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Sample records for ulva fasciata delile

  1. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p < 0.05). These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:19802460

  2. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile Caracterização fisiológica e físico-química da fibra alimentar da macroalga marinha verde Ulva fasciata Delile

    AFU Carvalho; MCC. Portela; MB. Sousa; FS, Martins; FC. Rocha; DF. Farias; JPA. Feitosa

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  3. De novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome of Ulva fasciata Delile (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta), a distromatic blade-forming green macroalga.

    Melton, James Theodore; Lopez-Bautista, Juan Manuel

    2016-09-01

    We present the 61 614 bp circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva fasciata. Fifty-eight genes were identified including 29 protein-coding genes, 27 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Four ORFs from the Ulva sp. UNA00071828 mitogenome were conserved compared to the mitogenome of Ulva fasciata. The ∼10 000 bp size difference was mostly due to fewer introns found in U. fasciata mtDNA (4) as compared with the Ulva sp. UNA00071828 mtDNA (10). Introns were annotated in cox1 (3) and nad3 (1). The AT content was similar to Ulva sp. UNA00071828 mtDNA at 67.5%. A phylogenomic anaylsis of 28 chlorophytes and 17 protein-coding genes (14 115 bp alignment) showed that U. fasciata clusters closely with other members of the Ulvophyceae (Ulva sp. UNA00071828, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Oltmannsiellopsis viridis). This analysis did not recover a monophyletic Ulvophyceae, however, the Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae were supported as monophyletic groups. PMID:26369927

  4. Feeding trials of green seaweed Ulva fasciata

    Alam, J.M.; Qasim, R.

    1993-01-01

    For the nutritional evaluation of green seaweed Ulva fasciata, a feeding trial was performed in albino rats. The results indicated that the 20% replacement of seaweed U. fasciata instead of carrot or lettuce in rad diet causes no harmful effects, as evident by a non-significant change in blood constituents and serum enzyme levels. The weight gain observed in rats with U. fasciata diet was same as that of control diet. The true digestibility ratio of U. fasciata was 80.20% with carrot and 83.4...

  5. Chemical composition of Ulvaria oxysperma (Ktzing bliding, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus and Ulva fascita (Delile

    Mrcia de Pdua

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of three species of Chlorophyta, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Ulvaria oxysperma, was determined. Ulvaria oxysperma showed humidity (16-20%, ash (17-31% dry-base, proteins (6-10%db, lipids (0.5-3.2%db, fibers (3-12%db and carbohydrates (46-72%db which corresponded to 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (wet-base. U lactuca (15-18%db and U fasciata (13-16%db revealed grades slightly higher for proteins, but with similar energetic contents (250-272 and 225-239 kcal.100g-1, respectively. Natural blades of U lactuca and of U fasciata were more rigid than blades of U oxysperma. Other native algae showed higher protein levels. Ulvaria sp could be cultivated on the cotton-nylon net without having significance competition from other algae or predators degradation. On the other hand, it was essential choose a place without destructive tide action. Cultivated Ulvaria sp showed similar chemical composition as that grown on natural substrates.A composio qumica de trs espcies de Chlorophyta foi determinada. Ulva lactuca se desenvolve em Guaraqueaba e Ulva fasciata na Ilha do Mel, enquanto que Ulvaria oxysperma se desenvolve nos dois ecossistemas. Umidade (16-20%, cinzas (17-31%, base seca, protenas (6-10%bs, lipdeos (0,5-3.2%bs, fibras (3-12%bs e carboidratos (46-72%bs para U.oxysperma correspondeu a 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (base mida. U.lactuca (15-18%bs e U.fasciata (13-16%bs mostraram teores levemente maiores para a protena, mas com contedos energticos similares (250-272 e 225-239 kcal.100g-1, respectivamente. As folhas in natura de U.lactuca e de U.fasciata eram mais rgidas do que as de U.oxysperma. Outras algas nativas apresentaram teores de protenas maiores. Ulvaria sp pode ser cultivada sobre redes, sem apresentar competio com outras algas ou ao significativa de predadores. Ulvaria sp cultivada apresentou composio qumica similar ao da Ulvaria sp crescida sobre substratos naturais. essencial escolher um local protegido da ao destrutiva da mar.

  6. Ultraviolet-B-induced oxidative stress and responses of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in a marine macroalga Ulva fasciata.

    Shiu, Chia-Tai; Lee, Tse-Min

    2005-11-01

    The regulation of the antioxidant defence system by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) was determined in a marine macroalga Ulva fasciata Delile exposed to low (0.5, 1 W m(-2)), medium (2.5, 5 W m(-2)), and high (10, 20 W m(-2)) UV-B irradiance. UV-B > or =2.5 W m(-2) increased H2O2 contents that are positively correlated with lipid peroxidation and total peroxide contents. Inhibition of the UV-B-induced H2O2 increase by a specific O2.- scavenger, 1,2-dihydroxy-benzene-3,5-disulphonic acid, shows that O2.- is the primary source of H2O2. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased by UV-B with a peak at 2.5 W m(-2), which did not match the H2O2 pattern. Alleviation of UV-B-induced oxidative damage by a H2O2 scavenger, dimethylthiourea, and a free radical scavenger, sodium benzoate, which inhibited UV-B-induced H2O2 accumulation, suggests that oxidative damage caused by UV-B > or = 2.5 W m(-2) is ascribed to accumulated H2O2. However, a decrease in growth rate and TTC reduction ability only at high UV-B doses indicates that the defence and repairing systems operate at low and medium UV-B doses. H2O2 not only can be excreted but can also be detoxified via the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Increases in catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione pools, as well as AsA regeneration ability, function to keep the balance of cellular H2O2 under low UV-B doses. Dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase are responsible for AsA regeneration under low and medium UV-B radiation, respectively. The appearance of oxidative damage in medium and high UV-B flux is attributable to a lower induction of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as an antioxidant defence system. Overall, the availability of antioxidants and the induction of antioxidant enzyme activities for detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) are regulated in U. fasciata against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, and experiments using ROS scavengers demonstrate that the antioxidant defence system is modulated by O2.- or H2O2. PMID:16157654

  7. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  8. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

  9. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Idania Rodeiro; Sitlali Olguín; Rebeca Santes; Herrera, José A.; Pérez, Carlos L.; Raisa Mangas; Yasnay Hernández; Gisselle Fernández; Ivones Hernández; Sandra Hernández-Ojeda; Rafael Camacho-Carranza; Ana Valencia-Olvera; Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In ...

