WorldWideScience
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The green algae Ulva fasciata Delile extract induces apoptotic cell death in human colon cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity of the green algae Ulva fasciata Delile. U. fasciata extract (UFE) inhibited the growth of HCT 116 human colon cancer cells by 50% at a concentration of 200 ?g/ml. In addition, UFE stimulated the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, an effect that was abolished by pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine, which also inhibited the cytotoxic effects of UFE. UFE also induced morphological changes indicative of apoptosis, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, an increase in the population of apoptotic sub-G(1) phase cells, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Concomitant activation of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway occurred via modulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, resulting in disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. This is the first report to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of U. fasciata on human colon cancer cells and to provide a possible mechanism for this activity. PMID:23299316

Ryu, Min Ju; Kim, Areum Daseul; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Ha Sook; Kim, Hye Sun; Suh, In Soo; Chang, Weon Young; Hyun, Jin Won

2013-01-01

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Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile / Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial da alga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar. Foram realizadas a determinação do teor de fibra alimentar total e a descrição de algumas propriedades físico-químicas, e os efeitos fisiológicos da farinha da alga seca [...] sobre ratos alimentados com dieta hipercolesterolemizante foram investigados. Esta alga pode ser considerada uma fonte alternativa potencial de fibra com cerca de 400 g.kg-1 (base seca) e propriedades físico-químicas interessantes: uma capacidade de retenção de água de 8,74 g/água.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 0,90 (extrato de carboidratos), uma capacidade de adsorção de lipídeos de 4,52 g/óleo.g-1 de amostra seca (farinha de alga) e 5,70 (extrato de carboidratos), uma viscosidade intrínseca de 2,4 dl.g-1 (extrato de carboidrato da alga) e capacidade de troca iônica de 3,51 Eq.kg-1 (extrato de carboidrato). A dieta contendo farinha de alga foi capaz de manter baixos os níveis de colesterol total de ratos sem causar aumento indesejável na fração LDL-C. Nenhuma evidência de componentes tóxicos e/ou antinutricionais na farinha de alga foi encontrada. Os ratos mostraram um volume fecal maior (13 g) do que aqueles alimentados com dieta contendo celulose como fonte de fibra (7 g) (p Abstract in english This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic die [...] t were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g) (p

AFU., Carvalho; MCC., Portela; MB., Sousa; FS., Martins; FC., Rocha; DF., Farias; JPA., Feitosa.

2009-08-01

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Enzymatic hydrolysis and production of bioethanol from common macrophytic green alga Ulva fasciata Delile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green seaweed Ulva which proliferates fast and occurs abundantly worldwide was used as a feedstock for production of ethanol following enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the different cellulases investigated for efficient saccharification, cellulase 22119 showed the highest conversion efficiency of biomass into reducing sugars than Viscozyme L, Cellulase 22086 and 22128. Pre-heat treatment of biomass in aqueous medium at 120°C for 1h followed by incubation in 2% (v/v) enzyme for 36 h at 45°C gave a maximum yield of sugar 206.82±14.96 mg/g. The fermentation of hydrolysate gave ethanol yield of 0.45 g/g reducing sugar accounting for 88.2% conversion efficiency. These values are substantially higher than those of reported so far for both agarophytes and carrageenophytes. It was also confirmed that enzyme can be used twice without compromising on the saccharification efficiency. The findings of this study reveal that Ulva can be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. PMID:24157682

Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2013-12-01

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Ethanol Production from Ulva fasciata  

Science.gov (United States)

The theoretical potential yield of Ulva fasciata as a biomass feedstock for fermentative ethanol was found to be about 310 L per tonne, dry weight. U. fasciata has numerous characteristics that render it a suitable mariculture energy crop. Specifically, it forms large complex structures that grow quickly, with high (14%) dry to wet weight percentages, holocellulose content for the dry mass of 51%, carbohydrate content of 5%, and relatively low (5%) lignin content. Enzymatic saccharification with a commercial cellulase (Accelerase) from Genencor was investigated: After a 12 hr digestion, 25% of the potential glucose was recovered from the cellulose fraction. The hydrolysate was supplemented with a modified YM medium and used directly for batch fermentation. A 12 hr incubation resulted in complete utilization of the glucose and production of ethanol. In this preliminary investigation, the ethanol yield corresponded to approximately 126 L per tonne (dry weight) of macroalga, or 43% of the theoretical alcohol yield with respect to only the cellulose and carbohydrate contents. Theoretical yields are higher when the hemicellulose fraction is considered. While sugar recovery needs further optimization, the data suggest that additional work is warranted.

Masutani, Evan M.; Yoza, Brandon A.

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Chemical composition of Ulvaria oxysperma (Kützing) bliding, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus) and Ulva fascita (Delile)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A composição química de três espécies de Chlorophyta foi determinada. Ulva lactuca se desenvolve em Guaraqueçaba e Ulva fasciata na Ilha do Mel, enquanto que Ulvaria oxysperma se desenvolve nos dois ecossistemas. Umidade (16-20%), cinzas (17-31%, base seca), proteínas (6-10%bs), lipídeos (0,5-3.2%bs [...] ), fibras (3-12%bs) e carboidratos (46-72%bs) para U.oxysperma correspondeu a 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (base úmida). U.lactuca (15-18%bs) e U.fasciata (13-16%bs) mostraram teores levemente maiores para a proteína, mas com conteúdos energéticos similares (250-272 e 225-239 kcal.100g-1), respectivamente. As folhas in natura de U.lactuca e de U.fasciata eram mais rígidas do que as de U.oxysperma. Outras algas nativas apresentaram teores de proteínas maiores. Ulvaria sp pode ser cultivada sobre redes, sem apresentar competição com outras algas ou ação significativa de predadores. Ulvaria sp cultivada apresentou composição química similar ao da Ulvaria sp crescida sobre substratos naturais. É essencial escolher um local protegido da ação destrutiva da maré. Abstract in english Chemical composition of three species of Chlorophyta, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Ulvaria oxysperma, was determined. Ulvaria oxysperma showed humidity (16-20%), ash (17-31% dry-base), proteins (6-10%db), lipids (0.5-3.2%db), fibers (3-12%db) and carbohydrates (46-72%db) which corresponded to 192 [...] -270 kcal.100g-1 (wet-base). U lactuca (15-18%db) and U fasciata (13-16%db) revealed grades slightly higher for proteins, but with similar energetic contents (250-272 and 225-239 kcal.100g-1), respectively. Natural blades of U lactuca and of U fasciata were more rigid than blades of U oxysperma. Other native algae showed higher protein levels. Ulvaria sp could be cultivated on the cotton-nylon net without having significance competition from other algae or predators degradation. On the other hand, it was essential choose a place without destructive tide action. Cultivated Ulvaria sp showed similar chemical composition as that grown on natural substrates.

Márcia de, Pádua; Paulo Sérgio Growoski, Fontoura; Alvaro Luiz, Mathias.

2004-03-01

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Chemical composition of Ulvaria oxysperma (Kützing bliding, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus and Ulva fascita (Delile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical composition of three species of Chlorophyta, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Ulvaria oxysperma, was determined. Ulvaria oxysperma showed humidity (16-20%, ash (17-31% dry-base, proteins (6-10%db, lipids (0.5-3.2%db, fibers (3-12%db and carbohydrates (46-72%db which corresponded to 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (wet-base. U lactuca (15-18%db and U fasciata (13-16%db revealed grades slightly higher for proteins, but with similar energetic contents (250-272 and 225-239 kcal.100g-1, respectively. Natural blades of U lactuca and of U fasciata were more rigid than blades of U oxysperma. Other native algae showed higher protein levels. Ulvaria sp could be cultivated on the cotton-nylon net without having significance competition from other algae or predators degradation. On the other hand, it was essential choose a place without destructive tide action. Cultivated Ulvaria sp showed similar chemical composition as that grown on natural substrates.A composição química de três espécies de Chlorophyta foi determinada. Ulva lactuca se desenvolve em Guaraqueçaba e Ulva fasciata na Ilha do Mel, enquanto que Ulvaria oxysperma se desenvolve nos dois ecossistemas. Umidade (16-20%, cinzas (17-31%, base seca, proteínas (6-10%bs, lipídeos (0,5-3.2%bs, fibras (3-12%bs e carboidratos (46-72%bs para U.oxysperma correspondeu a 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (base úmida. U.lactuca (15-18%bs e U.fasciata (13-16%bs mostraram teores levemente maiores para a proteína, mas com conteúdos energéticos similares (250-272 e 225-239 kcal.100g-1, respectivamente. As folhas in natura de U.lactuca e de U.fasciata eram mais rígidas do que as de U.oxysperma. Outras algas nativas apresentaram teores de proteínas maiores. Ulvaria sp pode ser cultivada sobre redes, sem apresentar competição com outras algas ou ação significativa de predadores. Ulvaria sp cultivada apresentou composição química similar ao da Ulvaria sp crescida sobre substratos naturais. É essencial escolher um local protegido da ação destrutiva da maré.

Márcia de Pádua

2004-03-01

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FACILE GREEN SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES WITH GREAT CATALYTIC ACTIVITY USING ULVA FASCIATA  

OpenAIRE

We report a facile, green, and high yielding approache for the synthesis and stabilization of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using green seaweed Ulva fasciata extract. Characterization of the obtained AuNPs was performed using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the yield of the gold nanoparticles. The UV-visible absorption spectrum showed a characte...

Sugantha Kumari, V.; Sivagammi Sundari, G.; Khaleel Basha, S.

2014-01-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1 and higher (1.5 g kg-1 doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1 y más alto (1,5 g kg-1 dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01. Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

Joseph Selvin

2011-07-01

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Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases / Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón) de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens [...] bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1) y más alto (1,5 g kg-1) dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P Abstract in english Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp) of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of sh [...] rimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1) and higher (1.5 g kg-1) doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P

Joseph, Selvin; Aseer, Manilal; Suganthan, Sujith; George, Seghal Kiran; Aron, Premnath Lipton.

2011-07-01

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FACILE GREEN SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES WITH GREAT CATALYTIC ACTIVITY USING ULVA FASCIATA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a facile, green, and high yielding approache for the synthesis and stabilization of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs using green seaweed Ulva fasciata extract. Characterization of the obtained AuNPs was performed using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the yield of the gold nanoparticles. The UV-visible absorption spectrum showed a characteristic optical peak of AuNPs at 541 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern suggested the formation and crystallinity of AuNPs. Spherical AuNPs synthesized with an average particle size of 10 ± 3 nm were confirmed by TEM. FTIR analysis supported the role of phytochemicals of Ulva fasciata extract for bioreduction and stabilization of AuNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AuNPs exhibit remarkable catalytic efficiency by using the reduction of 4-nitroaniline by potassium borohydride in aqueous solution using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Catalytic reduction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 4-Nitrophenol.

V. Sugantha Kumari

2014-03-01

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Rheology and characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rheological characteristics of polysaccharides which were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were investigated in aqueous solutions under conditions of concentration, temperature, solution pH and salt concentrations. It was described by the power-law model with a consistency index (k) and a flow behavior index (n). The rheology results showed UFP exhibited as a shear-thickening fluid and a possible mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon that might be the collapse of UFP necklace-type structures. UFP characteristics were evaluated by determining the chemical analysis and zeta potential. The findings indicated UFP may consist of partially ulvan, as the results were in accordance with the ulvan structure. Additionally, a rod-climbing effect and cold-set gelation were observed in the UFP semidilute solution. Therefore, the cold-set gelling properties and unique shear-thickening fluid properties in this work could be valuable for the exploration of U. fasciata as a new source of water-soluble gelling polysaccharides. PMID:25256496

Shao, Ping; Qin, Minpu; Han, Longfei; Sun, Peilong

2014-11-26

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Norisoprenoids from Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five norisoprenoids were isolated from the green marine alga Ulva lactuca. Two new compounds were assigned to (3R,5R,6R,7E)3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (1) and (3S,5R,6S,7E)3,5,6-trihydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (2). The structures and absolute configurations of the five compounds were determined by analyses of NMR, MS and circular dichroism (CD). PMID:17613616

Sun, Y; Zhan, Y-C; Sha, Y; Pei, Y-H

2007-01-01

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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  

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Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae.The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

Gupta Satish Chand

2012-07-01

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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  

OpenAIRE

Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae).The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids...

Gupta Satish Chand; Shenoy Sumanth; Kotecha Mita

2012-01-01

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Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

2011-11-15

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The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i) patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii) Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii) Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv) Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage.

Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H.; Clerck, Olivier De; Coates, Juliet C.

2015-01-01

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The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i) patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii) Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii) Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv) Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage. PMID:25745427

Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H; Clerck, Olivier De; Coates, Juliet C

2015-01-01

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Effects of temperature on the development of meristic characters in Natrix fasciata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of thermal environment on the development of embryos of Natrix fasciata were investigated in the laboratory. A total of 997 embryos were obtained from females incubated under five different thermal regimes, three constant and two fluctuating diurnally. These embryos were compared with a group of 473 wild-incubated controls. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of developmental temperature on vertebral number. Other objectives were to assess the effects of temperature on other characters of scutellation and to attempt to determine the optimum developmental temperature for the species studied. The effect of developmental temperature on vertebral number seems to be similar to that found in fish; an increase at both high and low temperatures with the minimum counts occurring at intermediate temperatures. In Natrix fasciata the effect appears to be confined to the trunk region. Low temperature treatment increases the frequency of divided preocular scales from none in the controls to about 10% in the low temperature sample. The number of postocular scales is reduced by low temperature treatment (65% ''2's'') and increased by high temperature treatment (65% ''3's''). The wild population has approximately equal numbers of individuals with two and three postoculars. The number of labial scales is not affected in a directional manner by developmental temperature, but a significant increase in variability in this character was noted at both temperature extremes. Both low and high temperature treatments increased the frequency of ''half-ventrals'' over the frequencies found in middle temperature and control groups. These extra half-ventrals were usually correlated with duplications of vertebral elements and extra ribs.

Osgood, D.W.

1978-02-10

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Microhabitat factors affecting nest site selection and breeding success of tree-nesting Bonelli's eagles (Aquila fasciata)  

OpenAIRE

A nidificação arborícola é uma estratégia reprodutora pouco comum nas populações europeias de águia de Bonelli (Aquila fasciata). A selecção do habitat de nidificação desta espécie em meio florestal é pouco conhecida, tendo sido apenas divulgado um estudo sobre a nidificação da espécie em pinheiro da Calabria (Pinus brutia) no Chipre. Desta forma, o presente estudo pretendeu identificar as características das árvores mais relevantes na escolha do local de nidificação pela...

Ferreira, Ana Rita Dos Anjos Maia

2011-01-01

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The effects of chloramphenicol on Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The administration of pharmacological substances in the food producing industry is a crucial and long established practice in ensuring animal welfare. However, a very high percentage of the drugs used will directly or indirectly be present in the various compartments of natural ecosystems therefore constituting a source of pollution. The reactions that these active compounds may impose on non-target organisms are still widely unknown and further research is essential. Also, new approaches on monitoring are necessary and in this sense, the present work aimed to assess the persistence of chloramphenicol (a banned but illegally used antibiotic) in seawater, together with its effects on the growth of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Moreover, the potential use of this species as a bioindicator was assessed. Results showed CAP presented an exponential degradation pattern in seawater with concentrations decreasing faster than expected. As for the effects on U. lactuca it acted as a growth promoter also contradicting the initial assumptions. Regarding the role of this species in biomonitoring it successfully took up CAP in solution while reflecting the concentrations present conferring it good characteristics as a bioindicator. On the other hand, this ability points to a possibility of CAP being accumulated and transferred along the trophic web through the consumption of U. lactuca by organisms in higher levels. PMID:23395526

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

2013-04-01

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Reproducción y dimorfismo sexual en una población de Homonota fasciata (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) del monte de San Juan, Argentina / Reproduction and sexual dimorphism in a population of Homonota fasciata (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from Mount of San Juan, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer y describir el ciclo reproductivo y el dimorfismo sexual morfométrico de Homonota fasciata en el monte de San Juan. Para analizar la reproducción, se midió en hembras la longitud y ancho de folículos yemados y/o huevos en oviducto; en machos se midió el ancho [...] y largo de testículos, con el fin de estimar sus volúmenes. El dimorfismo sexual se examinó midiendo 10 variables morfométricas en 49 individuos (26 hembras y 23 machos). Homonota fasciata inició su actividad reproductiva en primavera para los 2 años de registro. El tamaño de camada fue de un huevo. En hembras, se evidenció al menos una triple postura y el ciclo gonadal varió con las estaciones. En machos, el desarrollo testicular no exhibió variaciones, demostrando una condición reproductiva continua a través de la estación de actividad. Se halló dimorfismo sexual en 2 variables: longitud radio-cúbito, siendo mayor en hembras que en machos; y longitud tibia-fíbula, siendo esta variable mayor en machos y atribuyendo el dimorfismo encontrado a la marcada territorialidad de la especie. Este estudio es un valioso aporte al conocimiento de la biología de la especie, en un contexto tanto ecológico como de conservación. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to know and describe the reproductive cycle and sexual dimorphism of Homonota fasciata form the Mount of San Juan. To analyze reproduction, females were measured in the length and breadth of yemados follicles and/or eggs in the oviduct, in males testes length and width were [...] measured, in order to estimate their volumes. Sexual dimorphism was examined measuring 10 morphometric variables in 49 individuals (26 females and 23 males). Homonota fasciata started their reproductive activity in spring for 2 years recorded. The smallest size was 1 egg. Females, showed at least a triple posture and the gonadal cycle varied with seasons. In males, testicular development did not exhibit variations, showing a continuous reproductive condition through the activity season. We found sexual dimorphism in 2 variables: radio-ulna length, being higher in females than in males, and tibia-fibula length, being this variable major in males and attributing dimorphism found to the marked the territoriality of the species. This study is a valuable contribution to the knowledge of this species in a context of ecology and conservation.

Rodrigo A., Nieva; Graciela M., Blanco; Juan C., Acosta; Matías, Olmedo.

1266-12-01

22

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POECILIOPSIS FASCIATA IN NEAR-SHORE HABITAT OF THE HIGH ELEVATION LAKE, LAGO DE ACHICHILCA, PUEBLA, MEXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution of organisms within a pond or lake can reflect the result of a variety of factors. We examined the distribution and abundance of the fish, Poecilioposis fasciata, in Lago de Achichilca, Puebla, Mexico, as well as how the distribution and abundance varied among months. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity varied among months. The abundance of P. fasciata peaked in December and February. For the months when fish were observed, their abundances were positively related to dissolved oxygen concentration and were generally not related to temperature. Our results make it clear that there is substantial seasonal variation in the abundances of P. fasciata and that within months, their distributions are likely driven more by dissolved oxygen than either temperature or salinity.

Montoya-Ayala Raymundo

2012-04-01

23

Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment with calcium is beneficial in relieving the pain and muscle spasms caused by Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata.

NP Dinamithra

2013-10-01

24

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Br...

Rocha, Liliana O.; Soares, Maria Magali S. R.; Cristiana Leslie Corrêa

2004-01-01

25

Photosynthetic properties of three Brazilian seaweeds / Propriedades fotossintéticas de três macroalgas marinhas brasileiras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O desempenho fotossintético de três grupos distintos de macroalgas marinhas, Ulva fasciata Delile (alga verde), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (alga parda) e Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (alga vermelha), foi comparado com auxílio de u [...] m fluorímetro de pulso e amplitude modulada. O potencial fotoquímico máximo do PS II (Fv/Fm) variou de 0,80 a 0,51, sendo que os menores valores foram observados em P. brasiliensis. Sob a irradiância de 400 µmol fótons m-2 s-1, o maior valor de dissipação fotoquímica (qP = 0,92 ± 0,13) foi observado para U. fasciata. A alga vermelha P. brasiliensis dissipou elevada quantidade de energia de excitação (qN = 0,56 ± 0,09), resultando em valores baixos de potencial fotoquímico efetivo do PS II (0,23 ± 0,04), e também de taxa relativa de transporte de elétrons (3,3 ± 0,7). O elevado potencial fotossintético encontrado para U. fasciata explica, parcialmente, a capacidade da espécie de crescimento rápido e de alta produtividade. Abstract in english Photosynthetic performance of distinct marine macroalgae, Ulva fasciata Delile (green alga), Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira (brown alga), and Plocamium brasiliensis (Greville) M. A. Howe & W. R. Taylor (red alga), were compared using a pulse amplitude-modulated flu [...] orometer. The maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) ranged from 0.80 to 0.51, and the lowest value was found in P. brasiliensis. Under 400 µmol photons m-2 s-1 irradiance, the highest value of photochemical quenching (qP = 0.92 ± 0.13) was observed for U. fasciata. The red alga P. brasiliensis dissipated high amounts of excitation energy (qN = 0.56 ± 0.09), resulting in relatively low values for the effective quantum yield of PS-II (0.23 ± 0.04), as well as for the relative electron transport rate (3.3 ± 0.7). The high photosynthetic potential found for U. fasciata partially explains the species ability for rapid growth and high productivity.

Ricardo M., Chaloub; Fernanda, Reinert; Cristina A. G., Nassar; Beatriz G., Fleury; Dulce G., Mantuano; Anthony W. D., Larkum.

2010-06-01

26

Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

Nates-Parra Guiomar

2006-06-01

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Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

1984-05-01

28

Chemical and biological studies from an Azorean macroalga: Ulva rigida  

OpenAIRE

New drugs from natural sources have been targets of the drug discovery program and some bioactive compounds from macroalgae such as sulfated polysaccharides, steroids and diterpens have found their applications in the pharmaceutical industry.[1,2] Consequently, we have investigated the chemical composition and the in vitro antitumor potential of the metabolites isolated from the macroalga Ulva rigida, collected from the Azorean coast, an environmentally healthy habitat with a high level of bi...

Silva, Madalena; Vieira, Lui?s M. M.; Almeida, Ana Paula; Silva, Artur M. S.; Kijjoa, Anake; Seca, Ana M. L.; Barreto, Maria Do Carmo

2012-01-01

29

Metals in Ulva lactuca in Hong Kong intertidal waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Ulva lactuca collected from 24 intertidal sites around the Island of Hong Kong were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twelve of the sites are in the rural southern parts of the island where the coastal waters are relatively clean. The remaining 12 sites are located in the north and within Victoria Harbor which receives, apart from industrial effluents, untreated domestic sewage from a population of some 3.5 million. The mean levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in Ulva from the urban sites were respectively 4.0, 4.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.4, and 4.6 times those from the rural sites. However, somewhat similar levels of Cd were found in the alga among all the sites. Some locations of high levels of metal contamination have been identified in Victoria Harbor. Preliminary findings indicated that Ulva is a good indicator of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contamination due to its cosmopolitan distribution, simple morphology leading to ease of growth assessment, and its graded tolerance and response to pollutants. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Ho, Y.B. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong))

1990-07-01

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Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development, and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel, and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyze green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal-bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. U. linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores) in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors). The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures. The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids) appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal-microbial interactions. PMID:25674100

Vesty, Eleanor F; Kessler, Ralf W; Wichard, Thomas; Coates, Juliet C

2015-01-01

31

Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development, and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel, and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyze green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal–bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. U. linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores) in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors). The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures. The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids) appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal–microbial interactions. PMID:25674100

Vesty, Eleanor F.; Kessler, Ralf W.; Wichard, Thomas; Coates, Juliet C.

2015-01-01

32

Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and carboxylating enzymes in Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in the green marine alga, Ulva lactuca were carried out by employing 14CO2. They reveal that it exhibits, HSK pathway of carbon assimilation. The alga belongs to the asparatate former type. Aspartate which is the immediate product of photosynthetic carbon assimilation if further utilised for sucrose synthesis in light but not in dark. In order to confirm the operation of C4 type of photosynthetic pathway, carboxylating enzymes like RuDP and PEP carboxylases were isolated and tested for their activities. The results of these findings are discussed in this paper. (author)

33

Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) for broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca); T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed in...

Al-haidary, Ahmad A.; Samara, Emad M.; Abdoun, Kalid A.; Aljumaah, Riyadh S.; Okab, Aly B.; Abudabos, Alaeldein M.

2013-01-01

34

Alterações na composição florística das algas da Praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ) / Changes in the marine flora of the Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Baía de Guanabara no decorrer da ocupação de suas margens sofreu uma continua degradação, levando-a a grandes modificações em seu entorno e a inúmeros danos ambientais. Além de uma significativa alteração paisagística, ocorreu também uma queda na qualidade de suas águas, devido ao lançamento de gr [...] ande quantidade de efluentes não tratados (domésticos e industriais). Este trabalho teve como objetivo inventariar a flora algácea da praia de Boa Viagem (Niterói, RJ), compará-la com levantamentos realizados há três décadas. Os resultados mostraram desaparecimento de 30 táxons (49%) outrora existentes no início da década de 70 e o aparecimento de 14 espécies (23%). A flora atual é dominada por Ulva fasciata Delile e Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, espécies potencialmente indicadoras de poluição orgânica. Tais resultados evidenciam que, ao longo dessas três décadas, uma série de impactos trouxe profundas alterações na comunidade de macroalgas. Abstract in english During the past three decades, the Guanabara Bay suffered continuous degradation, leading to severe changes in the surrounding area and environmental damages. Besides significant loss of its natural landscape, the quality of its water decreased with continuous disposal of non-treated domestic organi [...] c sewage and industrial effluents. The present study aimed to survey the algal flora of Boa Viagem beach (Niterói, RJ) and to compare it with information gathered three decades ago. Results showed a decrease of 30 taxa (49%) of the algal species and an increase of 14 species (23%) in comparison with algal flora recorded three decades ago. The actual algal flora is dominated by Ulva fasciata Delile and Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, species indicative of organic pollution. These results elucidate the environmental impacts caused upon the macroalgae community of the Guanabara Bay during throughout the period.

ANDRÉ, TAOUIL; YOCIE, YONESHIGUE-VALENTIN.

2002-12-01

35

Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

Ryther, J.H.

1983-01-01

36

The origin of the Ulva macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea in 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green algal blooms have occurred in the Yellow Sea for seven consecutive years from 2007 to 2013. In this study, satellite image analysis and field shipboard observations indicated that the Ulva blooms in 2013 originated in the Rudong coast. The spatial distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules in the Southern Yellow Sea also supported that the blooms originated in the Rudong coast. In addition, multi-source satellite data were used to evaluate the biomass of green algae on the Pyropia aquaculture rafts. The results showed that approximately 2784 tons of Ulva prolifera were attached to the rafts and possessed the same internal transcribed spacer and 5S rDNA sequence as the dominant species in the 2013 blooms. We conclude that the significant biomass of Ulva species on the Pyropia rafts during the harvesting season in radial tidal sand ridges played an important role in the rapid development of blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:25444626

Zhang, Jianheng; Huo, Yuanzi; Wu, Hailong; Yu, Kefeng; Kim, Jang Kyun; Yarish, Charles; Qin, Yutao; Liu, Caicai; Xu, Ren; He, Peimin

2014-12-15

37

Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae Gracilaria tikvahiae and Ulva sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva sp. were grown under three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular. 18 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Habig, C.; DeBusk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

1984-01-01

38

Effect of nitrogen content on methane production by the marine algae gracilaria tikvahiae and ulva species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rhodophyte Gracilaria tikvahiae and the chlorophyte Ulva species were grown under three different nitrogen enrichment regimes producing plants of each species with three different concentrations of tissue nitrogen. Each was then digested in batch-mode fermentation experiments. Both biogas and methane production were initially greater in Ulva but persisted longer in Gracilaria, resulting in similar performances for the two species over the entire time course of the experiment. Low-nitrogen Gracilaria contained more volatile solids and produced more biogas and methane per unit dry weight than did higher nitrogen plants, but about the same gas production per unit volatile solids. However, low nitrogen Ulva consistently out-performed the high nitrogen plants in gas production per unit volatile solids, total volatile solids reduction, and bioconversion efficiency. These results, in contrast with those found in higher plants, probably reflect the low fiber, high soluble carbohydrate levels of nitrogen-deficient seaweeds in general and of Ulva in particular.

Habig, C.; De Busk, T.A.; Ryther, J.H.

1984-01-01

39

The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production  

OpenAIRE

Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous...

Carl, Christina; Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

40

Effect of background colour on growth and adhesion strength of Ulva sporelings.  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the effects of a range of black, grey and white substrata on the growth and attachment strength of Ulva sporelings on glass and polydimethylsiloxane (Silastic-T2) surfaces. The rate of development of sporelings was strongly influenced by the colour of the substratum on which they grew. On black backgrounds, sporelings grew slowly and germination was delayed. Laboratory screening methods for antifouling and fouling-release coatings that rely on the growth of Ulva sporelings...

Finlay, Ja; Fletcher, Br; Callow, Me; Callow, Ja

2008-01-01

41

The influence of sulfathiazole on the macroalgae Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfonamides (SA) are a class of antibiotics routinely found in environmental matrices and therefore their role as contaminants should be investigated in non-target organisms. With this purpose the present experimental work has evaluated the exposure of the chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. to sulfathiazole (STZ), a SA drug commonly used in aquaculture, at two concentrations representing prophylactic (25 ?g mL(-1)) and therapeutic (50 ?g mL(-1)) administrations. Results showed that STZ exhibits high stability in seawater with only 18% degradation over the 5d assay at both dosages tested. Also, macroalgae demonstrated an efficient uptake capacity with constant internal concentrations after 24h regardless of the external solutions and thus should be considered as a bioindicator species in risk assessment. Both STZ concentrations induced a slight inhibition of the macroalgae growth after 96 h. PMID:24393561

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Nebot, Carolina; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

2014-04-01

42

Cadmium effects on growth and physiology of Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. was grown in the laboratory in unialgal culture to sufficient size so that up to 70 discs, 24 mm in diameter, could be punched out of a single plant. Using such discs, U. lactuca was then tested with various concentrations of Cd under continuous-flow conditions. A concentration of 4.5 ppm Cd was lethal to U. lactuca within 6 days. Control discs in unpolluted water increased in diameter at a rate of 8 to 13% day/sup -1/ over a 6-day period. At sublethal concentration of Cd a sharp reduction in growth rate was observed at increasing concentrations up to approximately 0.3 ppm Cd, whereas from 0.3 ppm Cd to the lethal concentrations the reduction of the growth rate was significantly less. Reduction in photosynthetic performance corresponded closely to the recuction in growth rate. At ambient concentrations of 0.8 ppm Cd, the plants concentrated Cd by a factor of approximately 50 in 6 days. Much higher concentration factors were attained in lower ambient concentrations. After removal from Cd-polluted water into flow-through culture in unpolluted water, a subsequent loss of Cd was indicated and the plants recovered rapidly. Plants exposed up to 3 d to 0.7 ppm Cd recovered sufficiently to produce viable gametes 7 days after removal from Cd. Because it has a relatively short life span and apparently loses Cd subsequent to exposure to Cd-polluted water, Ulva lactuca is not recommended as an alga for monitoring in-situ environmental pollution.

Markham, J.W.; Kremer, B.P.; Sperling, K.R.

1980-01-01

43

Cadmium effects on growth and physiology of Ulva lactuca  

Science.gov (United States)

The chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. was grown in the laboratory in unialgal culture to sufficient size so that up to 70 discs, 24 mm in diameter, could be punched out of a single plant. Using such discs, U. lactuca was then tested with various concentrations of Cd under continuous-flow conditions. A concentration of 4.5 ppm Cd was lethal to U. lactuca within 6 days. Control discs in unpolluted water increased in diameter at a rate of 8 to 13 % day-1 over a 6-day period. At sublethal concentrations of Cd a sharp reduction in growth rate was observed at increasing concentrations up to approximately 0.3 ppm Cd, whereas from 0.3 ppm Cd to the lethal concentration the reduction of the growth rate was significantly less. Reduction in photosynthetic performance corresponded closely to the reduction in growth rate. At ambient concentrations of 0.8 ppm Cd, the plants concentrated Cd by a factor of approximately 50 in 6 days. Much higher concentration factors were attained in lower ambient concentrations. After removal from Cd-polluted water into flow-through culture in unpolluted water, a subsequent loss of Cd was indicated and the plants recovered rapidly. Plants exposed up to 3 d to 0.7 ppm Cd recovered sufficiently to produce viable gametes 7 days after removal from Cd. Because it has a relatively short life span and apparently loses Cd subsequent to exposure to Cd-polluted water, Ulva lactuca is not recommended as an alga for monitoring in-situ environmental pollution.

Markham, J. W.; Kremer, B. P.; Sperling, K.-R.

1980-03-01

44

Ulva prolifera monitoring by GF-1 wide field-of-view sensor data  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva prolifera, a kind of green macroalgae, is nontoxic itself, however, its bloom has bad effects on the marine environment, coastal scene, water sports and seashore tourism. Monitoring of the Ulva prolifera by remote sensing technology has the advantages of wide coverage, rapidness, low cost and dynamic monitoring over a long period of time. The GF-1 satellite was launched in April 2013, which provides a new suitable remote sensing data source for monitoring the Ulva prolifera. At present, segmenting image with a threshold is the most widely used method in Ulva prolifera extraction by remote sensing data, because it is simple and easy to operate. However, the threshold value is obtained through visual analysis or using a fixed statistical value, and could not be got automatically. Facing this problem, we proposed a new method, which can obtain the segmentation threshold automatically based on the local maximum gradient value. This method adopted the average NDVI value of local maximum gradient points as the threshold, and could get an appropriate segmentation threshold automatically for each image. The preliminary results showed that this method works well in monitoring Ulva prolifera by GF-1 WFV data.

