 ?M. The fractionation determined using the ?15N of the NO3? or the solid algal material provided statistically the same result. Therefore, at typical marine concentrations of NO3?, fractionation during assimilation can probably be considered to be negligible. Although the ?18O and ?15N of NO3? in the residual solution were correlated, the slope of the relationship varied with NO3? concentration, with slopes of greater than unity at low concentration. These results suggest shifts in the dominant fractionation mechanism between 1 and 10 ?M NO3?. At typical marine concentrations of NO3?, fractionation during assimilation can be considered to be negligible. However, at higher concentrations, fractionation during assimilation will lead to both ?15N values for algal biomass lower than the NO3? source, but also 15N enrichments in the residual NO3?.

P. K. Swart

2014-05-01

349

Control of marine biofouling and medical biofilm formation with engineered topography  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is the unwanted accumulation and growth of cells and organisms on clean surfaces. This process occurs readily on unprotected surfaces in both the marine and physiological environments. Surface protection in both systems has typically relied upon toxic materials and biocides. Metallic paints, based on tin and copper, have been extremely successful as antifouling coatings for the hulls of ships by killing the majority of fouling species. Similarly, antibacterial medical coatings incorporate metal-containing compounds such as silver or antibiotics that kill the bacteria. The environmental concerns over the use of toxic paints and biocides in the ocean, the developed antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms, and the toxicity concerns with silver suggest the need for non-toxic and non-kill solutions for these systems. The manipulation of surface topography on non-toxic materials at the size scale of the fouling species or bacteria is one approach for the development of alternative coatings. These surfaces would function simply as a physical deterrent of settlement of fouling organisms or a physical obstacle for the adequate formation of a bacterial biofilm without the need to kill the targeted microorganisms. Species-specific topographical designs called engineered topographies have been designed, fabricated and evaluated for potential applications as antifouling marine coatings and material surfaces capable of reducing biofilm formation. Engineered topographies fabricated on the surface of a non-toxic, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, or silicone, were shown to significantly reduce the attachment of zoospores of a common ship fouling green algae (Ulva) in standard bioassays versus a smooth substrate. Other engineered topographies were effective at significantly deterring the settlement of the cyprids of barnacles (Balanus amphitrite). These results indicate the potential use of engineered topography applied to non-toxic materials as an environmentally friendly coating for antifouling applications in the ocean. In addition, a biomaterial-grade silicone modified with a tailored engineered topography significantly inhibited the bacterial biofilm growth from Staphylococcus aureus for up to 14 days exposure without the use of bactericidal agents. Mature biofilms were present on equivalently exposed smooth silicone surfaces. Engineered surface topographies present a promising means of blocking biofilm development on medical surfaces and reducing the rate of related infections.

Schumacher, James Frederick

350

Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and deposit-feeding species (e.g., the bivalve Macoma balthica, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae or the amphipod Corophium volutator) may completely hide its effect on sediment erodibility if these species are present in high numbers. Udgivelsesdato: April