  10. Production of Biofuels from Marine Macroalgae Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and Ulva fasciata

    This research article is based on the production of biofuels from the marine macro red alga Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and marine macro green alga Ulva fasciata from the Karachi coast. M. afaqhusainii was investigated for biodiesel as well as for bioethanol whereas U. fasciata was investigated only for bioethanol. Two types of biodiesels namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) were prepared by the transesterification of algal oil. The carbohydrates from both algae were extracted by distilled water and subjected to different biochemical tests. It was hydrolyzed by various methods including acidic and basic as well as by using ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and mixture of organic solvents in the presence of AlCl/sub 3/. The comparative study of these methods revealed their efficiency order as NaOH (10 percentage)/heating (method-2) > NaOH (10 percentage)/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in microwave oven (method-5) > ammonia (50 percentage)/reflux (method-6). After hydrolysis, the presence of carbohydrates in the hydrolyzed samples was investigated by different biochemical tests including Molisch Test, Iodine Test, Benedict Test, Tollen Test, Barfoed's Test, Fehling solution Test, Osazone Test, Seliwanoff's Test and Bial's Test. In addition, the presence of glucose was confirmed by glucometer and Combur Test. The detailed investigation of carbohydrates was carried out that resulted in the identification of reducing sugars, polysaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharides including glucose. The hydrolyzed samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ground and paratial anaerobic conditions. The bioethanol so formed by fermentation was directly converted to UV active derivatives namely ethyl benzoate and benzyl acetate. They were confirmed by TLC examination in comparison with standard ethyl benzoate and benzyl acetate. UV spectrophotometer was used for the determination of total sugar and bioethanol on the basis of absorbance by comparing with standards. This valuable research will be fruitful to overcome the current environmental threats. (author)

  11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects.

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A; Pérez, Carlos L; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1-500 µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25-50 µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent. PMID:26612994

  12. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olgun, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, Jos A.; Prez, Carlos L.; Mangas, Raisa; Hernndez, Yasnay; Fernndez, Gisselle; Hernndez, Ivones; Hernndez-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jess Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1500?g/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (2550?g/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent. PMID:26612994

  13. Death by Ulva

    We report on a series of field and laboratory mesocosm experiments where we examined the effects of two levels of decomposing Ulva on Spartina alterniflora growth, soil biogeochemistry, and nitrogen dynamics. Monitoring of porewater revealed rapid mineralization to ammonium from...

  14. An antimutagenic monoterpene from Malachra fasciata (Malvaveae)

    A monoterpene was isolated from the leaves of Malachra fasciata by gravity column chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by extensive1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. It was identified as loliolide by comparison of its 1H and 13 C NMR spectral data with those found in the literature. The compound was tested for its antimutagenicity potential by the use of the micronucleus test. Results of the study indicated a 64.4% reduction in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by mitomycin C, when loliolide at a dosage of 14.8 mg/kg was administered to mice of the Swiss strain. Another isolate from the leaves of the plant was stigmasterol which structure was determined by comparison of its 1H NMR spectal data with those found in the literature. (Author)

  15. A new subspecies of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from Oregon (Aves: Timaliinae)

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    Geographic variation in plumage color of Chamaea fasciata (Wrentit) from northern California and southern Oregon is related to climate. A new subspecies, Chamaea fasciata margra, is described from a disjunct population of southern interior Oregon. Colonization of C. fasciata in interior Oregon was perhaps from birds crossing coniferous forests via isolated balds of Ceonothus. Recent increases of Wrentits in interior Oregon may be in response to habitat alterations (deforestation, fires) and concurrent global warming.

  16. Determinants of territorial recruitment in Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) populations

    Hernndez-Matas, Antonio; Real, Joan; Pradel, Roger; Ravayrol, Alain; Vincent-Martin, Nicolas; Bosca, Fabrice; Cheylan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    [EN]Recruitment is an essential component of the life history and population dynamics of bird species. We provide comprehensive information on the determinants of territorial recruitment in populations of the endangered Bonellis Eagle (Aquila fasciata). Field work was based on a long-term study of two populations located in the northwest of this species range, one in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) and the other in Provence and Languedoc-Roussillon (southeastern France). Nestlings were ba...

  17. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK

    Gupta Satish Chand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae.The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

  19. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  20. Suitability of Tillandsia usneoides and Aechmea fasciata for biomonitoring toxic elements under tropical seasonal climate.

    Giampaoli, Patricia; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Tavares, Armando R; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    Aechmea fasciata was evaluated for the first time as a biomonitor of toxic elements, in comparison to the biomonitoring capacity of Tillandsia usneoides, a well-established biomonitor bromeliad species. Plants of both species were exposed to air pollutants from industrial, urban, and agricultural sources, under the tropical seasonal climate, from June/2011 to April/2013, in five sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, for 8 consecutive exposure periods of 12 weeks each. The levels of essential and non-essential elements, including trace metals, were quantified at the end of each exposure. T. usneoides and A. fasciata indicated N, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, and V as air contaminants in the studied sites, during wet and dry seasons and both species were recommended for qualitative biomonitoring. Concentration levels of N, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, B, Co, and Ni were significantly higher in T. usneoides than in A. fasciata. However, A. fasciata showed a higher effective retention capacity of Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Co during field exposure, as indicated by the estimate of enrichment factor relative to basal concentrations. This species is more suitable for detecting the atmospheric pollution level of those metals than the T. usneoides. Both species indicated adequately the seasonal differences in the pollution levels of several elements, but T. usneoides presented higher ability for biomonitoring the spatial variations and for indicating more properly the sources of each element in the studied region than the A. fasciata. PMID:26844661

  1. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK

    Gupta Satish Chand; Shenoy Sumanth; Kotecha Mita

    2012-01-01

    Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae).The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids...

  2. Effects of Calpensia nobilis (Esper 1796) (Bryozoa: Cheilostomida) on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    Romero Colmenero, Laura; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    1999-01-01

    Calpensia nobilis (Esper) is a bryozoan which grows on rhizomes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. To assess the impact of the bryozoan on the seagrass, at each of two localities, Tabarca Island and Cabo de Palos, two sites were sampled. The samples were subjected to a lepidochronological analysis in order to measure the differences in growth rate, weight/length ratio, rhizome production and number of leaves per year in rhizomes colonised by C. nobilis versus no colonised ones. A...

  3. Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile

    Ahmad Mahmood; Mohammad Athar; M. Afzal Siddique; Nadeem Mahmood; Aun Raza Naqvi

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in ...

  4. Effects of salinity on leaf growth and survival of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to estimate the effects of salinity variation on the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and its attached epiphytes. Leaf growth and survival of this plant were tested in several short-term (15 days) mesocosms experiments under controlled conditions between February 2001 and November 2001. Plants collected from shallow meadows at Alicante (SE Spain), with an ambient salinity of 36.8–38.0 psu, were placed in tanks of 300 L with an addition...

  5. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2015-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy- (6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy-β-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  6. Retinal epithelial fine structure in the southern fiddler ray (Trygonorhina fasciata)

    Braekevelt, Charlie R.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology of the retinal epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) has been investigated by light and electron microscopy in an elasmobranch, the southern fiddler ray or guitarfish (Trygonorhina fasciata) . The RPE consists of a single layer of cuboidal cells which display basal (scleral) infoldings as well as numerous apical (vitreal) finger-like processes which interdigitate with the photoreceptor outer segments. The lat...