Liang, Wenxiu; Li, Junsheng; Zhou, Demin; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Haobin

2014-11-01

45

Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P green seaweed (U. lactuca.

Ahmad A. Al-Haidary

2013-04-01

46

The effects of the nitrofuran furaltadone on Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pharmaceuticals in the food production industry as prophylatic and therapeutic agents is necessary to promote animal health, but may entail significant consequences to natural ecosystems, especially in the cases of overdosing and use of banned pharmaceuticals. The vast effects that antibiotics released into the environment have on non-target organisms are already under the scope of researchers but little attention has been given to primary producers such as macroalgae. The present study assessed furaltadone's, an antibacterial agent illegally used for veterinary purposes, uptake capacity by Ulva lactuca and its effect in the growth of this cosmopolitan macroalgae. Differences in macroalgal growth were shown when submitted to prophylactic and therapeutic concentrations of furaltadone in the water (16 and 32 ?g mL?¹, respectively). The therapeutic concentration caused higher growth impairment than the prophylactic treatment did, with 87.5% and 58% reductions respectively. Furthermore, together with data collected from the accumulation assays, with values of internal concentrations as high as 18.84 ?g g?¹ WW, suggest that the macroalgae U. lactuca should be included in field surveys as a biomonitor for the detection of nitrofurans. PMID:21109284

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Lemos, Marco F L; Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel A

2011-02-01

47

Interactions of silver nanoparticles with the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed for 48 h to different concentrations of Ag added as either silver nanoparticles (AgNP) or aqueous metal (AgNO(3)) and the resulting toxicity, estimated from reductions in quenching of chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and accumulation of Ag measured. Aqueous Ag was toxic at available concentrations as low as about 2.5 ?g l(-1) and exhibited considerable accumulation that could be defined by the Langmuir equation. AgNP were not phytotoxic to the macroalga at available Ag concentrations up to at least 15 ?g l(-1) and metal measured in U. lactuca was attributed to a physical association of nanoparticles at the algal surface. At higher AgNP concentrations, a dose-response relationship was observed that was similar to that for aqueous Ag recorded at much lower concentrations. These findings suggest that AgNP are only indirectly toxic to marine algae through the dissolution of Ag(+) ions into bulk sea water, albeit at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those predicted in the environment. PMID:21877230

Turner, Andrew; Brice, David; Brown, Murray T

2012-01-01

48

Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG?1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ?Cu-PMG-Cu to ?Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG. PMID:23376752

Trinelli, María Alcira; Areco, María Mar; Afonso, María dos Santos

2013-05-01

49

Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. PMID:24146153

Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

2013-12-01

50

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Liliana de O. Rocha

2004-12-01

51

Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil / Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em [...] 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos. Abstract in english The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20) (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile) (20), that were purchased in drugstores and mar [...] kets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

Liliana de O., Rocha; Maria Magali S. R., Soares; Cristiana Leslie, Corrêa.

2004-12-01

52

Growth and Cell Cycle of ULVA Compressa (Ulvophyceae) under Led Illumination.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 50, ?. 2 (2014), s. 744-752. ISSN 0022-3646 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture(JP) 22580379 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * ulva * elongation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.529, year: 2013

Kuwano, K.; Abe, N.; Nishi, Y.; Seno, H.; Nishihara, G.N.; Iima, M.; Zachleder, Vilém

2014-01-01

53

USE OF ULVA LACTUTA TO IDENTIFY AMMONIA TOXICITY IN MARINE AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity identification evaluation(TIE) methods are being developed for use with whole sediments. Although a phase I TIE method has been developed to characterize ammonia toxicity in aqueous samples using the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca, the relationship between amphipod and my...

54

USE OF ULVA LACTUCA TO DISTINGUISH PH DEPENDENT TOXICANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) is a cosmopolitan marine attached green seaweed capable of sequestering high environmental levels of ammonia. Ammonia can be acutely toxic to marine organisms and is often found in dredged sediments from highly industrial areas or from areas with high c...

55

Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L(-1)) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (lactuca. PMID:19375205

Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T

2009-01-01

56

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans. After infection, inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases often develop. Still there are no effective drugs available against virus infection. Recently, extracts of algae have been shown to possess a broad range of biological activities including antivirus activity. In this study, we identified that the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca can inhibit JEV infection in Vero cells. Mechanistic studies further revealed that the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can block virus adsorption and thus make the virus unable to enter cells. The Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts also effectively decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the JEV-infected primary mixed glia cells. In an animal study, the JEV-infected C3H/HeN mice appeared to have neurobehavioral abnormalities on the fifth day and died on the seventh day post infection. However, the JEV-infected mice pretreated with the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can delay the onset of hind limb paralysis and thereby prevent mice from death. PMID:22193590

Chiu, Ya-Huang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

2012-08-01

57

The influence of solution chemistry on REE uptake by Ulva lactuca L. in seawater  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous uptake of Ce(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Yb(III), and Zn(II) by an organic substrate, Ulva lactuca L., was examined in seawater. REE behavior was observed to be strongly dependent on solution complexation. Over a range of carbonate ion concentrations between 10 -6 mol kg-soln -1 and 7 × 10 -3 mol kg-soln -1, the affinity of Ulva lactuca for Gd(III) decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude. The influence of carbonate complexation on REE solid/solution distributions was much larger for Yb(III) than for Gd(III) and was larger for Gd(III) than for Ce(III). At carbonate ion concentrations greater than about 6 × 10 -5molkg- soln-1, REE solid/solution partition coefficients, DT( M) = ( REEactivityg-1Ulva)/( REEactivityg-1seawater) exhibited the order Ce(III) > Eu(III) > Gd(III) > Yb(III). At carbonate ion concentrations less than about 3 × 10 =-5molkg- soln-1, the affinity of Ulva lactuca L. for REEs exhibited the order Eu( III) > Gd( III) > Ce( III) > Yb( III). Our partition coefficient observations are in general accord with shale-normalized REE abundance patterns in seawater. Adsorption by organic substrates can produce heavy REE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs, Gd(III) solution enrichments relative to Eu(III), and, at relatively low carbonate ion concentrations, enrichments of very light REEs compared to their immediate neighbors. The behavior of Zn(II) in our study differed considerably from the REEs. The partition of Zn(II) between Ulva and seawater is not strongly dependent on carbonate ion concentration.

Stanley, John K., Jr.; Byrne, Robert H.

1990-06-01

58

Pheophorbide and pheophytin a-like pigments as useful markers for intertidal microphytobenthos grazing by Hydrobia ulvae  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigment degradation by Hydrobia ulvae, feeding on an intertidal mudflat dominated by diatoms, was studied in the laboratory. HPLC analysis identified significantly higher amounts of pheopigments in grazed sediment and a decrease in the concentrations of major chlorophylls ( a and c1+ c2) and carotenoides (fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and ?-carotene). Grazing by H. ulvae leads to a stronger pheophorbide a accumulation relative to pheophytin a. Dominant chlorophyll a degradation products were the less polar pheophorbide a4 and pheophytin a2. These pigments were identified in very high concentrations in H. ulvae faecal pellets. Although a major disadvantage of the HPLC method is the uncertainty regarding the extent and rate of pigment conversion into colourless products, these data strongly suggest the possible use of pheophorbide a4 and pheophytin a2 as useful markers for intertidal microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae.

Cartaxana, P.; Jesus, B.; Brotas, V.

2003-10-01

59

Biomethanation potential of macroalgae Ulva spp. and Gracilaria spp. and in co-digestion with waste activated sludge  

OpenAIRE

Biochemical methane potential of four species of Ulva and Gracilaria genus was assessed in batch assays at mesophilic temperature. The results indicate a higher specific methane production (per volatile solids) for one of the Ulva sp. compared with other macroalgae and for tests running with 2.5% of total solids (196 ± 9 L CH4 kg?1 VS). Considering that macroalgae can potentially be a post treatment of municipal wastewater for nutrients removal, co-digestion of macroalgae with waste activa...

Costa, J. C.; Gonc?alves, P. R.; Nobre, A. M.; Alves, M. M.

2012-01-01

60

Impact of mercury contamination on the population dynamics of Peringia ulvae (Gastropoda): Implications on metal transfer through the trophic web  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of mercury contamination on the population structure and dynamics of the gastropod Peringia ulvae (also known as Hydrobia ulvae) and its impact on the trophic web were assessed along a mercury gradient in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The gastropod was revealed to be a tolerant species to the contaminant, since the highest densities, biomasses and growth productivity values were recorded at the intermediate contaminated area followed by the most contaminated one and finally the least contaminated area. P. ulvae was however negatively affected by mercury in terms of growth and life span. So, in the most contaminated area the population was characterised mainly by the presence of juveniles and young individuals. The intermediate contaminated area showed a greater equilibrium in terms of groups' proportion, being the adults the dominant set. The least contaminated area presented intermediate values. P. ulvae life spans were shortest in the most contaminated area (7-8 mo), followed by the least contaminated area (10-11 mo) and finally, the intermediate one (11-14 mo). P. ulvae revealed to be an important vehicle of mercury transfer from sediments to the trophic web, incorporating approximately 15 g of Hg, annually, in the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 Km2). Therefore, despite P. ulvae being revealed to be not a good bio-indicator of mercury contamination, since it did not suffer profound modifications in its structure and functioning, it is a crucial element in the mercury biomagnification processes throughout the food web.

Cardoso, P. G.; Sousa, E.; Matos, P.; Henriques, B.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

2013-09-01

61

Effects of Ulva rigida on the Growth, Feed Intake and Body Composition of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

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Full Text Available This study is the first trial to evaluate algae meal, Ulva rigida, as an inexpensive and locally available feed ingredient in the diet of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Five experimental diets were supplemented with Ulva meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% (C0, U5, U10, U15 and U20, respectively to investigate the effect of replacement of wheat meal by Ulva meal for common carp, Cyprinus carpio during a 112-day growth trial. Carp fingerlings, each initially weighing 3.1 g, were stocked into 60 l-glass tanks and were fed to apparent satiation three times daily. Performances of fish fed the test diets were evaluated in terms of survival, final mean weight, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and body composition. Poorest growth performance was recorded from fish fed the diet with 20% Ulva meal supplementation (U20 (p< 0.05. Fish group fed with 5% Ulva meal inclusion (U5 achieved the best growth performance (p>0.05. Results suggested that the dietary Ulva meal inclusion of 5 to 15% replacing wheat meal in carp diets could be acceptable.

Ibrahim Diler

2007-01-01

62

Avaliação da ação da macroalga marinha Ulva lactuca em animais de experimentação  

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Full Text Available Ulva lactuca é uma macroalga verde marinha comum em ambientes de temperatura elevada e com grandes variações de salinidade. A flora ficológica marinha vem sendo objeto de estudo por apresentar propriedades farmacoterapêuticas sobre o metabolismo animal, além de oferecer uma alternativa viável no tratamento de patologias que acometem o ser humano e afeta a sua qualidade de vida, ela é bastante utilizada na culinária, como iogurte, sushi. Objetivando avaliar a toxicidade aguda da Ulva lactuca foram utilizados camundongos albinos Swiss (Mus musculus, durante os estudos foi evidenciado que a alga tem efeitos estimulante do sistema nervoso central e periférico, e que em doses elevadas como 2000 a 3750 mg/kg/ip podem causar alterações na morfologia dos órgão comprometendo seu funcionamento,já que foram observado na analise macroscópica dos órgãos que os vasos do trato gastrointestinal estavam dilatados, os rins hipertrofiados,o fígado isquêmico , pulmões hemorrágicos,e a bexiga cheia.

Carla Andrea de Moura

2013-09-01

63

Effect of background colour on growth and adhesion strength of Ulva sporelings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of a range of black, grey and white substrata on the growth and attachment strength of Ulva sporelings on glass and polydimethylsiloxane (Silastic-T2) surfaces. The rate of development of sporelings was strongly influenced by the colour of the substratum on which they grew. On black backgrounds, sporelings grew slowly and germination was delayed. Laboratory screening methods for antifouling and fouling-release coatings that rely on the growth of Ulva sporelings can be compromised if samples are of different colours. Hydrodynamic removal of sporelings from coatings may also be affected by substratum colour, since smaller plants generate lower hydrodynamic forces making them more difficult to remove. PMID:18386189

Finlay, John A; Fletcher, Benjamin R; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

2008-01-01

64

Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2009-08-15

65

Allelopathic Interactions between the Opportunistic Species Ulva prolifera and the Native Macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides  

OpenAIRE

Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L?1 significantly inhibited gr...

Xu, Dong; Gao, Zhengquan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

66

Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 {mu}g L{sup -1}), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals.

Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Sook; Lee, Han-Kyun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2008-01-31

67

Morphology and molecular identification of Ulva forming green tides in Qingdao, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Green tides are caused by the proliferation of chlorophytes under suitable hydrographic conditions. These blooms lead to environmental degradation and negatively impact the waters and seagrass beds, as well as fishing and other recreational activities in the bay. A comprehensive ecological understanding of the bloom dynamics, including the origin and persistence, is needed to foster management decisions. The algae in the great majority of green tide blooms usually belong to two genera of Ulvophyceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha. Ulva has been observed more often in recent years. In China, green tides occurred for the first time in the middle area of the Yellow Sea in 2007, and a large-scale algae blooming broke out in the middle and southern areas of the Yellow Sea in late May 2008. We identified them as Ulva prolifera by comparative analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S and ITS2 sequences in combination with microscopic observation. Morphological differences were found between the free-floating algae and the attached thalli. Various reproduction patterns of the free-floating algae include sexual, asexual and vegetative propagations, which played important roles in the long-term green tide persistence in China. The ITS sequences of the blooming algae were identical to those of the samples from the Lianyungang sea area but were different from the attached samples from the Qingdao sea area. The results infer that the blooms are originated from other sea areas rather than from the local attached populations.

Kong, Fanna; Mao, Yunxiang; Cui, Fujun; Zhang, Xingkui; Gao, Zhen

2011-03-01

68

Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC{sub 50} of 0.040 mg L{sup -1}) > Cd (0.095 mg L{sup -1}) > Pb (0.489 mg L{sup -1}) > Zn (0.572 mg L{sup -1}). The EC{sub 50} for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC{sub 50} of 0.788 {mu}l L{sup -1}) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests.

Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Han, Young-Seok [Institute of Green Technology, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin Young; Jun, Yong Sung; Kwon, Mun Ju [Marine Research Division, Incheon Health and Environment Institute, Incheon 400-102 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2008-06-15

69

Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040 mg L-1) > Cd (0.095 mg L-1) > Pb (0.489 mg L-1) > Zn (0.572 mg L-1). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 ?g L-1. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788 ?l L-1) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests

70

Inorganic nitrogen control in wastewater treatment ponds from a fish farm (Orbetello, Italy): Denitrification versus Ulva uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the N removal efficiency of an Ulva-based phytotreatment system receiving wastewaters from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy), to identify the main biogeochemical pathways involved and to provide basic guidelines for treatment implementation and management. Fluxes of O2 and nutrients in bare and in Ulva colonised sediments were assessed by light/dark core incubations; denitrification by the isotope pairing technique and Ulva growth by in situ incubation of macroalgal disks in cages. O2 and nutrient budgets were estimated as sum of individual processes and further verified by 24-h investigations of overall inlet and outlet loads. Ulva uptake (up to 7.8mmolNm-2h-1) represented a net sink for water column and regenerated NH4+ whilst N removal via denitrification (10-170?molNm-2h-1) accounted for a small percentage of inorganic nitrogen load (-2h-1) indicating that N loss could be enhanced. The control of Ulva standing stocks by optimised harvesting of surplus biomass may represent an effective strategy to maximise DIN removal and could result in the assimilation of ?50% of produced inorganic nitrogen

71

Efecto de Ulva Spp. sobre el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten Purpuratus en la Bahía de Paracas / Effect of Ulva Spp. on growth and survival of Argopecten Purpuratus in Paracas Bay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú) durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada u [...] no con tres unidades experimentales de 1m2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con 10 (T2) y 20 (T3) kg/m2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1), es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repetición (30 por tratamiento) y se registró la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gónada. La supervivencia se evaluó contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registró la temperatura y oxígeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registró diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentración de oxígeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluyó que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extracción. Abstract in english This study compares the growth and survival of juvenile Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) seeded with different densities of Ulva spp., in the bay of Paracas (Ica-Peru) between August 7 and October 16, 2011. For this purpose, three pens were installed each with three experimental units of 1m2 an [...] d each experimental unit had a density of 60 scallops /m2, with an average height of 40-50mm. In two of the pens Ulva spp., was introduced with 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) kg/m2 and the third was considered witness (T1), ie without Ulva spp. To assess growth, every two weeks 10 scallops for each repetition (30 in each treatment) were randomly extracted their individual height was recorded and dry weight and gonad somatic tissue were sampled. Survival was assessed by counting the dead individuals in varying periods. During the entire experiment temperature and bottom oxygen were assessed every 30 minutes while pH, conductivity and currents were daily assessed at noon in the treatments middle zone. Chlorophyll a was measured daily, for each treatment. The results indicate that survival, height and weight were affected by the presence of Ulva spp. Oxygen concentration and chlorophyll a, showed higher concentration in the presence of Ulva spp. It was concluded that higher than 20 kg spp./m2 densities of Ulva affect growth and survival of A. purpuratus, so a removal is recommended.

Daniel, Arce Castro; Jaime, Mendo.

2014-07-01

72

EFECTO DE Ulva spp. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE Argopecten purpuratus EN LA BAHÍA DE PARACAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada uno con tres unidades experimentales de 1m 2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con 10 (T2 y 20 (T3 kg/m 2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1, es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repetición (30 por tratamiento y se registró la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gónada. La supervivencia se evaluó contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registró la temperatura y oxígeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registró diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentración de oxígeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluyó que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extracción.

Daniel Arce Castro

2014-01-01

73

Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

2005-12-01

74

Lead, mercury, and certain nutrient elements in Ulva lactuca (linnaeus) from Ras Beirut, Lebanon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of the algae Ulva lactuca from nine locations along the coast of Ras Beirut, Lebanon, were analyzed for lead, mercury, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. All samples had low lead concentrations, suggesting that U. lactuca has a mechanism for controlling lead toxicity; phosphate may be a factor in this process. Concentrations of most other elements were relatively uniform, indicating that U. lactuca is subject to similar environmental conditions in terms of exposure to various elements, and that it might be able to maintain biological stability under high environmental stress levels. Further toxicity studies on U. lactuca are needed. (1 map, 50 references, 2 tables)

Shiber, J.; Washburn, E.

1978-10-27

75

Preliminary results on laboratory simulations of the decomposition of the green algae Ulva rigida  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ulva Rigida is a cosmopolitan green algae characteristic of many eutrophic and mesotrophic coastal environments. The effect of its growth and decomposition on the cycle of trace metals has been studied by using enclosures in the site Loutropyrgos over a number of years. The present study is a continuation of that research. Its main aim was to simulate a number of the field experiments in the laboratory, under more controlled conditions and understand better the impact of the decomposition of algae on sea water and sediment

76

Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2010-12-15

77

Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

Mauffret, A., E-mail: aourell.mauffret@icman.csic.e [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Rico-Rico, A. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Temara, A. [The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels (Belgium); Blasco, J. [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

2010-02-15

78

Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 ?M NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 ?M NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. PMID:23954716

Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

2013-10-01

79

Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 ?g[L(h)1/2]-1, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO3)2, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

80

Freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) as a bioaccumulator of selected heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) and alkaline earth metals (Ca and Mg)  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed the ability of freshwater taxa of the genus Ulva (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) to serve as bioindicators of metal in lakes and rivers. Changes in heavy metal (Ni, Cd and Pb) and alkaline earth metal (Ca and Mg) concentrations in freshwater Ulva thalli were investigated during the period from June to August 2010. The study was conducted in two ecosystems in Western Poland, the Malta lake (10 sites) and the Nielba river (six sites). Three components were collected for each sample, includi...

Rybak, Andrzej; Messyasz, Beata; ?e?ska, Bogus?awa

2012-01-01

81

Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1) y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy. PMID:21044839

Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

2011-02-01

82

Production of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli cultured in extract from waste product alga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the potential for waste product alga, Ulva lactuca, to serve as a media component for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. To facilitate this investigation, U. lactuca harvested from Jamaica Bay was dried, and nutrients acid extracted for use as a growth media. The E. coli cell line BL21(DE3) was used to assess the effects on growth and production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP). This study showed that media composed of acid extracts without further nutrient addition maintained E. coli growth and recombinant protein production. Extracts made from dried algae lots less than six-months-old were able to produce two-fold more GFP protein than traditional Lysogeny Broth media. PMID:24799463

Rechtin, Tammy M; Hurst, Matthew; Potts, Tom; Hestekin, Jamie; Beitle, Robert; McLaughlin, John; May, Peter

2014-01-01

83

Inhibitory activities of Ulva lactuca polysaccharides on digestive enzymes related to diabetes and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alga Ulva lactuca polysaccharides (ULPS) on key enzymes related to diabetes and obesity. This marine natural product, ULPS, exerted potential inhibition on key enzymes related to starch digestion and absorption in both plasma and small intestine mainly ?-amylase by 53% and 34% and maltase by 97 and 164% respectively, leading to a significant decrease in blood glucose rate by 297%. Moreover, ULPS potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption as lipase activity in both plasma and small intestine by 235 and 287% respectively, which led to a notable decrease of blood LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and in the counterpart an increase in HDL-cholesterol level in surviving diabetic rats. Additively, ULPS significantly protected the liver-kidney functions, by decreasing of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities and creatinine, urea and albumin rates in plasma. PMID:23638862

BelHadj, Sahla; Hentati, Olfa; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hamden, Khaled

2013-05-01

84

Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). PMID:23201525

van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

2013-01-01

85

Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha?1 y?1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g?1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy.

Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas

2011-01-01

86

Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

2013-11-15

87

Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1)y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy.

Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas

2011-01-01

88

Iron-encrusted diatoms and bacteria epibiotic on Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Rust-coloured shells of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae collected in the Wadden Sea near Texel and in the Jade Busen were analysed under the scanning electron microscope. Most of the shells were found to be covered with a microbial community encrusted with an iron-rich mineral containing traces of Mn, Mg, Ca and Si (EDAX analysis). The community formed a biofilm including two morphotypes of diatoms identified as Cocconeis placentula and Achnanthes lemmermanni, two morphotypes of slender filamentous bacteria resembling Leucothrix and Flexibacter, aggregates of coccoid cells and large trichomes resembling members of the cyanobacterial orders Pleurocapsales and Stigonematales, respectively. The most frequent microorganisms of the biofilm were diatoms and filamentous bacteria.

Gillan, D. C.; Cadée, G. C.

2000-02-01

89

Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and fluctuating levels of nitrogen sources. Our understanding of the influences of this varying condition on the uptake and growth responses of U. lactuca is limited. In this present work, we examined the growth response of U. lactuca exposed to different sources of nitrogen (NH4+; NO3?; and the combination NH4NO3) by using photo-scanning technology for monitoring the growth kinetics of U. lactuca. The images revealed differential increases of the surface area of U. lactuca disks with time in response to different N-nutrient enrichments. The results showed a favorable growth response to ammonium as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 ?M of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4?±?0.18% day?1 and 9.4?±?0.72% day?1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5?±?0.24 mg DW m?2·day?1. The presence of ammonium apparently discriminated the nitrate uptake by U. lactuca when exposed to NH4NO3. Apart from showing the significant differential growth response of U. lactuca to different nitrogen sources, the work exhibits the applicability of a photo-scanning approach for acquiring precise quantitative growth data for U. lactuca as exemplified by assessment of the growth response to two different N-sources.

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, JØrn Dalgaard

2011-01-01

90

Biomethanation potential of macroalgae Ulva spp. and Gracilaria spp. and in co-digestion with waste activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical methane potential of four species of Ulva and Gracilaria genus was assessed in batch assays at mesophilic temperature. The results indicate a higher specific methane production (per volatile solids) for one of the Ulva sp. compared with other macroalgae and for tests running with 2.5% of total solids (196±9 L CH(4) kg(-1)VS). Considering that macroalgae can potentially be a post treatment of municipal wastewater for nutrients removal, co-digestion of macroalgae with waste activated sludge (WAS) was assessed. The co-digestion of macroalgae (15%) with WAS (85%) is feasible at a rate of methane production 26% higher than WAS alone without decreasing the overall biodegradability of the substrate (42-45% methane yield). The use of anoxic marine sediment as inoculum had no positive effect on the methane production in batch assays. The limiting step of the overall anaerobic digestion process was the hydrolysis. PMID:22459959

Costa, J C; Gonçalves, P R; Nobre, A; Alves, M M

2012-06-01

91

Saturating light and not increased carbon dioxide under ocean acidification drives photosynthesis and growth in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon physiology of a genetically identified Ulva rigida was investigated under different CO2(aq) and light levels. The study was designed to answer whether (1) light or exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) pool is driving growth; and (2) elevated CO2(aq) concentration under ocean acidification (OA) will downregulate CAext-mediated [Formula: see text] dehydration and alter the stable carbon isotope (? (13)C) signatures toward more CO2 use to support higher growth rate. At pHT 9.0 where CO2(aq) is <1 ?mol L(-1), inhibition of the known [Formula: see text] use mechanisms, that is, direct [Formula: see text] uptake through the AE port and CAext-mediated [Formula: see text] dehydration decreased net photosynthesis (NPS) by only 56-83%, leaving the carbon uptake mechanism for the remaining 17-44% of the NPS unaccounted. An in silico search for carbon-concentrating mechanism elements in expressed sequence tag libraries of Ulva found putative light-dependent [Formula: see text] transporters to which the remaining NPS can be attributed. The shift in ? (13)C signatures from -22‰ toward -10‰ under saturating light but not under elevated CO2(aq) suggest preference and substantial [Formula: see text] use to support photosynthesis and growth. U. rigida is Ci saturated, and growth was primarily controlled by light. Therefore, increased levels of CO2(aq) predicted for the future will not, in isolation, stimulate Ulva blooms. PMID:25750714

Rautenberger, Ralf; Fernández, Pamela A; Strittmatter, Martina; Heesch, Svenja; Cornwall, Christopher E; Hurd, Catriona L; Roleda, Michael Y

2015-02-01

92

Fatty acid profiles indicate the habitat of mud snails Hydrobia ulvae within the same estuary: Mudflats vs. seagrass meadows  

Science.gov (United States)

Mud snails Hydrobia ulvae occupy different habitats in complex estuarine ecosystems. In order to determine if fatty acid profiles displayed by mud snails can be used to identify the habitat that they occupy within the same estuary, fatty acids of H. ulvae from one mudflat and one seagrass meadow in the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) were analyzed and compared to those displayed by microphytobenthos (MPB), the green leaves (epiphyte-free) of Zostera noltii, as well as those exhibited by the epiphytic community colonizing this seagrass. MPB and epiphytic diatom-dominated samples displayed characteristic fatty acids, such as 16:1 n-7 and 20:5 n-3, while 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 were the dominant fatty acids in the green leaves of Z. noltii. Significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of H. ulvae specimens sampled in the mudflat and the seagrass meadow could be identified, with those from the mudflat displaying higher levels of fatty acids known to be characteristic of MPB. This result points towards the well known existence of grazing activity on MPB by mud snails. The fatty acid profiles displayed by H. ulvae inhabiting the seagrass meadows show no evidence of direct bioaccumulation of the two most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids of Z. noltii (18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3) in the mud snails, which probably indicates that either these compounds can be metabolized to produce energy, used as precursors for the synthesis of essential fatty acids, or that the snails do not consume seagrass leaves at all. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles of mud snails inhabiting the seagrass meadows revealed the existence of substantial inputs from microalgae, suggesting that the epiphytic community colonizing the leaves of Z. noltii displays an important role on the diet of these organisms. This assumption is supported by the high levels of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 recorded in mud snails sampled from seagrass meadows. In conclusion, fatty acid analyses of H. ulvae can be successfully used to identify the habitat occupied by these organisms within the same estuary (e.g. mudflats and seagrass meadows) and reveal the existence of contrasting dietary regimes.

Coelho, Helena; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Reis, Alberto; Queiroga, Henrique; Serôdio, João; Calado, Ricardo

2011-03-01

93

Nonlinear modelisation of heavy metal removal from aqueous solution using Ulva lactuca algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

After extensive analysis, Ulva lactuca dried algae, collected from the Monastir coastal zone, was proven to be successful as an adsorbent for the removal of certain inorganic pollutants. The main objective of this study was the nonlinear modeling of heavy metal removal from an aqueous solution, using a freely available and well analyzed biomaterial, as well as the evaluation of its efficacy on various metal ion sorptions. Although relatively low specific surface area, compared to more conventional adsorbents, the selected biomaterial displays very interesting retention capacities when used with aqueous inorganic pollutants. The pseudo, first and second-order kinetic models were used to investigate the kinetic retention mechanism. Assuming the nonlinear form, the results indicate that the retention mechanism is diffusion controlled. Concerning the heavy metal uptake capacity, it was found that the selected biomaterial has a retention capacity of 67 mg g(-1) of Ni(II), 112 mg g(-1) of Cu(II), 127 mg g(-1) of Cd(II) and 230 mg g(-1) of Pb(II). PMID:20855200

Zakhama, S; Dhaouadi, H; M'Henni, F

2011-01-01

94

Toxicity of the amphoteric surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine, to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degradation of the synthetic, amphoteric surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and its toxicity to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been evaluated using several different physiological test end-points over different periods of exposure up to 120 h. Droplet surface angle measurements revealed that, following a period of acclimation of about 24 h, CAPB began to degrade and that primary degradation was complete within 120 h. Effective quantum yield (?F/F(m)') and relative growth rates (RGRs) were the most sensitive measures of phytotoxicity, with CAPB concentrations at and above 10 mg l(-1) eliciting irreversible, time-dependent and/or dose-dependent responses. Cell membrane damage, estimated from measurements of ion leakage, was detected only at a concentration of 40 mg l(-1) after 48 h of exposure to CAPB but by 120 h damage was evident at all measured concentrations above 10 mg l(-1). These observations suggest that both CAPB and its metabolites are intrinsically toxic to U. lactuca. The findings of this study are discussed in terms of the environmental consequences of applying CAPB to control harmful algal blooms. PMID:21082243

Vonlanthen, Sofie; Brown, Murray T; Turner, Andrew

2011-01-01

95

Role of Ulva lactuca extract in alleviation of salinity stress on wheat seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased with increasing the algal extract concentration while activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased with increasing concentration of algal extract more than 1% (w/v). The protein pattern of wheat seedling showed 12 newly formed bands as result of algal extract treatments compared with control. The bioactive components in U. lactuca extract such as ascorbic acid, betaine, glutathione, and proline could potentially participate in the alleviation of salinity stress. Therefore, algal presoaking is proved to be an effective technique to improve the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress conditions. PMID:25436231

Ibrahim, Wael M; Ali, Refaat M; Hemida, Khaulood A; Sayed, Makram A

2014-01-01

96

Optimization and kinetic studies on algal oil extraction from marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this present investigation, kinetic studies on oil extraction were performed in marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca. The algal biomass was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. Six different pre-treatment methods were carried out to evaluate the best method for maximum oil extraction. Optimization of extraction parameters were performed and high oil yield was obtained at 5% moisture content, 0.12 mm particle size, 500 rpm stirrer speed, 55°C temperature, 140 min time and solvent-to-solid ratio as 6:1 with 1% diethyl-ether and 10% methylene chloride in n-hexane solvent mixture. After optimization, 10.88% (g/g) of oil extraction yield was achieved from 30 g of algal biomass. The rate constant was obtained for the first order kinetic study by differential method. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated as 63.031 kJ/mol. From the results obtained in the investigation, U. lactuca biomass was proved to be a suitable source for the biodiesel production. PMID:22209436

Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

2012-03-01

97

Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 ?g[L(h)(1/2)](-1), and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO(3))(2), suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. PMID:20828903

Turner, Andrew; Rice, Lynsey

2010-12-01

98

Effect of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca on Soil Water Holding Capacity  

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Full Text Available In this study, the effect of sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca on soil water-holding capacity and the variation by over time were investigated. Sea lettuce (algae was collected from the Black Sea coast, rinsed with rain water and dried to constant weight. Dried algae were added to soil at rate of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Mixtures were filling the pots and incubated for 0, 20, 40, 60 days at 25 ºC. At the end of the incubation, soil organic matter and water holding capacity were determined. Adding of algae to soil was increased the porosity and water holding capacity. The amount of the organic matter was decreased by the incubation progress. At the 20 and 40 days, micro-porosity was increased, air capacity decreased and water-holding capacity has not changed. At the 60th incubation days, reduction of organic matter content was slowed, air capacity was reached to normal values and water holding capacity was decreased. Total porosity was not changed. At the beginning (0th and the 60th incubation days, the distinctive dose was obtained at 5% for porosity and water holding capacity increases. Increased doses of the above have been limited. The optimum dose of 5% as determined by the addition of algae was increased soil water holding capacity by 48% on average.