Andersen, ThorbjØrn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma

2010-01-01

351

Ingestion Rates and Absorption Efficiencies of Abra ovata(Mollusca: Bivalvia) Fed on Macrophytobenthic Detritus  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion and absorption were investigated in the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra ovatafed on 14C-formaldehyde-labelled detritus derived from 11 macrophytes: Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica, Stypocaulon scoparium, Colpomenia sinuosa, Cystoseira mediterranea, Dilophus spiralis, Rissoella verruculosa, Ulva rigida, Corallina elongata andCodium vermilara . Labelling efficiency ranged from 3·2 (R. verruculosa ) to 53·0% (C. sinuosa) depending on the detritus. The stability of the labelling also varied among detritus types, and was negatively correlated with labelling efficiency. For all types of detritus, the exchanges of radioactivity between compartments were dominated by the transfer between particulate organic matter (POM) and bivalves. These transfers resulted from the interactions between the processes of ingestion, defaecation, and recycling of faeces. The coexistence of these processes together with the occasional lack of stability of the label complicated the actual determination of ingestion rates and absorption efficiencies, which necessitated the use of mathematical modelling. The model was initially composed of five compartments: Detritus, Bivalves, Dissolved organic matter (DOM), CO 2, and Faeces. Two first-order time delays were introduced to account for the production of faeces and CO 2by the bivalves. These delays resulted in the subdivision of the Bivalves compartment into three subcompartments: bivIng, bivDig, and bivAbs. The model also accounts for differences in utilization rates of detritus and faeces by the bivalves. It simulates the exchange of radioactivity between compartments and allows the quantification of ingestion and absorption efficiencies. Our results show large differences in both ingestion rates and absorption efficiencies of A. ovatafed on different types of detritus. Ingestion rates ranged between 0·16 ( C. mediterraneaand D. spiralis) and 8·65 ?gOM mgDW -1 h -1( U. rigida). Absorption efficiencies ranged between 0·5 ( C. sinuosa) and 11·4% ( C. elongata). These results were related to the main characteristics of the detritus by using a principal component analysis. Results show a negative effect of both protein and phenolic contents on ingestion rates, and a negative effect of phenolic contents on absorption efficiencies, in good agreement with the existing literature.

Charles, F.; Grémare, A.; Amouroux, J. M.

1996-01-01

352

Antibiofouling hybrid dendritic Boltorn/star PEG thiol-ene cross-linked networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of thiol-ene generated amphiphilic cross-linked networks was prepared by reaction of alkene-modified Boltorn polyesters (Boltorn-ene) with varying weight percent of 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tetrathiol (0-25 wt%) and varying equivalents of pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) (0-64 wt%). These materials were designed to present complex surface topographies and morphologies, with heterogeneity of surface composition and properties and robust mechanical properties, to serve as nontoxic antibiofouling coatings that are amenable to large-scale production for application in the marine environment. Therefore, a two-dimensional matrix of materials compositions was prepared to study the physical and mechanical properties, over which the compositions spanned from 0 to 25 wt% PEG tetrathiol and 0-64 wt% PETMP (the overall thiol/alkene (SH/ene) ratios ranged from 0.00 to 1.00 equiv), with both cross-linker weight percentages calculated with respect to the weight of Boltorn-ene. The Boltorn-ene components were prepared through the esterification of commercially available Boltorn H30 with 3-butenoic acid. The subsequent cross-linking of the Boltorn-PEG-PETMP films was monitored using IR spectroscopy, where it was found that near-complete consumption of both thiol and alkene groups occurred when the stoichiometry was ca. 48 wt% PETMP (0.75 equiv SH/ene, independent of PEG amount). The thermal properties of the films showed an increase in T(g) with an increase in 4-armed PEG-tetrathiol wt%, regardless of the PETMP concentration. Investigation of the bulk mechanical properties in dry and wet states found that the Young's modulus was the greatest at 48 wt% PETMP (0.75 equiv of SH/ene). The ultimate tensile strength increased when PETMP was constant and the PEG concentration was increased. The Young's modulus was slightly lower for wet films at constant PEG or constant PETMP amounts, than for the dry samples. The nanoscopic surface features were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), where it was observed that the surface of the amphiphilic films became increasingly rough with increasing PEG wt%. On the basis of the physicochemical data from the diverse sample matrix, a focused compositional profile was then investigated further to determine the antifouling performance of the cross-linked Boltorn-PEG-PETMP networks. For these studies, a low, constant PETMP concentration of 16 wt% was maintained with variation in the PEG wt% (0-35 wt%). Antifouling and fouling-release activities were tested against the marine alga Ulva. Spore settlement densities were low on these films, compared to that on standards of polydimethylsiloxane and glass. PMID:21644572

Bartels, Jeremy W; Imbesi, Philip M; Finlay, John A; Fidge, Christopher; Ma, Jun; Seppala, Jonathan E; Nystrom, Andreas M; Mackay, Michael E; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Wooley, Karen L

2011-06-01

353

The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control groups were 268 ± 54 and 180 ± 42 µg/l, respectively). PMID:24438753

Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

2014-04-01

354

Modern Zamanlarda Bir Ashâb-? Kehf Yorumu: Ay????? Sofras? A Comment On Ashaab-El-Kahf In Modern Times: Ay????? Sofras?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven Slepeers/ Ashaab-e-Kahf has an important place in theChristian and Islamic cultures. The fact that this legendary religioustale is not mentioned in any other holy books but Quran, provides thevitality of this legendary religious tale in Islamic culture. The verses ofSurat al-Kahf 9-26. is related to this tale. Ashaab-e-Kahf which is seenas evidence of life after death, found its place in tafsir and hadiths aswell as menâk?bnâmes, k?sas-? enbiyâs and fütüvvetnâmes. SevenSleepers also attracted the attention of fantastic literature due to themiraculous circumstances it includes. In fantastic narratives, conceptof time and places in reality can be trivialized. Even if nesting of realitywith imagination has created wonder on readers initially, writer’scoherence in fiction provides comprehension of text. In fantasticliterature, which has a tendency to distort the truth, historical andmythological heroes are portable to the present through historicalmisconception (anachronism. Nazl? Eray has made such ananachronism in her novel, Ay????? Sofras?, and she has encountered thenarrator (Serra, who seeks answers to the questions about her life, withone of the characters in Ashaab-e-Kahf, Yemliha, in present-dayAnkara. This encounter is surprising for both sides. Serra hasestablished parallels between her own life with such situations as“disappearance”, “sleeping and waking up (death and resurrection”,“finding answers to questions regarding of life in darkness” which arelived by Ashaab-e Kahf. The cave friends get to know the world thanksto the narrator and they find a chance to compare the time they hadslept and the time they woke up. Modern life and modern man’spassions are handled in novel via narrator who is impatient to introducemodern life to Seven Sleepers. Serra, who is the narrator, wouldcontinue with her life in submission based on Ashaab-e Kahf’s lifeexperiences, although she couldn’t find answers at all questions of life. Yedi Uyurlar/ Ashâb-? Kehf, H?r?stiyan ve ?slam kültürlerinde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Kutsal kitaplardan yaln?zca Kuran’da zikredilmesi, k?ssan?n ?slam kültüründe canl?l???n? daima sürdürmesini sa?lam??t?r. Kehf Suresi’nin 9-26. ayetleri bu k?ssa ile ilgilidir. Ölümden sonraki ya?ama delil olarak görülen Ashâb-? Kehf, tefsir ve hadislerin yan? s?ra menâk?bnâmeler, k?sas-? enbiyâlar ve fütüvvetnâmelerde yer bulmu?tur. Yedi Uyurlar, içerdi?i mucizevi durumlar nedeniyle fantastik edebiyat?n da ilgisini çekmi?tir. Fantastik anlat?larda gerçek hayat?n zaman kavram? ve mekânlar? önemsizle?tirilebilir. Hayal ile gerçe?in iç içe geçmesi okurda ba?lang?çta bir ?a?k?nl?k yaratsa da yazar?n kurmacadaki tutarl?l??? metnin al?mlanmas?n? sa?layacakt?r. Gerçe?i bozma e?ilimindeki fantastik edebiyatta tarihî ve mitolojik kahramanlar, tarih yan?lg?s? (anakronizm ile bugüne ta??nabilir. Nazl? Eray, Ay????? Sofras? adl? eserinde böyle bir anakronizm yapm??, kendi hayat?yla ilgili sorulara yan?t arayan anlat?c?y? (Serra, Ashâb-? Kehf’ten biri olan Yemliha ile günümüz Ankara’s?nda kar??la?t?rm??t?r. Bu kar??la?ma, her iki taraf için de ?a??rt?c?d?r. Serra, Ashâb-? Kehf’in ya?ad??? “kaybolma”, “uyuyup uyanma (ölüp yeniden dirilme”, “karanl?kta hayata dair sorulara cevap bulma” gibi motifler ile kendi ya?am? aras?nda paralellikler kurmu?tur. Ma?ara arkada?lar? ise uyand?klar? dünyay? anlat?c? sayesinde tan?m??, uyuduklar? zaman ile uyand?klar? zaman? kar??la?t?rma imkân? bulmu?lard?r. Romanda, Yedi Uyurlar’? modern ya?amla tan??t?rmak için sab?rs?zlanan anlat?c? üzerinden modern ya?am ve modern insan?n tutkular? da ele al?nm??t?r. Serra (anlat?c?, ya?am?na dair sorular?n hepsine yan?t bulamasa da Ashâb-? Kehf’in ya?ad?klar?ndan yola ç?karak bir kabulleni?le hayat?na devam edecektir.