  7. Separate Effects of a Classical Conditioning Procedure on Respiratory Pumping, Swimming, and Inking in Aplysia fasciata

    Levy, Miriam; Susswein, Abraham J.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether swimming and inking, two defensive responses in Aplysia fasciata, are facilitated by a classical conditioning procedure that has been shown to facilitate a third defensive response, respiratory pumping. Training consisted of pairing a head shock (UCS) with a modified seawater (85%, 120%, or pH 7.0 seawaterCSs). Animals were tested by re-exposing them to the same altered seawater 1 hr after the training. For all three altered seawaters, only respiratory pumping is specific...

  8. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile: geographical distribution and ethnobotanical knowledge by local populations in the Ferlo (north Senegal)

    Sagna, MB.; Niang, KS.; Guisse, A.; Goffner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile is a species of tropical flora for which the variety aegyptiaca is adapted to Sahelian climate. The species is among those chosen for the restoration of Sahelian ecosystems in the context of the pan-African reforestation project, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (GGW). This study redefines the distribution range and its ecology and studies its uses in the Ferlo region in the north of Senegal using surveys carried out among the local pop...

  9. Amylibacter ulvae sp. nov., a new alphaproteobacterium isolated from the Pacific green alga Ulva fenestrata.

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kukhlevskiy, Andrey D; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, Seung Bum

    2016-04-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium, designated strain 6Alg 255(T), was isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the novel strain affiliated to the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria being most closely related to Amylibacter marinus LMG 28364(T) with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.2 %. Strain 6Alg 255(T) grew with 0.5-6.0 % NaCl and at 4-33 °C, hydrolysed aesculin, casein, gelatin and urea. The DNA G + C content was 50.4 mol%. The prevalent fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c and C16:0. The polar lipid profile was characterized by the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unidentified aminolipid. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The significant molecular distinctiveness between the novel isolate and its nearest neighbour was strongly supported by the differences in physiological and biochemical tests. Therefore, strain 6Alg 255(T) represents a novel species of the genus Amylibacter, for which the name Amylibacter ulvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6Alg 255(T) (=KCTC 32465(T) = KMM 6515(T)). PMID:26762377

  10. Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L. Delile

    Ahmad Mahmood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in the leaf, stem and root were analyzed. In general salt stress resulted in a decrease of plant growth, nodulation and percent tissue nitrogen in A. nilotica plants. Root-shoot ratio showed gradual increase with increasing sea water concentrations. Nitrogen contents decreased in leaf and stem, whereas it increased in roots. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape with increasing salinity. A. nilotica accumulated NaCl in the xylem of the roots that may be considered as a preliminary salt tolerant mechanism adopted by the plant.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  12. Interference with the germination and growth of Ulva zoospores by quorum-sensing molecules from Ulva-associated epiphytic bacteria.

    Twigg, Matthew S; Tait, Karen; Williams, Paul; Atkinson, Steve; Cámara, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Ulva zoospores preferentially settle on N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) producing marine bacterial biofilms. To investigate whether AHL signal molecules also affect the success and rate of zoospore germination in addition to zoospore attraction, the epiphytic bacteria associated with mature Ulva linza were characterized and bacterial isolates representative of this community tested for the ability to produce AHLs. Two of these AHL-producing isolates, Sulfitobacter spp. 376 and Shewanella spp. 79, were transformed with plasmids expressing the Bacillus spp. AHL lactonase gene aiiA to generate AHL-deficient variants. The germination and growth of U. linza zoospores was studied in the presence of these AHL-deficient strains and their AHL-producing counterparts. This revealed that the AHLs produced by Sulfitobacter spp. and Shewanella spp. or the bacterial products they regulate have a negative impact on both zoospore germination and the early growth of the Ulva germling. Further experiments with Escherichia coli biofilms expressing recombinant AHL synthases and synthetic AHLs provide data to demonstrate that zoospores germinated and grown in the absence of AHLs were significantly longer than those germinated in the presence of AHLs. These results reveal an additional role for AHLs per se in the interactive relationships between marine bacteria and Ulva zoospores. PMID:23879807

  13. Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1836 (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae): Nuevo registro para el noreste del departamento de Potosí, Bolivia

    Patricia Mendoza M.; Luis Rolando Rivas T.; Arturo Muñoz S.

    2015-01-01

    El género Homonota presenta una distribución geográfica Neotropical. En Bolivia se tienen registrados dos especies H. fasciata y H. dorbignyi. En el presente documento se proporciona nuevos registros geográficos de Homonota fasciata en el departamento de Potosí, Bolivia. Así como tambien se brindan nuevos registros geográficos en diferentes departamentos de Bolivia.

  14. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  15. Microbial Colonization and Competition on the Marine Alga Ulva australis

    Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    Pseudalteromonas tunicata and Roseobacter gallaeciensis are biofilm-forming marine bacteria that are often found in association with the surface of the green alga Ulva australis. They are thought to benefit the plant host by producing inhibitory compounds that are active against common fouling organisms. We investigated factors that influence the ability of P. tunicata and R. gallaeciensis to attach to and colonize the plant surface and also the competitive interactions that occur between the...

  16. Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture

    Vesty, Eleanor F.; Kessler, Ralf W.; Wichard, Thomas; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development, and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel, and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyze green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuousl...

  17. Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture.

    Vesty, Eleanor F; Kessler, Ralf W; Wichard, Thomas; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development, and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel, and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyze green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal-bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. U. linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores) in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors). The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures. The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids) appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal-microbial interactions. PMID:25674100

  18. Epiphyte load on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile does not indicate anthropogenic nutrient loading in Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    Terrados, Jorge; Medina-Pons, Francisco Javier

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The epiphyte load on the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile was estimated at the end of summer in three sites and two depths (7 m and 17 m) of the Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate if epiphyte load could be used as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient loading in the shallow marine ecosystems of the park. Asymmetrical ANOVA was used to divide data variability into two components: the contrast b...

  19. Anti-inflammatory, Anti-estrogenic, and Anti-implantation Activity of Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl

    Bind, Sandeep Kumar; Jivrajani, Mehul; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl (Syn. Bergia odorata Edgew) (Elatinaceae family) is used traditionally to repair bones and is applied as a poultice on sores. It is also used for stomach troubles and as an antidote to scorpion stings. So far, very little scientific work has been reported to validate its ethnomedical uses in the alleviation of pain, bone repair, etc., Objective: This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-implantation potential of n-hexane extract of B. suffruticosa whole plant in mice along with identification of its chemical constituents. Materials and Methods: n-Hexane extract of B. suffruticosa whole plant was screened for acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity followed by an anti-estrogenic activity. Eventually, n-hexane extract was tested for anti-implantation activity by exploiting markers of uterine receptivity, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide enzyme activity. The extract was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in each study. Results: Thin layer chromatography fingerprint profile of n-hexane extract revealed the presence of lupeol and β-sitosterol. The n-hexane extract reduced the edema by 80% in acute inflammation, whereas it reduced edema to 75% on the 5th day in chronic inflammation. The n-hexane extract reduced elevated malonaldehyde level from 6 to 2.5 nmol/g × 10−5 and increased superoxide dismutase enzyme activity from 0 to 350 units/g in treated animals on the 5th day of pregnancy. Moreover, extract decreased uterine weight from 0.33 to 0.2 g in estradiol treated animals. Conclusion: These results indicate that n-hexane extract of B. suffruticosa is having potent anti-inflammatory, anti-estrogenic, and anti-implantation activity. This is the first report of all the pharmacological activities of B. suffruticosa mentioned above. SUMMARY TLC fingerprint profile of n-hexane extract of Bergia suffruticosa whole plant revealed the presence of lupeol and β-sitosteroln-Hexane extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and chronic model of inflammation in ratsn-Hexane extract possess significant anti-estrogenic activityn-Hexane extract altered the levels superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity during the blastocyst implantationAnti-implantation activity of n-hexane extract is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-estrogenic potential. Abbreviations used: TLC: Thin layer chromatography; LPO: Lipid peroxidation; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; B. suffruticosa: Bergia suffruticosa; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; NO: Nitric oxide; IL-1: Interleukin-1; LIF: Leukemia inhibitory factor; CSF-1: Colony-stimulating factor; COX: Cyclooxygenase; SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate; IAEC: Animal House Ethics Committee; CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals; HBSS: Hank's balanced salt solution; MDA: Malonaldehyde; and TBA: Thiobarbituric acid. PMID:26929574