Ömer Hulusi Dede

2011-06-01

99

Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca (seaweed) at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. UV spectral analysis showed peak at 430 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by silver nanoparticles. FT-IR studies reveal the presence of bioactive functional groups such as phenolic compounds, amines and aromatic ring are found to be the capping and stabilizing agents of nanoparticles. The morphology of silver nanoparticles was found to be spherical and ranges about 48.59 nm as confirmed by HR-SEM. Negative zeta potential value of -34 mV suggests that the nanoparticles are highly stable in colloidal solution. XRD patterns also suggest the occurrence of spherical shaped particles due to the presence of silver ions. Further, photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using U. lactuca was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange. PMID:23266074

Kumar, P; Govindaraju, M; Senthamilselvi, S; Premkumar, K

2013-03-01

100

A LC-MS/MS methodology to determine furaltadone residues in the macroalgae Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, the rise of new contaminants in the environment has widened the scope of pharmaceutical analyses as to face the demanding new challenges. An increasing tendency for the interconnection and overlap of research fields, such as ecology and biochemistry, is intensifying the demand for new methodologies to be applied to the survey of drugs in unconventional matrices. Integrated in this group are macrophytes, such as the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca, which are under study as to ascertain their ability as indicators of contamination for many substances. Nonetheless, methodologies for extraction and determination of drugs in such matrices are scarce and new studies on the subject are pressing. A new methodology for the determination of the antibiotic furaltadone in U. lactuca by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was developed, optimized and validated following the guidelines of the EC Decision 2002/657. The calibration curves showed linearity above 0.99 (R(2)). The relative standard deviations obtained for repeatability, expressed as CV, were between 15.3 and 20.5 and for reproducibility 25.3 and 28.2 whereas accuracy was in the interval of 88.9-95.5 (%). The limit of decision (CC?) and the detection capability (CC?) were respectively 5.57 ?g kg(-1) and 10.97 ?g kg(-1). The method was successfully applied to experimental samples. PMID:22105023

Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Freitas, Andreia; Barbosa, Jorge; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

2011-12-15

101

Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai  

Science.gov (United States)

From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

2011-05-01

102

Allelopathic interactions between the opportunistic species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L(-1) significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L(-1) (p0.05). Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community. PMID:22496758

Xu, Dong; Gao, Zhengquan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Yitao; Li, Demao; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

103

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl2(NH3)2), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH2)(NH3)2+) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: ? This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. ? Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. ? Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. ? Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. ? Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

104

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH{sub 2})(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: > This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. > Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. > Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. > Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. > Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

Easton, Cecilia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Sewell, Graham [School of Health Professions, University of Plymouth, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Plymouth PL6 8BH (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15

105

VARIACIONES EN LA MORFOMETRÍA DE ULVA LACTUCA L (ULVOPHYCEAE EN DOS ZONAS CONTAMINADAS DE LA BAHÍA DE SANTIAGO DE CUBA  

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Full Text Available El presente trabajo expone los resultados obtenidos acerca de la dinámica de crecimiento de la especie Ulva lactuca L en dos zonas contaminadas de la bahía de Santiago de Cuba, durante el período de febrero a mayo de 2007. En cada zona se efectuaron cada 15 días tres transectos para analizar las variaciones morfométricas. El largo de los frondes presentó variaciones entre 0,8 cm y 24,6 cm y el ancho entre 3,0 cm y 42,5 cm. La estación más idónea para el crecimiento de la especie fue Cayo Granma.

Miguel \\u00C1ngel Castell-Puchades

2013-01-01

106

Biosorption of copper, nickel and manganese using non-living biomass of marine alga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8) on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L(-1)). The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L(-1) was the same as 20 and 30 mg L(-1), increase with increasing pH up to pH 5.0 and then decreased, in single and multimetal solutions. The optimum pH value was observed in the pH range 4-5 for Cu2+ and pH 5-6 for Ni2+ and Mn2+. The maximum biosorption capacities of tested alga for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were 92, 80 and 75%, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L(-1) and pH 5.0. At a further increase of pH (8.0) the biosorption process for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (75, 69 and 63%, respectively at 10 mg L(-1)) was decreased. The minimum biosorptions were 60, 49 and 44% for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L(-1) and pH 2.0. In the multimetal solution, algal biomass exhibited the maximum and the minimum biosorption capacity at different pH values the same as in single metal solution. The inhibitory role of other ions on sorption process can be well observed in multimetal mixture, where biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were significantly decreased in the multimetal solutions. The maximum biosorption was recorded for Cu2+ (83%) in solution of Cu2+ + Mn2+, Mn2+ (67%) in solution of Ni2 + Mn2+ and for Ni2+ (74%) in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ at the concentration 10 mg L(-1) and pH 5.0. The observed reduction in the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (65, 57 and 52%, respectively at 10 mg L(-1) and pH 5.0) was more pronounced in the multimetal solution of Cu2 + Ni2+ + Mn2+ as compared with single metal solution. The results demonstrated that the affinity of the tested alga for sorption of the investigated metal ions in single and multimetal solutions runs in the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Mn2+. Biosorption equilibrium was established by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the analyses conducted, the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ to Ulva lactuca was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm. PMID:18810964

Omar, Hanan Hafez

2008-04-01

107

Biosorption of Copper, Nickel and Manganese Using Non-Living Biomass of Marine Alga, Ulva lactuca  

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Full Text Available The adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ onto the marine algal biomass of Ulva lactuca was investigated in single and multimetal solutions. This study was intended to determine the role of different pH values (2-8 on the biosorption of metals at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mg L-1. The biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ for 10 mg L-1 was the same as 20 and 30 mg L-1, increase with increasing pH up to pH 5.0 and then decreased, in single and multimetal solutions. The optimum pH value was observed in the pH range 4-5 for Cu2+ and pH 5-6 for Ni2+ and Mn2+. The maximum biosorption capacities of tested alga for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were 92, 80 and 75%, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0. At a further increase of pH (8.0 the biosorption process for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (75, 69 and 63%, respectively at 10 mg L-1 was decreased. The minimum biosorptions were 60, 49 and 44% for Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+, respectively in single metal solution at 10 mg L-1 and pH 2.0. In the multimetal solution, algal biomass exhibited the maximum and the minimum biosorption capacity at different pH values the same as in single metal solution. The inhibitory role of other ions on sorption process can be well observed in multimetal mixture, where biosorption capacity of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ were significantly decreased in the multimetal solutions. The maximum biosorption was recorded for Cu2+ (83% in solution of Cu2+ + Mn2+, Mn2+ (67% in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ and for Ni2+ (74% in solution of Ni2+ + Mn2+ at the concentration 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0. The observed reduction in the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ (65, 57 and 52%, respectively at 10 mg L-1 and pH 5.0 was more pronounced in the multimetal solution of Cu2+ + Ni2+ + Mn2+ as compared with single metal solution. The results demonstrated that the affinity of the tested alga for sorption of the investigated metal ions in single and multimetal solutions runs in the order Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Mn2+. Biosorption equilibrium was established by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. According to the analyses conducted, the biosorption of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ to Ulva lactuca was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm.

Hanan Hafez Omar

2008-01-01

108

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

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The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

109

Identification of copper-induced genes in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify genes/proteins involved in copper tolerance, the marine alga Ulva compressa was cultivated with 10 ?M copper for 3 days. The activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (AP), peroxiredoxin (PRX), thioredoxin (TRX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the level of lipoperoxides were determined in the alga cultivated with and without copper addition. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipoperoxides level increased in response to copper excess, indicating that the alga was under oxidative stress. A cDNA library was prepared using U. compressa cultivated with 10 ?M copper for 3 days. A total of 3?×?10(4) clones were isolated and 480 clones were sequenced, resulting in 235 non-redundant ESTs, of which 104 encode proteins with known functions. Among them, we identified proteins involved in (1) antioxidant metabolism such as AP, PRX, TRX, GST, and metalothionein (MET), (2) signal transduction, such as calmodulin (CAM), (3) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), (4) gene expression, (5) protein synthesis and degradation, and (6) chloroplast and mitochondria electron transport chains. Half of the identified proteins are potentially localized in organelles. The relative level of 18 genes, including those coding for AP, PRX, TRX, GST, MET, CAM, CDPK, and NDK were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in the alga cultivated with 10 ?M copper for 0 to 7 days. Transcript levels increased in response to copper stress and most of them reached a maximum at days 3 and 5. Thus, the selected genes are induced by copper stress and they are probably involved in copper acclimation and tolerance. PMID:20936320

Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Dennett, Geraldine; González, Alberto; Vergara, Eva; Medina, Cristóbal; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-06-01

110

Copper-induced synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and phytochelatins in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to analyze the synthesis of antioxidant and heavy metal-chelating compounds in response to copper stress, the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) was exposed to 10 ?M copper for 7 days and treated with inhibitors of ASC synthesis, lycorine, and GSH synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The levels of ascorbate, in its reduced (ASC) and oxidized (DHA) forms, glutathione, in its reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, and phytochelatins (PCs) were determined as well as activities of enzymes involved in ASC synthesis, L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-galactono 1,4 lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), and in GSH synthesis, ?-glutamylcysteine synthase (?-GCS) and glutathione synthase (GS). The level of ASC rapidly decreased to reach a minimum at day 1 that remained low until day 7, DHA decreased until day 1 but slowly increased up to day 7 and its accumulation was inhibited by lycorine. In addition, GSH level increased to reach a maximal level at day 5 and GSSG increased up to day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Activities of GDH and GLDH increased until day 7 and GLDH was inhibited by lycorine. Moreover, activities of ?-GCS and GS increased until day 7 and ?-GCS was inhibited by BSO. Furthermore, PC2, PC3 and PC4, increased until day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Thus, copper induced the synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and PCs in U. compressa suggesting that these compounds are involved in copper tolerance. Interestingly, U. compressa is, until now, the only ulvophyte showing ASC, GSH and PCs synthesis in response to copper excess. PMID:22153245

Mellado, Macarena; Contreras, Rodrigo A; González, Alberto; Dennett, Geraldine; Moenne, Alejandra

2012-02-01

111

Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

2015-01-01

112

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH {approx}1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g{sup -1} for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater.

El-Sikaily, Amany [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt); Nemr, Ahmed El [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedmoustafaelnemr@yahoo.com; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola [Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bey, Alexandria (Egypt)

2007-09-05

113

Differential responses to cadmium induced oxidative stress in marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes various biochemical processes involved in the mitigation of cadmium toxicity in green alga Ulva lactuca. The plants when exposed to 0.4 mM CdCl(2) for 4 days showed twofold increase in lipoperoxides and H(2)O(2) content that collectively decreased the growth and photosynthetic pigments by almost 30% over the control. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enhanced by twofold to threefold and that of catalase (CAT) diminished. Further, the isoforms of these enzymes, namely, Mn-SOD (approximately 85 kDa), GR (approximately 180 kDa) and GPX (approximately 50 kDa) responded specifically to Cd(2+) exposure. Moreover, the contents of reduced glutathione (3.01 fold) and ascorbate (1.85 fold) also increased substantially. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity increased by two fold coupled with the induction of two new isoforms upon Cd(2+) exposure. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, although n - 3 PUFAs and n - 6 PUFAs (18:3n - 6 and C18:2n - 6) showed relatively higher contents than control, the latter ones showed threefold increase indicating their prominence in controlling the cadmium stress. Both free and bound soluble putrescine increased noticeably without any change in spermidine. In contrast, spermine content reduced to half over control. Among the macronutrients analysed in exposed thalli, the decreased K content was accompanied by higher Na and Mn with no appreciable change in Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn. Induction of antioxidant enzymes and LOX isoforms together with storage of putrescine and n - 6 PUFAs in cadmium exposed thallus in the present study reveal their potential role in Cd(2+) induced oxidative stress in U. lactuca. PMID:20112049

Kumar, Manoj; Kumari, Puja; Gupta, Vishal; Anisha, P A; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2010-04-01

114

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH ?1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g-1 for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibilimodel. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater

115

Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH approximately 1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g(-1) for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater. PMID:17360109

El-Sikaily, Amany; El Nemr, Ahmed; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola

2007-09-01

116

Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga Ulva reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The batch removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions using Ulva reticulata was investigated in this study. The copper (II) uptake was dependent on initial pH and initial copper concentration, with pH 5.5 being the optimum value. The equilibrium data wer [...] e fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, with the maximum copper (II) uptake of 74.63 mg/g determined at a pH of 5.5. The Freundlich model regression resulted in high correlation coefficients and the model parameters were largely dependent on initial solution pH. At various initial copper (II) concentrations (250 to 1000 mg/L), sorption equilibrium was attained between 30 and 120 min. The copper (II) uptake by U. reticulata was best described by Pseudo-second order rate model and the rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were also reported. The elution efficiency for copper-desorption from U. reticulata was determined for 0.1 M HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and CaCl2 at various Solid-to-Liquid ratios (S/L). The solution CaCl2 (0.1 M) in HCl at pH 3 was chosen to be the most suitable copper-desorbing agent. The biomass was also employed in three sorption-desorption cycles with 0.1 M CaCl2 (in HCl, pH 3) as the elutant.

Kuppusamy, Vijayaraghavan; Joseph, Raj Jegan; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Manickam, Velan.

2004-04-15

117

Inhibition of potential uptake pathways for silver nanoparticles in the estuarine snail Peringia ulvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Mechanisms involved in the uptake of Ag NPs, and NPs in general, have been long debated within nano-ecotoxicology. In vitro studies provide evidence of the different available uptake pathways, but in vivo demonstrations are lacking. In this study, pharmacological inhibitors were employed to block specific uptake pathways that have been implicated in the transport of metal NPs and aqueous metal forms; phenamil (inhibits Na(+) channel), bafilomycin A1 (H(+) proton pump), amantadine (clathrin-mediated endocytosis), nystatin (caveolae-mediated endocytosis) and phenylarsine oxide (PAO, macropinocytosis). Peringia ulvae (snails) were exposed to 150?µg Ag L(-1) added as citrate capped Ag NPs or aqueous Ag (AgNO3) in combination with inhibitor treatment (determined by preliminary studies). Reductions in accumulated tissue burdens caused by the inhibitors were compared to control exposures (i.e. no inhibition) after 6 and 24?h. No inhibitor treatment completely eliminated the uptake of Ag in either aqueous or NP form, but all inhibitor treatments, except phenamil, significantly reduced the uptake of Ag presented as Ag NPs. Clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis appear to be mechanisms exploited by Ag NPs, with the latter pathway only active at 24?h. Inhibition of the H(+) proton pump showed that a portion of Ag NP uptake is achieved as aqueous Ag and is explained by the dissolution of the particles (?25% in 24?h). This in vivo study demonstrates that uptake of Ag from Ag NPs is achieved by multiple pathways and that these pathways are simultaneously active. PMID:25137295

Khan, Farhan R; Misra, Superb K; Bury, Nicolas R; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S; Luoma, Samuel N; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2014-08-19

118

Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, Crk

2015-01-01

119

Prevalence and mechanism of polyunsaturated aldehydes production in the green tide forming macroalgal genus Ulva (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase mediated transformations convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into various oxylipins. First, lipoxygenases catalyze fatty acid oxidation to fatty acid hydroperoxides. Subsequently, breakdown reactions result in a wide array of metabolites with multiple physiological and ecological functions. These fatty acid transformations are highly diverse in marine algae and play a crucial rule in e.g., signaling, chemical defense, and stress response often mediated through polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs). In this study, green tide-forming macroalgae of the genius Ulva (Chlorophyta) were collected at various sampling sites in the lagoon of the Ria Formosa (Portugal) and were surveyed for PUAs. We demonstrated that sea-lettuce like but not tube-like morphotypes produce elevated amounts of volatile C10-polyunsaturated aldehydes (2,4,7-decatrienal and 2,4-decadienal) upon tissue damage. Moreover, morphogenetic and phylogenetic analyses of the collected Ulva species revealed chemotaxonomic significance of the perspective biosynthetic pathways. The aldehydes are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with 20 or 18 carbon atoms including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), stearidonic acid (C18:4 n-3), and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-6). We present first evidences that lipoxygenase-mediated (11-LOX and 9-LOX) eicosanoid and octadecanoid pathways catalyze the transformation of C20- and C18-polyunsaturated fatty acids into PUAs and concomitantly into short chain hydroxylated fatty acids. PMID:24915501

Alsufyani, Taghreed; Engelen, Aschwin H; Diekmann, Onno E; Kuegler, Stefan; Wichard, Thomas

2014-10-01

120

The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

2014-10-01

121

Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

2007-04-15

122

Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 ?g g-1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb

123

Seasonal patterns and recruitment dynamics of green tide-forming Ulva species along the intertidal rocky shores of the southern coast of Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

The abundance of two Ulva species in unmanipulated and artificial plots was investigated to better understand the ecological aspects of green tides on the intertidal rocky shore of the southern coast of Korea from July 1998 to January 2001. Artificial substrates were made on ceramic tiles (200 cm2) using a mixture of cement and rock and were set up on the rocky substrate in the lower intertidal zone using a hammer and anchor bolts. These settling plates were replaced every 1-2 months. Two Ulva species were recruited continuously for 3-4 months each year. U. pertusa was recruited during summer-autumn, whereas U. linza was recruited during winter-early spring or spring-early summer. However, U. pertusa dominated in the monitoring plots compared with the experimental period, with the exception of 2 months (February and March 2000). These results indicated that U. pertusa may be the main contributor to green tides along the intertidal rocky shores. The two Ulva species showed a positive relationship between density and biomass. This suggests that the physical removal of Ulva masses should be conducted during the early growing season. I hope this study provides valuable information for determining management policies for green tides on intertidal rocky shores.

Park, Sang Rul

2014-12-01

124

The effect of resuspending sediment contaminated with antifouling paint particles containing Irgarol 1051 on the marine macrophyte Ulva intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of resuspending sediment contaminated with Irgarol 1051 based antifouling paint particles on the green macroalga Ulva intestinalis was examined. U. intestinalis was also exposed to sediment spiked with Irgarol 1051. The macroalga were exposed over 21 days to the resuspension of sediments containing 61.2 mg kg(-1) of antifouling paint particles containing Irgarol 1051 that provided aqueous Irgarol 1051 concentrations of approximately 0.3 microg l(-1), Irgarol 1051 and appropriate controls. The growth response was compared with that for 'clean' sediment. Resuspension of sediment was associated with reduced growth when compared to seawater alone. Resuspension of sediment spiked with Irgarol 1051 was associated with a greater reduction in growth, with growth being significantly reduced when sediment containing antifouling paint particles was resuspended. The data suggest that the prolonged disturbance of sediments containing antifouling paint particles in marinas represents a potential and as yet unquantified hazard to photosynthetic organisms. PMID:17482236

Tolhurst, Laura E; Barry, John; Dyer, Robert A; Thomas, Kevin V

2007-07-01

125

Engineered antifouling microtopographies - effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on the settlement of zoospores of the ship fouling alga Ulva was evaluated using engineered microtopographies in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. The topographies studied were designed at a feature spacing of 2 microm and all significantly reduced spore settlement compared to a smooth surface. An indirect correlation between spore settlement and a newly described engineered roughness index (ERI) was identified. ERI is a dimensionless ratio based on Wenzel's roughness factor, depressed surface fraction, and the degree of freedom of spore movement. Uniform surfaces of either 2 mum diameter circular pillars (ERI=5.0) or 2 microm wide ridges (ERI=6.1) reduced settlement by 36% and 31%, respectively. A novel multi-feature topography consisting of 2 mum diameter circular pillars and 10 microm equilateral triangles (ERI=8.7) reduced spore settlement by 58%. The largest reduction in spore settlement, 77%, was obtained with the Sharklet AF topography (ERI=9.5). PMID:17453729

Schumacher, James F; Carman, Michelle L; Estes, Thomas G; Feinberg, Adam W; Wilson, Leslie H; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Finlay, John A; Brennan, Anthony B

2007-01-01

126

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2006-05-15

127

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH(2))(NH(3))(2)(+)) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2) in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. PMID:21908086

Easton, Cecilia; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

2011-12-01

128

Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ?H° and the negative value of ?G° show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ?S° shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed. PMID:20863618

Rathinam, Aravindhan; Zou, Linda

2010-12-15

129

Effects of El Niño on beds of Ulva lactuca along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of El Niño 1997-1998 on the biomass and size of beds of the green alga Ulva lactuca L., along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California across the Canal de Ballenas, was evaluated in May 1998 and compared with May 1995, 1996 and 2000. The El Niño event (97-98 had a significant negative effect on size and biomass. The percent cover area was reduced by 70%, and biomass by 80%, with respect to previous years. A complete recovery was observed in 2000. Growth of the algae was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. No significant effect of irradiance was detected, but temperature did have a significant effect on growth. Optimum growth was found at 18°C. Temperatures of 14°, 22° and 26°C caused reduced growth. A temperature of 30°C was lethal to U. lactuca.

R. Blanco-Betancourt

2003-04-01

130

A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

131

A preliminary study on the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Ulva lactuca in rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-inflammatory drugs presently available for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders have diverse and undesirable side effects. In recent years; active principles of varied chemical structures have been isolated from plants possessing anti-inflammatory activity. Sulfated polysaccharides present in algae were shown to posses anti-inflammatory properties. Ulva lactuca the green alga available in Tuticorin coast was found to show anti-inflammatory effect as evidenced by the reduction in the inhibition of oedema at the 4th day of the experiment compared with the positive control drug and control. Microscopic examination of the elite organs did not show any alteration compared with the control and reference group. Moreover the hematological parameters were found normal compared with the control. The present study suggests the need for further studies for the development of anti-inflammatory drug of marine origin with proper clinical trials. PMID:20143726

Margret, R Jothibai; Kumaresan, S; Ravikumar, S

2009-09-01

132

Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. PMID:18635296

Masakorala, Kanaji; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T

2008-12-01

133

Effects of ulvoid (Ulva spp.) accumulation on the structure and function of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) bed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of ulvoid (Ulva spp.) accumulation on the structure and function of an eelgrass bed by the coast of Iwakuni, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We monitored eelgrass shoot density and volume of ulvoid accumulation in the study site and evaluated effects of the accumulated ulvoid canopy on the percent survival, seedling density, growth rates, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and carbon contents of eelgrass. Eelgrass shoot density decreased by the accumulation of ulvoid. Also, seedling density decreased by the increase in the ulvoid volumes. Shoot density, seedling density and leaf elongation were negatively correlated with ulvoid volume. Carbon contents in eelgrass decreased by the accumulation of ulvoid (canopy height: 25 cm). These results suggest that accumulation of ulvoid bloom has significant negative impacts on the structure and function of eelgrass bed, i.e. decreases in vegetative shoot density, seedling density, shoot height and growth rate

134

Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100?mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500?mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67?±?0.38) and (5.42?±?0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30?µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60?µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p?

Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

2013-12-13

135

Screening of priority pesticides in Ulva sp. seaweeds by selective pressurized solvent extraction before gas chromatography with electron capture detector analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports a fast and reliable analytical method for the screening of priority pesticides (PPs) in Ulva sp. seaweeds by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Extraction and sample clean-up were performed in one single step by selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE). Several parameters affecting SPLE performance were optimized. Method performance was compared with standard Soxhlet extraction. Significant decrease of the time of analysis with better recoveries for a greater number of PPs was achieved by SPLE. Average recoveries ranged from 71 to 103% with RSD < 10%. Field application showed the presence of PP in the range of 3-11 ng g(-1) in seaweeds collected in a coastal lagoon after a long period of heavy rains. These results suggest that Ulva sp. seaweeds tend to accumulate PPs and have the potential to be used as early alert signals of aquatic pollution especially after rains and storm events. PMID:24854703

Pinto, M I; Micaelo, C; Vale, C; Sontag, G; Noronha, J P

2014-11-01

136

Accumulation of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn) in the freshwater alga Ulva type, sediments and water of the Wielkopolska region, Poland.  

OpenAIRE

The concentration of five trace elements: cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) was determined in the Ulva thalli, in the water and sediment collection from several inland sites (lakes, stream and river) from the Wielkopolska region during summer 2010. The multielemental analysis of the heavy metal concentration was carried out with the use of ICP-OES method. The aim of this study was to determine the role of tubular forms as biomonitoring species....

Rybak, Andrzej; Messyasz, Beata; Pikosz, Marta; Szendzina, Lidia; ?e?ska, Bogus?awa

2013-01-01

137

Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-01

138

Characterization of chlorophyll-protein complexes isolated from two marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, growing in the intertidal zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three Chl-protein complexes were isolated from thylakoid membranes of Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, marine green algae that inhabit the intertidal zone of the Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of Japan by dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The slowest-moving fractions showed low Chl a/b and Chl/P-700 ratios, indicating that this fraction corresponds to complexes in PS I, which is large in both algae. The intermediate and fastest-moving fractions showed the traits of PS II complexes, with some associated Chl a/b-protein complexes and LHC II, respectively. The spectral properties of the separated Chl-proteins were also determined. The absorption spectra showed a shallow shoulder at 540 nm derived from siphonaxanthin in Bryopsis maxima, but not in Ulva pertusa. The 77 K emission spectra showed a single peak in Bryopsis maxima and two peaks in Ulva pertusa. Besides the excitation spectra indicated that the excitation energy transfer to the PS I complexes differed quite a lot higher plants. This suggested that the mechanisms of energy transfer in both of these algae differ from those of higher plants. Considering the light environment of this coastal area, the large size of the antennae of PS I complexes implies that the antennae are arranged so as to balance light absorption between the two photosystems. In addition, we discuss the relationships among the photosystem stoichiometry, the energy transfer, and the distribution between the two photosystems. PMID:16729200

Yamazaki, Jun-ya; Kozu, Arisu; Fukunaga, Yuko

2006-07-01

139

Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana) (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae), habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil / Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana) (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae) from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857), in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth per [...] eonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723), this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth) Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing) Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi) De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn) to 23ºC (summer), the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter) to 25ºC (summer) and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn) to 32.8‰ (winter). The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva) to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia) of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024).

Janete, Dubiaski-Silva; Setuko, Masunari.

140

Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024.

Janete Dubiaski-Silva

1998-01-01

141

Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer) e na Barra do Furado ( [...] Barra), norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m) em relação ao Píer (2,2 m). Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth) Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818), Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos estressante. As diferenças observadas na distribuição vertical dos organismos bênticos, principalmente na extensão das faixas superiores, evidenciam condições de exposição a ondas variáveis. Abstract in english The present study aims to compare the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic communities in two sites composed by granitic boulders with distint hydrodynamics due to different wave swells at Farol de São Tomé (Pier) and Barra do Furado beaches (Barra), both in northern state of Rio de Janeiro. [...] Quadrats of 400 cm² were overlapped along three vertical profiles on each site and were sampled by the photoquadrat method from 0.2 m of the tide level to the upper limit of Littorina spp. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at Barra site (3.8 m) than at Píer site (2.2 m). Nine species were common to both sites. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth) Fredericq, and Grateloupia sp. were unique to Barra, whereas Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818), Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie, and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu.) Lamouroux occurred only at Píer boulders. On both sites species richness and diversity were superior at the intermediate quadrats of the intertidal zone. The highest values were recorded at Barra. The most pronounced assemblage differences between equivalent areas of either site occurred on the lower upper eulittoral band followed by the lower eulittoral and the sub-littoral fringe, respectively. The littoral fringe assemblage was the only one that did not show significant differences among the studied sites, yet a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas, such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) on upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 on the sub-littoral fringe. At Píer, the intertidal zone showed an even distr

Bruno P., Masi; Ilana R., Zalmon.

2008-12-01

142

Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biomass yields from some species of macroalgae exceed the yields in traditional terrestrial production systems. This renewable carbon source possesses a potential for energy purposes and thus reduction in fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Previous experiments have indicated that nitrous oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2?) and nitrate (NO3?) and at a light intensity of 225?molphotonsm?2s?1. No emission of N2O was observed in darkness. The N2O emission increased in a Michaelis–Menten characteristic manner with increasing concentrations of both NO3? and NO2?. The light dependency indicated that the N2O emission was related to algal photosynthesis, and not bacterial activity. As algal NO3? reductase (NR) converts NO3? to NO2? in light, and N2O emissionwas observed from both NO3? and NO2?, it is proposed that NO2? reductase (NiR) activity may have generated the observed N2O, however the mechanism needs further investigation. This apparent N2O production by algae emphasizes the need for experiments under natural conditions in order to evaluate potential greenhouse gas balances associated with large-scale productions for energy purposes.

Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette

2013-01-01

143

The consumption of algae, Ulva lactuca, by the snail, Littorina littorea, in relation to colliery waste contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Colliery waste is a persistent contaminant of intertidal areas in north-east England where it can reduce biodiversity. In an attempt to understand the ways in which colliery waste exerts its effects, the authors tested how a common molluscan grazer (Littorina littorea) from a range of contaminated and uncontaminated sites reacts to a common macroalgal component of its diet (Ulva lactuca) from the same range of sites. It is hypothesised that algae that are exposed to colliery waste are rejected (eaten less) by snails than those algae that are not so exposed. It is also hypothesised that snails exposed to colliery waste would prefer (eat more) algae from contaminated sites and those animals not so exposed would prefer algae from uncontaminated sites. No differences in feeding were observed in relation to these hypotheses and it is concluded that the contamination of shores by colliery waste does not affect the feeding of L. littorea on U. lactuca. However, snails from contaminated sites ate significantly more algae than those from uncontaminated sites. This may be because of differential digestion or metabolism of the algae or because of a paucity of suitable macroalgae at contaminated sites, snails feeding heavily on the rare U. lactuca when it is encountered.

Davies, M.S.; Falconer, F. [University of Sunderland, Durham (United Kingdom). Centre of Ecology

2001-07-01

144

Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. PMID:23597681

Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

2013-06-15

145

Stabilization of mitochondrial and microsomal function by polysaccharide of Ulva lactuca on D-Galactosamine induced hepatitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we used liver mitochondrial and microsomal fraction from rats pretreated with seaweed Ulva lactuca polysaccharide extract (ULP - 200mg/kg body weight, daily for 21 days, oral gavage) on D-Galactosamine (500mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) challenge. Effectiveness of ULP was determined based on functional status of trichloro acetic acid (TCA), urea cycle, and microsomal enzymes. The composition of sulfate polysaccharide content such as total sugars, sulfate and uronic acid were examined. In addition the fine ultra structural changes were examined using electron microscopy (EM). We observed significant (p<0.001) mitochondrial and microsomal abnormalities during liver damage by D-Galactosamine, consequently altering enzymes of energy metabolism. Electron microscopy of D-Galactosamine intoxicated rat liver tissue revealed the swelling and loss of mitochondrial cristae. Conversely the rats pretreated with ULP against D-Galactosamine challenge prevented (p<0.05) the significant abnormality of TCA, microsomal enzymes and severity of mitochondria as observed in EM study in rats injected with D-Galactosamine alone. However no effective prevention was observed in urea cycle enzymes among D-Galactosamine and treatment group rats. These results showed the effectiveness of ULP in stabilizing the functional status of mitochondrial and microsomal membrane which might be due to the presence of sulfated polysaccharide that could prevented the oxidative stress induced by D-Galactosamine intoxication. PMID:19000663

Devaki, Thiruvengadam; Sathivel, Arumugam; BalajiRaghavendran, Hanumantha Rao

2009-01-27

146

Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga.

Masakorala, Kanaji [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

2008-12-15

147

Evidence for abrasion and enhanced growth of Ulva lactuca L. in the presence of colliery waste particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have highlighted a reduction in occurrence and biomass of Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyceae) on shores where inputs of colliery waste occur. It was postulated that this was owing to an abrasive effect of colliery waste on macroalgal fronds. To test this, individual U. lactuca plants were exposed to colliery waste (three different grain size categories: {lt} 500 {mu}m, 500-2000 {mu}m, and 0-2000 {mu}m) in both shaken (turbulent) and still conditions in the laboratory. Over an 8-day period, U. lactuca plants lost weight when colliery waste was present and gained weight when no colliery waste was present. The results suggest that `large` grains of colliery waste act as a physical abrading agent on macroalgae when in turbulent conditions, and may be responsible for lowering of species richness of macroalgae where colliery waste inputs occur. However, by contrast, colliery waste in still conditions promotes the growth of U. lactuca, suggesting that, for example, rock pool flora may benefit from its presence.