Hiclal DEM?R

2013-03-01

355

Nanocomposite strategies for limiting medical and marine biofouling  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms affect many aspects of human life. When microorganisms colonize a surface, the resulting microbial community is called a biofilm. Biofilms can negatively affect human health and productivity. Osteomyelitis is caused by biofilms of bacteria attached to the bone. These biofilms pose a threat to human life and lead to the loss of healthy tissue. Biofilms attached to marine vessels decrease the fuel economy of ships, resulting in a significant economic cost. There is a need to develop new materials which eradicate and prevent biofouling. Nanocomposites and mixed-phase organic/inorganic materials are presented in various embodiments as a means to limit biofouling. Antibiotic-filled microspheres are created to improve the treatment of osteomyelitis. These microspheres consist of bioactive glass and poly(n-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or gelatin. Bioactive glasses have historically been shown to promote the regeneration of bone. Sol-gel chemistry is used to make the bioactive glass component, in this case a calcium silicate. The low temperature of the reaction allows organic molecules such as drugs and polymers to be blended with the glass. The catalyst used during the sol-gel reaction affects the structure and composition of the microspheres. Base catalysis leads to microspheres that exhibit behavior indicative of a nanocomposite structure. Acid catalysis produces microspheres that appear to exist as more as a mixed phase between silica and PVP. These structures directly affect the stability of the microspheres in simulated body fluid (SBF): base-catalyzed microspheres degrade within the first day in SBF, while acid-catalyzed microspheres are stable for at least one week. The morphology of acid-catalyzed microspheres is directly affected by the following compositional parameters: molecular weight of PVP, concentration of PVP, and concentration of calcium. Solid, hollow, and core/shell morphologies are produced by adjusting these parameters. These morphologies are likely caused by various rates of silicate hydrolysis, condensation, and hydrogen bonding to PVP. Viscosity of the sol plays little role in determining the diameter of the dried microspheres. An antibiotic, vancomycin, is successfully incorporated into these hybrid microspheres. Vancomycin is released for 5-7 days as measured by UV absorption. An in vitro assay against cultures of Staphylococcus aureus demonstrates that the drug remains effective for 4 days. Marine biofouling is addressed by imparting topography onto silica-reinforced poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomeric (PDMSe) films. Swimming zoospores from the green alga Ulva are used as a model fouling organism. A bio-inspired topography deterred attachment of the zoospores by 70-80% over a 4-hr assay. Image analysis of the zoospores suggests that the topography may inhibit biofilm formation by disrupting the early-stage aggregation of spores on the surface. The attachment kinetics fit, with high correlation, equations used to describe that adsorption of bacteria to surfaces. This suggests the same physical phenomena drives the attachment of bacteria and swimming algal zoospores to solid surfaces.