  20. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca) for broiler chickens

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos; Aly B. Okab; Riyadh S. Aljumaah; Samara, Emad M.; Kalid A. Abdoun; Ahmad A. Al-Haidary

    2013-01-01

    The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca); T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed i...

  1. Projecting invasion risk of non-native watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon) in the western United States.

    Rose, Jonathan P; Todd, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to project the potential distribution of introduced species outside their native range. Such studies rarely explicitly evaluate potential conflicts with native species should the range of introduced species expand. Two snake species native to eastern North America, Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon, have been introduced to California where they represent a new stressor to declining native amphibians, fish, and reptiles. To project the potential distributions of these non-native watersnakes in western North America, we built ensemble SDMs using MaxEnt, Boosted Regression Trees, and Random Forests and habitat and climatic variables. We then compared the overlap between the projected distribution of invasive watersnakes and the distributions of imperiled native amphibians, fish, and reptiles that can serve as prey or competitors for the invaders, to estimate the risk to native species posed by non-native watersnakes. Large areas of western North America were projected to be climatically suitable for both species of Nerodia according to our ensemble SDMs, including much of central California. The potential distributions of both N. fasciata and N. sipedon overlap extensively with the federally threatened Giant Gartersnake, Thamnophis gigas, which inhabits a similar ecological niche. N. fasciata also poses risk to the federally threatened California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, whereas N. sipedon poses risk to some amphibians of conservation concern, including the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We conclude that non-native watersnakes in California can likely inhabit ranges of several native species of conservation concern that are expected to suffer as prey or competing species for these invaders. Action should be taken now to eradicate or control these invasions before detrimental impacts on native species are widespread. Our methods can be applied broadly to quantify the risk posed by incipient invasions to native biodiversity. PMID:24964204

  2. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  3. Flat-plate techniques for measuring reflectance of macro-algae (Ulva curvata)

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, Amina; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Schwarzschild, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We tested the consistency and accuracy of flat-plate spectral measurements (400–1000 nm) of the marine macrophyte Ulva curvata. With sequential addition of Ulva thallus layers, the reflectance progressively increased from 6% to 9% with six thalli in the visible (VIS) and from 5% to 19% with ten thalli in the near infrared (NIR). This progressive increase was simulated by a mathematical calculation based on an Ulva thallus diffuse reflectance weighted by a transmittance power series. Experimental and simulated reflectance differences that were particularly high in the NIR most likely resulted from residual water and layering structure unevenness in the experimental progression. High spectral overlap existed between fouled and non-fouled Ulva mats and the coexistent lagoon mud in the VIS, whereas in the NIR, spectral contrast was retained but substantially dampened by fouling.

  4. Circadian rhythms of chloroplast orientation and photosynthetic capacity in ulva.

    Britz, S J; Briggs, W R

    1976-07-01

    Ulva lactuca L. var. latissima (L.) Decandolle and var. rigida (C. Agardh) Le Jolis and U. mutabilis Foyn have a circadian rhythm of chloroplast orientation which results in large changes in the light-absorption properties of the thallus. During the day, the chloroplasts cover the outer face of the cells and absorbance is high. At night, the chloroplasts are along the side walls and absorbance is low. Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh, E. intestinalis (L.) Link, E. sp., and Monostroma grevillei (Thuret) Wittrock, members of the Ulvales, were not observed to have this rhythmic movement. Chloroplasts, when in the face position, could not be induced to move to the sides by high intensity light up to 80,000 lux. Unrelated to chloroplast position per se and light-absorption efficiency, there is a rhythm of photosynthetic capacity which peaks just before midday and which continues in constant darkness. PMID:16659613

  5. Abiotic factors influencing biomass accumulation of green tide causing Ulva spp. on Pyropia culture rafts in the Yellow Sea, China.

    Keesing, John K; Liu, Dongyan; Shi, Yajun; Wang, Yujue

    2016-04-15

    Annually recurrent green-tides in the Yellow Sea have been shown to result from direct disposal into the sea of fouling Ulva from Pyropia aquaculture. The role abiotic factors play in Ulva biomass accumulation on rafts was studied to find ways to mitigate this problem. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was very high at all sites, but the highest Ulva biomass was associated with the lowest DIN and anthropogenic N. Under luxuriant background nutrient conditions, variability in temperature and periods of emersion, rather than pH, light and salinity determined Ulva biomass. Two dominant species of Ulva displayed differing tolerances to temperature and desiccation which helped explain why Ulva prolifera dominates floating green-tides. Rather than trying to mitigate green-tides only by reducing nutrient pollution, an earlier harvest of Pyropia in southern Jiangsu Province especially before temperatures increase greatly above 10°C during April, could reduce the biomass of U. prolifera disposed from rafts. PMID:26936121

  6. Epiphytic Communities On Posidonia Oceanica (L. Delile Leaves Along The North Tyrrhenian Coasts (N.W. Mediterranean Sea, Italy

    R. BEDINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of epiphytic communities was studied from February to November 2000 at three different levels (upper limit, lower limit, central zone in depth (- 5 to 26 m in five Posidonia oceanica(L. Delile 1813 Tuscany coast meadows: Rosignano, San Vincenzo, Piombino, Punta Ala, Portoferraio (Isle of Elba. The study was focused on leaf epiphytes and epifauna. Three shoots in three plots were collected randomly in each area (nine shoots per area in each site of each meadow. A quantitative description of the epiphytes and epifauna was carried out, regarding the three groups: Algae, Hydroids and Bryozoans, both on the outer and the inner surfaces of the leaf blade. The dynamics of communities of the leaf-stratum along a bathymetric gradient showed a seasonal variation characterized by the highest richness of epiphytes mainly in the upper limit, especially in early spring. Significant differences were demonstrated for the epiphytic communities of the external leaf-stratum both on the upper and the central limit of the studied meadows.