Hyslop, B.T.; Davies, M.S. [University of Sunderland, Sunderland (United Kingdom). Northumbrian Water Ecology Centre

1998-12-01

148

Effects of five antifouling biocides on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifouling biocides are found in the marine ecosystem were they can affect non-target organisms. In this study the effects of five antifouling biocides on the settlement and growth of Ulva lactuca zoospores were investigated. The biocides investigated were copper (Cu(2+)), 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP), tolylfluanid and medetomidine. Full concentration-response curves where determined for each compound. EC50 values were determined for copper, DCOIT, TPBP and tolylfluanid, all of which inhibited settlement and growth in a concentration dependent manner with the following toxicity ranking; tolylfluanid (EC50 80 nmol L(-1)) ~ DCOIT (EC50 83 nmol L(-1)) > TPBP (EC50 400 nmol L(-1)) > Cu(2+) (EC50 2,000 nmol L(-1)). Medetomidine inhibited settlement and growth only at the extreme concentration of 100,000 nmol L(-1) (93% effect). The low toxicity is possibly a consequence of a lack of receptors that medetomidine can bind to in the U. lactuca zoospores. PMID:23846394

Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

2013-10-01

149

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr

2008-03-21

150

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

2011-10-01

151

Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga

152

An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 ?g L?¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g?¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ?10?-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl? through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K? ion channels. PMID:23117203

Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

2012-12-01

153

Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7mg/g and 29.2mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees ) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:17689186

Sari, Ahmet; Tuzen, Mustafa

2008-03-21

154

Evidence of coexistence of C? and C? photosynthetic pathways in a green-tide-forming alga, Ulva prolifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C? photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C? photosynthesis, so C? photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C? and C? photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C? metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). To investigate whether the alga operates a C?-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature). The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C?-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:22616009

Xu, Jianfang; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

155

Activities of principal photosynthetic enzymes in green macroalga Ulva linza: functional implication of C? pathway in CO? assimilation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green-tide-forming macroalga Ulva linza was profiled by transcriptome sequencing to ascertain whether the alga carries both C3 and C4 photosynthesis genes. The key enzymes involved in C4 metabolism including pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) were found. When measured under normal and different stress conditions, expression of rbcL was higher under normal conditions and lower under the adverse conditions, whereas that of PPDK was higher under some adverse conditions, namely desiccation, high salinity, and low salinity. Both ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) and PPDK were found to play a role in carbon fixation, with significantly higher PPDK activity across the stress conditions. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity alters carbon metabolism in U. linza leading to partial operation of the C4 carbon metabolism, a pathway that, under stress conditions, probably contributes to the hardy character of U. linza and thus to its wide distribution. PMID:23737004

Xu, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ye, Naihao; Zheng, Zhou; Mou, Shanli; Dong, Meitao; Xu, Dong; Miao, Jinlai

2013-06-01

156

Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity. PMID:23411086

Campana, Olivia; Rodríguez, Antonio; Blasco, Julián

2013-05-01

157

Nitrate and phosphate regimes induced lipidomic and biochemical changes in the intertidal macroalga Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out in order to understand the lipid and biochemical alterations resulting from different nutritional regimes of nitrate and phosphate in Ulva lactuca. The algal thalli cultured in artificial seawater (ASW) showed higher levels of carbohydrates and non-polar lipids and increased phosphatase activities, accompanied by degradation of polar lipids, proteins and pigments. Further, higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicated reative oxygen species (ROS)-mediated non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation due to nutritional limitation-induced oxidative stress. Those thalli cultured in ASW supplemented with nitrate showed responses corresponding to nitrate addition, such as an increase in pigments, monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and nitrate reductase. In addition, these thalli showed partial induction of phosphatases, low phospholipids, and high sulfolipid and 1,2-diacylglyceryl-3-O-4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-homoserine (DGTS) due to phosphate limitation. Similarly, algal thalli cultured in ASW supplemented with phosphate showed down-regulation of phosphatases, an increase in phospholipids due to availability of phosphate as well as a decrease in nitrate reductase, pigment, monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and polyunsaturated fatty acids due to nitrate limitation. On the other hand, algal thalli cultured in ASW supplemented with both nitrate and phosphate showed recovery of lost pigments and proteins, a high monogalactosyldiacylglycerol/digalactosyldiacylglycerol ratio, high unsaturation and high oxylipin levels (both C18 and C20). Further, the accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid in nutrient-limited thalli and of kinetin and kinetin riboside in nutrient-supplemented thalli indicated their antagonistic roles under nutrient stress. Thus, U. lactuca copes with nitrate and phosphate nutritional stress by altering the metabolic pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis including a shift in lipid classes, fatty acids, oxylipins and indole-3-acetic acid/kinetin cross-talk. PMID:24192295

Kumari, Puja; Kumar, Manoj; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2014-01-01

158

Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae), Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in outdoor culture systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of solar radiation on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence associated to photosystem II (PS II) was determined in the Phaeophyta Macrocystis pyrifera, the Rhodophyta Chondrus crispus and the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca by oxygen evolution and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence. The algae were maintained in 1.2 m3 outdoor tanks with constant aeration and at 8, 26 and 100% incident irradiance (E(o)). All three species showed a decrease in deltaF/F'm values during solar noon compared to values in the morning and afternoon, suggesting a photoinhibition of photosynthesis. In general, photoinhibition was negatively correlated to increasing daily irradiance in all three species. Photoinhibition in C. crispus occurred in tissue incubated at 8, 26 and 100% E(o), while in M. pyrifera and U. lactuca a decrease in deltaF/F'm values was only observed in tissue incubated at 100% E(o). This suggests that species that naturally grow at greater depths might be more susceptible to excessive light when cultured in shallow waters compared to species that naturally inhabit shallower depths. In M. pyrifera, deltaF/F'm values were lower in the afternoon than those in the morning, suggesting slower repair mechanisms of the photosystem II compared to the other species. The results suggest that photoinhibition could be reduced by reducing incident irradiance to culture systems or increasing of biomass to promote self-shading. Gross oxygenic photosynthesis increased linearly at low electron transport rates after which it saturated in all three species. This suggests that chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as an indicator of the physiological status of macroalgae maintained in dense aquaculture systems. PMID:11154083

Cabello-Pasini, A; Aguirre-von-Wobeser, E; Figueroa, F L

2000-09-01

159

NMR spectroscopic characterisation of oligosaccharides from two Ulva rigida ulvan samples (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) degraded by a lyase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical structure and the sequence of repeating units in ulvans of similar compositions from two different Ulva rigida samples collected in the Canary Islands and in Brittany were studied after ulvan-lyase degradation and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products. Both ulvans were composed of ulvanobiuronic acid 3-sulfate type A[-4)-?-d-GlcA-(1-4)-?-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] (symbolised as A3s) and contained disaccharides composed of [-4)-?-d-Xyl-(1-4)-?-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] and [-4)-?-d-Xyl 2-sulfate-(1-4)-?-l-Rha 3-sulfate], respectively referred to as ulvanobiose 3-sulfate (U3s) and ulvanobiose 2minutes or feet,3-disulfate (U2minutesorfeets,3s). In the Canary Islands sample, these U3s and U2minutesorfeets,3s occurred dispersed among A3s sequences and as short blocks of two or three units. In contrast, in the Brittany samples, these units were dispersed among A3s structures and next to A3s units branched at O-2 of ?-l-Rha 3-sulfate by a terminal ?-d-GlcA and symbolised as A2g,3s. However, more complex structures are likely to occur in the enzyme resistant fraction remaining from this ulvan. An average structure sequence of these two ulvans was proposed. The transposition of the 13C NMR data of the new identified structures to the parent polysaccharides was not possible, probably due to the differesible, probably due to the different sequence distributions affecting the carbons chemical shifts. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

160

Phylogenetic analyses of four species of Ulva and Monostroma grevillei using ITS, rbc L and 18S rDNA sequence data  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorophyta species are common in the southern and northern coastal areas of China. In recent years, frequent green tide incidents in Chinese coastal waters have raised concerns and attracted the attention of scientists. In this paper, we sequenced the 18S rDNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rbc L genes in seven organisms and obtained 536-566 bp long ITS sequences, 1 377-1 407 bp long rbc L sequences and 1 718-1 761 bp long partial 18S rDNA sequences. The GC base pair content was highest in the ITS regions and lowest in the rbc L genes. The sequencing results showed that the three Ulva prolifera (or U. pertusa) gene sequences from Qingdao and Nan'ao Island were identical. The ITS, 18S rDNA and rbc L genes in U. prolifera and U. pertusa from different sea areas in China were unchanged by geographic distance. U. flexuosa had the least evolutionary distance from U. californica in both the ITS regions (0.009) and the 18S rDNA (0.002). These data verified that Ulva and Enteromorpha are not separate genera.

Lin, Zhongheng; Shen, Songdong; Chen, Weizhou; Li, Huihui

2013-01-01

161

Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C16 to C20. - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

162

Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in theother Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity.

Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin

2011-01-01

163

Toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids on the green seaweed Ulva lactuca: oxidative stress and DNA damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The green credentials of ionic liquids (ILs) are being increasingly questioned due to the growing evidence of their toxicity to aquatic ecosystems, although the mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. This study provides insights into the mechanism of toxicity and biological effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C(n)mim]Br (n = 4 to 16) on the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca. The cell viability of this alga during IL exposure was found to be negatively correlated to the chain length of the alkyl group. The IL ([C(12)mim]Br) exposure triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS viz. O(2)(•-), H(2)O(2), and OH(•)), damage of the membrane and DNA, and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the alga. The enhanced production of ROS and lipid peroxidation in the alga subjected to LC(50) concentration for 4 days was largely attributed to lipoxygenase (LOX) activity coupled with the induction of two LOX isoforms (~80 kDa and ~55 kDa). Pretreatment of the algal thallus with enzyme inhibitors such as diphenylene iodonium, sodium azide, cantharidin, and oxadiazoloquinoxalin-1-one, prior to [C(12)mim]Br exposure showed the regulation of ROS by the activation of membrane bound NADPH-oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. The IL exposure resulted in the accumulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 0.5 LC(50) concentration indicating the induction of desaturase enzymes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were enhanced by 1.3-2.0-fold, while glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) diminished, together with a higher regeneration rate of reduced ascorbate and glutathione. The isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, namely, Mn-SOD (~85 kDa), APX (~125 and 45 kDa), and GR (~135 kDa) regulated differentially to IL exposure. The comet assay performed for the first time for seaweeds revealed the significant induction of DNA damage (>50-70% increase in % tail DNA over control) in alga exposed to ? LC(50) concentration. PMID:21932789

Kumar, Manoj; Trivedi, Nitin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2011-11-21

164

A novel marine algal toxicity bioassay based on sporulation inhibition in the green macroalga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 5-day aquatic toxicity test based on sporulation inhibition of the green macroalga Ulva pertusa Kjellman has been developed. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, salinity and temperature were 60-200 ?mol photons m-2 s-1, 25-35%o and 15-20 deg C, respectively. Tests were conducted by exposing U. pertusa thallus disks to a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) and elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations. The EC50 values for SDS was 5.35 mg L-1. When four heavy metals were assayed, the NOECs were highest for lead (0.625 mg L-1) and lowest for copper (0.031 mg L-1). The EC50 values showed the following toxicity rankings: Cu2+ (0.061 mg L-1) > Cd2+ (0.326 mg L-1) > Zn2+ (0.738 mg L-1) > Pb2+ (0.877 mg L-1). The bioassay indicated also that the sporulation endpoint could be a sensitive indicator of toxicity effects of elutriates of sludge as reflected from the NOEC values equal to or lower than the lowest concentration employed (6.25%). Sporulation was significantly inhibitied in all elutriates with the greatest and least effects observed in elutriates of sludge from industrial waste (EC50 6.78%) and filtration bed (EC50 15.0%), respectively. The results of th> 15.0%), respectively. The results of the Spearman rank correlation analysis for EC50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge presented a significant correlation between toxicity and four heavy metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+). Introduction of the concept of toxicity unit (TU) showed that these metals were the main cause of toxicity in elutriates of at least four out of nine sludge samples. Members of the order Ulvales show a wide geographic distribution and have similar reproductive characteristics, thus making it possible to apply the present test method to other algae of this taxa, elsewhere. This novel method will be a useful tool for assessing the aquatic toxicity of a wide range of toxicants, once the respective sensitivities are demonstrated

165

Analysis of chloramphenicol residues in the macroalgae Ulva lactuca through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic use is a well-described practice to promote animal health whether for prevention or treatment. Nonetheless, it can also cause a number of potentially harmful effects that dictate the need to implement regulation to assure a reduction of hazards to the consumers and the environment. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial excluded from use in animal food production but despite this, reports of illegal use still persist. More recently, awareness has risen that the surrounding natural ecosystems can potentially be contaminated by pharmaceuticals and the extent of their effects in non-target organisms is already under the scope of researchers. To face the demanding new challenges a methodology for the determination of CAP in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed, optimized and fully validated following the guidelines of the EC Decision 2002/657. PMID:25579630

Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Nunes, Margarida; Barbosa, Jorge; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

2015-02-15

166

Anti-peroxidative and anti-hyperlipidemic nature of Ulva lactuca crude polysaccharide on D-galactosamine induced hepatitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To find whether pretreatment of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) extract could be effective against D-Galactosamine (500 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced anomaly in rat. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), tissue lipoperoxides (LPO), hepatic protein thiols, non-enzymatic anti-oxidants glutathione (GSH) and vitamins (E and C) were examined using spectrophotometer. The ultra structural changes of liver during D-Galactosamine and protection offered by ULP were examined by electron microscopy. Seaweed histology and chemical composition of polysaccharides in seaweed were examined. Alcian blue staining showed the presence of sulphated polysaccharide with total sugar (65.4%), sulphate (17.4%), and uronic acid (17.2%) content. D-Galactosamine intoxicated rats showed significant (plactuca exhibit anti-peroxidative and anti-hyperlipidemic property. PMID:18706469

Sathivel, Arumugam; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

2008-10-01

167

Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

1985-11-01

168

Co-occurring increases of calcium and organellar reactive oxygen species determine differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) exposed to copper excess.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to analyse copper-induced calcium release and (reactive oxygen species) ROS accumulation and their role in antioxidant and defense enzymes activation, the marine alga Ulva compressa was exposed to 10 µM copper for 7 d. The level of calcium, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (eHP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (iHP) and superoxide anions (SA) as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Calcium release showed a triphasic pattern with peaks at 2, 3 and 12 h. The second peak was coincident with increases in eHP and iHP and the third peak with the second increase of iHP. A delayed wave of SA occurred after day 3 and was not accompanied by calcium release. The accumulation of iHP and SA was mainly inhibited by organellar electron transport chains inhibitors (OETCI), whereas calcium release was inhibited by ryanodine. AP activation ceased almost completely after the use of OETCI. On the other hand, GR and GST activities were partially inhibited, whereas defense enzymes were not inhibited. In contrast, PAL and LOX were inhibited by ryanodine, whereas AP was not inhibited. Thus, copper stress induces calcium release and organellar ROS accumulation that determine the differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes. PMID:20444222

Gonzalez, Alberto; Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Dennett, Geraldine; Mellado, Macarena; Morales, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

2010-10-01

169

Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

2015-02-01

170

Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulphated polysaccharides (SP extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata, and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus, against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage.

José Alberto Aguilar-Briseño

2015-01-01

171

Investigation of the ionic strength dependence of Ulva lactuca acid functional group pK(a)s by manual alkalimetric titrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a series of manual alkalimetric titrations in NaCl solutions (0.01-5.0 M) at T = 25 degrees C on both fresh and dehydrated samples of the marine chlorophyte Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce), a strong metal accumulator holding considerable promise in biosorbent and biomonitor applications. Functional groups were characterized in terms of their number, site densities, and acid dissociation constants (pK(a)s). FITEQL4.0 modeling shows that, at any ionic strength, titration curves for dehydrated biomass in the pH range 2-10 are adequately described by three functional groups with remarkably uniform site densities of about 5 x 10(-4) mol/g. Lower site densities for fresh U. lactuca are consistent with approximately 87% water content. The pK(a)s display pronounced ionic strength dependent behavior obeying an extended Debye-Huckel relation. Extrapolation to I = 0 yields values of 4.26 +/- 0.04, 6.44 +/- 0.02, and 9.56 +/- 0.04. This information by itself is insufficient to unambiguously identify the groups. Similar site densities suggest that all three are linked to major molecular building blocks of the cell material, pointing to carboxylic acids, phosphate esters, and amines as likely candidates. Highly acidic sulfate esters, not detected in our titrations, may also play a role in trace metal adsorption on U. lactuca. PMID:20121199

Schijf, Johan; Ebling, Alina M

2010-03-01

172

?(15)N variation in Ulva lactuca as a proxy for anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in coastal areas of Gulf of Gaeta (Mediterranean Sea).  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the capacity of Ulva lactuca to mark N sources across large marine areas by measuring variation in its ?(15)N at several sites in the Gulf of Gaeta. Comparisons were made with the macroalga Cystoseira amentacea. Variation of ?(15)N values was assessed also in the coastal waters off the Circeo Natural Park, where U. lactuca and C. amentacea were harvested, as these waters are barely influenced by human activities and were used as reference site. A small fragment from each frond was preserved before deployment in order to characterize the initial isotopic values. After 48 h of submersion, U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental variation and ?(15)N enrichment in the Gulf of Gaeta was observed. The spatial distribution of ?(15)N enrichment indicated that different macro-areas in the Gulf were affected by N inputs from different origins. Comparison of the ?(15)N values of fragments taken from the same transplanted frond avoided bias arising from natural isotopic variability. PMID:24923814

Orlandi, Lucia; Bentivoglio, Flavia; Carlino, Pasquale; Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, David; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto

2014-07-15

173

Assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) in water, sediment and seaweed (Ulva lactuca) in the Pulicat Lake, South East India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of three heavy metals chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were examined in water, sediment and green algae (Ulva lactuca); collected from six different stations at Pulicat Lake, which receives effluents from industries located in North Chennai Coastal region. Concentrations of Cd (64.21 microg g(-1)) and Cr (28.51 microg g(-1)) were found to be high in sediment, whereas in green algae concentration of Pb (8.32 microg g(-1)) was higher than water and sediment samples. The relative abundance of these heavy metals in U. lactuca and sediment were found to be in the order Cd>Cr>Pb, whereas in water the ratio was found to be Cr>Pb>Cd. The seasonal variations in Cd and Pb followed a similar pattern in both seaweeds and sediments, but not in water samples. Spearman correlation coefficient study showed no significant correlation in the concentration of metals in U. lactuca, water and sediment samples. PMID:18262218

Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Prabhu Dass Batvari, B; Lee, Kui Jae; Kannan, N; Krishnamoorthy, R; Shanthi, K; Jayaprakash, M

2008-04-01

174

Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile, Jania rubens, and Dictyota dichotoma from Rabta Bay, Jijel (Algeria).  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in algae samples collected from the Rabta Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Algeria. The levels of heavy metals in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Dictyota dichotoma (brown algae) recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Zn was the most predominant metal in the seaweeds. The obtained HM contents indicate that different species demonstrate various degree of metal accumulation and the obtained higher values in site 1 of the studied zone can be attributed to the discharge influence of two rivers (Mouttas and Larayeche Rivers), entering the Mediterranean Sea and local pollutant emissions. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the macroalgae samples was found in the order below: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd from the studied zone. The highest amounts of heavy metals in algae samples were Cd, Cu, and Pb in brown algae, and Cr and Zn in green and brown algae from the studied zone (Rabta Bay). PMID:21755430

Laib, Essaid; Leghouchi, Essaid

2012-03-01

175

Engineered antifouling microtopographies: the role of Reynolds number in a model that predicts attachment of zoospores of Ulva and cells of Cobetia marina.  

Science.gov (United States)

A correlation between the attachment density of cells from two phylogenetic groups (prokaryotic Bacteria and eukaryotic Plantae), with surface roughness is reported for the first time. The results represent a paradigm shift in the understanding of cell attachment, which is a critical step in the biofouling process. The model predicts that the attachment densities of zoospores of the green alga, Ulva, and cells of the marine bacterium, Cobetia marina, scale inversely with surface roughness. The size and motility of the bacterial cells and algal spores were incorporated into the attachment model by multiplying the engineered roughness index (ERI(II)), which is a representation of surface energy, by the Reynolds number (Re) of the cells. The results showed a negative linear correlation of normalized, transformed attachment density for both organisms with ERI(II) x Re (R(2) = 0.77). These studies demonstrate for the first time that organisms respond in a uniform manner to a model, which incorporates surface energy and the Reynolds number of the organism. PMID:20706891

Magin, Chelsea M; Long, Christopher J; Cooper, Scott P; Ista, Linnea K; López, Gabriel P; Brennan, Anthony B

2010-08-01

176

Synseed production for storage and conservation of ochradenus baccatus delile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ochradenus baccatus is a medicinal plant of high value, spread over sandy and stony places of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and most of the desert regions of Egypt. This species contains several flavanoids and specific constituents which are important as these have already been effectively used in lowering cholesterol in the blood of rats and high inhibition potential of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Synseeds were produced from stem segments and apical bud of O. baccatus growing In vitro. Two sets of synseeds were produced, one non-dried and the other dried under running laminar air-flow for 30 min. Regeneration and regrowth were evaluated for 16 weeks storage under various temperatures (4, 8 and 12degree C). The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets was achieved on the MS medium containing 1.0 micro M BA in encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 degree C. Rooting in these shoots was induced by the pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA for 10 days, and the rooted shoots were transferred on the MS medium devoid of any PGR. Fair percent rooting occurred after one week of transfer on the MS medium. Plantlets were successfully established. No phenotypic variations were observed between the synseed originated plants with mother plant. Genetic stability of synseed grown plants and mother plant was evaluated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The mother plant as well as regenerated plants from synseed resulted in a monomorphic banding pattern developed from ISSR markers confirming genetic stability among the clones. This protocol will help multiply and conserve the plant as well as for short-term storage of germplasm for commercial use and exchange. (author)

177

The effect of Hydrobia ulvae and microphytobenthos on cohesive sediment dynamics on an intertidal mudflat described by means of numerical modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previous investigations have documented spatial and temporal variations in the erosion threshold, erosion rate, and suspended sediment settling characteristics on an intertidal mudflat in a microtidal coastal plain estuary in the Danish Wadden Sea. The differences seem to be very much controlled by the effects of benthic biology rather than by physical parameters. In order to test to what extend biology may interact with the dynamics of fine-grained sediment in an entire estuarine system, these results have been transformed into four different sets of erodibility and settling characteristics which have been used as input to the 2D hydrodynamic numerical model MIKE 21 MT. The model was used to investigate the effect that differences in the benthic communities may have on the net deposition. The model included computation of hydrodynamics, wave fields and cohesive sediment dynamics. Based on the modelling results presented it is suggested that the benthic biological activity affects the net sedimentation pattern at the investigated site. The modelling results suggest that the presence of large numbers of the destabilising mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae results in higher net accumulation on the intertidal mudflat investigated. In contrast, biofilms may change net deposition by decreasing erosion, suspended sediment concentration and consequently the resulting settling flux of the suspended material. This study suggests that a numerical hydrodynamic model in combination with a fieldwork-based set-up of a cohesive sediment transport model may be used to describe and explain net sediment dynamics in a shallow coastal plain estuary. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lumborg, Ulrik; Andersen, ThorbjØrn Joest

2006-01-01

178

A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ? 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results indicate that SCMs can be successfully applied to sorbents as daunting as marine organic matter. Despite remnant challenges, for instance resolving the contributions of individual groups to the aggregate sorption signal, our approach helps formalize seaweed’s avowed promise as an ideal biomonitor or biofilter of metal pollution in environments ranging from freshwaters to brines by uncovering what chemical mechanisms underlie its pronounced affinity for YREEs and other surface-reactive elements.

Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

2012-11-01

179

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE-luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

2013-04-01

180

Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta) / Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la dist [...] ribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO), fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK) y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC) en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii Abstract in english Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxy [...] lation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchellii

ALEJANDRO, CABELLO-PASINI; RANDALL S., ALBERTE.

2001-06-01

181

Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

2001-06-01

182

Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens / Eficiencia de absorción de nutrientes de Gracilaria chilensis y Ulva lactuca en un sistema multitrófico integrado con el abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se analizó la eficiencia de captación de nutrientes de Ulva lactuca y Gracilaria chilensis, cultivadas en estanques asociados a aguas de desecho proveniente de un cultivo del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens. Los experimentos consideraron evaluar diferentes densidades de cultivo de algas (1200, 1900, [...] 2600 and 3200 g m-2) y tasas de recambio de agua (60, 80, 125 y 250 L h-1). Los resultados mostraron que tanto U. lactuca como G. chilensis fueron eficientes en la captación de nutrientes inorgánicos provenientes del cultivo de abalón, en todas las condiciones probadas, con remoción total de los nutrientes aportados por el cultivo. De la misma forma se realizó un experimento anual con U. lactuca, siendo cultivada con densidad de 1900 g m-2 y tasa de recambio de agua de 125 L h-1 para evaluar cambios estacionales en la eficiencia de captación de nutrientes, así como en la productividad y tasa de crecimiento de U. lactuca. Los resultados confirmaron una alta eficiencia de captación de U. lactuca durante todo el año, equivalente a la remoción del 100% del NH4, NO3 y PO4 aportado por el cultivo de abalón. La tasa de crecimiento y la productividad de U. lactuca presentó una marcada estacionalidad, incrementando de otoño al verano, variando de 0,5 ± 0,2 a 2,6 ± 0,2% d-1 y 10 ± 6,1 a 73,6 ± 8,4 g m-2 d-1, respectivamente. Se concluye que existen antecedentes suficientes que demuestran que es altamente posible cambiar la actividad tradicional de cultivo de abalón por un sistema integrado multitrófico, alcanzando externalidades ambientales positivas que incluyen U. lactuca como unidad de biofiltración. Abstract in english The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2) and water exchange [...] rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1). The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

Juan, Macchiavello; Cristian, Bulboa.

2014-07-01

183

EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES  

OpenAIRE

Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea); and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata), and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria ) collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL) (as % of total lipid) were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. ato...

El Baroty Gamal S; El-Baz; Farouk K; Abd-Elmoein Ibtisam; Abd El Baky Hanaa H; Ali Mohamed M.; Ibrahim Eman A

2011-01-01

184

Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead biomasses of green alga Ulva lactuca and the development of a sustainable matrix for adsorption implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many industries have high heavy metals concentrations in their effluents that should be treated before disposal in drains or natural watercourses. When adsorption process is evaluated to generate and implement an efficient, economical and sustainable method suitable for heavy metals removal from contaminated effluents, it is necessary to develop an experimental setup that contains the adsorbent. Ulva lactuca, a marine green alga, was studied as a natural biosorbent for heavy metals at acid pH conditions. Adsorption experiments were carried out in glass columns and in batch where the alga was suspended or fixed in an agar matrix. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to the experimental results. Langmuir model best describes the adsorption isotherms in all analyzed cases. The adsorption capacity increases with pH. Kinetic studies demonstrate that, in most studied cases, the adsorption follows a pseudo second order kinetics model. Removal efficiencies of the biomaterial supported in agar or fixed in columns were: fixed in columns>suspended in batch mode>fixed in agar. Finally, the effect of the presence of two sorbates, Cd and Pb, in the solution was measured and results demonstrate that adsorption of both metals are diminished by co/adsorption. PMID:22342902

Areco, María Mar; Hanela, Sergio; Duran, Jorge; Afonso, María dos Santos

2012-04-30

185

Inhibition of attachment of some fouling diatoms and settlement of Ulva lactuca zoospores by film-forming bacterium and their extracellular products isolated from biofouled substrata in Northern Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The biofouling of surfaces submerged in the marine environment includes primary colonization of the substrate by microorganisms including bacteria, microalgae, and microscopic reproductive propagules of macroorganisms such as algal zoospores. The present study reports the evaluation of the inhibitor [...] y potential of biofilms and extracellular products (EP) of the indigenous bacterium Alteromonas sp strain Ni1-LEM on the settlement of marine biofouling such as: (i) eight marine benthic diatoms and (ii) zoospores of the alga Ulva lactuca, as well as the germination of these zoospores and was compared with reference strains with proven antifouling properties, Halomonas marina (ATCC 25374) and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata. Highest antifouling activity was found for the indigenous strain. In attempts to better define the chemical nature of the antifouling substance in the EP of the Alteromonas sp strain Ni1-LEM, the culture filtrates were tested for activity after heat treatment, enzymatic treatments, dialysis through semipermeable membranes, and separation into polar (aqueous) and non-polar (organic) fractions. The results suggested that the antifouling substance in the culture filtrates to be protein or peptide in nature, thermostable, hydrophilic, and equal to or greater than 3500 daltons in molecular size. Antifouling substances from bacteria may lead to the development of novel antifouling agents in the future.

Fernando, Silva-Aciares; Carlos, Riquelme.

2008-01-15

186

Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos d [...] e Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle) e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico. Abstract in english The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatu [...] m and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls) and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.

Alexandre Bigio, Villas Bôas; Marcia A. de O., Figueiredo.

2004-03-01

187

Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

2003-03-01

188

Lulwoana sp., a dark septate endophyte in roots of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica is the most common, widespread and important monocotyledon seagrass in the Mediterranean Basin, and hosts a large biodiversity of species, including microorganisms with key roles in the marine environment. In this study, we ascertain the presence of a fungal endophyte in the roots of P. oceanica growing on different substrata (rock, sand and matte) in two Sicilian marine meadows. Staining techniques on root fragments and sections, in combination with microscope observations, were used to visualise the fungal presence and determine the percentage of fungal colonisation (FC) in this tissue. In root fragments, statistical analysis of the FC showed a higher mean in roots anchored on rock than on matte and sand. In root sections, an inter- and intracellular septate mycelium, producing intracellular microsclerotia, was detected from the rhizodermis to the vascular cylinder. Using isolation techniques, we obtained, from both sampling sites, sterile, slow-growing fungal colonies, dark in colour, with septate mycelium, belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSEs). DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region identified these colonies as Lulwoana sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lulwoana sp. as DSE in roots of P. oceanica. Moreover, the highest fungal colonisation, detected in P. oceanica roots growing on rock, suggests that the presence of the DSE may help the host in several ways, particularly in capturing mineral nutrients through lytic activity. PMID:25262834

Torta, L; Lo Piccolo, S; Piazza, G; Burruano, S; Colombo, P; Ottonello, D; Perrone, R; Di Maida, G; Pirrotta, M; Tomasello, A; Calvo, S

2015-03-01

189

A NOVEL ACYLATED FLAVONOIDIC GLYCOSIDE FROM THE WOOD OF CULTIVATED ACACIA NILOTICA (L. WILLD. EX. DELILE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acacia is a fast-growing plant that has high potential in commercial plantations in tropical areas. It is already being grown as a plantation crop for building and industrial raw materials, as well as for reforestation of difficult sites. Extensive cultivation of this promising tree would enrich the natural resources besides being useful for industrial raw material, waste land management, and afforestation. In addition, Acacia exhibits extensive medicinal values. In view of the medicinal importance of Acacia nilotica and the therapeutic utility of flavonoids, an attempt has been made to isolate novel flavonoids from the wood of cultivated A. nilotica. The extraction of crude ethanol extract from the A. nilotica wood was followed by fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol in increasing order of polarity of the solvent. The mixed ethyl acetate and methanol extract afforded three pure compounds through column chromtomatography and fractional crystallization. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, a new acylated flavonoidic glycoside, tricin-4?-O-?-(6??-hydroxycinnamic-glucoside (1 was isolated from the wood of A. nilotica together with two known compounds, gallic acid and apigenin. Their structures were established by chemical evidence, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and ESI-MS, and by comparison with already existing spectroscopic data. The yield of novel tricin glucoside showed that it make up to 0.0786% of mixed ethyl acetate and acetone extract.

Zakia Khanam

2011-07-01

190

Phenology of Posidonia Oceanica (Linneaus) Delile in the West Coast of Algeria  

OpenAIRE

The Posidonia oceanica seagrass in the western coast of Algeria on the subject of annual monitoring from November 2008 to November 2009.Two sites are selected and each are represented by a station located 10meters deep. The first is Cap Carbon which is polluted site subject to various major releases, and the second one is Ain Franin considered as a reference site relatively far from sources of pollution other than pollution considered sporadic during the summer where there is a rare attendanc...

Chahrour, F.; Boumaza, S.; Semroud, R.; Boutiba, Z.

2013-01-01

191

Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited.

Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter

2011-01-01

192

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

OpenAIRE

Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial...

Paradas, Wladimir C.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

2007-01-01

193

Active fractions from four species of marine algae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english A bioassay-directed is utilized to detect substances with biological activity from Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Sargassum fluitans. In a preliminary assessment, polar and non polar extracts of four species of marine protoctist form were screened for antibacterial and antifun [...] gal properties against seven microorganisms by the diffusion method, non polar extracts of Sargassumfluitans,and polar extracts of Gracilaria tikvahiae inhibited the growth of more than four microorganisms. Extracts were separated using chromatography column and fractions were tested againstStapylococcusaureus andCandida albicans. The eighty fraction of petroleum ether of S. fluitans exhibited high activity against C.albicans, MIC 0.16 µg/mL.

MA, Oranday; MJ, Verde; SJ, Martínez-Lozano; NH, Waksman.

2004-12-01

194

Application of a suite of biomarkers in Posidonia oceanica (L.) delile to assess the ecotoxicological impact on the coastal environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to develop and validate a suite of sensitive responses (biomarkers) for monitoring conservation status and ecotoxicological impact in Posidonia oceanica meadows. Analytical methods were developed for NADPH cytochrome c reductase, ethoxycoumarin-o-deethylase (ECOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays. A preliminary proteomic approach using 2-D electrophoresis was also proposed as a biomarker. These techniques were initially tested on samples of posidonia exposed experimentally to various contaminants. Once validated, this approach was applied to posidonia in a field study. Samples of the seagrass were collected at four sites with potentially different environmental impact along the northern Tyrrhenian coast. The results showed that reductase activity was significantly induced in the various sampling areas with respect to the reference site. GPOX and SOD showed a similar trend; the highest activities were found in samples collected off a chlor-alkali plant and near a river estuary. Analysis of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in posidonia leaves showed differences between sites. A significant correlation was found between Hg concentrations and GPOX activity and between Cr, Al and As concentrations and reductase activity. The results validated these biomarkers in posidonia for the assessment of ecotoxicological impact on the coastal ecosystem. PMID:16762406

Bucalossi, Daniela; Leonzio, Claudio; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Ancora, Stefania; Wang, Wei; Scali, Monica

2006-07-01

195

Modelling the spatial distribution of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 along the North African coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posidonia oceanica is a seagrass species endemic to the Mediterranean sea, which is considered as an indicator of environment quality in coastal areas. This species forms large meadows, which are sensitive to several anthropogenic pressures, as a result the decrease in their extension of is considered a priority issue for the Mediterranean sea. The aim of this study was to develop a Species Distribution Model for P. oceanica, to be applied to the Mediterranean North African coast, in order to obtain an estimation of the potential distribution of this species in the region. As the study area is a data-poor zone with regard to seagrass distribution, the SDM was calibrated using data from 5 Mediterranean sites, located in Italy and Spain and validated using available data concerning the NA coast. The probability of presence of the species in a given area was modeled as a function of the bathymetry and some water characteristics (i.e. water transparency; dissolved organic matter; chlorophyll concentration) obtained from Earth Observations (EOs), mainly derived from MERIS imagery. Water transparency plays a major role, but also other variables, such as chlorophyll concentration (probably related to nutrients availability), are important in explaining meadows distribution. The availability of high resolution time-series of the input data allowed us to apply the validated model to the whole NA coast. These results (maps of potential distribution) are combined with the use of ecosystem service indicators in order to assess the importance of seagrass habitat within the NA coastal ecosystem.