Cooper, Scott Patrick

356

Analysis of production and environmental effects of Nile tilapia and white shrimp culture in Thailand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two case studies from Southeast Asia are used to analyse production, environmental effects, and economic optimisation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) pond culture. A projection of these data is made for the whole of Thailand. The results are analysed on a regional scale based on site selection using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). Farm-scale culture was simulated for (i) tilapia monoculture in Chiang Rai; (ii) shrimp monoculture in Chanthaburi; and (iii) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) of tilapia and shrimp in Chon Buri. Together, these provinces produced 17,500 tonnes of tilapia in 2012, with a significant proportion exported to North America and Europe. Growth models for both species were developed, calibrated, and validated, and used to simulate population dynamics of cultivated animals, and sediment diagenesis and eutrophication in ponds. Co-cultivation stimulates nitrogen dissolution (134 kg N cycle? 1), which is greater than in tilapia (96 kg N) or shrimp (52 kg N) monoculture, and doubles the NH4+ discharge to the environment (10.7 kg in tilapia monoculture, 20.5 kg in co-cultivation). However, eutrophication as a result of shrimp monoculture decreases sharplychlorophyll emissions fall from 0.17 kg to 0.02 kg. A modelled IMTA scenario including the green seaweed Ulva reduced NH4+ outflow to 0.32 kg cycle? 1. Scaling to the national level, for a 2010 production of 158,293 t y? 1 (tilapia), and 553,899 t y? 1 (shrimp), gives calculated emissions of 2,105,118 and 34,904 Population Equivalents (PEQ) respectively. Only part is a negative externality, because rural agro-aqua systems in Thailand reuse discharges in holding ponds, rice culture, etc. Commercial tilapia and shrimp aquaculture have a value added share of total GDP of 0.38, and value added of 96.24, resulting in indirect impacts of the industry on the Thai economy of $35 million, and the creation of 16,000 additional jobs. The MCE scenario analysis suggests sustainable expansion is possible for both species. The highly suitable class for tilapia would triple in the dry season, but halve in the rainy season. For shrimp the corresponding areas would decrease in both seasons. However, the suitable class is two orders of magnitude greater than the current level of tilapia farming, and shrimp could increase tenfold (limited by the rainy season due to low salinity). These projections which are constrained by competing land claims, will be further influenced by socio-economic factors, and would depend upon national or regional policy decisions. These models, together with economic indicators developed for the aquaculture industry in Thailand, provide an overview of this important contributor to world aquaculture, which has a volume production greater than both the US and EU, and explore some of the lessons that may be learnt worldwide at both the local and national scales

Ferreira, J.G.; Falconer, L.

2014-01-01

357

Variación ambiental y patrones di etarios del erizo negro Tetrapygus niger en costas intermareales rocosas del norte de Chile Environmental variation and dietary patterns of the black urchin Tetrapygus niger in rocky intertidal shores of northern Chile  

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Full Text Available El rol e impacto de los herbívoros en la trama trófica de comunidades intermareales rocosas podría ser más diverso y complejo de lo considerado hasta ahora, particularmente en el caso de consumidores de mayor tamaño y abundancia como el erizo negro Tetrapygus niger (Molina en la costa de Chile. En este contexto, analizamos la variación en riqueza y composición de la dieta de T. niger en cuatro comunidades intermareales rocosas del norte de Chile, distribuidas en 1.000 km de costa, y muestreadas estacionalmente entre invierno 2004 y primavera 2005. Durante el estudio ocurrió el evento El Niño 2004-2005 cuyo efecto potencial fue incorporado en esta evaluación. En cada comunidad y estación se evaluó la abundancia de las especies presentes en 45 cuadrantes (0,25 m² distribuidos en cinco bloques permanentes, recolectando cerca de 10 individuos de T. niger a los que se midió su biomasa y longitud, determinando el número, identidad y frecuencia de ocurrencia de ítemes en su contenido gástrico. Colectamos un total de 251 individuos de T. niger, que en conjunto consumieron 89 ítemes de algas (64 % e invertebrados (36 %; incluyendo otros herbívoros. Una relación inversa significativa entre el tamaño corporal y el número de ítemes animales ingeridos sugiere que T. niger varía su dieta durante la ontogenia. La amplitud de nicho dietario fue alta y tendió a disminuir hacia latitudes menores. Globalmente, el espectro y frecuencia de ocurrencia de ítemes dietarios no fueron significativamente distintos entre comunidades, pese a marcadas diferencias en intensidad de surgencia entre ellas. Similarmente, no hubo relación clara entre la oferta ambiental de recursos y su frecuencia en la dieta de T. niger, destacando la clorófita Ulva rígida que fue el ítem consumido con más frecuencia en cada comunidad pero no el más abundante en terreno. Sin embargo, la riqueza dietaria de T. niger se relacionó negativa y significativamente con la temperatura superficial del mar, y fue significativamente menor en todo el período de El Niño 2004-2005. Nuestros datos sugieren que T. niger es un generalista polífago cuyos patrones de consumo son fuertemente modulados por la fluctuación t??rmica ambiental. Además, hipotetizamos que T. niger puede usar estrategias oportunistas y selectivas sobre distintos recursos, y que su conectividad y posición trófica serían más complejas que las de un simple consumidor primario.The role and impact of herbivores on rocky intertidal food webs could be more complex and diverse than previously considered, particularly in the case of larger and more abundant consumers such as the black urchin Tetrapygus niger (Molina in the coast of Chile. In this context, we analyzed the variation in diet richness and composition of the black urchin in four rocky intertidal communities over a 1,000 km stretch of coast in northern Chile, sampled seasonally between the austral winter of 2004 and spring of 2005. The 2004-2005 El Niño event took place during the study, and we incorporated its potential effects to this evaluation. For each community and season, we measured the abundance of species present in 45 quadrants (0.25 m² distributed between five permanent blocks, collecting about 10 individuals of T. niger to measure their body size (dry biomass and maximum diameter and to determine the number, identity and occurrence frequency of dietary items in their gastric tract. We collected a total of 251 urchin individuals, which consumed 89 items of algae (64 % and invertebrates (36 %; including other herbivores. A significant inverse relationship between the number of ingested animal items and body size suggests that T. niger changes its diet throughout the ontogeny. Dietary niche breadth was high but tended to decrease toward lower latitudes. The spectrum and occurrence frequency of dietary items were not significantly different among communities, despite their marked differences in upwelling intensity. Similarly, we did not find clear relationships between the natural abundanc