  7. Parameters affecting the analytical profile of fatty acids in the macroalgal genus Ulva.

    McCauley, Janice I; Meyer, Barbara J; Winberg, Pia C; Skropeta, Danielle

    2016-10-15

    The fatty acids (FA) of Ulva have potential to contribute to nutrition. However the large variability of FA profiles of Ulva species; thus the quality and quantity of FA in relation to nutrition is poorly defined. Herein we investigate the FA profile of 74 cultured Ulva samples crossing five culture regimes, six extraction regimes and four post-harvesting processes. This is compared alongside a comprehensive review of FA profiles of Ulva spp. With regard to the literature, Ulva is characterised by C16:0 (30.5±11.5%), C18:3 n-3 (14.5±6.3%), C18:4 n-3 (12.5±5.4%), C16:4 n-3 (8.9±4.8%) and C18:1 n-7 (10.1±4.0%). The investigated Ulva fell within the reported range of specific FA. High nutrient conditions showed the most desirable FA profile for health, along with the highest total FA content (56mgg(-1) dry weight equivalent) when extracted with an optimised protocol. PMID:27173571

  8. Chemical contamination along the Mediterranean French coast using Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile above-ground tissues: a multiple trace element study

    Luy, N.; S. GOBERT; Sartoretto, S.; Biondo, R.; Bouquegneau, J.-M.; Richir, J.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Be, Al, V, Mn, Co, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, Bi as well as of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile from the Mediterranean French coast were analysed using DRC ICP-MS. The first twelve elements have not been well studied and can be considered to be potential pollutants as a result of potentially increased levels resulting from anthropogenic activities. Spatial variation and/or compartmentalization were found for all trace elements. Except for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu a...

  9. Experimental in situ exposure of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile to 15 trace elements

    Richir, J.; Luy, N.; LePoint, G.; Rozet, E.; Alvera Azcarate, A.; S. GOBERT

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been used for trace element (TE) biomonitoring since decades ago. However, present informations for this bioindicator are limited mainly to plant TE levels, while virtually nothing is known about their fluxes through P. oceanica meadows. We therefore contaminated seagrass bed portions in situ at two experimental TE levels with a mix of 15 TEs (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and Bi) to study their uptake and l...

  10. Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile: geographical distribution and ethnobotanical knowledge by local populations in the Ferlo (north Senegal

    Sagna, MB.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile is a species of tropical flora for which the variety aegyptiaca is adapted to Sahelian climate. The species is among those chosen for the restoration of Sahelian ecosystems in the context of the pan-African reforestation project, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (GGW. This study redefines the distribution range and its ecology and studies its uses in the Ferlo region in the north of Senegal using surveys carried out among the local population. The eco-geographical study shows that the species occupies several Sahel-Saharan regions of Africa and the Middle East. With broad ecological amplitude, it is very resistant to drought and relatively indifferent to the type of soil. Results of the ethno-botanical survey show that local people in the Ferlo region have a wealth of knowledge and expertise on B. aegyptiaca. These surveys also revealed the extent to which local populations rely on the tree for food, fodder, construction and medicine. The fruit and wood are the most highly prized parts of the tree, with the greatest use of the fruit in people's diets. In medicinal terms, B. aegyptiaca is used to treat several affections. Marketing the fruits could be of socio-economic interest for local people, and in particular, for women. This study is particularly opportune since B. aegyptiaca var. aegyptiaca is currently being planted in large numbers within the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGW. It also provides information that could help in better management of this natural resource, adapted both to the hostile Sahelian climate and of great use to Mankind.

  11. Ulva prolifera monitoring by GF-1 wide field-of-view sensor data

    Liang, Wenxiu; Li, Junsheng; Zhou, Demin; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Haobin

    2014-11-01

    Ulva prolifera, a kind of green macroalgae, is nontoxic itself, however, its bloom has bad effects on the marine environment, coastal scene, water sports and seashore tourism. Monitoring of the Ulva prolifera by remote sensing technology has the advantages of wide coverage, rapidness, low cost and dynamic monitoring over a long period of time. The GF-1 satellite was launched in April 2013, which provides a new suitable remote sensing data source for monitoring the Ulva prolifera. At present, segmenting image with a threshold is the most widely used method in Ulva prolifera extraction by remote sensing data, because it is simple and easy to operate. However, the threshold value is obtained through visual analysis or using a fixed statistical value, and could not be got automatically. Facing this problem, we proposed a new method, which can obtain the segmentation threshold automatically based on the local maximum gradient value. This method adopted the average NDVI value of local maximum gradient points as the threshold, and could get an appropriate segmentation threshold automatically for each image. The preliminary results showed that this method works well in monitoring Ulva prolifera by GF-1 WFV data.

  12. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  13. Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia

    Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
    humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
    De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
    diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
    síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

  14. Ulva linza zoospore sensitivity to systematic variation of surface topography

    Sheats, Julian Taylor

    The use of surface topographical microstructure is abundant in nature. The lotus plant uses a fractal-like topography to create a highly non-wetting surface that self-cleans as water drops take dirt particles with them as they roll off. Analysis of how topography affects surface interactions offers a unique opportunity to attack a problem that affects our economy and societal health significantly. The attachment of biological material to manmade surfaces can be looked at as fouling or directed adhesion. Marine fouling on ship hulls costs the United States $600 million each year due to increased fuel usage caused by drag. Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections cause thousands of deaths annually as a result of colonization of hospital surfaces. The lack of biocompatible synthetic surfaces for implants such as vascular grafts lead to restenosis as cells are unable to develop a natural interaction with the graft surface. In each circumstance there is much to learn about the complicated attachment process. This work expands the investigation of the role of topography in the attachment of the green fouling algae Ulva linza to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces. Spore attachment density was correlated to the Wenzel roughness ratio on low surface energy, high-modulus poly(dimethylsiloxane)-grafted-silicon topographies. The role of topography on a scale less than the size of a spore was investigated on nano-roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer surfaces. For a specific group of patterns, the spatial distribution of spores attached to topographies was quantitatively analyzed and shown to correlate with feature dimensions.

  15. Ulva additions alter soil biogeochemistry and negatively impact Spartina alterniflora growth

    Decaying mats of Ulva can be washed into salt marshes by the tides as large wrack deposits, especially in eutrophic estuaries, where they can negatively impact marsh vegetation. We report on a series of field and laboratory mesocosm experiments where we examined the effects of d...

  16. Growth and Cell Cycle of ULVA Compressa (Ulvophyceae) under Led Illumination

    Kuwano, K.; Abe, N.; Nishi, Y.; Seno, H.; Nishihara, G.N.; Iima, M.; Zachleder, Vilém

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2014), s. 744-752. ISSN 0022-3646 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education, Science and Culture(JP) 22580379 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * ulva * elongation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014

  17. Pheophorbide and pheophytin a-like pigments as useful markers for intertidal microphytobenthos grazing by Hydrobia ulvae

    Cartaxana, P.; Jesus, B.; Brotas, V.