Zucchetta, Matteo; Venier, Chiara; Amine Taji, Mohamed; Mangin, Antoine; Pastres, Roberto

2014-05-01

196

Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance. PMID:25023658

Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

2014-12-01

197

Effects of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has demonstrated the low tolerance of Posidonia oceanica mature shoots to salinity variability but there is no information about the response of its seeds and seedlings to this impact. In the present study, two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of salinity variation on germination, development and survival of P. oceanica seeds and seedlings under laboratory-controlled conditions. Maximum P. oceanica seed germination occurred at the control salinity (37), while mortality was lowest for this treatment. However, no significant differences were detected with other salinity levels (39-49). In contrast, salinity appears to play an important role in seedling development. The number of blades, the length of the primary root and the maximum length of leaves of seedlings were significantly reduced with increased salinities. The results observed in the present study are consistent with those obtained for mature P. oceanica shoots, and suggest that hypersalinities, such as those associated with brine discharge of a desalination plant, may limit P. oceanica seedling recruitment, affecting the expansion and recovery of Posidonia meadows.

Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

2013-03-01

198

An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (?13C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

199

In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.Ex Delile Bark and Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fractions both of bark and leaves exhibited higher anthelmintic effects compared with chloroform, petroleum spirit and aqueous fractions. Crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME of bark (LC50= 201.0032 µg/ml had higher inhibitory effects compared with that of leaves (LC50= 769.2485 µg/ml on egg hatching. Likewise, chloroform and ethyle acetate fractions of A. nilotica bark exhibited higher ovicidal activity. In vivo, maximum reduction (72.01% in fecal egg counts was recorded for CAME of bark followed by CAME of leaves (63.44% @ 8 g/kg at day 12 post-treatment. Results suggest lipophilic nature of the active principles having anthelmintic efficacy in A. nilotica bark and leaves.

Nadeem Badar, Zafar Iqbal*, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar

2011-06-01

200

Natal dispersal and recruitment of two Bonelli’s Eagles Aquila fasciata: a four-year satellite tracking study  

OpenAIRE

To study natal dispersal and recruitment to the breeding population in Bonelli's Eagle, two nestlings were tagged with satellite transmitters in the Iberian Peninsula in 2002. Their monthly ranges and distances were computed and fitted to regression models to describe their general trend. One bird, a female, dispersed and settled rapidly in an area which she explored intensively during four years and which finally became her first breeding site. The natal dispersal distance was 441 km, and th...

Cadahi?a, Luis; Lo?pez-lo?pez, Pascual; Urios, Vicente; Soutullo, A?lvaro; Negro, Juan J.

2009-01-01

201

Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report  

OpenAIRE

We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment wit...

Np, Dinamithra; Sivansuthan, S.; Johnson, P.; Jgp, Nishshanka

2013-01-01

202

Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

203

Comparative evaluation and selection of a method for lipid and fatty acid extraction from macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative evaluation of Bligh and Dyer, Folch, and Cequier-Sánchez methods for quantitative determination of total lipids (TLs) and fatty acids (FAs) was accomplished in selective green (Ulva fasciata), red (Gracilaria corticata), and brown algae (Sargassum tenerrimum) using a full factorial categorical design. Applications of sonication and buffer individually on lipid extraction solvent systems were also evaluated. The FA recoveries obtained from the aforementioned methods were compared with those of direct transesterification (DT) methods to identify the best extraction methods. The experimental design showed that macroalgal matrix, extraction method, and buffer were key determinants for TL and FA recoveries (P?0.05), exhibiting significant interactions. But sonication gave erratic results with no interaction with any of the factors investigated. The buffered solvent system of Folch rendered the highest TL yield in U. fasciata and G. corticata while the buffered system of Bligh and Dyer gave the highest yield in S. tenerrimum. DT methods were more convenient and accurate for FA quantification and rendered 1.5-2 times higher yields when compared with the best conventional method, minimizing the use of chlorinated solvents, their cost of analysis, and disposal. The buffered solvent system was found to be the most appropriate for lipid research in macroalgae. PMID:21539805

Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

2011-08-15

204

Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola / Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor) e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia) de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K), [...] calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata) e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L) foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p Abstract in english A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia) in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fer [...] tilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K), bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L) significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p

João Américo, Wordell Filho; Daniel A, Martins; Marciel J., Stadnik.

2007-12-01

205

Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

João Américo Wordell Filho

2007-12-01

206

Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio / Macroalgas marinas tropicales atlánticas con actividad biológica contra vibrios virulentos y resistentes a antimicrobianos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se investigó la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos de etanol, metanol, hexano y acetona de las macroalgas Padina gymnospora (PG), Hypnea musciformes (HM), Ulva fasciata (UF) y Caulerpa prolifera (CP). Se utilizó el método de difusión en disco para evaluar el efecto antimicrobiano de las algas [...] contra cepas patrón de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Salmonella enterica y cinco cepas virulentas y resistentes a los antimicrobianos: V. brasiliensis, V. xuii y V. navarrensis (aislado de la hemolinfa de Litopenaeus vannamei). Los extractos de etanol de PG y HM inhibieron todas las cepas de Vibrio. E. coli y P. aeruginosa solo eran susceptibles a los extractos de etanol de PG. Entre los extractos de metanol, solo UF fue bioactivo, inhibiendo V. navarrensis. El efecto antibacteriano de los extractos de etanol de PG, HM y UF contra bacterias virulentas y resistentes a los antimicrobianos sugiere que estas especies de macroalgas constituyen una fuente potencial de compuestos bioactivos. Abstract in english The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG), Hypnea musciformes (HM), Ulva fasciata (UF) and Caulerpa prolifera (CP) was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against [...] standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei). Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

Giselle Cristina, Silva; Renata, Albuquerque-Costa; Jackson R, Oliveira-Peixoto; Fernando E, Pessoa-Nascimento; Pedro B, de Macedo-Carneiro; Regine H, Silva dos Fernandes-Vieira.

2013-03-01

207

Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro / Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h), moídos e seus compostos ex [...] traídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru) foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas). As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6) conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai) na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico), utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds e [...] xtracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru) were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants). Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6) conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai) on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect), using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

Guilherme Fernandes de, Abreu; Viviane, Talamini; Marciel João, Stadnik.

2008-02-01

208

Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h, moídos e seus compostos extraídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas. As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6 conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico, utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido.The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds extracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups for screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants. Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6 conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect, using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

2008-02-01

209

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP. The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG (Rio de janeiro, Brasil. Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle. Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG.

Wladimir C. Paradas

2007-03-01

210

?-, ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura / ?- and ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de ?- e ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram ?- e ?-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de ?-caroteno foram detectados na [...] s espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e ?-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram ?-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. ?-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas ?-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, ?-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram ?-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, ?-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of [...] a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

Márcia Barbosa de, Sousa; Kelma Maria dos Santos, Pires; Daniel Barroso de, Alencar; Alexandre Holanda, Sampaio; Silvana, Saker-Sampaio.

2008-12-01

211

?-, ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura ?- and ?-carotene, and ?-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de ?- e ?-caroteno e ?-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram ?- e ?-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de ?-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e ?-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram ?-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. ?-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas ?-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, ?-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram ?-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, ?-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

2008-12-01

212

Comparative study of the estimated sample size for benthic intertidal species and communities / Estudio comparativo del tamaño estimativo de muestra para especies bentónicas intermareales y de la comunidad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el tamaño mínimo de muestra para estudios de estructura de la comunidad y para las especies dominantes a diferentes alturas, en una zona intermareal rocosa en Río de Janeiro. Los indicadores de la estructura de la comunidad sugirieron una variación en la su [...] perficie mínima de 100 a 800 cm , 2 a 8 el número mínimo de perfiles y 20 a 80 el número mínimo de puntos de muestreo de cuadrantes, dependiendo en la altura. Los indicadores de abundancia de especies sugieren 100 cm para Hypnea musciformis, 400 cm para Ulva fasciata, Phragmatopoma lapidosa Kinberg, (1867) y Gymnogongrus griffthsiae a las alturas inferiores; 200 cm² para Chthamalus spp. a las alturas mediales y 800 cm para Littorina ziczac a la altura superior. El número de perfiles y puntos de muestreo fue, en general, 7-8 y 10-20, respectivamente. Diferentes tamaños de la muestra fueron relacionados con la abundancia de especies individuales y su distribución espacial, que varían en cada altura de la zona intermareal de acuerdo con el grado de stress ambiental. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the minimum sample size for studies of community structure and/or dominant species at different heights of a rocky intertidal zone at Rio de Janeiro. Community structure indicators suggested a variation in the minimum surface of 100 to 800 cm , with a min [...] imum of 2 to 8 pro files and at least 20 to 80 quadrant sampling points, depending on the height. Indicators of species abundance suggest 100 cm for Hypnea musciformis and 400 cm for Ulva fasciata, Phragmatopoma lapidosa Kinberg, (1867) and Gymnogongrus griffthsiae at lower heights; 200 cm² for Chthamalus spp. at intermedíate heights; and 800 cm for Littorina ziczac at the greatest height. In general, seven to eight profiles and 10 to 20 sampling points were used. Different sample sizes were related to the abundance and spatial distributions of individual species, which varied at each intertidal height according to the degree of environmental stress.

Danielle C, Barbiero; Isabela M, Macedo; Bruno, Mais; Ilana R, Zalmon.

213

Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP) são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG) (Rio de janei [...] ro, Brasil). Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle). Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG. Abstract in english Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin) was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP). The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB) (Rio de Janeiro, Brazi [...] l). Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.

Wladimir C., Paradas; Gilberto M., Amado Filho.

2007-03-01

214

Application of destructive neutron activation analysis for determination of microelements in Zostera marina and Ulva lactuca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of microelements has been determined in two algal species from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast by neutron activation analysis. The disturbing effects of the main components 24Na, 42K and 32P were eliminated by radiochemical separation. The results obtained for Fe, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn, Ce, Sc, Rb, Au, Sm, As, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Hg are presented in ppm

215

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

216

Testing sample stability using four storage methods and the macroalgae Ulva and Gracilaria  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern over the relative importance of different sample preparation and storage techniques frequently used in stable isotope analysis of particulate nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C) prompted an experiment to determine how important such factors were to measured valu...

217

Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta) from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV). Activity tests in crude [...] extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1%) than for HSV-2 (55.5%). The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9%) against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5%) and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (-)-elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta) and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta) were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%). Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

Angélica Ribeiro, Soares; Marcela C. S., Robaina; Gabriella S., Mendes; Thalia S. L., Silva; Lísia M. S., Gestinari; Odinéia S., Pamplona; Yocie, Yoneshigue-Valentin; Carlos R, Kaiser; Maria Teresa Villela, Romanos.

2012-08-01

218

Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

Angélica Ribeiro Soares

2012-08-01

219

Screening of marine algae of Oman gulf for bio sorption of Cobalt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Batch experiments were conducted to study the ability of marine algae collected from Oman Gulf, Iran, for sorption of cobalt from the metal nitrate solution. The bio sorption experiments were performed using native and chemically pretreated sun-dried biomass of marine algae. Our finding indicated that MgCl2 pretreated Cystoseria indica, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina australis had more sorption capacities, while the CaCl2 pretreated ones showed lower capacity (comparing with non-treated native biomass). Also, a fall in the cobalt uptake capacity of Nizimuddinia zanardini, Gracilaria corticata, G. arcuata, Botryocladia leptopoda, Scinaia carnosa, Hypnea valentiae, Ulva fasciata and Codium sp. took place after treatment with chemicals, including CaCl2 (0.1 M), MgCl2 (0.1M), CaCl2 (0.1 M)/HCL (pH2) and HCl(0.1 M). Bio sorption of cobalt was rapidly took place onto algal bio sorbents and most of the sorbed metal ion was bound in the first minutes of contact. Uptake of cobalt was pH-dependent and the most cobalt removal occurred at pH 4. In our screening investigations, brown algae (Dictyota indica, N. zanardini, P. australis, S.glaucescens, and C. indica) removed cobalt most efficiently from aqueous solution, respectively. The capability of marine algae for separation of 60Co removal was demonstrated

220

EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES  

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Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea; and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL (as % of total lipid were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7% followed by L. popillose (22.5 %. GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05% and L. popillose (5.8%, and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid, ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%. GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4 and m/z 337 (C21H58O3, were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml, comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml. On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities against both breast (MCF7 and liver human (HepG2 cancer cells, with an IC50 values ranging from 0.47 to 2.89 µg/ml.

El Baroty Gamal S

2011-03-01

221

Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

1996-08-01

222

REMOVAL OF AMMONIA TOXCITY IN MARINE SEDIMENT TIES: A COMPARISON OF ULVA LACTUCA, ZEOLITE AND AREATION METHODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Ammonia is suspected of causing some of the toxicity observed in marine sediment toxicity tests because it is sometimes found at elevated concentrations in marine interstitial waters. In marine waters, ammonia exists as un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+) which combine ...

223

Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L. Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A alternariose é uma das doenças mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgânico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizações semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil® e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doença e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. Avaliou-se a severidade final e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf, bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp. Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doença e produtividade foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Duncan (P?0.05. Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água. Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp. Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas. ?0.05. Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenças significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relação à testemunha (plantas tratadas com água. Ambos preparados propiciaram reduções médias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp e de 28 a 58% na área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPDf e AACPDp. Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em média de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo têm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os níveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condições edafoclimáticas.Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil® and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final disease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp. Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P < 0.05. In most of the experimental cycles, significant differences were observed in the sanity and yield of the treatments compared to the control (plants treated with water. Overall, both preparations reduced the final disease severity (Yf and Yp (by 41-62% and the AUDPCs by 28-58%. Treatments of plants with silicate clay and seaweed extract increased the fresh weight of leaves by 46% and 32%, respectively. Although this study indicates that silicate clay and seaweed extract have the potential for disease control, further studies are needed to elucidate the control levels of these treatments in different edaphoclimatic conditions.

Isaac B. Araújo

2012-10-01

224

Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa and their impact on the seedling quality  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A: a testemunha; b fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L; c fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L; d fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e calda bordalesa (0,3%; f calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume; h extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%; i extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%. Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B. A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes.This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A were tested: a control; b fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L; c potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L; d foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e Bordeaux mixture (0.3%; f Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume; h field horsetail (Equisetum arwense extract (0.26% and i Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%. Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B. Leaf necrosis area (% was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

João Américo Wordell Filho

2006-12-01

225

Substrate selection of the caprellid Caprella dilatata (Crustacea, Amphipoda) / Selección de sustrato del caprélido Caprella dilatata (Crustacea, Amphipoda)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La diversidad del espacio y la variabilidad de las condiciones ambientales que afectan la calidad del hábitat para los organismos son factores determinantes en la selección de un hábitat ideal. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la selección del sustrato del anfípodo caprélido Caprell [...] a dilatata, en ambientes naturales al largo de la costa del sur de Brasil y en condiciones de laboratorio. Se contabilizaron 31 sustratos biológicos distintos que albergaban a invertebrados, la mayoría fueron sustratos algales. C. dilatata fue registrada en once de estos sustratos, y resultó ser especie dominante únicamente en algas finamente ramificadas, ascidias, briozoos y en las superficies de las boyas y cuerdas. Los experimentos de laboratorio para selección de sustrato por C. dilatata se realizaron utilizando dos y cuatro especies de algas que tenían contrastante ramificación; Gracilaria cervicornis, Pterocladia capillacea, Sargassum cymosum y Ulva fasciata. En el primer experimento, caprélidos fueron trasladados a tres acuarios que contenían combinaciones variadas de dos sustratos de algas con un total de nueve combinaciones. Para el segundo experimento (cuatro algas), todas las especies de algas se combinaron en cada acuario. Los anfípodos obtenidos para experimentos en laboratorio mostraron el color del dermatoesqueleto siempre muy similar al color de las algas. Hubo una fuerte preferencia de caprélidos por el sustrato original. A pesar de la morfología cosmopolita de C. dilatata para la selección del sustrato, los individuos se encuentraron principalmente en sustratos estructuralmente complejos, y demostraron la importancia del camuflaje en estos caprélidos. Abstract in english The diversity of space and the variability of environmental conditions that affect habitat quality for organisms, are determining factors in the selection of an ideal habitat. The present study aimed to understand the substrate selectivity of a caprellid amphipod, Caprella dilatata, in natural envir [...] onments along the southern Brazilian coast and in laboratory conditions. A total of 31 biological substrates sheltering invertebrates were collected across various localities. C. dilatata was recorded in 11 substrate samples, and was a dominant species only in finely branched and softly surfaced algal substrate, ascidian and bryozoan colonies, and the surfaces of buoys and ropes. Laboratory experiments for substrate selection by C. dilatata were performed under two conditions: two-algal substrates and four-algal substrates. The phytals of Gracilaria cervicornis, Pterocladia capillacea, Sargassum cymosum and Ulva fasciata were selected for the experiments due to their contrasting degrees of ramification. In the first experiment (two-algal substrates), caprellids were transferred to three aquaria containing varied combinations of two algal substrates with a total of nine combinations. For the second experiment (four-algal substrates), all species of algae were combined together in each aquarium. Amphipods obtained for laboratory experiments always showed an exoskeleton color very close to that of the original algal substrate. Caprellids showed a strong preference for the original algal substrate. Despite the cosmopolitan morphology of C. dilatata for selection of the substrate, the individuals were mostly found in structurally complex substrates, and the experiments show the importance of camouflage for these caprellids.

Mariana B, Lacerda; Setuko, Masunari.

2011-08-01

226

Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas / Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa) and their impact on the seedling quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental d [...] e Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A): a) testemunha; b) fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L); c) fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L); d) fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L); e) calda bordalesa (0,3%); f) calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g) extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume); h) extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%); i) extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%). Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B). A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16), calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes. Abstract in english This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to [...] July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A) were tested: a) control; b) fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L); c) potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L); d) foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L); e) Bordeaux mixture (0.3%); f) Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g) extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume); h) field horsetail (Equisetum arwense) extract (0.26%) and i) Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%). Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B). Leaf necrosis area (%) was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16), Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

João Américo, Wordell Filho; Marciel J, Stadnik.

2006-12-01

227

Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción / Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada trat [...] amiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 ), amonio (N-NH4-) y nitrato (N-NO3) fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%), turbidez (97,1%) sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%), clorofila-a (99,1%), amonio (54,1%), nitrito (58,0%), nitrato (69,2%) y fosfato (52,9%), presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

Roberto, Ramos; Luis, Vinatea; Julia, Santos; Rejane, Da Costa.

228

Seaweeds as bioindicators of heavy metals off a hot spot area on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during 2008-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Hg were measured successively in water, sediments, and six macroalgal species belonging to three algal classes during 3 years (2008-2010) from Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt: Chlorophyceae (Enteromorpha compressa, Ulva fasciata), Phaeophyceae (Padina boryana), and Rhodophyceae (Jania rubens, Hypnea musciformis, Pterocladia capillacea). The study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation potential of the seaweeds, as well as to evaluate the extent of heavy metal contamination in the selected study site. Metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled with MH-10 hydride system. The obtained data showed that the highest mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were recorded in E. compressa; Cd, Ni, and Hg exhibited their highest mean concentrations in P. boryana, while Pb and Co were found in J. rubens. Abundance of the heavy metals in the algal species was as follow: Fe?>?Mn?>?Zn?>?Pb?>?Ni?>?Co?>?Cu?>?Cd?>?Hg. E. compressa showed the maximum metal pollution index (MPI) which was 11.55. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the metals in algae was relatively high with a maximum value for Mn. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) values for the recorded algal species were low, which ranged between 1.00 in P. boryana and 2.72 in E. compressa. Enrichment factors for sediments were low fluctuating between 0.43 for Hg to 2.33 for Mn. Accordingly, the green alga E. compressa, brown alga P. boryana, and red alga J. rubens can be nominated as bioindicators. Based on MPI and PLI indices, Abu Qir Bay in the present study is considered as low-contaminated area. PMID:24844431

Shams El-Din, N G; Mohamedein, L I; El-Moselhy, Kh M

2014-09-01

229

Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

Roberto Ramos

2010-01-01

230

78 FR 31511 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Jacks Blue runner, Caranx bartholomaei Bar jack, Caranx ruber Greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili Lesser amberjack, Seriola fasciata Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana Banded rudderfish, Seriola zonata Ephippidae--Spadefishes...

2013-05-24

231

78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Jacks Blue runner, Caranx bartholomaei Bar jack, Caranx ruber Greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili Lesser amberjack, Seriola fasciata Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana Banded rudderfish, Seriola zonata Ephippidae--Spadefishes...

2013-08-13

232

78 FR 59635 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Balistes capriscus Carangidae--Jacks Bar jack, Caranx ruber Greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili Lesser amberjack, Seriola fasciata Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana Banded rudderfish, Seriola zonata Ephippidae--Spadefishes...

2013-09-27

233

78 FR 78770 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Balistes capriscus Carangidae--Jacks Bar jack, Caranx ruber Greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili Lesser amberjack, Seriola fasciata Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana Banded rudderfish, Seriola zonata Ephippidae--Spadefishes...

2013-12-27

234

Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway  

OpenAIRE

Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system. In ...

Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2013-01-01

235

Nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of two green seaweeds (Ulva pertusa and U. intestinalis from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition, amino acid, and element contents, as well as some physicochemical properties of Ulvapertusa and U. intestinalis, collected from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand in the rainy and summer seasons of 2007–2008, were investigated in order to gain more nutritional information. It was found that the two green seaweed speciescontained high level of protein (14.6–19.5% DW, lipid (2.1–8.7% DW, ash (25.9–28.6% DW, soluble fiber (25.3–39.6% DW,insoluble fiber (21.8–33.5% DW and total dietary fiber (51.3–62.2% DW. Comparing the element contents of the two species,U. pertusa was rich in Mg, K and Ca, while U. intestinalis was rich in Mg, K, Cl, Na, and Ca. The essential amino acids of thetwo species were rich in leucine, valine, and arginine contents. The most limiting essential amino acid of both species waslysine. However, the nutritional composition of the two seaweeds varied depending on seasonal change. As for the physicochemicalproperties of both seaweeds, their swelling capacity (SWC, water holding capacity (WHC, and oil holding capacity(OHC ranged from 4.0 to 6.4 ml/g DW, 7.8 to 15.0 g/g DW and 1.4 to 4.8 g oil/g DW, respectively. WHC and OHC of U.intestinalis was higher than those of U. pertusa (P<0.05. This study suggested that both species could be potentially usedas raw materials or ingredients to improve the nutritive value and texture of functional food and healthy products for humanbeings.

Ommee Benjama

2011-10-01

236

Characterization of benthic types in the lower Medway estuary, Kent. [Nereis diversicolor; Polydora ciliata; Spiophanes bombyx; Hydrobia ulvae; Peloacolex benedeni; Capitella capitatus; Heteromastus filiformis; Caulleriella zetlandica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of sediment parameters, including particle size and redox potential profiles, were measured during an ecological study of the benthic invertebrate macrofauna of the lower Medway estuary, Kent. The results proved more meaningful in characterizing the sediment habitats of the benthic invertebrate fauna than did measurements on the overlying water.

Wharfe, J.R.

1976-09-01

237

Survey of the radioactive background of some specimens of the biota of Rio de Janeiro coastal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural radioactivity of components known to be bioconcentrators of artificial radionuclides in the coast of Rio de Janeiro was determined by means of sistematical gross alpha and beta radiometry. These data constitute the pre-operational survey, determining the radioactivity levels of these organisms and permiting to establish basic values and their temporal variations, which will serve as a referencial for the detection of eventual increases in the radioactivity introduced in the marine environment during the operational phase of nuclear power plants. Uranium and Potassium were also measured in some samples. The maximum and minimum values obtained after six years of experiment, analysing 14 species of algae and 4 species of animals were: for gross alpha radiometry (0,454 + - 0,162)Bq/g in the ashes of the phaeophita Padina vickersiae and (0,473 + - 0,106)Bq/g in the cnidaria Bunodosoma caissarum, (0,067 + - 0,031)Bq/g in the clorophita Ulva Fasciata and (0,091 + - 0,060)Bq/g in the soft tissues of the bivalve Perna perna. The byssus of this animal presented the highest gross alpha concentration : (1,770 + - 0,708)Bq/g, probably due to its high Uranium concentration, which contributes with 71%, complexed with its main constituent, a scleroprotein. The gross beta concentrations were highest in the algae Chetomorpha antennina (6,63 + - 1,80)Bq/g and in the species Bunodosoma caissarum, with a mean value of (2,60 + - 0,74)Bq/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations were obtained in the rodophita Plocamium brasiliense, (1,64 + - 0,36)Bq/g, and (1,04 + - 0,30)Bq/g in the byssus of Perna perna. By the theoretical concentration of 40K, calculated from potassium, the strong contribution of that radionuclide in the gross beta activity of the organisms is stressed. Seven samples of ashes were submitted to analyses by three different laboratories and the intercomparison results showed a reasonable agreement. (Author)

238

Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae)  

OpenAIRE

The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini) and 69 valid species (59 new) are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1) the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2) the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker), T. gr...

Albertson, Jesse L.; Dietrich, Christopher H.

2006-01-01

239

EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris  

OpenAIRE

Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn) poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, ...

Sazada Siddiqui

2014-01-01

240

Sulfur isotope variability of oceanic DMSP generation and its contributions to marine biogenic sulfur emissions  

OpenAIRE

Oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is the precursor to dimethylsulfide (DMS), which plays a role in climate regulation through transformation to methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-seasalt sulfate (NSS-SO42?) aerosols. Here, we report measurements of the abundance and sulfur isotope compositions of DMSP from one phytoplankton species (Prorocentrum minimum) and five intertidal macroalgal species (Ulva lactuca, Ulva linza, Ulvaria obscura, Ulva prolifera, and Polysiphonia hendryi) in ma...

Oduro, Harry; Alstyne, Kathryn L.; Farquhar, James

2012-01-01

241

Molecular characterization of two opecoelid trematodes from fishes in the Gulf of Mexico, with a description of a new species of Helicometra.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plagioporine opecoelids Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1902, and Macvicaria crassigula (Linton, 1910) Bartoli, Bray, and Gibson, 1989 have been reported from fishes in expansive geographic regions, disjointed from their type localities. New material of M. crassigula was collected from near its type locality as well as specimens resembling Helicometra fasciata sensu lato from three triglids in the Gulf of Mexico. Comparisons of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, comprising the partial 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer region (= ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2), and partial 28S rDNA gene, from M. crassigula and Helicometra fasciata sensu lato in the Gulf of Mexico were made with sequences deposited in GenBank from those species from the Mediterranean Sea. Results reveal that M. crassigula sensu stricto from the Gulf of Mexico is distinct from the two cryptic species of M. crassigula sensu lato from the Mediterranean Sea and Helicometra fasciata sensu lato in this study differs from H. fasciata sequences from the Mediterranean Sea, thus Helicometra manteri sp. nov. is described. PMID:25119353

Andres, Michael J; Ray, Candis L; Pulis, Eric E; Curran, Stephen S; Overstreet, Robin M

2014-09-01

242

Use of ITS rDNA for discriminating of larval stages of two microphallid (Digenea) species using Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1777) and Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) as intermediate hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digenean trematodes encompass several species with little morphological differentiation in the larval stages and, as a result, uncertainty prevails regarding species identification. The microphallid trematode Maritrema subdolum occurs widespread geographically in mud snail and crustacean hosts in European marine shallow-water ecosystems. Larval stages of this and other congeneric species are, however, difficult to separate morphologically. To verify the species status and to secure identification of two co-occurring microphallids, M. subdolum and microphallid sp. no. 15 (Deblock, 1980), we examined the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2). From fragments consisting of both ITS regions and the 5.8S gene (nearly 1,200 bp), a sequence divergence of 2.9% between the two types was recorded. In accordance with the morphological traits of the cercariae (stylet shape, length), the results support the view that the two types actually represent different species. Species-specific primers were prepared for each species. They proved to be efficient diagnostic tools for identifying single larval-stage individuals. Using these primers, infections in host organisms were also verified without performing a dissection of the host individuals. PMID:15185143

Hust, J; Frydenberg, J; Sauriau, P-G; Le Gall, P; Mouritsen, K N; Jensen, K Thomas

2004-07-01

243

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Urease Inhibition Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants  

OpenAIRE

Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants nati...

Tahir Mehmood; Nazamid Saari; Fauqia Naz; Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Amin

2013-01-01

244

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)  

OpenAIRE

SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing)...

Leandro de Santis Ferreira; Rosana Peporine Lopes; Mabel Norma Costas Ulbrich; Thais Guaratini; Pio Colepicolo; Norberto Peporine Lopes; Ricardo Clapis Garla; Eurico Cabral de Oliveira Filho; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues Zucchi

2012-01-01

245

Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indic...

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K.

2011-01-01

246

Raptors and "campo-cerrado" bird mixed flock led by Cypsnagra Hirundinacea (Emberizidae:Thraupinae Predadores aéreos e bandos mistos de aves, em campo-cerrado, liderados por Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Emberizidae: Thraupinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bird mixed flocks including Cypsnagra hirundinacea and Neothraupis fasciata as species with sentinels were studied in "campo-cerrado" in order to investigate the possible relationship between alertness and the mixed flock leadership. This study was conducted from March to September 1996 and mixed flocks were observed on average for 2:30h. The time with sentinels were recorded for C. hirundinacea and N. fasciata. The sentinels of Cypsnagra hirundinacea performed most of the vigilance (time with sentinel was on average 42 ± 17%, 41 ± 17% of which by C. hirundinacea, whereas only 1.2 % by N. fasciata and gave all the alarm calls recorded (54% of the encounters with raptors stimulated alarm calls. A relationship was verified between time with sentinel and the rate of encounters with raptor (ANOVA, F = 3.0, P Bandos mistos de aves incluindo Cypsnagra hirundinacea e Neothraupis fasciata como espécies que vigiam por sentinelas foram estudados em campo-cerrado de março a setembro de 1996. O propósito desse estudo foi verificar a possível relação entre o grau de alerta de uma espécie e a liderança dos bandos. Durante as observações (em média de 2h30 foi quantificado o tempo vigiado por sentinelas de ambas as espécies. Os sentinelas de Cypsnagra hirundinacea realizaram a quase totalidade da vigilância (tempo com sentinela foi em média de 42 ± 17% do tempo, sendo 41 ± 17% vigiado por C. hirundinacea e 1,2% por N. fasciata, além de emitirem todos os chamados de alarme registrados (54% dos encontros com predadores aéreos estimularam chamados de alarme. O tempo vigiado por sentinelas nos bandos apresentou relação significativa com a taxa de encontro entre os predadores aéreos e os bandos (ANOVA, F = 3,0; p < 0,05. Esses resultados evidenciam a função antipredatória dos bandos mistos em campo-cerrado e que o grau de alerta é uma característica relevante em uma espécie líder, uma vez que esses bandos sempre foram liderados por C. hirundinacea.

J. RAGUSA-NETTO

2000-08-01

247

Raptors and "campo-cerrado" bird mixed flock led by Cypsnagra Hirundinacea (Emberizidae:Thraupinae) / Predadores aéreos e bandos mistos de aves, em campo-cerrado, liderados por Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Emberizidae: Thraupinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Bandos mistos de aves incluindo Cypsnagra hirundinacea e Neothraupis fasciata como espécies que vigiam por sentinelas foram estudados em campo-cerrado de março a setembro de 1996. O propósito desse estudo foi verificar a possível relação entre o grau de alerta de uma espécie e a liderança dos bandos [...] . Durante as observações (em média de 2h30) foi quantificado o tempo vigiado por sentinelas de ambas as espécies. Os sentinelas de Cypsnagra hirundinacea realizaram a quase totalidade da vigilância (tempo com sentinela foi em média de 42 ± 17% do tempo, sendo 41 ± 17% vigiado por C. hirundinacea e 1,2% por N. fasciata), além de emitirem todos os chamados de alarme registrados (54% dos encontros com predadores aéreos estimularam chamados de alarme). O tempo vigiado por sentinelas nos bandos apresentou relação significativa com a taxa de encontro entre os predadores aéreos e os bandos (ANOVA, F = 3,0; p Abstract in english Bird mixed flocks including Cypsnagra hirundinacea and Neothraupis fasciata as species with sentinels were studied in "campo-cerrado" in order to investigate the possible relationship between alertness and the mixed flock leadership. This study was conducted from March to September 1996 and mixed fl [...] ocks were observed on average for 2:30h. The time with sentinels were recorded for C. hirundinacea and N. fasciata. The sentinels of Cypsnagra hirundinacea performed most of the vigilance (time with sentinel was on average 42 ± 17%, 41 ± 17% of which by C. hirundinacea, whereas only 1.2 % by N. fasciata) and gave all the alarm calls recorded (54% of the encounters with raptors stimulated alarm calls). A relationship was verified between time with sentinel and the rate of encounters with raptor (ANOVA, F = 3.0, P

J., RAGUSA-NETTO.