ARTURO H NAVARRETE

2008-09-01

358

[Effects of ocean acidification on growth, phosphate and nitrate uptake of macroalgae].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ocean acidification caused by elevated CO2 concentration can affect the growth, physiology and ecology, and nutrient uptake of macroalgae. In this paper, the growth and nutrient (PO4(3-) and NO3(-)) uptake of three species of macroalgae [Ulva pertusa, Scytosiphon lomentaria and Corallina pilulifera (calcified algae)] at three pHs (8.2, 7.9 and 7.6) were investigated under conditions of monoculture and mixed culture. Under the condition of monoculture, the percents of increased wet weights of U. pertusa, S. lomentaria and C. pilulifera on day 10 were the highest at the pHs of 7.9, 7.6 and 8.2, respectively, when compared with those on day 0, and the relative growth rates of C. pilulifera at pH 7.6 were significantly lower than those at pH 8.2. The data of mixed culture experiments suggested that lower pH was beneficial for the growth of S. lomentaria, while higher pH was beneficial for the growth of C. pilulifera. In both monoculture and mixed culture, the PO4(3-) and NO3(-) concentrations at the three pHs decreased with the time. The PO4(3-) concentrations decreased sharply by 71.9% - 99.0% from day 0 to day 2, and then decreased smoothly. Under the conditions of monoculture, the PO4(3-) uptake rates of U. pertusa, S. lomentaria and C. pilulifera were the highest at pHs of 8.2, 8.2 and 7.6, respectively. The NO3(-) uptake rates of U. pertusa and C. pilulifera in monoculture were the highest at pHs of 8.2 and 7.6, respectively. Under the conditions of mixed culture, the PO4(3-) uptake rates of U. pertusa + S. lomentaria, U. pertusa + C. pilulifera, S. lomentaria + C. pilulifera were the highest at pHs of 7.6, 8.2 and 8.2, respectively. The NO3(-) uptake rates of U. pertusa + C. pilulifera at pH 7.6 were the highest among the three pHs. The lower growth and higher nutrient (PO4(3-) and NO3(-)) uptake rates of monoculture C. pilulifera at pH 7.6 showed that the uptake and assimilation of PO4(3-) and NO3(-) were not coupled. The species composition of algae was changed due to ocean acidification although the dominant species was not change. Therefore, the different responses of growth and nutrient uptake of macroalgae to long-term ocean acidification in natural environment might lead to the change in macroalgal community. PMID:23233959

Yu, Juan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Gui-Peng; Tian, Yan-Wang

2012-10-01