    2003-10-01

    Pigment degradation by Hydrobia ulvae, feeding on an intertidal mudflat dominated by diatoms, was studied in the laboratory. HPLC analysis identified significantly higher amounts of pheopigments in grazed sediment and a decrease in the concentrations of major chlorophylls ( a and c1+ c2) and carotenoides (fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and ?-carotene). Grazing by H. ulvae leads to a stronger pheophorbide a accumulation relative to pheophytin a. Dominant chlorophyll a degradation products were the less polar pheophorbide a4 and pheophytin a2. These pigments were identified in very high concentrations in H. ulvae faecal pellets. Although a major disadvantage of the HPLC method is the uncertainty regarding the extent and rate of pigment conversion into colourless products, these data strongly suggest the possible use of pheophorbide a4 and pheophytin a2 as useful markers for intertidal microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae.

  18. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of Ulva sp 3. liquefaction juices extraction by pressing and a technico-economic budget

    Morand, Berenice; Briand, X.; CHARLIER, R

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, the algae of "green tides" are harvested in the fight against pollution. Ulva often represents the main component of the tide, and intensive research has been conducted on the possibility to use the algae as a methanisation substrate. However, methanisation is hampered by various practical obstacles, which requires a compromise between productivity and biological yield. The process described here calls upon a pre-digestion phase of Ulva which, besides the economy of ti...

  20. Impact of mercury contamination on the population dynamics of Peringia ulvae (Gastropoda): Implications on metal transfer through the trophic web

    Cardoso, P. G.; E de Sousa; P. Matos; Henriques, B.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A.C.; Pardal, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of mercury contamination on the population structure and dynamics of the gastropod Peringia ulvae (also known as Hydrobia ulvae) and its impact on the trophic web were assessed along a mercury gradient in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The gastropod was revealed to be a tolerant species to the contaminant, since the highest densities, biomasses and growth productivity values were recorded at the intermediate contaminated area followed by the most contaminated one and finall...

  1. Spatio-temporal differentiation in the population structure of Hydrobia ulvae on an intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oleron Bay, France)

    Haubois, Anne-gaelle; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Richard, Pierre; Blanchard, Gerard; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy

    2002-01-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in density, breeding cycle, growth and population structure of Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) were studied by monthly sampling of a wide bare mudflat in Marennes-Oleron Bay. Four stations, located along a cross-shore transect and characterized by different geomorphological structures, were investigated from March 2000 to February 2001. Hydrobia ulvae was mainly distributed in the upper half part of the mudflat and no individuals were found in the lower part...

  2. Antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods: The algal extract was prepared using n-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: It was observed that the n-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder of Ulva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  3. Changes in N cycling induced by Ulva detritus enrichment of sediments

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Corzo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Macroalgal accumulation and decomposition in shallow water environments typically result in an increase in the organic matter content of the sediment, affecting both benthic metabolism and nutrient dynamics. The present study investigates how a pulse addition of Ulva detritus to estuarine sedimen......, the net result being loss of nitrogen from the system. This might constitute a compensating or self-restoration mechanism counteracting an increase in N in intertidal sediment affected by eutrophication-induced macroalgal blooms...... influences the micro-distribution of O2, NO3− and NO2− within the sediment, as well as the rates of oxygen consumption, nitrification and nitrate reduction. The micro-distributions of O2, NO3− and NO2− were monitored with microsensors in Ulva-amended sediment microcosms and in unamended controls during a 1...

  4. Gastropod communities associated with Ulva spp. in the littoral zone in southeast Brazil

    Gabriela C Zamprogno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytal communities are characterized by spatial and temporal variation and are influenced by fluctuating biological and physical parameters. This study aimed to describe and compare the gastropods associated with Ulva spp., at three sites of the Espirito Santo coast with ferruginous laterite substrate and different modes of wave exposure. Camburi is characterized by the presence of iron ore particles. Samples were collected bimonthly. At each site, five sampling quadrats were launched at random in the intertidal region. Individuals of Ulva spp. were collected (2964 individuals and 53 taxa were found. In Camburi the dominant species was Amphitalamus vallei (Barleeidae, while in Capuba and Manguinhos Eulithidium affine (Phasianellidae predominated. The analyses indicated that Camburi is distinct from the other sites. The lesser wave impacts and the more complex structure of the algae in Camburi, due to the presence of iron ore, may explain this variation.

  5. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L-1) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  6. Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure

    A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 μg L-1), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 μg L-1, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 μg L-1 Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals

  7. Physiological responses of Ulva pertusa and U. armoricana to copper exposure

    Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Sook; Lee, Han-Kyun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-31

    A comparative study of copper (Cu) toxicity and tolerance in two species of Ulva from Korea, the native Ulva pertusa and alien Ulva armoricana, was conducted by examining the effects on growth, pigmentation, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant capacity and nitrate reductase activity. Toxic effects of Cu were less expressed in U. armoricana than in U. pertusa. At lower concentrations (25-50 {mu}g L{sup -1}), exposure to Cu did not affect thallus growth of U. armoricana, whilst growth was significantly reduced in U. pertusa. An increase in chlorophyll concentrations was observed in U. armoricana exposed up to 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}, whereas Cu caused a significant chlorophyll reduction in U. pertusa. Chlorophyll b was reduced to a lesser extent than chlorophyll a by higher Cu concentrations. In U. armoricana, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, minimum fluorescence, maximum electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching were unaffected by Cu except at the highest concentration tested. U. pertusa showed a significant decrease in those parameters at much lower Cu concentrations. It was notable that in this alga the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was reduced at higher Cu concentrations than relative electron transport rate. Elevated concentrations of Cu induced a strong activation of antioxidant activity in U. armoricana, whereas the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species probably decreased the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system in U. pertusa. An increase in the nitrate reductase activity of U. armoricana at 50-100 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cu coincided with the increase in chlorophyll contents, whereas U. pertusa showed a significant decrease at the higher Cu concentration. Differences in the sensitivity of the two species of Ulva to Cu may influence their competitive interactions in Korean coastal waters experiencing temporal increases in the loading of heavy metals.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN SEAWEED Ulva reticulata COLLECTED FROM TAKALAR WATERS OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    Elmi N. Zainuddin; Marianti A. Manggau; Sartini; Wan Nawi, W.N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Seaweeds are the extraordinary sustainable resources in the marine ecosystem which have been used as a source of food, feed and medicine. These marine natural products possess a broad range of activity as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, cytotoxic and anticancer. Methods Study of antimicrobial activity and TLC-bioautography of green seaweed Ulva reticulata extracts against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast has been done invitro by agar diffusion met...

  9. Bioethanol Production from Ulva pertusa Kjellman by High-temperature Liquefaction

    Choi, W.Y.; Han, J. G.; Lee, C G; C. H. Song; Kim, J. S.; Seo, Y. C.; Lee, S. E.; Jung, K H; Kang, D. H.; Heo, S. J.; Cho, J. S.; Lee, H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work was investigated to improve hydrolysis yields of macro alga, Ulva pertusa Kjellman by high-temperature liquefaction process (HTLP). We hydrolyzed this alga to produce bioethanol. U. pertusa Kjellman contains approximately w = 32 % glucose, comprising w = 6 % cellulose and 20 % starch, along with w = 5.9 % xylose. Among 32 % of total carbohydrates, ca. 26 % of glucose was hydrolyzed from starch (20 %) and cellulose (6 %), respectively, which tells that a more efficient process might ...