2000-08-01

248

Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oil of Teclea nobilis Leaf  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of Teclea nobilis Delile (Rutaceae) (TN), was investigated by using GC/MS. Out of fifty four peaks (representing 99.3% of the oil), twenty three components were identified, representing 62.3% of the total oil composition. The main components were Germacrene-d (19%), Ocimene isomer (13%), Guaiol (3.9%), Elemol (2.9%) and Bulnesol (2.5%). Analgesia was evident in both the acetic acid induced writhing and tail flick reaction time tests ...

Al-rehaily, Adnan J.

2001-01-01

249

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

OpenAIRE

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmari...

Bravo-linares, C. M.; Mudge, S. M.; Loyola-sepulveda, R. H.

2010-01-01

250

Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed  

OpenAIRE

The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR), chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin) content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be m...

Sornalakshmi V; Venkataraman Kumar

2014-01-01

251

Community context mediates the top-down vs. bottom-up effects of grazers on rocky shores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between grazers and autotrophs are complex, including both top-down consumptive and bottom-up facilitative effects of grazers. Thus, in addition to consuming autotrophs, herbivores can also enhance autotroph biomass by recycling limiting nutrients, thereby increasing nutrient availability. Here, we evaluated these consumptive and facilitative interactions between snails (Littorina littorea) and seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva lactuca) on a rocky shore. We partitioned herbivores' total effects on seaweeds into their consumptive and facilitative effects and evaluated how community context (the presence of another seaweed species) modified the effects of Littorina on a focal seaweed species. Ulva, the more palatable species, enhanced the facilitative effects of Littorina on Fucus. Ulva did not modify the consumptive effect of Littorina on Fucus. Taken together, the consumptive and facilitative effects of snails on Fucus in the presence of Ulva balanced each other, resulting in no net effect of Littorina on Fucus. In contrast, the only effect of Fucus on Ulva was to enhance consumptive effects of Littorina on Ulva. Our results highlight the necessity of considering both consumptive and facilitative effects of herbivores on multiple autotroph species in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of grazers' top-down and bottom-up roles in structuring communities. PMID:25039210

Bracken, Matthew E S; Dolecal, Renee E; Long, Jeremy D

2014-06-01

252

The potential of algae blooms to produce renewable gaseous fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulva lactuca (commonly known as sea letuce) is a green sea weed which dominates Green Tides or algae blooms. Green Tides are caused by excess nitrogen from agriculture and sewage outfalls resulting in eutrophication in shallow estuaries. Samples of U. lactuca were taken from the Argideen estuary in West Cork on two consecutive years. In year 1 a combination of three different processes/pretreatments were carried out on the Ulva. These include washing, wilting and drying. Biomethane potential (BMP) assays were carried out on the samples. Fresh Ulva has a biomethane yield of 183LCH4/kgVS. For dried, washed and macerated Ulva a BMP of 250LCH4/kgVS was achieved. The resource from the estuary in West Cork was shown to be sufficient to provide fuel to 264 cars on a year round basis. Mono-digestion of Ulva may be problematic; the C:N ratio is low and the sulphur content is high. In year 2 co-digestion trials with dairy slurry were carried out. These indicate a potential increase in biomethane output by 17% as compared to mono-digestion of Ulva and slurry. PMID:23850117

Allen, E; Browne, J; Hynes, S; Murphy, J D

2013-11-01

253

Hyphomycetes sobre folhas em decomposição de Caesalpinia echinata Lam.: ocorrências novas para o Brasil / Hyphomycetes on Caesalpinia echinata Lam. leaf litter: new records to Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Durante levantamento de Hyphomycetes decompositores do folhedo de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., plantadas na sede do Instituto de Botânica, Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, município de São Paulo, SP, quatro espécies nunca antes isoladas no Brasil foram encontradas: Chaetendophragmia fasciata Ca [...] stañeda, Henicospora minor P.M. Kirk & B. Sutton, Pseudodictyosporium wauense Matsushima e Sporidesmium filiferum Pirozynski. O presente trabalho contém descrição taxonômica, distribuição geográfica e comentários para cada uma delas. Abstract in english During a survey of decomposing Hyphomycetes associated with leaf litter of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., cultivated at the Instituto de Botânica, Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, municipality of São Paulo, SP, four new records from Brazil were isolated: Chaetendophragmia fasciata Castañeda, Heni [...] cospora minor P.M. Kirk & B. Sutton, Pseudodictyosporium wauense Matsushima and Sporidesmium filiferum Pirozynski. This paper shows taxonomical description, geographical distribution and comments to all of them.

Rosely A. Piccolo, Grandi; Thacyana de Valois, Silva.

2003-12-01

254

Hyphomycetes sobre folhas em decomposição de Caesalpinia echinata Lam.: ocorrências novas para o Brasil Hyphomycetes on Caesalpinia echinata Lam. leaf litter: new records to Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante levantamento de Hyphomycetes decompositores do folhedo de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., plantadas na sede do Instituto de Botânica, Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, município de São Paulo, SP, quatro espécies nunca antes isoladas no Brasil foram encontradas: Chaetendophragmia fasciata Castañeda, Henicospora minor P.M. Kirk & B. Sutton, Pseudodictyosporium wauense Matsushima e Sporidesmium filiferum Pirozynski. O presente trabalho contém descrição taxonômica, distribuição geográfica e comentários para cada uma delas.During a survey of decomposing Hyphomycetes associated with leaf litter of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., cultivated at the Instituto de Botânica, Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, municipality of São Paulo, SP, four new records from Brazil were isolated: Chaetendophragmia fasciata Castañeda, Henicospora minor P.M. Kirk & B. Sutton, Pseudodictyosporium wauense Matsushima and Sporidesmium filiferum Pirozynski. This paper shows taxonomical description, geographical distribution and comments to all of them.

Rosely A. Piccolo Grandi

2003-12-01

255

Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini) and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini) from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq.) J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini) and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini) from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962)...

Galileo Maria Helena M.; Martins Ubirajara R.

2003-01-01

256

Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil / New species and notes on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Pará and Brazilian norteastern  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini) and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini) from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq.) J. W. [...] Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini) and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini) from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962) and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

Maria Helena M., Galileo; Ubirajara R., Martins.

2003-09-01

257

Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq. J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962 and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

Galileo Maria Helena M.

2003-01-01

258

Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast  

OpenAIRE

Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú) yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea). Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ecto...

Oliva, Marcelo E.; Luque, Jose? L.

1998-01-01

259

Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry micr...

Chikako Asada; Keita Doi; Chizuru Sasaki; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

2012-01-01

260

Cu(II) binding by dried biomass of red, green and brown macroalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dried biomass of the marine macroalgae Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus (brown), Ulva spp. (comprising Ulva linza, Ulva compressa and Ulva intestinalis) and Ulva lactuca (green), Palmaria palmata and Polysiphonia lanosa (red) were studied in terms of their Cu(II) biosorption performance. This is the first study of its kind to compare Cu(II) uptake by these seaweeds in the South-East of Ireland. Potentiometric and conductimetric titrations revealed a variety of functionalities on the seaweed surface including carboxyl and amino groups, which are capable of metal binding. It was also found that, of the seaweeds investigated, F. vesiculosus contained the greatest number of acidic surface binding sites while Palmaria palmata contained the least. The metal uptake capacities of the seaweeds increased with increasing pH and kinetic behaviour followed a similar pattern for all seaweeds: a rapid initial sorption period followed by a longer equilibrium period. P. palmata reached equilibrium within 10min of exposure while F. vesiculosus required 60min. Correlation was found between the total number of acidic binding sites and the time taken to reach equilibrium. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis of the seaweeds revealed the interaction of carboxyl, amino, sulphonate and hydroxyl groups on the seaweed surface with Cu(2+) ions while time course studies established the relative contribution of each of these groups in metal binding. PMID:17234234

Murphy, Vanessa; Hughes, Helen; McLoughlin, Peter

2007-02-01

261

A comparison of eelgrass, sea lettuce macroalgae, and marsh creeks as habitats for epibenthic fishes and decapods  

Science.gov (United States)

Densities of epibenthic fishes and decapod crustaceans (excluding xanthids and pagurids) were quantified with daytime throw trap sampling in shallow water habitats of New Jersey estuaries. We compared eelgrass ( Zostera marina), sea lettuce macroalgae ( Ulva lactuca), unvegetated sand/mud substrates adjacent to these vegetation types, and saltmarsh creeks. The highest total density of fishes occurred in marsh creeks, due primarily to high abundances of Menidia menidia. The highest total decapod density was also in a marsh creek, but only slightly surpassed the density in Zostera. Results of apriori comparisons tests for individual species demonstrated that vegetation (either Zostera or Ulva) was superior in quality (based on fish and decapod densities) to adjacent unvegetated substrates. Sites with Zostera as the dominant vegetation had higher densities of most fish species than sites with Ulva as the dominant vegetation, but only one decapod, Hippolyte pleuracanthus, was more abundant at eelgrass sites. Ulva lactuca, therefore, was an important habitat in areas lacking Zostera marina; for the decapods the two vegetation types were comparable in habitat quality, but for fishes Ulva did not provide an equivalent substitute for Zostera. Marsh creeks supported very high densities, but only for a few species that were also common in other habitats. Comparison of recruitment patterns suggested many species do not begin exploiting these estuarine habitats until relatively late in the summer, perhaps as result of peak spawning in mid-summer.

Sogard, Susan M.; Able, Kenneth W.

1991-11-01

262

Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 ?Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 ?Sv/year, respectively.

263

Comparative study of chromium biosorption by red, green and brown seaweed biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dried biomass of the macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis (brown), Ulva spp. (comprising Ulva linza, Ulva compressa and Ulva intestinalis) and Ulva lactuca (green), Palmaria palmata and Polysiphonia lanosa (red) were studied in terms of their chromium biosorption performance. Metal sorption was highly pH dependent with maximum Cr(III) and Cr(VI) sorption occurring at pH 4.5 and pH 2, respectively. Extended equilibrium times were required for Cr(VI) binding over Cr(III) binding (180 and 120min, respectively) thus indicating possible disparities in binding mechanism between chromium oxidation states. The red seaweed P. palmata revealed the highest removal efficiency for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) at low initial concentrations. However, at high initial metal concentrations F. vesiculosus had the greatest removal efficiency for Cr(III) and performed almost identically to P. lanosa in terms of Cr(VI) removal. The Langmuir Isotherm mathematically described chromium binding to the seaweeds where F. vesiculosus had the largest q(max) for Cr(III) sorption (1.21mmol g(-1)) and P. lanosa had the largest Cr(VI) uptake (0.88mmol g(-1)). P. palmata had the highest affinity for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) binding with b values of 4.94mM(-1) and 8.64mM(-1), respectively. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed interactions of amino, carboxyl, sulphonate and hydroxyl groups in chromium binding to Ulva spp. The remaining seaweeds showed involvement of these groups to varying degrees as well as ether group participation in the brown seaweeds and for Cr(VI) binding to the red seaweeds. PMID:17884133

Murphy, V; Hughes, H; McLoughlin, P

2008-01-01

264

Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) and increased erosion rate (E), since their feeding activities diminished the surface stabilizing effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microphytobenthos. S. plana had the highest and H. ulvae the lowest impact when related to density (factor of 29 for uc and factor of 19 for E), while H. ulvae was more important than S. plana when related to biomass (factor of 4 for uc and factor of 6 for E). N. diversicolor had intermediate density-specific (4-6 times higher than H. ulvae) and lowest biomass-specific (2-3 times lower than S. plana) effects on erosion. It appears that faunal erosion impacts preferably should be reported in biomass units for comparative purposes because individual behavioural effects of a small-bodied species like H. ulvae functionally can be relatively more important than those of a 100 times heavier S. plana individual. This is clearly evidenced from the strongly diminished response in suspended Chlorophyll-a content in the presence of the former than the latter species, which is caused by an efficient microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae. It is also important to emphasize that the total faunal impact on erosion threshold in a certain area is dictated by combination of contributions from individual species. The total outcome is unpredictable and controlled by synergistic and antagonistic species-specific effects, species interactions as well as environmental and sediment conditions.

Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

2013-12-01

265

Antagonistic Effect of Epiphytic Bacteria from Marine Algae, Southeastern India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epibiotic bacteria from seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Dictyota dichotoma and Padina tetrastromatica against some potent human pathogens. The epibiotic bacteria of Ulva lactuca shows higher level of inhibition properties than the other species. The strain UL1 shows broad spectrum inhibitory activity against 7 pathogens. The inhibitory level of epibiotic bacteria ranged from low to moderate activity. The present investigation suggests that the epibiotic bacteria are good source for the isolation of antibacterial compounds of biomedical importance. The compounds can further be purified and can used to save mankind from dreadful diseases.

A. Alex John

2013-01-01

266

Antagonistic effect of epiphytic bacteria from marine algae, southeastern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epibiotic bacteria from seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Dictyota dichotoma and Padina tetrastromatica against some potent human pathogens. The epibiotic bacteria of Ulva lactuca shows higher level of inhibition properties than the other species. The strain UL1 shows broad spectrum inhibitory activity against 7 pathogens. The inhibitory level of epibiotic bacteria ranged from low to moderate activity. The present investigation suggests that the epibiotic bacteria are good source for the isolation of antibacterial compounds of biomedical importance. The compounds can further be purified and can used to save mankind from dreadful diseases. PMID:24498807

Chellaram, C; Raja, P; John, A Alex; Krithika, S

2013-05-01

267

Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oil of Teclea nobilis Leaf  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of Teclea nobilis Delile (Rutaceae (TN, was investigated by using GC/MS. Out of fifty four peaks (representing 99.3% of the oil, twenty three components were identified, representing 62.3% of the total oil composition. The main components were Germacrene-d (19%, Ocimene isomer (13%, Guaiol (3.9%, Elemol (2.9% and Bulnesol (2.5%. Analgesia was evident in both the acetic acid induced writhing and tail flick reaction time tests in mice. A significant antipyretic activity of oil was also observed in mice. A slow and gradual neuromuscular blocking effect was recorded on rat`s phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation. The oil showed no anti-microbial potential on various microorganisms tested. The oil showed sedative effect on behavioural tests without causing any side effect.

Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

2001-01-01

268

Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF).  

Science.gov (United States)

SRTXRF WAS USED TO DETERMINE AS, BA, BR, CA, CO, CR, CS, CU, DY, FE, K, MN, MO, NI, PB, RB, SR, TI, V, AND ZN IN ELEVEN SEAWEED SPECIES COMMONLY FOUND IN FERNANDO DE NORONHA: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area. PMID:22505917

Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garla, Ricardo Clapis; Oliveira Filho, Eurico Cabral; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues

2012-01-01

269

EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

Sazada Siddiqui

2014-05-01

270

Metal and Phosphorus Uptake by Spontaneous Vegetation in an abandoned iron mine from a Semiarid Area in Center Morocco: Implications for Phytoextraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneously growing native plants (belonging to 12 species, 10 genera, and 3 families were analyzed to study the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and P in shoots and roots. The different plant species collected in Ait Amar iron mining site exhibited large differences in shoot and root accumulation of metals. Among the grass species (Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae, the highest shoot Cd, Cu, Zn concentrations were found in Echinops spinosus L (0.989, 29.190 and 175.347 mg Kg-1 respectively, Cr in Cladanthus arabicus (L Class (9.241 mg Kg-1 and Pb, Fe and P in Leontodon hispidilus (Delile Boiss (5.952, 1522.839  and 4612.795 mg Kg-1. The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF were recorded for E. spinosus L and Zn (1.68. The highest soil-plant transfer factor (TF of Cd was 1.24 (Stipa Capensis thumb, of Cr was 2.01 (C. arabicus (L Class, of Cu was 8.40 (Carthamus lanatus L, of Zn was 2.52 (E. spinosus L, of Pb was 7.00 (Eryngium ilicifolium Lam, of P was 537.72 (E. ilicifolium Lam and of Fe was 0.52 (L. hispidilus (Delile Boiss. E. spinosus L showed the highest Zn phytoextraction capacity and other plant species demonstrated to grow well in metal contaminated soil taking up only low concentrations of metals, and, therefore they are good candidates for phytostabilization.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.3866

Mohamed Nouri

2013-07-01

271

Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

2012-12-01

272

Antireflection-enhanced color by a natural graded refractive index (GRIN) structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanostructured materials like graded refractive index (GRIN) structures in moth eyes have inspired the design of novel antireflective coatings. Such structures are more flexible than uniform coatings, but applications have been mainly limited to broadband antireflection in solar cells and LEDs. Here we show that cylindrical pigment granules in two bird species (Polyplectron bicalcaratum and Patagioenas fasciata) form a GRIN that suppresses interference and expands the range of colors produced by a multilayer. These results demonstrate that a GRIN structure can function like a pigment (i.e. through selective, independent wavelength blocking) to generate unique colors and may inspire the design of novel antireflective and structurally colored coatings. PMID:24922372

Eliason, Chad M; Shawkey, Matthew D

2014-05-01

273

Bromeliads production in greenhouses associated to different shading screens / Produção de bromélias sob malhas de sombreamento em casa de vegetação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A produção de bromélias em ambiente protegido é altamente influenciada pelo microclima, o qual afeta tanto o desenvolvimento como o crescimento das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nas variáveis microclimáticas e no cresc [...] imento da bromélia Aechmea fasciata em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente. Os tratamentos foram compostos por diferentes malhas de sombreamento: termo-refletora (T1), testemunha sem malha (T2), vermelha (T3), azul (T4) e preta (T5), todas com 70% de sombreamento. Das 60 plantas dispostas em cada um dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas 24 delas obtidas aleatoriamente. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado para as variáveis biométricas. Um sistema automático de aquisição de dados micrometeorológicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo registros de temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e radiação solar. As variáveis das plantas avaliadas foram altura e diâmetro da planta, largura e comprimento das folhas e número de folhas por planta. O diâmetro da roseta e o comprimento das folhas foram as variáveis que apresentaram as maiores diferenças entre os tratamentos, em função das alterações na radiação solar causadas pelas malhas de sombreamento. A malha vermelha promoveu as melhores condições para a produção da bromélia A. fasciata. Abstract in english Bromeliads production in greenhouses is highly influenced by microclimate, which affects plants growth and development. Based on that, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of shading screens of different colors on microclimatic variables and Aechmea fasciata bromeliad growth in a greenhouse co [...] vered by transparent low-density polyethylene. The experiment had five treatments, with screens of different colors, inside a plastic greenhouse: thermo-reflective (T1); control without screen (T2); red (T3); blue (T4); and black (T5) screens, all of them with 70% of shading. From the 60 plants arranged in each one of the treatments 24 were evaluated, which were obtained randomly. The statistical design was completely randomized for the biometric variables. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, recording temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The plant parameters evaluated weekly were plant diameter and height, leaf width and length, and number of leaves per plant. The rosette diameter and leaf length were the parameters that presented the highest differences among treatments, which was basically a function of changes in solar radiation caused by the shading screens. The red screen provided the best conditions for A. fasciata bromeliad production.

Ester, Holcman; Paulo Cesar, Sentelhas.

2013-09-01

274

MAPPING GREEN MACROALGAE BLOOMS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY VIA 35-MM AERIAL PHOTOS  

Science.gov (United States)

Summer blooms of green macroalgae (mainly Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) on intertidal mudflats of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were documented using oblique 35-mm color-infrared aerial photographs taken at low tide. Costs were controlled by use of a small airplane from a loc...

275

Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)(PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate)(PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: morphology and thermal-mechanical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

276

Relationships among benthic green macroalgae, infaunal invertebrates, and dissolved sulfides in sediment pore waters, Yaquina Estuary, Oregon, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Relatively high abundances of benthic green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) have been measured in Yaquina Estuary on the central coast of the State of Oregon, USA. Band transects (30 meters in width) from the lower to the upper intertidal zone were established at two sites (Idaho Point a...

277

Trace element seasonality in marine macroalgae of different functional-form groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel information on the seasonality of element accumulation in seaweeds is provided. Seasonal patterns of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn concentrations in macroalgae belonging to different functional-form groups (Ulva intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Codium fragile, Gracilaria gracilis) from the Thessaloniki Gulf, Aegean Sea were determined and compared. Uni- and multivariate data analyses were applied. Element concentrations generally decreased during spring and/or summer, probably due to the growth effect, but a reverse trend, particularly in Ulva species, was also observed. Most elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr) in Ulva species displayed a comparatively low monthly variability, indicating that the extent of seasonal variation is closely related to thallus morphology and growth strategy. In particular, these data suggest that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr contents in fast-growing, sheet-like macroalgae are less influenced by the season, compared to their contents in coarsely-branched and thick-leathery macroalgae; therefore, sheet-like macroalgae may be more appropriate to be used in biomonitoring of coastal waters. The data presented could be utilized in the development of biomonitoring programmes for the protection of coastal environments. PMID:25460058

Malea, Paraskevi; Chatziapostolou, Anastasia; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

2015-02-01

278

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (?15N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (?13C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 mor closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months

279

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 13}C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

Rogers, Karyne M

2003-07-01

280

A dynamic growth model of macroalgae: Application in an estuary recovering from treated wastewater and earthquake-driven eutrophication  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamic growth model of macroalgae was developed to predict growth of the green macroalga Ulva sp. in response to changes in environmental variables. The model is based on common physiological behaviour of macroalgae and hence has general applicability to macroalgae. Three state variables (nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus) were used to describe physiological processes and functional differences between nutrient and carbon uptakes. Carbon uptake is modelled as a function of temperature, light, algal internal state and water current, while nutrient uptake depends on internal state, temperature and environmental nutrient level. Growth can only occur when nutrients in the environment and in the internal storage pools (N-quota and P-quota) reach threshold levels. Physiological rates follow the Arrhenius relationship and increase exponentially with increasing temperature within the temperature tolerance range of a species. When parameterised and applied to Ulva sp. in the eutrophic Avon-Heathcote Estuary, New Zealand, the model generally reproduced field observations of Ulva sp. growth and abundance. Growth followed a clear seasonal cycle with biomass increasing from early-middle summer, reaching peak values in early autumn and then decreasing. Conversely, N-quotient levels were maximal during the winter months, declining during summer peak growth. These seasonal patterns were collectively driven by temperature, light intensity and nutrients. The model captured the N-quota and growth responses of Ulva sp. to the N-reduction arising from diversion of treated wastewater from the Avon-Heathcote Estuary to an offshore outfall in 2010, and of raw sewage N-discharges resulting from wastewater infrastructure damage caused by the Canterbury earthquakes in 2011. Sensitivity analyses revealed that temperature-related parameters and maximum uptake rate of C were among the most sensitive parameters in predicting biomass. In addition, the earthquake-derived changes in reduction of immersion time and decrease in the start biomass prior to summer blooms were shown to drive considerable declines in summer growth and biomass of Ulva sp.

Ren, Jeffrey S.; Barr, Neill G.; Scheuer, Kristin; Schiel, David R.; Zeldis, John

2014-07-01

281

HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las QuijadasThe National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

Analía Guerreiro

2005-01-01

282

HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA) / HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Mont [...] e. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1), Leptodactyllidae (5), Testudinidae (1), Gekkonidae (3), Teiidae (3), Tropiduridae (3), Polychrotidae (1), Amphisbaenidae (1), Boidae (1), Colubridae (4) y Viperidae (2). Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas Abstract in english The National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this p [...] aper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1), Leptodactyllidae (5), Testudinidae (1), Gekkonidae (3), Teiidae (3), Tropiduridae (3), Polychrotidae (1), Amphisbaenidae (1), Boidae (1), Colubridae (4) y Viperidae (2). The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

Analía, Guerreiro; J. C., Baldoni; Ana M., Brigada.

283

Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

Maria Helena M. Galileo

2005-09-01

284

Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen (15N / 14N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon (13C / 12C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

285

Photosynthetic response of two seaweed species along an urban pollution gradient: evidence of selection of pollution-tolerant species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization leads to the expansion of ephemeral seaweed species and the decline of important perennial, canopy-forming seaweed species. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to these changes is a current challenge. In the present study, laboratory assays and field transplantations were performed with two seaweed species: the perennial, canopy-forming seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum and the ephemeral seaweed Ulva lactuca. Photosynthetic efficiency was assessed using modulated chlorophyll fluorometry. Brief exposure to urban waters does not appear to be a major stressor to the photosynthetic efficiency of either species. However, after 26 days of transplantation in urban waters, S. stenophyllum declined, whereas U. lactuca had enhanced photosynthetic efficiency. This difference reflects their divergent abilities to regulate the energy distribution at the PSII and shows that urban stressors alter these mechanisms. Our results provide evidence of the physiological causes for the decline of Sargassum species and the expansion of Ulva species in impacted urban areas. PMID:23010654

Scherner, F; Bonomi Barufi, J; Horta, P A

2012-11-01

286

Heavy metal determinations in algae, mussels and clams. Their possible employment for assessing the sea water quality criteria  

Science.gov (United States)

An empirical criterion for a possible classification of sea water quality is proposed. It is based on the knowledge of metal content in algae (Ulva Rigida) mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) and clams (Tapes Philippinarum), three species present in marine ecosystems. The elements considered are Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cr. The anatytical technique employed is Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The analytical procedure has been verified on three standard reference materials : Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, Ulva Lactuca BCR-CRM 279 and Mussel Tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements, in addition to detection limits, accuracy and precision are given : the former, expressed as retative error (e). and the latter, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), were in all cases lower than 6%.

Locatelli, C.

2003-05-01

287

Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL = 44.0 cm (SD 6.7 cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

Santos, Robson G.; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Antunes Paulo; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Baptistotte, Cecilia; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.

2011-01-01

288

Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 ?mol photons m-2 s-1). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

289

Engineered antifouling microtopographies: an energetic model that predicts cell attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a model for the prediction of cell attachment to engineered microtopographies based on two previous models: the attachment point theory and the engineered roughness index (ERI) model. The new surface energetic attachment (SEA) model is based on both the properties of the cell-material interface and the size and configuration of the topography relative to the organism. We have used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the SEA model's ability to predict relative attachment of the green alga Ulva linza to different locations within a unit cell. We have also compared the predicted relative attachment for Ulva linza, the diatom Navicula incerta, the marine bacterium Cobetia marina, and the barnacle cyprid Balanus amphitrite to a wide variety of microtopographies. We demonstrate good correlation between the experimental results and the model results for all tested experimental data and thus show the SEA model may be used as a powerful indicator of the efficacy for antifouling topographies. PMID:24044383

Decker, Joseph T; Kirschner, Chelsea M; Long, Christopher J; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2013-10-22

290

Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jed...

Al-saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-llah; Abdel-raouf, Nevein; El-wazanani, Hend A.; Aref, Ibrahim A.

2013-01-01

291

Effect of Substratum Surface Chemistry and Surface Energy on Attachment of Marine Bacteria and Algal Spores  

OpenAIRE

Two series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ?-substituted alkanethiolates on gold were used to systematically examine the effects of varying substratum surface chemistry and energy on the attachment of two model organisms of interest to the study of marine biofouling, the bacterium Cobetia marina (formerly Halomonas marina) and zoospores of the alga Ulva linza (formerly Enteromorpha linza). SAMs were formed on gold-coated glass slides from solutions containing mixtures of methyl- and c...

Ista, Linnea K.; Callow, Maureen E.; Finlay, John A.; Coleman, Sarah E.; Nolasco, Aleece C.; Simons, Robin H.; Callow, James A.; Lopez, Gabriel P.

2004-01-01

292

Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management  

Science.gov (United States)

First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide' events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves') for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay, Guissény Bay and Douarnenez Bay). Calibration of the biological model was mainly based on the seasonal variation of the maximum nitrogen uptake rate (VmaxN) and the half-saturation constant for nitrogen (KN) to reproduce the internal nutrient quotas measured in situ for each site. In each bay, model predictions were in agreement with observed algal coverage converted into biomass. A numerical tracking method was implemented to identify the contribution of the rivers that empty into the study bays, and scenarios of decreases in nitrate concentration in rivers were simulated. Results from numerical nitrogen tracking highlighted the main nitrogen sources of green tides and also showed that each river contributes locally to green tides. In addition, dynamic modelling showed that the nitrate concentrations in rivers must be limited to between 5 and 15 mg l- 1, depending on the bay, to reduce Ulva biomass by half on the coasts. The three-step methodology developed in this study (analysing total dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux from rivers, tracking nitrogen sources in Ulva and developing scenarios for reducing nitrogen) provides qualitative and quantitative guidelines for stakeholders to define specific nitrogen reduction targets for better environmental management of water quality.

Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadège; Ménesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

2014-04-01

293

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus, Fucus serratus (Linnaeus, Laminaria digitata (Hudson Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus, Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus, formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis Batters. The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

C. M BRAVO-LINARES

2010-06-01

294

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le [...] Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis) Batters). The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata) had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

C. M, BRAVO-LINARES; S. M, MUDGE; R. H, LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA.

2010-06-01

295

Recent changes in macroalgae distribution patterns in the Orbetello lagoon (Italy)  

OpenAIRE

This study related recent distribution changes in seven macroalgae taxa (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chaetomorpha linum, Cladophora sp., Gracilariopsis longissima, Spyridia sp., Ulva laetevirens, Valonia aegagrophyla) to spatial (basin) and temporal (time) trophic differences in a meso-eutrophic Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Orbetello, Italy). In July 2003 and July 2009, the coverage percentage (CP) of each considered taxon was measured in 38 stations equally distributed in the Western and Easte...

Giovani, Andrea; Mari, Elena; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Focardi, Silvano; Renzi, Monia

2014-01-01

296

A comparative study of the effect of pH and inorganic carbon resources on the photosynthesis of three floating macroalgae species of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of pH changes on photosynthetic characteristics and the role of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in determining the dominance of three species of macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum (O.F. Müller) Kützing, Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss and Ulva sp. in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Fluctuations of pH were measured in the lagoon in summer. Water column CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) concentrations inside the algal mat showed significant diurnal fluctuations, from a morning peak to an afternoon low, decreasing 96 and 40%, respectively. The response of photosynthesis to increased pH was examined in laboratory conditions in spring (May) and summer (July). The photosynthetic rate declined rapidly at pH above 8.5 and below 6.5. G. verrucosa responded differently in spring and summer showing acclimation to higher pH in summer than in spring. In Ulva sp. incubations, we observed optimum photosynthesis between pH 6 and 7.5. The decrease in photosynthetic rate below pH 6 was lower (12.30%) than above pH 8 (81.03%). This difference may be related to the origin of the macroalgae, suggesting acclimation to the original pH of the environment. Results from instantaneous photosynthesis measurements indicate that low DIC-availability limits the photosynthetic capacity of G. verrucosa, C. linum and Ulva sp. in spring and of C. linum at high irradiances in summer. Our results also show that G. verrucosa has a higher efficiency at low CO(2) concentrations than C. linum and Ulva sp. It is suggested that G. verrucosa may be better adapted to maintain higher photosynthetic rates than other macroalgae in conditions of tissue N sufficiency and low water DIC concentrations which are typical of shallow coastal environments in summer. PMID:11137509

Menéndez; Martínez; Comín

2001-01-01

297

Antioxidant activity of macroalgae from the Azores  

OpenAIRE

Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) was studied to determine the antioxidant activity of 8 common macroalgae species found in the Azores. Species under study were Porphyra sp., Osmundea pinnatifida, Pterocladiella capillacea, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius and Gelidium microdon, from Rhodophyta; Ulva compressa and Chaetomorpha pachynema, from Chlorophyta and Fucus spiralis from Phaeophyta.The antioxidant activity was evaluated in methanolic extract by a decolourisation solution test of 2,2-...

Paiva, Lisete S.; Patarra, Rita F.; Neto, Ana I.; Lima, Elisabete M. C.; Baptista, Jose? A. B.

2012-01-01

298

Estimation of induced secondary metabolites in chickpea tissues in response to elicitor preparation of seaweeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disease response of plants in terms of induced browning and phytoalexin (induced secondary metabolites) production were recorded in the tissues of Cicer arietinum (Chick pea) treated with the High Molecular Crude Elicitor Preparations, HMWCEP 'Polysaccharides' of Hypnea musciformis (red algae), Padina tetrastromatica (brown algae) and Ulva lactulus (green algae). A UV-visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of induced secondary metabolites with time. (author)

299

Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources  

OpenAIRE

The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8–59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4–29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5–3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p?

Rohani-ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-keong

2011-01-01

300

Methane and fertilizer production from seaweed biomass. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was demonstrated that several varieties of abundant benthic algae indigenous to Tampa Bay (Gracilaria, Hypnea, and Ulva) were readily degradable via anaerobic digestion to methane. The energy yield per unit weight biomass degraded was higher than any previously reported. Given the large masses of readily degradable plants which are annually produced in and around Tampa Bay, the resource is estimated to be at least equivalent to several million gallons of gasoline.