  10. Low Densities of Epiphytic Bacteria from the Marine Alga Ulva australis Inhibit Settlement of Fouling Organisms?

    Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Holmstrm, Carola; Case, Rebecca; Low, Adrian; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria that produce inhibitory compounds on the surface of marine algae are thought to contribute to the defense of the host plant against colonization of fouling organisms. However, the number of bacterial cells necessary to defend against fouling on the plant surface is not known. Pseudoalteromonas tunicata and Phaeobacter sp. strain 2.10 (formerly Roseobacter gallaeciensis) are marine bacteria often found in association with the alga Ulva australis and produce a range of extracellular in...

  11. Transformation of Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) by vector plasmids integrating into the genome.

    Oertel, Wolfgang; Wichard, Thomas; Weissgerber, Adelheid

    2015-10-01

    A method for the stable transformation of the green marine macroalga Ulva mutabilis was developed based on vector plasmids integrating into the genome. By combination of the expression signals (promoter, enhancer, and transcriptional termination sequences) of a chromosomal rbcS gene from U. mutabilis with the bleomycin resistance gene (ble) from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus, a dominant selectable marker gene was constructed for the preparation of a series of E. coli-U. mutabilis shuttle vector plasmids. Special vectors were prepared for the introduction and expression of foreign genes in Ulva, for insertional mutagenesis and gene tagging by plasmid integration into the genome, and for protein tagging by the green fluorescent protein, as well as tools for posttranscriptional gene silencing and cosmid cloning to prepare genomic gene libraries for mutant gene complementation. The vectors were successfully tested in pilot experiments, where they were efficiently introduced into Ulva gametes, zoospores or protoplasts of somatic blade cells by treatment with Ca(2+) -ions and polyethylene glycol under isotonic conditions at low ionic strength. The parthenogenetically propagated phleomycin-resistant transformants of the mutant slender (sl) and the wildtype (wt) were demonstrated to be carrying the plasmids randomly integrated into the chromosomes often as tandem repeat clusters. PMID:26986891

  12. Colonization potential of the genus Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales in Comodoro Rivadavia Harbor (Chubut, Argentina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial changes in the coverage of five Ulva L. species (U. prolifera O.F. Müller, U. intestinalis L., U. hookeriana (Kützing Hayden et al., U. compressa L. and U. linza L. were analyzed on rocky substrata experimentally immersed in Comodoro Rivadavia Harbor (Argentina. Colonization was studied during an annual period at three levels: upper intertidal, middle intertidal and subtidal. Coverage was significantly higher in the middle intertidal and subtidal levels than in the upper intertidal level, where all species of Ulva were absent. Seasonal changes were also significant: coverage in summer and spring was significantly higher than in autumn and winter. Most species showed high spatial variability among replicates from the same level and season. Zonation patterns within the harbor differed from those observed in natural areas, probably due to low wave exposure and its interaction with herbivory and desiccation stress. Colonization patterns observed in this study indicate niche segregation in closely related species of the genus Ulva.

  13. Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants

    A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.040 mg L-1) > Cd (0.095 mg L-1) > Pb (0.489 mg L-1) > Zn (0.572 mg L-1). The EC50 for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 μg L-1. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC50 of 0.788 μl L-1) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests

  14. Spore release by the green alga Ulva: A quantitative assay to evaluate aquatic toxicants

    Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Han, Young-Seok [Institute of Green Technology, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin Young; Jun, Yong Sung; Kwon, Mun Ju [Marine Research Division, Incheon Health and Environment Institute, Incheon 400-102 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Ho [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A toxicity test using spore release of the aquatic green alga, Ulva, was developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of four metals was: Cu (EC{sub 50} of 0.040 mg L{sup -1}) > Cd (0.095 mg L{sup -1}) > Pb (0.489 mg L{sup -1}) > Zn (0.572 mg L{sup -1}). The EC{sub 50} for TBTO ranged from 24 to 63 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The most toxic VOC was formalin (EC{sub 50} of 0.788 {mu}l L{sup -1}) and the least toxic was acetone. Spore release was significantly inhibited in all elutriates; the greatest and least toxic effects were for industrial sewage (3.29%) and filtration bed (10.08%), respectively. The bioassay is simple, inexpensive and sensitive. The cosmopolitan distribution of Ulva means that the test would have a potential application worldwide. - A simple and cost-effective bioassay using spore release by the green macroalga Ulva has been developed and the sensitivity is similar to or greater than other well-established tests.

  15. Inorganic nitrogen control in wastewater treatment ponds from a fish farm (Orbetello, Italy): Denitrification versus Ulva uptake

    The aim of this study was to quantify the N removal efficiency of an Ulva-based phytotreatment system receiving wastewaters from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy), to identify the main biogeochemical pathways involved and to provide basic guidelines for treatment implementation and management. Fluxes of O2 and nutrients in bare and in Ulva colonised sediments were assessed by light/dark core incubations; denitrification by the isotope pairing technique and Ulva growth by in situ incubation of macroalgal disks in cages. O2 and nutrient budgets were estimated as sum of individual processes and further verified by 24-h investigations of overall inlet and outlet loads. Ulva uptake (up to 7.8mmolNm-2h-1) represented a net sink for water column and regenerated NH4+ whilst N removal via denitrification (10-170μmolNm-2h-1) accounted for a small percentage of inorganic nitrogen load (-2h-1) indicating that N loss could be enhanced. The control of Ulva standing stocks by optimised harvesting of surplus biomass may represent an effective strategy to maximise DIN removal and could result in the assimilation of ∼50% of produced inorganic nitrogen

  16. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  17. Efecto de Ulva Spp. sobre el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten Purpuratus en la Baha de Paracas / Effect of Ulva Spp. on growth and survival of Argopecten Purpuratus in Paracas Bay

    Daniel, Arce Castro; Jaime, Mendo.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) concha de abanico sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la baha Paracas (Ica-Per) durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada u [...] no con tres unidades experimentales de 1m2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembr Ulva spp., con 10 (T2) y 20 (T3) kg/m2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1), es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repeticin (30 por tratamiento) y se registr la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gnada. La supervivencia se evalu contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registr la temperatura y oxgeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registr diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentracin de oxgeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluy que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extraccin. Abstract in english This study compares the growth and survival of juvenile Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) seeded with different densities of Ulva spp., in the bay of Paracas (Ica-Peru) between August 7 and October 16, 2011. For this purpose, three pens were installed each with three experimental units of 1m2 an [...] d each experimental unit had a density of 60 scallops /m2, with an average height of 40-50mm. In two of the pens Ulva spp., was introduced with 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) kg/m2 and the third was considered witness (T1), ie without Ulva spp. To assess growth, every two weeks 10 scallops for each repetition (30 in each treatment) were randomly extracted their individual height was recorded and dry weight and gonad somatic tissue were sampled. Survival was assessed by counting the dead individuals in varying periods. During the entire experiment temperature and bottom oxygen were assessed every 30 minutes while pH, conductivity and currents were daily assessed at noon in the treatments middle zone. Chlorophyll a was measured daily, for each treatment. The results indicate that survival, height and weight were affected by the presence of Ulva spp. Oxygen concentration and chlorophyll a, showed higher concentration in the presence of Ulva spp. It was concluded that higher than 20 kg spp./m2 densities of Ulva affect growth and survival of A. purpuratus, so a removal is recommended.