Betzer, P.R.; Humm, H.J.

1984-01-01

301

SCREENING OF PHYCOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS QUALITATIVELY AND QUANTITATIVELY CERTAIN SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR BIOSPHERE RESERVE  

OpenAIRE

The six seaweeds namely Ulva lactuca (L), Caulerpa racemosa C. Agardh, Sargassum wightii Greville, Padina tetrastomatica Hauck, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica J. Ag., and Acanthophora spicifera (vahl.) Boergesen, collected from the Gulf of Mannar were screened for the presence of Phycochemical constituents like primary and secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present investigation revealed that saponin and polyphenol were absent in the acetone extract of seaw...

Thillaikkannu Thinakaran; Mohan Balamurugan; Kathiresan Sivakumar

2012-01-01

302

EVALUATION OF ALPHA-AMYLASE AND ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORY PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR  

OpenAIRE

Aqueous extracts of four seaweeds collected from Gulf of Mannar coastal waters were tested for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. The aqueous extracts of seaweeds in the order of Gracilaria edulis, Sargassum polycystum, Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria corticata showed significant inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. G. edulis was found to be a potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 46?g/mL. The aqueous extract of S. polycystum at ...

Palanisamy SenthilKumar; Sellappa Sudha

2012-01-01

303

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

Krisler Alveal

1980-12-01

304

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

OpenAIRE

Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus f...

Krisler Alveal; Héctor Romo

1980-01-01

305

Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: refinement of an attachment model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA), PEGDMA-co-glycidyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-GMA), and PEGDMA-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PEGDMA-co-HEMA) hydrogels were polymerized using ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid as radical initiators. Surface energies of the hydrogels and a standard, poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSe), were characterized using captive bubble and sessile drop measurements, respectively (? = 52 mN/m, ?(0) = 19 mN/m). The chemical composition of the hydrogels was characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. All three hydrogel compositions reduced significantly (p = 0.05) initial attachment of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza (up to 97%), cells of the diatom Navicula incerta (up to 58%) and the bacterium Cobetia marina (up to 62%), compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. A shear stress (45 Pa), generated in a water channel, eliminated up to 95% of the initially attached cells of Navicula from the smooth hydrogel surfaces relative to smooth PDMSe surfaces. Compared to the PDMSe standard, 79% of the cells of C. marina were removed from all smooth hydrogel compositions when exposed to a 50 Pa wall shear stress. Attachment of spores of the green alga Ulva to microtopographies replicated in PEGDMA-co-HEMA was also evaluated. The Sharklet AF microtopography patterned, PEGDMA-co-HEMA surfaces reduced attachment of spores of Ulva by 97% compared to a smooth PDMSe standard. The attachment densities of spores to engineered microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA were shown to correlate with a modified attachment model through the inclusion of a surface energy term. Attachment densities of spores of Ulva to engineered topographies replicated in a material other than PDMSe are now correlated with the attachment model (R(2) = 0.80). PMID:21401017

Magin, Chelsea M; Finlay, John A; Clay, Gemma; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Brennan, Anthony B

2011-04-11

306

Influence of Surface Topography on Marine Biofouling  

OpenAIRE

Marine biofouling, associated with the accumulation of marine colonizers on submerged surfaces, has been a longstanding problem. Among different surface properties, cell substrate interaction is strongly influenced by surface topographies. Therefore, in this work responses of representative marine fouling species were investigated in relation to different topographies. The settlement of zoospores of Ulva linza was explored on a hot-embossed honeycomb gradient. The highest settlement was fo...

Xiao, Linlin

2014-01-01

307

LC-ICP-MS analysis of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece).  

OpenAIRE

The content of total arsenic and arsenic compounds in the dominant seaweed species in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea was determined in samples collected in different seasons. Total arsenic was determined by acid digestion followed by ICPMS. Arsenic speciation was analyzed by water extraction followed by LCICPMS. Total arsenic concentrations in the seaweeds ranged from 1.39 to 55.0 mg kg- 1. Cystoseira species and Codium fragile showed the highest total As contents, while Ulva specie...

Pell, Albert; Kokkinis, Giannis; Malea, Paraskea; Pergantis, Spiros A.; Rubio I Rovira, Roser; Lo?pez Sa?nchez, Jose? Fermi?n

2013-01-01

308

Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137Cs, 129I, 6Co, 152Eu, 9Sr, and 99Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234U, 235U, and 238U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes

309

Sulfur isotope variability of oceanic DMSP generation and its contributions to marine biogenic sulfur emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is the precursor to dimethylsulfide (DMS), which plays a role in climate regulation through transformation to methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-seasalt sulfate (NSS-SO(4)(2-)) aerosols. Here, we report measurements of the abundance and sulfur isotope compositions of DMSP from one phytoplankton species (Prorocentrum minimum) and five intertidal macroalgal species (Ulva lactuca, Ulva linza, Ulvaria obscura, Ulva prolifera, and Polysiphonia hendryi) in marine waters. We show that the sulfur isotope compositions (?(34)S) of DMSP are depleted in (34)S relative to the source seawater sulfate by ?1-3‰ and are correlated with the observed intracellular content of methionine, suggesting a link to metabolic pathways of methionine production. We suggest that this variability of ?(34)S is transferred to atmospheric geochemical products of DMSP degradation (DMS, MSA, and NSS-SO(4)(2-)), carrying implications for the interpretation of variability in ?(34)S of MSA and NSS-SO(4)(2-) that links them to changes in growth conditions and populations of DMSP producers rather than to the contributions of DMS and non-DMS sources. PMID:22586117

Oduro, Harry; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Farquhar, James

2012-06-01

310

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (Ulva and Enteromorpha) and lowest to those fed the vascular plant Juncus maritimus. Recorded significant differences in enzymatic digestibility among detritus were found to explain ? 40% of differences recorded in AR, and the following regression could be fitted: AR = 0.232 (± 0.032) * Digestibility + 0,072 (± 0.015); r 2 = 0.415; F = 51.036; p Ulva and Enteromorpha was found to be significantly correlated with cellulase activity in the digestive gland, whereas digestibility of Juncus, Spartina and Gracilaria was correlated with xylanase activity. Obtained correlations are discussed in the frame of contrasting conclusions in the literature regarding the importance of detritus as a food source for bivalves.

Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

2010-10-01

311

Macro algae as substrate for biogas production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition. The results show that the methane yield of Laminaria from mesophilic anaerobic digestion was fairly stable (average 138 L CH4/kgVSadded). Methane generation from thermophilic reactors both for Ulva and Laminaria, on the other hand, varied significantly, as the feeding rate varied. While the thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, itwas found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that subsequent can be used for fertilizer in organic farming. In the study the digested fertilizer product has been evaluated and it has a high quality in terms of nutrients.

MØller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu

312

Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 6}Co, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 9}Sr, and {sup 99}Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of {sup 241}Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of {sup 239,24}Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of {sup 239,24}Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes.

Burger, Joanna [Div. of Life Sciences, Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst. - EOHSI, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: gochfeld@eohsi.rutgers.edu; Kosson, David S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)]. E-mail: david.kosson@vanderbilt.edu; Powers, Charles W. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Jewett, Stephen [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska (United States)]. E-mail: jewett@ims.uaf.edu; Friedlander, Barry [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Chenelot, Heloise [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska (United States); Volz, Conrad D.; Jeitner, Christian

2006-07-01

313

Local adaptation in adult feeding preference and juvenile performance in the generalist herbivore Idotea balthica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Populations can respond to environmental heterogeneity by genetic adaptation to local conditions. Evidence for local adaptation in herbivores with relatively broad host breadth is scarce, either because generalists rarely locally adapt or because fewer studies have tested for local adaptation. The marine isopod Idotea balthica, a small (populations utilize sea grass-dominated and macroalgal-poor habitats. Feeding preference assays revealed a latitudinal shift in preference hierarchy that mirrors this geographic variation in host availability. Northern populations have higher feeding preference for fresh and freeze-dried tissue of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus and consumed more of its water-soluble and lipophilic extracts relative to southern populations. In contrast, southern populations have a relatively higher preference for the green macroalga Ulva linza and sea grass Zostera marina. The rank of hosts in feeding assays exhibited by northern adults (Fucus = Ulva > Zostera) and southern adults (Ulva > Fucus > Zostera) closely mirrored ranking of juvenile growth rates, suggesting that preference and performance are strongly correlated across these macrophytes. Several of our assays included isopods that had parents reared under uniform laboratory conditions, indicating that geographic differences are genetically mediated and unlikely to reflect phenotypic plasticity or maternal effects. Local adaptation in host use traits may be common in broadly distributed, generalist herbivores in marine and terrestrial systems, and will manifest itself as local shifts in the preference ranking of hosts. PMID:22451011

Bell, Tina M; Sotka, Erik E

2012-10-01

314

Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and {delta}{sup 15}N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in {delta}{sup 15}N among sites, but with two exceptions had {delta}{sup 15}N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals ({delta}{sup 15}N = {approx}14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

Thornber, Carol S. [Department of Biological Sciences, 100 Flagg Road, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)], E-mail: thornber@uri.edu; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W. [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI 02881 (United States); McKinney, Richard A. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

2008-02-15

315

Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and ?15N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in ?15N among sites, but with two exceptions had ?15N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (?15N = ?14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries

316

Effect of substratum surface chemistry and surface energy on attachment of marine bacteria and algal spores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of omega-substituted alkanethiolates on gold were used to systematically examine the effects of varying substratum surface chemistry and energy on the attachment of two model organisms of interest to the study of marine biofouling, the bacterium Cobetia marina (formerly Halomonas marina) and zoospores of the alga Ulva linza (formerly Enteromorpha linza). SAMs were formed on gold-coated glass slides from solutions containing mixtures of methyl- and carboxylic acid-terminated alkanethiols and mixtures of methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols. C. marina attached in increasing numbers to SAMs with decreasing advancing water contact angles (theta(AW)), in accordance with equation-of-state models of colloidal attachment. Previous studies of Ulva zoospore attachment to a series of mixed methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated SAMs showed a similar correlation between substratum theta(AW) and zoospore attachment. When the hydrophilic component of the SAMs was changed to carboxylate, however, the profile of attachment of Ulva was significantly different, suggesting that a more complex model of interfacial energetics is required. PMID:15240295

Ista, Linnea K; Callow, Maureen E; Finlay, John A; Coleman, Sarah E; Nolasco, Aleece C; Simons, Robin H; Callow, James A; Lopez, Gabriel P

2004-07-01

317

Changes in epiphytic bacterial communities of intertidal seaweeds modulated by host, temporality, and copper enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the factors involved in regulating the composition and structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on intertidal macroalgae, exploring their temporal variability and the role of copper pollution. Culture-independent, molecular approaches were chosen for this purpose and three host species were used as models: the ephemeral Ulva spp. (Chlorophyceae) and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae) and the long-living Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The algae were collected from two coastal areas in Northern Chile, where the main contrast was the concentration of copper in the seawater column resulting from copper-mine waste disposals. We found a clear and strong effect in the structure of the bacterial communities associated with the algal species serving as host. The structure of the bacterial communities also varied through time. The effect of copper on the structure of the epiphytic bacterial communities was significant in Ulva spp., but not on L. nigrescens. The use of 16S rRNA gene library analysis to compare bacterial communities in Ulva revealed that they were composed of five phyla and six classes, with approximately 35 bacterial species, dominated by members of Bacteroidetes (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) and ?-Proteobacteria, in both non-polluted and polluted sites. Less common groups, such as the Verrucomicrobiae, were exclusively found in polluted sites. This work shows that the structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on macroalgae is hierarchically determined by algal species > temporal changes > copper levels. PMID:20333374

Hengst, Martha B; Andrade, Santiago; González, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A

2010-08-01

318

Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae, caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122. El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4. Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04% mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33% y 7 (6,66% tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56 y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07. Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H' = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad.A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 females. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122 were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4. One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04% showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33% and seven (6.66% had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07 were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H' = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

José Iannacone

2004-12-01

319

Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae) capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú / Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi) (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae), caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 [...] fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65). Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122). El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4). Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04%) mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33%) y 7 (6,66%) tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56) y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07). Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H') = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C) = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad. Abstract in english A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844) collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 female [...] s. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65). Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122) were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4). One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04%) showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33%) and seven (6.66%) had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea) (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58), Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863) (Copepoda) (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02), Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea) (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda) (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07) were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H') = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C) = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

José, Iannacone.

2004-12-01

320

Radiolarian biostratigraphy of siliceous Eocene deposits in central California  

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Abundant Eocene siliceous deposits in California are located in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. The white shales to buff mudstones are characterized by radiolarians, diatoms, and silicoflagellates. Taxonomic descriptions and abundance data of key radiolarian species in existing monographs have limited biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretation. The California fauna is similar to faunas from the Norwegian Sea, Russian Platform, and southern oceans of Antarctica. Eocene faunas from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea differ considerably in diversity. In this study, the taxonomy and biostratigraphic information of species comprising more than 2% of the population are evaluated. Two radiolarian zones are erected for the middle Eocene of California, the Podocyrtis fasciata and Calocyclas semipolita Zones. Paleoenvironmental information suggests that some differences in the fauna may be environmentally controlled due to deposition in submarine canyons. -Authors

Blueford, J.

1988-01-01

321

Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú) yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, [...] 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea). Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H) and evenness (J´) were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

Marcelo E, Oliva; José L, Luque.

1998-03-01

322

Variations in the fecundity and body size of digenean (Opecoelidae) species parasitizing fishes from Northern Chile / Variaciones en la fecundidad y tamaño corporal de especies digeneas (Opecoelidae) que parasitan peces del norte de Chile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La historia de vida y estrategias de reproducción de los parásitos muestran una variabilidad significativa asociada con la identidad de hospedador y con factores ambientales. Este estudio evaluó la influencia de las especies hospedadoras sobre algunos rasgos de historia de vida de digeneos, como el [...] tamaño del cuerpo del parásito (PBL) y la fecundidad, de 3 especies: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia y Neoleburia georgenascimentoi. Además, se usaron marcadores moleculares (región V4 del gen 18S y CO-I)para confirmar la identidad específica de las especies parásitas en los diferentes hospedadores. Desde enero 2010 hasta junio 2012, 305 peces pertenecientes a Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus, Labrisomus philippii, Prolatilus jugularis y Pinguipes chilensis fueron capturados, por medio de buceo, desde la costa norte de Chile (24°S). En el laboratorio, los peces se midieron y se recolectaron todos sus parásitos. A cada parásito objetivo se le midió la longitud total y el ancho del cuerpo y todos sus huevos extraídos del útero se contabilizaron. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados (GLM) para identificar los factores que afectan la fecundidad de los digeneos. La fecundidad de H. nimia fue mayor en A. pictus y menor en L. philippii; la fecundidad de H. fasciata fue mayor en P. humeralis y menor en L. philippii y la fecundidad de N. georgenascimentoi fue mayor en P. chilensis. GLM mostraron que la fecundidad es afectada por el PBL y por la especie hospedadora. Las variaciones en PBL y fecundidad están aparentemente asociados con el tamaño de las especies hospedadoras: los parásitos más grandes (y con mayor fecundidad) se registraron en las especies de peces con mayores tamaños corporales (P. humeralis; A. pictus y P. chilensis). No obstante, los análisis moleculares mostraron que H. nimia presente en L. philippii difiere a las encontradas en A. pictus y P. humeralis, mientras que N. georgenascimentoi presente en P. jugularis es distinta a la encontrada en P. chilensis; por lo tanto, la identidad específica de los digeneos podría explicar la diferencia en su fecundidad entre especies de hospedadores. Abstract in english Parasite life history and reproductive strategies show considerable variability associated with host identity and/or environmental factors. In this study, we measured parasite body length (PBL) and fecundity of 3 digenean species: Helicometra fasciata, Helicometrina nimia and Neoleburia georgenascim [...] entoi, in their different host species, to evaluate the host influence on these biological traits. Additionally, parasite identifications were confirmed using molecular markers (V4 region of 18S and CO-I genes). From January 2010 to June 2012, 305 fish belonging to Paralabrax humeralis, Acanthistius pictus; Labrisomus philippii; Prolatilus jugularis and Pinguipes chilensis were captured, by diving, off the northern Chilean coast (24°S). In the laboratory, fish were measured and all their parasites collected. The total length and body width of each individual parasite were measured and all eggs were extracted from the parasites' uterus and counted. Generalized lineal models were used to identify factors affecting fecundity of digeneans. Fecundity of H. nimia was highest in A. pictus and lowest in individuals from L. philippii; fecundity of H. fasciata was highest in P. humeralis and lowest in L. philippii and fecundity of N. georgenascimentoi was highest in P. chilensis. GLM showed that variations in fecundity of digeneans are explained by host fish species and by PBL. Variations in PBL and fecundity are apparently associated with host species sizes: longer parasites (with more eggs per parasite) were recorded in larger fish species (P. humeralis, A. pictus and P. chilensis). However, molecular analyses showed that H. nimia from L. philippii should be considered a distinct species from specimens found in A. pictus and P. humeralis, while N. georgenascimentoi from P. jugularis should be co

M. Teresa, González; Vania, Henríquez; Zambra, López.

2013-12-01

323

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844: an ecological approach  

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Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Marcelo E. Oliva

1990-09-01

324

The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comme [...] nts on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

Marcelo E., Oliva; Jose L., Luque; Jose A., Iannacone.

1990-09-01

325

Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast  

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Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

Oliva Marcelo E

1998-01-01

326

Mandibular glands of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Chemical analysis of their contents and biological function in two species ofMelipona.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers ofMelipona fasciata andM. interrupta triplaridis respond to their respective mandibular gland extracts with alarm recruitment and defensive behavior. Workers rapidly exit from the nest entrance, land on an intruding object, and bite with the mandibles while vibrating the flight muscles. These behaviors are accompanied by the release of the contents of the mandibular glands. Colonies of both species exhibited greater response to their own mandibular gland extracts than to those of other stingless bee species. Chemical analysis identified 2-heptanol as the major component in hexane extracts of each species. Undecane was a constituent of both species; skatole and nerol were identified only in extracts ofM. i. triplaridis. PMID:24408802

Smith, B H; Roubik, D W

1983-11-01

327

Mercury concentration of four dominant species in the Bebar peat swampy forest river, Malaysia.  

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Muscle, stomach and gill from four dominant fish species, Mytus nemurus, Pristolepis fasciata, Ompok bimaculatus and Osteochilus hasseltii, caught from Bebar peat swamp forest river were analyzed for mercury (Hg). The concentration of Hg was measured with a fast and sensitive Flow Injector Mercury Spectrometer (FIMS). The average Hg concentration of all species caught was 0.169 microg g(-1) dry weights, lower than a limit for human consumption recommended by the World Health Organization, 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weights. The mean concentration of Hg was relatively high in stomach (0.28 +/- 0.12 microg g(-1) dry weights) followed by gill (0.17 +/- 0.06 microg g(-1) dry weights) and lowest in muscle (0.05 +/- 0.02 microg g(-1) dry weights). The positive relationship of Hg with fish length and weight suggesting that the accumulation of Hg were formed in the fish. PMID:19070059

Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ongand, M C; Khali, A H

2007-04-01

328

Mercury Concentration of Four Dominant Species in the Bebar Peat Swampy Forest River, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Muscle, stomach and gill from four dominant fish species, Mytus nemurus, Pristolepis fasciata, Ompok bimaculatus and Osteochilus hasseltii, caught from Bebar peat swamp forest river were analyzed for mercury (Hg. The concentration of Hg was measured with a fast and sensitive Flow Injector Mercury Spectrometer (FIMS. The average Hg concentration of all species caught was 0.169 ?g g-1 dry weights, lower than a limit for human consumption recommended by the World Health Organization, 0.5 ?g g-1 dry weights. The mean concentration of Hg was relatively high in stomach (0.28x0.12 ?g g-1 dry weights followed by gill (0.17x0.06 ?g g-1 dry weights and lowest in muscle (0.05x0.02 ?g g-1 dry weights. The positive relationship of Hg with fish length and weight suggesting that the accumulation of Hg were formed in the fish.

B.Y. Kamaruzzaman

2007-01-01

329

Rediscovery of Clivina morio Dejean with the description of Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Clivinini  

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Full Text Available Leucocara, a new subgenus of Clivina Latreille, is established for C. americana Dejean and its relatives, whose collective geographical range includes the Western Hemisphere Nearctic Region and the Eastern Hemisphere Palaearctic, Oriental, and Afrotropical Regions. Previously, these taxa were included in the subgenus Reichardtula Whitehead, 1977, a taxon now confined to the Eastern Hemisphere. Members of Leucocara differ from those of other Nearctic Clivina by the presence of a small, apically truncate preapical protuberance on the mesotibia with its seta inserted apically. Clivina morio, previously known only from the holotype, is reported here from Louisiana and Texas, confirming its presence on the North American continent; the species is also included in Leucocara. The following new synonymies are proposed: C. dilutipennis Putzeys, 1866, C. insularis Jacquelin du Val, 1857, C. klugii Putzeys, 1846, C. sculptifrons Putzeys, 1846 with C. fasciata Putzeys, 1846 and C. morula LeConte, 1857 with C. americana Dejean, 1831.

Yves Bousquet

2009-10-01

330

Evaluación de germoplasma de achiote Bixa orellana L.: estudios básicos sobre asociaciones fenotípicas y biología floral  

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Full Text Available 150 Bixa genetic resources was collected by National University of Colombia for purposes of conservation, evaluation and utilization in genetic breeding program. 21 accessions was evaluated for color production, seed production per plant and color porcentaje. B-Col 12, B-Col 16 and B-Co156 accessions showed highest values for seed production per plant and color percentaje. The achiote flower is hermafrodite, regular, calix formed by 5 sepales, coro le formed by 5 petales, numerous estames, superior and unilocular ovary. Antesis is 5:30 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. range. Protandria is present in achiote: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata and Trigona sp. are the pollinizator insects. A methodoly for controlled polinization was carried out.En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, seccional de Palmira se formó una colección de achiote Bixa orellana L. con 70 introducciones nacionales y 80 extranjeras. En 21 introducciones se encontró amplia variación fenotípica para los caracteres rendimiento de colorante por árbol y rendimiento de semilla por árbol. La variabilidad del carácter porcentaje de colorante fue menor. Las introducciones B-Col 12, B-Col 16 y B-Col 56 presentaron valores altos para los caracteres rendimiento de semilla por árbol y porcentaje de colorante. La flor del achiote es hermafrodita, regular, cáliz compuesto de cinco sépalos, corola por cinco pétalos libres, numerosos estambres, gineceo constituido por un ovario súpero unilocular. La antesis floral ocurre entre las 5:30 a.m. y las 8:00 a.m. Se presenta el fenómeno de protandria. Los principales insectos polinizadores son: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata y Trigona sp. Se determinó una metodología para efectuar hibridación artificial en achiote.

Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

1991-12-01

331

First toxin profile of ciguateric fish in Madeira Arquipelago (Europe).  

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Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a human foodborne intoxication caused by ingestion of tropical fishes contaminated with the potent polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins (CTXs). These toxins are issued from Gambierdiscus species of dinoflagellates. Herbivorous fish accumulate these toxins in their musculature and viscera after ingesting dinoflagellates. Epidemiological studies showed that CFP has been present in areas between 35 degrees North and 35 degrees South latitude, mainly, Indo-pacific and Caribbean areas, but not in waters closed to European and African continent. In the present paper, a specimen of Seriola dumerili weighing 70 kg and a smaller Seriola fasciata specimen, captured in waters belonging to Selvagens Islands (Madeira Arquipelago), were analyzed. Fishes from this genus were implicated in previous suspected ciguatera poisoning outbreaks in the Portuguese Madeira Arquipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis was performed by two approaches, a functional method using cerebellar granule cells and by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method. The study was carried out in one portion of the tail muscle of Seriola fasciata and five parts of the body of Seriola dumerili (tail muscle, head, ventral muscle, mid muscle, and liver). The functional method consisted in the modification of the inward sodium current in cerebellar granule cells and the chemical method was a high resolution chromatography, which allowed elucidating the toxin profile in the samples. In addition, UPLC-MS technique was optimized and used for detecting and quantifying CTXs for the first time. After fish extraction and clean up, the chromatograms revealed the presence of CTX-1B at 1111.6 m/z, CTX-3C at 1023.5 m/z, a CTX analogue at 1040.6 m/z, and a CTX from the Caribbean or Indic waters at 1141.6 m/z. Therefore, the results obtained in the present paper for both methods confirm, for the first time, the presence of CTX in fish from Madeira Arquipelago. PMID:20557036

Otero, Paz; Pérez, Sheila; Alfonso, Amparo; Vale, Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Gouveia, Neide N; Gouveia, Nuno; Delgado, João; Vale, Paulo; Hirama, Masahiro; Ishihara, Yuuki; Molgó, Jordi; Botana, Luis M

2010-07-15

332

Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

Reusch Thorsten BH

2011-01-01

333

What factors drive seasonal variation of phytoplankton, protozoans and metazoans on leaves of Posidonia oceanica and in the water column along the coast of the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia?  

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A hierarchical sampling design was used during two seasons (spring (May) and summer (August) 2006). Using this design, three regions of the Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia) were analyzed for the distribution of microalgal, protozoan and metazoan assemblages in two different habitats: (1) the water column; and (2) on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile (P. oceanica) leaves in shallow meadows. A total of 85 species were obtained. In particular, the diatom family Naviculacea consistently dominated (both numerically and in their diversity) the micro-algae in all regions for the two seasons of the study and in both habitats. In the Chergui region, which is the closest area to a source of impact, fast growing centric diatoms (such as Thalassionema, Rhizosolenia, Striatella, and Skeletonema) were identified as indicators of high organic matter and nutrient enrichment in water bodies. Protozoan and metazoan species abundance in the different regions indicate a non-random spatial and temporal distribution of the epiphytic organisms on leaves of P. oceanica that correlated with phytoplankton. The results also indicate that (1) the abundance of micro- and macroorganisms in the three regions were higher on P. oceanica leaves than in the water column for the two seasons; (2) environmental factors such as currents and tide influenced assemblages; and (3) the highest abundance was due to direct exposure to the polluted coast of Sfax and the effect of tidal asymmetries generating nutrient-rich inputs from the city. PMID:23498657

Mounir, Ben Brahim; Asma, Hamza; Sana, Ben Ismail; Lotfi, Mabrouk; Abderrahmen, Bouain; Lotfi, Aleya

2013-06-15

334

Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

Randazzo Davide

2007-07-01

335

Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations  

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The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35?N, 8°43?E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, François; De Troch, Marleen

2015-01-01

336

Cross-shelf transport of sub-thermocline nitrate by the internal tide and rapid (3-6 h) incorporation by an inshore macroalga  

Science.gov (United States)

During summer in shallow waters off Baja California, Mexico, the internal tide is a dominant thermal feature of the water column. However, its importance for sub-thermocline nutrient provision to benthic macroalgae is unknown. In order to determine if internal motions provide nutrients to macroalgae in summer, Ulva lactuca was outplanted at inshore stations for short (3 and 6 h) intervals, at the surface, 5 and 10 m depth, and tissue nitrogen content was measured before and after each deployment. Concurrently temperature, currents, and nutrients were measured using moored thermistors, current profilers, CTDs, Niskin bottles, and an in-situ UV absorbance nitrate sensor (ISUS). Discrete pulses of cool, nutrient-rich water were horizontally displaced at least 4 km on the shelf and shoaled more than 20 m depth at the semidiurnal frequency, resulting in more than a 10-fold change in the concentration of nitrate. Inshore, tissue nitrogen of Ulva outplants increased significantly during longer exposures to this cool water. At this site, the semidiurnal signal dominates water column temperature fluctuations from April to November, with summer showing the greatest cooling (up to 5 °C) in a one-hour period. We estimated that 11% of the days of a year show internal waves that would cause a significant change in nutrient availability to macroalgae at 5 m depth. This study supports the hypothesis that nitrate can reach and be rapidly incorporated by inshore macroalgae such as Ulva through transport forced by the internal tide, and that even very short (<1 h) nutrient pulses in nature are reflected in macroalgal tissue. We propose that at this site, the internal tide provides a significant, yet understudied, high frequency nutrient source to inshore primary producers, particularly in summer.

Ladah, Lydia B.; Filonov, Anatoliy; Lavín, Miguel F.; Leichter, James J.; Zertuche-González, José A.; Pérez-Mayorga, Diana M.

2012-07-01

337

Formação das castas no gênero Melípona (Illiger, 1806)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The present work is destinated to prove that the castes : workers and queens, in Melipona bees are due to genetic factors and not to differences in food. 2) Material used: Hives of Melipona quadri-fasciata anthidioides (Lep. 1836), M. schenki schenki (Gribodo, 1893), M. fasciata rufiventris (Lep. 18 [...] 36), M. quadri-fasciata vicina (Lep. 1836), M. marginata marginata (Lep. 1836), Apis mellifera (L. 1758). 3) It should be pointed out that in Melipona bees there are no royal cells for the queens, but all the cells are of the same size independently of being destinated for workers, queens or drones. The numerous queens which are born are killed soon after emerging from their cells. 4) Changes of feeding in quality and in quantity caused no variation of castes. The only variable factor is the size, which becomes bigger when the bee is well nourished. 5) The offsprings of 5 hives were examined : 3 of M. quadri-fasciata anthidioides (n.o 1, n.o 2 and n.o 3), 1 of M. quadri-fasciata vicina (n.o 4) and 1 of M. marginata marginata (n.o 5). Combs of about 40 cells were taken into laboratory and the type of bee registered immediately after emerging. The results of the counts were: BOX COMB WORKER QUEEN PERCENTAGE ? X2 to 12,5% Nº 1 1th 69 8 10,4% 0, 3139 " 1 2nd 144 18 11,1% 0, 2856 " 2 1th 52 8 13,3% 0, 0384 " 3 1th 45 10 18,2% 1, 6736 " 4 1th 56 4 6,7% 1, 8686 " 4 2nd 29 4 12,1% 0,00432 ? X2 to 25% " 5 1th 34 14 29,2% 0,44444 "5 2nd 83 27 24,5% 0, 0121 In the 4 first boxes there is a percentage of 11,63% queens and in the last there is a percentage of 25,95%. 6) These percentages are very near two genetical ratios: 12,5% or 7:1, and 25% or 3:1, which correspond to a trifactorial and a bifactorial back-cross. Carrying out a X² test no significant deviations were found ( X² to 12,5% and to 25% and table 1 to 4). 7) We suppose that the formula for the queen in the first case (11,65%) is: AaBbCc. Since the Melipona bees are arrhenotokous hymenopteres, the drones are haploid and may have any one of the following eight formulas, corresponding to the gonic segregation of the queem : ABC, ABc, Abc, Abc, AbC, aBC, aBc, abC, abc. Anyone combination of these males with the queen will give a segregation of 7 workers to 1 queen, since there is always only one triple heterozygote among the eight possible segregates (table 5). 8) In order to explain the second case, it is suffient to assume that in this species there are only two pairs of factors, the queen being the double heterozygote : AaBb, while the drones may have any one of the following constitutions: AB, Ab, aB and ab. Workers are again all diploids which are homozygous for one or both factors, for instance: AABB, AABb, AaBB, aaBb, AAbb, etc. (table 6). 9) It is suggested that the genus Melipona is an intermediary type between the solitary bees, where all females are fertile independently of their feeding, and the genera Apis and Trigona, where without special feeding all females are born sterile, while only specially fed females develop into fertile queens. 10) No speculations are put forward with regards to the evolutionary mechanism which may have been responsible for the development of the genetical determination of castes in Melipona, since it seems advisable point to extend the studies to other insects with complicated caste systems.

Warwick E., Kerr.

338

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of attached Ulvaceae species and free-floating Enteromorpha from Qingdao coasts in 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8 S, and ITS 2, the molecular phylogeny was analyzed on Ulvaceae species collected from Qingdao coasts in summer of 2007, including 15 attached Ulva and Enteromorpha samples from 10 locations and 10 free-floating Enteromorpha samples from seven locations. The result supported the monophyly of all free-floating Enteromorpha samples, implying the unialgal composition of the free-floating Enteromorpha, and the attached Ulvaceae species from Qingdao coasts were grouped into other five clades, suggesting that they were not the biogeographic origin of the free-floating Enteromorpha in that season.

Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jinfeng; Cui, Yulin; Li, Youxun; Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

2008-08-01

339

Sorption of Yttrium and the Rare Earth Elements on Non-Living Macroalgal Tissue  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on tissue of the green macroalga Ulva lactuca, commonly known as sea lettuce. Due to its nearly worldwide distribution in coastal waters, very simple morphology, and prodigious capacity for trace metal uptake from seawater, members of the Ulva genus serve as a basic but representative model of marine organic substrates in this type of study. In order to exclude active biological uptake effects, allowing us to focus on passive chemical mechanisms, we performed our initial experiments with sea lettuce Certified Reference Material consisting of a dehydrated, powdered tissue homogenate. A small quantity of this powder was suspended in NaCl solutions containing all YREEs, except Pm, at pH 3 and T = 25°C. The extent of YREE sorption was determined as a function of pH at constant temperature by titrating the solution with dilute NaOH and measuring the YREE concentrations of 0.2-?m filtered aliquots with an ICP-MS at regular time intervals after each pH adjustment. In NaCl solutions with an ionic strength approaching that of seawater, distribution coefficients, which quantify the proportion of sorbed and dissolved metal concentrations, are a highly linear function of pH in the range 3-8. The slope of the line suggests a sorption mechanism that involves ion exchange with both H+ and Na+ on surface functional groups. The shape of solution YREE patterns indicates that these functional groups are probably carboxylates at low and intermediate pH, but that other groups may contribute at high pH. The identification of carboxylate functional groups appears to be confirmed by preliminary results from EXAFS spectroscopic analyses of individual REE sorbed on the surface of Ulva lactuca tissue under similar conditions, conducted at the ANL Advanced Photon Source. In dilute NaCl solutions the distribution coefficient is largely independent of pH. We believe that prolonged exposure of the tissue to a low ionic strength solution may modify the chemical structure of the cell wall and make it permeable to organic ligands that otherwise sequester the YREEs in the cell interior. Chemical extraction of filtered solutions from the low ionic strength experiment with silica-bonded C18, showing that a substantial fraction of dissolved YREEs is distinctly hydrophobic, seems to support this hypothesis. Additional experiments to clarify these observations, including acid-base titrations of the Ulva lactuca tissue to assess the number of different functional groups and their surface densities, are currently ongoing.

Schijf, J.; Straka, A. M.

2007-12-01

340

Phytochemical and biological studies on some Egyptian seaweeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of four species of seaweeds, Ulva lactuca L. (green), Liagora farinosa Lamouroux (red), Padina pavonia L. and Turbinaria ornata Turn (brown), were screened for their antimicrobial, and antimalarial activities, and binding affinity for human opioid receptors. Phytochemical analysis led to the isolation and identification of 10 constituents: fucosterol, stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, beta-sitosterol, glycerol-1-olyl-3-palmotyl-2-galactoside, and glycerol-1,3-diolyl, The last two compounds displayed strong binding affinity to delta opioid receptors. PMID:23074910

Elsayed, Khaled N M; Radwan, Mohamed M; Hassan, Sherif H M; Abdelhameed, Mohamed S; Ibraheem, Ibraheem B; Ross, Samir A

2012-09-01

341

Mercury in marine organisms of the Tay region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of mercury pollution in the Tay region of the United Kingdom is discussed with emphasis on mercury concentration within marine algae and invertebrates. High levels of Hg were found in Broughty Ferry algae while there was no detectable mercury in any of the samples collected from north of Arbroath. Most was found in the thallose algae, Ulva lactuca and Porphyra umbilicalis, and in Ceramium rubrum. In studies carried out on molluscs, high levels were found in the lamellibranch, Mytilus edulis and in the gastropods Littorina littoralis and Nucella lapillus. 12 references, 3 tables.

Jones, A.M.; Jones, Y.; Stewart, W.D.P.

1972-07-21

342

Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences  

OpenAIRE

We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land pl...

Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-lak; Osawa, Syozo

1985-01-01

343

Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussflum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus wh [...] ich occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

Krisler, Alveal; Héctor, Romo.

344

Biocompatible Hydrogel from a Green Tide-Forming Chlorophyta  

OpenAIRE

The green-tide chlorophyta Ulva contains the functional acidic polysaccharide ulvan in its cell wall. Here, we focused on the development of a novel soft material that can be used as a biocompatible ion exchanger. Combining chitosan and ulvan solutions was found to yield a hydrogel with various functions. This ulvan-chitosan polyion complex gel was more stable than an alginic acid-chitosan gel under both acidic and basic conditions. However, an ulvan-chitosan gel-coated vessel showed only a m...

Kenichi Kanno; Kazuki Akiyoshi; Takashi Nakatsuka; Yusuke Watabe; Shintaro Yukimura; Hiromitsu Ishihara; Noriyasu Shin; Yuji Kawasaki; Daiki Yano

2012-01-01

345

Benthic grazers and suspension feeders: Which one assumes the energetic dominance in Königshafen?  

Science.gov (United States)

Size-frequency histograms of biomass, secondary production, respiration and energy flow of 4 dominant macrobenthic communities of the intertidal bay of Königshafen were analysed and compared. In the shallow sandy flats ( Nereis-Corophium-belt [ N.C.-belt], seagrass-bed and Arenicola-flat) a bimodal size-frequency histogram of biomass, secondary production, respiration and energy flow was found with a first peak formed by individuals within a size range of 0.10 to 0.32 mg ash free dry weight (AFDW). In this size range, the small prosobranch Hydrobia ulvae was the dominant species, showing maximal biomass as well as secondary production, respiration and energy flow in the seagrass-bed. The second peak on the size-frequency histogram was formed by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor with individual weights of 10 to 18 mg AFDW in the N.C.-belt, and by Arenicola marina with individual weights of 100 to 562 mg AFDW in both of the other sand flats. Biomass, productivity, respiration and energy flow of these polychaetes increased from the Nereis-Corophium-belt, to the seagrass-bed, and to the Arenicola-flat. Mussel beds surpassed all other communities in biomass and the functional parameters mentioned above. Size-frequency histograms of these parameters were distinctly unimodal with a maximum at an individual size of 562 to 1000 mg AFDW. This size group was dominated by adult specimens of Mytilus edulis. Averaged over the total area, the size-frequency histogram of energy flow of all intertidal flats of Königshafen showed one peak built by Hydrobia ulvae and a second one, mainly formed by M. edulis. Assuming that up to 10% of the intertidal area is covered by mussel beds, the maximum of the size-specific energy flow will be formed by Mytilus. When only 1% is covered by mussel beds, then the energy flow is dominated by H. ulvae. Both animals represent different trophic types and their dominance in energy flow has consequences for the food web and the carbon flow of the total area. If the energy flow of the macrozoobenthos of Königshafen is dominated by M. edulis, then the primary energy has to be gained from the pelagic primary production and the total ecosystem will be dependent on energy input from the North Sea and deeper parts of the adjacent Wadden Sea. In the case of a dominance of H. ulvae, the energy flow of Königshafen is mainly based on autochthonous primary production.

Asmus, H.

1994-06-01

346

Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes. The seagrass stations showed a mean species richness (28-30 S m(-2)), individual abundance (1854-4018 N m(-2)) and biomass (22.3-37.7 g m(-2) ash-free-dry-weight, AFDW) ca. 3-8 times higher than those populated by seaweeds (10-15 S m(-2), 494-1395 N m(-2) and 5.6-13.7 g m(-2) AFDW). Differences among seagrass or seaweed stations were much lower. The Ulva-dominated station showed a macrofauna completely different both from the other stations and the communities recorded ca. 30 years ago, before the prolific growth of Ulva. In this station, frequent biomass decompositions and anoxic crises created critical conditions for life favouring organisms with reduced life cycles, younger individuals and the epifaunal species instead of the infaunal ones. In particular, Ulva grazers and scrapers such as Gammarus aequicauda Stock and Gibbula adriatica Philippi were found to be by far the most abundant species, whereas the taxa characteristic of the associations found in the past, in the presence of seagrasses or seaweeds and typical of low eutrophicated environments, appear strongly reduced. Marked differences in the macrophyte dominance and in the bio-physico-chemical variables which characterise the main environmental conditions of the Venice lagoon support the different distribution and composition of macrofaunal communities. Seaweed stations appear mainly governed by the seasonal cycles of these un-rooted macrophytes which, by alternating periods of production and decomposition, are responsible for the drastic reduction of macrofauna biodiversity and biomass. Conversely, seagrass stations exhibit a better oxidisation of the environment and show conditions more favourable for macrofauna colonisation, especially in the presence of macrophytes which are characterised by very well developed below-ground systems such as Cymodocea nodosa. PMID:11695653

Sfriso, A; Birkemeyer, T; Ghetti, P F

2001-10-01

347

Ehl-i Sünnet Aç?s?ndan Bilgi ve De?eriKnowledge and its Value in Terms of the Ahl As-Sunnah  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kelâm ilmînin amac?, dinî inançlar? kesin deliller kullanarak ispat etmektir. Bu nedenle kelâmc?lar Kur’an’? ve iki k?sma ay?rd?klar? Sünnet’in ilk k?sm?nda yer alan mütevâtir haberleri esas alm??lard?r. Kelâm ilminde üç bilgi edinme yolu oldu?u kabul edilmi?tir. Bunlar, be? duyu, ak?l ve haber-i sâd?k’t?r. Bilgi edinme yollar?ndan ilk ikisini olu?turan be? duyu ve ak?l ile elde edilen bilgiler ile Sünnet’in ilk k?sm?nda yer alan mütevâtir haberin de?eri konusunda ?slâm âlimleri aras?nda bir ihtilâf söz konusu de?ildir. Hicretin II. asr?ndan itibaren, sünnetin ikinci k?sm?n? olu?turan haber-i vahid’in de?eri ve itikâdî konularda delil te?kil edip etmeyece?i konusunda âlimler tarihsel süreç içinde birbirinden farkl? görü?ler ortaya koymu?lard?r. Böylelikle problem günümüze kadar devam etmi?tir. Konu hakk?nda fikir yürüten âlimler, Kelâmc?lar ve Selefiyye olmak üzere iki ana gruba ayr?lm??lard?r. Bu çal??man?n amac?, haber-i vâhid hakk?ndaki fikir ayr?l?klar?n?n nedenlerini, kelâmc?lar taraf?ndan bilgi edinme yollar?ndan biri olarak kabul edilen haber-i sâd?k? dikkate alarak ara?t?rmakt?r. Abstract The purpose of the Kalam science is to prove the religious beliefs by using definitive evidences. For this reason, the Kalam scholars are inclined to Koran and the mutawatir reports which are included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah divided into two parts. In the Kalam science, it has been accepted that there are three ways of attaining knowledge. These are the five senses, intelligence, and precise reports. It is not the case that Islamic scholars have a disagreement on not only knowledges obtained through the five senses and intelligence but the value of mutawatir reports included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah. As of the second century of Hegira, the scholars have put forward different opinions about whether the value of imprecise reports will constitute an evidence in matters of faith in the historical process or not. Thus, the problem has continued to the present day. The scholars who speculate about the issue have been divided into two main groups as Kalam scholars and Salafism. The purpose of this study is to research the reasons for the disagreements on imprecise reports by taking precise reports into account, which has been accepted by Kalam scholars as one of the ways of attaining knowledge.

ismail yüceda?

2014-06-01

348

Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais / Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama ( [...] 60Co) na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L.), Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina), Camomila (Matricaria recutita L.), Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli) e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile). A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25%) produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40%) produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6) UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5) UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g. Abstract in english The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the ef [...] fect of gamma irradiation (60Co) on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), boldo (Peumusboldus Molina), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli), and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile). The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25%) beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40%) being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6) CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5) CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

Guilherme, Prado; Mabel Caldeira de, Andrade; Marize Silva de, Oliveira; Alexandre Soares, Leal; Bibiane Rezende de, Oliveira; Luis Roberto, Batista.

1372-13-01

349

Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25% beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40% being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6 CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5 CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

Guilherme Prado

2009-10-01

350

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of some traditional medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants native to Soon Valley (home to an old civilization) in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Methanol, acetone and water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against thirty four clinical isolates and two reference strains of H. pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts were determined using the agar dilution method and compared with some standard antibiotics like amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLA), tetracycline (TET) and metronidazole (MNZ), used in the triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. H. pylori urease inhibition activity of the extracts was assessed by the phenol red method, wherein, Lineweaver-Burk plots were used to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for elucidating the mechanism of inhibition. Methanol and acetone extracts from Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera exhibited stronger anti-H. pylori activity than MNZ, almost comparable activity with TET, but were found to be less potent than AMX and CLT. The rest of the extracts exhibited lower activity than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, methanol and acetone extracts of Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera showed significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated a competitive mechanism for extract of Acacia nilotica, whereas extract of Calotropis procera exhibited a mixed type of inhibition. PMID:23434867

Amin, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Naz, Fauqia; Mehmood, Tahir; Saari, Nazamid

2013-01-01

351

Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Urease Inhibition Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants native to Soon Valley (home to an old civilization in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Methanol, acetone and water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against thirty four clinical isolates and two reference strains of H. pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the extracts were determined using the agar dilution method and compared with some standard antibiotics like amoxicillin (AMX, clarithromycin (CLA, tetracycline (TET and metronidazole (MNZ, used in the triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. H. pylori urease inhibition activity of the extracts was assessed by the phenol red method, wherein, Lineweaver-Burk plots were used to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for elucidating the mechanism of inhibition. Methanol and acetone extracts from Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera exhibited stronger anti-H. pylori activity than MNZ, almost comparable activity with TET, but were found to be less potent than AMX and CLT. The rest of the extracts exhibited lower activity than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, methanol and acetone extracts of Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera showed significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated a competitive mechanism for extract of Acacia nilotica, whereas extract of Calotropis procera exhibited a mixed type of inhibition.

Tahir Mehmood

2013-02-01

352

Variación entre años de la fauna de parásitos metazoos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) en Lima, Perú / Between-year variation of metazoan parasite fauna on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Lima, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evalúa la estructura comunitaria de los parásitos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846), y se analiza si la composición, riqueza, diversidad, prevalencia e intensidad media de sus comunidades parasitarias cambia entre muestras tomadas con 20 años de diferencia en Lima, Perú, entre agosto 1987 y ju [...] lio 1988 y de agosto a septiembre del 2008 en peces de similar longitud corporal. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. La abundancia total fue de 1,7 (0 a 13) y la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 0,7 (0 a 2 especies de parásitos por pez). Treinta hospederos mostraron infección con al menos un parásito (60%). Se encontraron siete taxa de parásitos: dos monogeneos Cynoscionicola sciaenae y Hargicotyle sciaenae; un digeneo Helicometra fasciata; un nemátodo Dycheline amaruincai, un acantocéfalo Tegorhynchus sp., y dos copépodos Caligus callaoensis y Lernanthropus huamani. Un análisis comparativo entre los parásitos de S. deliciosa entre 1987-1988 y 2008, muestran una disminución en la prevalencia de Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochusperuensis y Neobrachiella oralis. La intensidad media aumentó para C. americana y Tegorhynchus sp. y disminuyó para C. callaoensis. Las diferencias entre años pudieran estar influenciadas por las variaciones en la temperatura del agua que afectaron los estados larvales y/o reproducción de los copépodos, en la amplitud del periodo de estudio y en el tamaño de la muestra. Abstract in english The community structure of parasites on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846), is evaluated and eventual changes are analyzed in the composition, richness, diversity, prevalence and mean intensity of parasite communities on fish specimens that were similar in body length but were sampled 20 years apart [...] (August 1987 to July 1988 vs. August to September 2008) in Lima, Perú. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. Total abundance was 1.7 (0-13) and parasite species richness was 0.7 (0-2 parasite species per fish). Thirsty hosts (60%) were infected by at least with one parasite. Seven parasite taxa were found: two monogeneans (Cynoscionicola sciaenae, Hargicotyle sciaenae), a digenean (Helicometra fasciata), a nematode (Dycheline amaruincai), an acanthocephalan (Tegorhynchus sp.), and two copepods (Caligus callaoensis, Lernanthropus huamani). This comparative analysis (parasites of S. deliciosa in 1987-1988 vs in 2008), showed a decreased prevalence of Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochus peruensis, and Neobrachiella oralis. The mean intensity increased for C americana and Tegorhynchus sp. and diminished for C callaoensis. Differences between years could be influenced by variations of sea temperature that affect larval stages and/or copepod reproduction over the course of the study period and size of the sample.

José, Iannacone; Luis, Morón; Sandra, Guizado.

353

Variación entre años de la fauna de parásitos metazoos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae en Lima, Perú Between-year variation of metazoan parasite fauna on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Lima, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evalúa la estructura comunitaria de los parásitos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, y se analiza si la composición, riqueza, diversidad, prevalencia e intensidad media de sus comunidades parasitarias cambia entre muestras tomadas con 20 años de diferencia en Lima, Perú, entre agosto 1987 y julio 1988 y de agosto a septiembre del 2008 en peces de similar longitud corporal. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. La abundancia total fue de 1,7 (0 a 13 y la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 0,7 (0 a 2 especies de parásitos por pez. Treinta hospederos mostraron infección con al menos un parásito (60%. Se encontraron siete taxa de parásitos: dos monogeneos Cynoscionicola sciaenae y Hargicotyle sciaenae; un digeneo Helicometra fasciata; un nemátodo Dycheline amaruincai, un acantocéfalo Tegorhynchus sp., y dos copépodos Caligus callaoensis y Lernanthropus huamani. Un análisis comparativo entre los parásitos de S. deliciosa entre 1987-1988 y 2008, muestran una disminución en la prevalencia de Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochusperuensis y Neobrachiella oralis. La intensidad media aumentó para C. americana y Tegorhynchus sp. y disminuyó para C. callaoensis. Las diferencias entre años pudieran estar influenciadas por las variaciones en la temperatura del agua que afectaron los estados larvales y/o reproducción de los copépodos, en la amplitud del periodo de estudio y en el tamaño de la muestra.The community structure of parasites on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, is evaluated and eventual changes are analyzed in the composition, richness, diversity, prevalence and mean intensity of parasite communities on fish specimens that were similar in body length but were sampled 20 years apart (August 1987 to July 1988 vs. August to September 2008 in Lima, Perú. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. Total abundance was 1.7 (0-13 and parasite species richness was 0.7 (0-2 parasite species per fish. Thirsty hosts (60% were infected by at least with one parasite. Seven parasite taxa were found: two monogeneans (Cynoscionicola sciaenae, Hargicotyle sciaenae, a digenean (Helicometra fasciata, a nematode (Dycheline amaruincai, an acanthocephalan (Tegorhynchus sp., and two copepods (Caligus callaoensis, Lernanthropus huamani. This comparative analysis (parasites of S. deliciosa in 1987-1988 vs in 2008, showed a decreased prevalence of Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochus peruensis, and Neobrachiella oralis. The mean intensity increased for C americana and Tegorhynchus sp. and diminished for C callaoensis. Differences between years could be influenced by variations of sea temperature that affect larval stages and/or copepod reproduction over the course of the study period and size of the sample.

José Iannacone

2010-01-01

354

Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6?3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

Hanan M. Khairy

2013-05-01

355

Antiprotozoal, antimycobacterial and cytotoxic potential of some british green algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the continuation of our search for natural sources for antiprotozoal and antitubercular molecules, we have screened the crude extracts of four green marine algae (Cladophora rupestris, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, Ulva intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) collected from the Dorset area of England. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as test organisms in the in vitro assays. The selective toxicity of the extracts was also determined toward mammalian skeletal myoblast (L6) cells. The crude seaweed extracts had no activity against M. tuberculosis, but showed antiprotozoal activity against at least two protozoan species. All algal extracts were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with C. rupestris being the most potent one (IC(50) value 3.7 microg/ml), whilst only C. rupestris and U. lactuca had moderate trypanocidal activity against T. cruzi (IC(50) values 80.8 and 34.9 microg/ml). Again, all four extracts showed leishmanicidal activity with IC(50) values ranging between 12.0 and 20.2 microg/ml. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity toward L6 cells, indicating that their antiprotozoal activity is specific. This is the first study reporting antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activity of British marine algae. PMID:19960429

Spavieri, Jasmine; Kaiser, Marcel; Casey, Rosalyn; Hingley-Wilson, Suzie; Lalvani, Ajit; Blunden, Gerald; Tasdemir, Deniz

2010-07-01

356

Composición de ácidos grasos en juveniles de abulón Haliotis tuberculata coccinea alimentados con dietas formuladas con diferentes contenidos de HUFA n3 / Fatty acid composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis tuberculata coccinea) fed formulated diets containing various n3 HUFA levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes niveles de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados (HUFAs, por sus siglas en inglés) n3 en el perfil de ácidos grasos de los tejidos blandos de juveniles de Haliotis tuberculata coccinea. Se formularon 5 dietas con diferentes fuentes de aceite (palma, colza, pescado, se [...] milla de girasol y soya), que contenían de 2.52% a 12.33% de HUFA n3, usando Ulva rigida como dieta de referencia. Las diferentes dietas se suminitraron a grupos de 20 abulones durante 120 días por triplicado. Aunque no se registraron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento (P Abstract in english The effect of feeding different levels of n3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on the fatty acid profile was evaluated in soft tissue from juvenile Haliotis tuberculata coccinea. Five diets were formulated with different oil sources (palm, colza, fish, sunflower, and soybean), containing from 2. [...] 52% to 12.33% n3 HUFA, while fresh Ulva rigida was used as reference diet. The different diets were provided to groups of 20 abalone during 120 days in independent triplicates. Though no significant differences in growth (P

P, Toledo-Agüero; MT, Viana.

2009-03-01

357

Molecular investigation of the distribution, abundance and diversity of the genus Pseudoalteromonas in marine samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Pseudoalteromonas has attracted interest because it has frequently been found in association with eukaryotic hosts, and because many Pseudoalteromonas species produce biologically active compounds. One distinct group of Pseudoalteromonas species is the antifouling subgroup containing Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Ps. ulvae, which both produce extracellular compounds that inhibit growth and colonization by different marine organisms. PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Pseudoalteromonas and the antifouling subgroup were developed and applied in this study. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was applied to determine the relative bacterial abundance of the genus and the antifouling subgroup, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied to study the diversity of the genus in 11 different types of marine samples from Danish coastal waters. The detection of Ps. tunicata that contain the antifouling subgroup was achieved through specific PCR amplification of the antibacterial protein gene (alpP). The Pseudoalteromonas species accounted for 1.6% of the total bacterial abundance across all samples. The Pseudoalteromonas diversity on the three unfouled marine organisms Ciona intestinalis, Ulva lactuca and Ulvaria fusca was found to be low, and Ps. tunicata was only detected on these three hosts, which all contain accessible cellulose polymers in their cell walls. PMID:17573938

Skovhus, Torben L; Holmström, Carola; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Dahllöf, Ingela

2007-08-01

358

Ingestion and absorption of particles derived from different macrophyta in the cockle Cerastoderma edule: effects of food ration.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the capacity of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule to utilize detrital food particles obtained from three different macrophytes: the vascular plant Juncus maritimus and two green macroalgae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp.). We measured feeding and digestive parameters at three concentrations of detritus (0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mm(3) l(-1)), so that functional relationships between ingestive and digestive processes could be assessed. Increasing concentrations of detritus (food) resulted in a reduction in filtering activity (clearance rate l h(-1)), but an increase in ingestion rate. Consequently, gut content also increased with increasing food concentration, irrespective of food type. In contrast, the trend followed by absorption efficiency with increasing ingestion rate was determined by food type, being significantly reduced (from 0.63 to 0.11) with Juncus but remaining almost constant with the green macroalgae (0.58 ± 0.07 with Ulva) or only minimally reduced (from 0.66 to 0.48 with Enteromorpha). This differential response had clear consequences for energy uptake: absorption rate increased with increasing particulate organic matter with Enteromorpha but decreased with Juncus. We discuss the possible role of digestive parameters such as digestibility, gut content and gut-residence time in the differential utilization of detrital matter from different vegetal origins by cockles. PMID:24178188

Arambalza, U; Ibarrola, I; Navarro, E; Urrutia, M B

2014-02-01

359

Determination of heavy metals in environmental bio-indicators by voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in matrices involved in the food chain as algae, species Ulva rigida, and clams, species Tapes philippinarum by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was carried out. For the mercury determination in these matrices, a new accurate and precise method was developed employing a mixture of concentrated acids H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} for digestion and subsequent cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) by reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The analytical procedures were verified for four reference standard materials: Ulva lactuca BCR-CRM 279, Lagarosiphon major BCR-CRM 060, Oyster tissue NBS-SRM 1566, Mussel tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (s{sub r}), and the accuracy, expressed as relative error (e), were in the order of 3 to 5%, while the detection limits were in the range 0.010-0.100 {mu}g/g. The standard addition technique improved the resolution of the voltammetric method even in the case of very high element concentration ratios. The analytical procedure was used for real matrices sampled in the Adriatic Sea south to Po river mouth, in the zone ``Goro bay``, and at open sea north to the Ravenna shore. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 36 refs.

Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Garai, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry

1999-04-01

360

Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food source  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coastal seagrasses are declining at increasing rates worldwide, forcing herbivores previously reliant on these habitats to abandon them in search of alternative ways to fulfil their daily energy budgets. After two decades of declining seagrass abundance in Mariager Fjord, Denmark, the Svalbard breeding population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota has experienced substantial changes in habitat use at this traditional autumn staging area. Declines in seagrasses have caused birds to depend increasingly on Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca in recent years, and forced birds into terrestrial habitats such as saltmarsh and winter wheat. In contrast to those birds exploiting aquatic habitats, birds relying on these new habitats showed higher energy expenditure and failed to balance their energy budget. Eelgrass (Zostera) was energetically superior to other food resources, with marine Ulva being second best. Predicted body mass development under two different scenarios indicate that present habitat use resulted in a midwinter body mass around 122 g lower than just 20 years ago, equivalent to c. 9.4% of Brent Goose body weight. Even after controlling for inter-annual differences in thermoregulatory costs, the effect of changes in habitat use translated into a body mass reduction of c. 56 g, which could adversely affect survival and future reproduction. Flyway-wide declines in Zostera abundance and further reductions in traditional habitats due to climate change give cause to reassess projected population trends and consequent management implications for the East Atlantic flyway population of Light-bellied Brent Geese.

Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben

2012-01-01

361

Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae – or any feedstock – which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids) and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g?1) and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g?1 of dry weight) was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties. PMID:22719967

Angell, Alex R.; Pirozzi, Igor; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

362

Palatability of macroalgae that use different types of chemical defenses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared algal palatability and chemical defenses from subtropical green algae that may use different types of defense systems that deter feeding by the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. The potential defense systems present include (1) the terpenoid caulerpenyne and its activated products from Caulerpa spp., and (2) dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)-related defenses in Ulva spp. Secondary metabolites from these chemical groups have been shown to deter feeding by various marine herbivores, including tropical and temperate sea urchins. Live algal multiple-choice feeding assays and assays incorporating algal extracts or isolated metabolites into an artificial diet were conducted. Several green algae, including Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa prolifera, and Cladophora sp., were unpalatable. Nonpolar extracts from U. lactuca deterred feeding, whereas nonpolar extracts from C. prolifera had no effect on feeding. Polar extracts from both species stimulated feeding. Caulerpenyne deterred feeding at approximately 4% dry mass; however, dimethyl sulfide and acrylic acid had no effect at natural and elevated concentrations. E. lucunter is more tolerant than other sea urchins to DMSP-related defenses and less tolerant to caulerpenyne than many reef fish. Understanding the chemical defenses of the algae tested in this study is important because they, and related species, frequently are invasive or form blooms, and can significantly modify marine ecosystems. PMID:16906362

Erickson, Amy A; Paul, Valerie J; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Kwiatkowski, Lisa M

2006-09-01

363

Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Fluorine-Free Amphiphilic Non-Ionic Side Chains for Antifouling and Fouling-Release Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorine-free, amphiphilic, nonionic surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were synthesized through chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene triblock copolymer precursor with selected amphiphilic nonionic Brij and other surfactants. Amphiphilicity was imparted by a hydrophobic aliphatic group combined with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group-containing moiety. The surfaces were characterized by dynamic water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. In biofouling assays, settlement (attachment) of both spores of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula on SABCs modified with Brij nonionic side chains was significantly reduced relative to a PDMS standard, with a nonionic surfactant combining a PEG group and an aliphatic moiety demonstrating the best performance. Additionally, a fouling-release assay using sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula suggested that the SABC derived from nonionic Brij side chains also out-performed PDMS as a fouling-release material. Good antifouling and fouling-release properties were not demonstrated for the other two amphiphilic surfaces derived from silicone and aromatic group containing nonionic surfactants included in this study. The results suggest that small differences in chemical surface functionality impart more significant changes with respect to the antifouling settlement and fouling-release performance of materials than overall wettability behavior.

Y Cho; H Sundaram; C Weinman; M Paik; M Dimitriou; J Finlay; M Callow; J Callow; E Kramer; C Ober

2011-12-31

364

Community composition of the rocky intertidal at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

At the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea), the distribution and abundances of intertidal communities were assessed and the effects of wave exposure and tidal height on the spatial distribution patterns of the communities were evaluated. Macroalgae and invertebrates were sampled quantitatively along line transects in three intertidal locations, a semi-exposed, an exposed and a sheltered one. The semi-exposed location was characterised by (1) Ulva spp. at the high intertidal ( Ulva-community), (2) mussels and periwinkles at the mid intertidal ( Mytilus-community) and (3) Corallina officinalis and mainly the large brown alga Fucus serratus at the low intertidal ( Fucus-community). The exposed location encompassed the mid and low intertidal; at both zones the Fucus-community occurred. The sheltered location was characterised by (1) barnacles ( Balanus-community) and (2) bryozoans, hydrozoans and mainly the large brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ( Ascophyllum-community). At the semi-exposed, but not at the exposed location the communities changed with the intertidal position. A relationship between wave exposure and the occurrence of specific communities was shown for the sheltered location; in contrast, communities of the semi-exposed and the exposed location appear to be little influenced by wave exposure directly. The community concept and the potential causes of distribution patterns of the defined communities are discussed and suggestions for a future monitoring are given. Variations in the communities at different spatial scales speak in favour of a multiple scale sampling design to monitor changes in the intertidal communities at Helgoland.

Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich; Giménez, Luis

2008-12-01

365

A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11?53.68?N, 6°49?34.64?W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. - Highlights: ? Three main classes of seaweed were collected from the South-East coast of Ireland. ? Metal levels (total, intracellular and surface-bound) in four seaweed species were determined. ? Metal levels of seawater and sediment samples collected from the same location were quantified. ? The Concentration Factors for P. lanosa, A. nodosum, F. vesiculosus and Ulva sp., were calculated. ? Interspecies variations in seaweed metal concentrations were demonsentrations were demonstrated. - This study, reports the most comprehensive uptake efficiencies and distributions of metals in four main seaweed sps., with P. lanosa demonstrating excellent bioaccumulation ability.

366

Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR, chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be more than the control. Protein content was slightly more than the control at 0.25% fly ash while that of lipid at 0.5 and 2.5% concentrations. In Caulerpa scalpelliformis, fly ash at all the concentrations induced reduced DGR and lipid content but increased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b amount. The amount of protein was more than the control at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% fly ash. In Padina tetrastomatica, at almost all the concentrations of fly ash, the amount of Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and protein exceeded over the control. In the present study, of the four experimental seaweeds, the red seaweed Gracilaria corticata was found to be most tolerant as this exhibited enhanced growth and biochemical content at most of the concentrations of fly ash.

Sornalakshmi V

2014-01-01

367

Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

1988-01-01

368

Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations  

Science.gov (United States)

In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and probably part of a single macromolecular scaffold. Fresh Ulva tissue appears to contain the same three functional groups but at lower concentrations, based on wet weight. The titration in natural seawater was largely dominated by the non-carbonate alkalinity of the solution and could not be robustly modeled. Results of fits with ionic strengths fixed at their experimental values indicate that the pKas of all three groups display prominent Debije-Hückel-type behavior, hence that these acid dissociation reactions involve a different mechanism than metal-proton exchange reactions on mineral surfaces, whose distribution coefficients (i.e., equilibrium constants) generally show a weak ionic strength dependence.

Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

2008-12-01

369

How to produce a chemical defense: structural elucidation and anatomical distribution of aplysioviolin and phycoerythrobilin in the sea hare Aplysia californica.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously used bioassay-guided fractionation to identify phycoerythrobilin (1) and its monomethyl ester, aplysioviolin (2), as components in the ink secretion of a marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia californica, that act as chemical deterrents against predatory blue crabs. This was the first report of 1 as a natural product. Compound 2 was previously reported as a natural product from three species of Aplysia (A. fasciata, A. dactylomela, and A. parvula), but the reported structure and composition of stereoisomers of 2 are different among these species. Sea hares are thought to produce 2 from phycoerythrin, a photosynthetic pigment in their red-algal diet composed of a phycobiliprotein covalently linked to the chromophore 1, by cleavage of the covalent bond and methylation of 1, but neither the sequence nor the anatomical location of the cleavage and methylation is known. In this study, we clarify the structure of 1 and 2 in ink secretion of A. californica, and describe the distribution of 1 and 2 in the tissues of sea hares. We conclude that cleavage of the covalent bond in phycoerythrin occurs first, forming 1 in the digestive gland, followed by methylation of 1 to yield 2 in the ink gland. PMID:20491075

Kamio, Michiya; Nguyen, Linh; Yaldiz, Seymanur; Derby, Charles D

2010-05-01

370

Assessment of trace metals in fish species of urban rivers in Bangladesh and health implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of six metals i.e. chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in three fish species (Channa punctatus, Heteropneustes fossilis and Trichogaster fasciata) from three urban rivers in Bangladesh were measured. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb in fish species were 0.75-4.8, 0.14-3.1, 1.1-7.2, 0.091-0.53, 0.007-0.13, and 0.052-2.7mg/kg ww, respectively. The analyzed metals were significantly different between species and seasons (p<0.05). The target hazard quotients (THQs) and carcinogenic risk (CR) for individual metal showed that As and Pb in muscle was particularly hazardous and potential risk for the low, medium and high fish consumer in Bangladesh. Some of the trace metals' concentrations are higher than the recommended value, which suggest that the water and fish of these rivers are not completely safe for human health. PMID:25553576

Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

2015-01-01