  18. EFECTO DE Ulva spp. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE Argopecten purpuratus EN LA BAHÍA DE PARACAS

    Daniel Arce Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio compara el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 “concha de abanico” sembradas con diferentes densidades de Ulva spp., Linnaeus, 1753 en la bahía Paracas (Ica-Perú durante el 7 agosto al 16 de octubre del 2011. Para ello se instalaron tres corrales cada uno con tres unidades experimentales de 1m 2 y en cada unidad se sembraron conchas de abanico de 40-50mm de altura a una densidad de 60 individuos/m2. En dos de los corrales se sembró Ulva spp., con 10 (T2 y 20 (T3 kg/m 2 y el tercer corral fue considerado como testigo (T1, es decir, sin Ulva spp. Para evaluar el crecimiento, cada dos semanas se extrajeron al azar 10 individuos por cada repetición (30 por tratamiento y se registró la altura y el peso seco del soma y la gónada. La supervivencia se evaluó contando los individuos muertos en periodos variables. Adicionalmente cada 30 minutos durante todo el experimento se registró la temperatura y oxígeno del fondo y diariamente el pH, conductividad y corrientes se registraron en una zona media a los tratamientos. La clorofila a se registró diariamente, para cada tratamiento. Los resultados indican que la supervivencia, el crecimiento en altura y peso se vieron afectados por la presencia de Ulva spp. La concentración de oxígeno y clorofila a, mostraron mayores valores en los tratamiento con presencia de Ulva spp. Se concluyó que densidades mayores a 20 kg de Ulva spp./m2, afectan el crecimiento y supervivencia de Argopecten purpuratus, por lo que se recomienda su extracción.

  19. Green tide to green fuels: TG–FTIR analysis and kinetic study of Ulva prolifera pyrolysis

    Highlights: • Distributed Activation Energy Model applied to Ulva prolifera pyrolysis. • Model and experimental data in good agreement to predict activation energy. • Ulva prolifera shows relatively low activation energy compared to other macroalgae. • Evolved gas analysis shows CO2 emission decreasing with temperature. • Methane evolution increases with temperature, peaks at 800 °C. - Abstract: The world grapples with identifying renewable replacements for fossil fuels. Ulva prolifera, a macroalgae species that has caused green tides in China and Europe, represents a possible source of renewable energy. Given its low lipid content, thermochemical conversion techniques such as pyrolysis may be more suitable than biochemical techniques. We apply the Distributed Activation Energy Model to determine the activation energy of pyrolysis of U. prolifera from thermogravimetric data with combined evolved gas analysis via FTIR. Correlation coefficients for the DAEM were greater than 0.98 at each conversion; the apparent activation energy ranged from 130 to 152 kJ/mol, in good accord with the literature. Three stages of decomposition were noted over the entire temperature range; below 110 °C mass loss due to moisture removal. The largest stage of pyrolysis occurred between 190 and 400 °C with peak mass loss conversion rates up to 8.1 wt% per minute at 20 °C/min. The concentration of CO2 in the evolved gas peaked along with mass loss rate at 242.7 °C. Stage III of pyrolysis saw a slow mass loss rate and a significant amount of methane from the macroalgae. Given its low energy, nutrient, land and maintenance requirements to grow, tolerance to a variety of environmental conditions, and low pyrolysis activation energies (as compared to other macroalgae), thermochemical conversion via pyrolysis is a viable way to extract energy from this seaweed species

  20. In situ growth potential of the subtidal part of green tide forming Ulva spp. stocks

    Merceron, Michel; Antoine, Virginie; Auby, Isabelle; Morand, P

    2007-01-01

    Ulva spp., the algae most responsible for green tides in Brittany (France), are found on the foreshore and in the most beachward wave area (MBWA) of many bays during green tide phenomena. These algae have recently been seen drifting at greater depths (reaching -20 m). In view of the significant quantities of algae found at these depths, and the less favorable conditions for algal growth than in the intertidal zone, we attempted to determine if they could grow there. For that, during their max...

  1. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    S. TAŞ

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C), control+U. rigida extract (C+UR), hypothyroid (H) and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR). U. rigida (2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as refl...

  2. Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS

    Mauffret, A., E-mail: aourell.mauffret@icman.csic.e [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Rico-Rico, A. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Temara, A. [The Procter and Gamble Company, Brussels (Belgium); Blasco, J. [Marine Sciences Institute of Andalusia (CSIC), Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 +- 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 +- 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

  3. Exposure of the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae to sediment associated LAS

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) effects (mortality, egestion rate, behaviour) on the marine deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae were assessed in whole-sediment and water-only systems. The results were combined with a bioenergetic-based kinetic model of exposure pathways to account for the observed toxicity. The 10-d LC50 value based on the freely dissolved fraction was 9.3 times lower in spiked sediment (0.152 0.001 (95% CI) mg/L) than in water-only (1.390 0.020 (95% CI) mg/L). Consequently, the actual 10-d LC50 value (208 mg/kg) was overestimated by the Equilibrium Partitioning calculation (1629 mg/kg). This suggests that the sediment associated LAS fraction was bioavailable to the snails. It could also be due to modifications in physiological parameters in absence of sediment, the organism natural substrate. - Lethality of the marine gastropod deposit feeder Hydrobia ulvae exposed to LAS in water-only system was inappropriate to predict LAS toxicity in sediment system.

  4. Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-01-01

    Controlled cultivation of marine macroalgal biomass such as Ulva species, notably Ulva lactuca, is currently studied for production of biofuels or functional food ingredients. In a eutrophic environment, this macrophyte is exposed to varying types of nutrient supply, including different and......3) by using photo-scanning technology for monitoring the growth kinetics of U. lactuca. The images revealed differential increases of the surface area of U. lactuca disks with time in response to different N-nutrient enrichments. The results showed a favorable growth response to ammonium as the...... nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 μM of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4 ± 0.18% day−1 and 9.4 ± 0.72% day−1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5 ± 0.24 mg DW m−2·day−1. The presence of ammonium apparently...

  5. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 ?g[L(h)1/2]-1, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO3)2, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  6. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  7. True identity of the European freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) revealed by a combined molecular and morphological approach

    Mareš, Jan; Leskinen, E.; Sitkowska, M.; Skácelová, O.; Blomster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), 1177-1192. ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : green algae * taxon omy * Ulva Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2011

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  9. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500 ha of soil, sequester 15,000 t C and recycle 5500 t N into agriculture. We provide clear parameters for biochar production to enable the beneficial use of this biomass. PMID:26773429

  10. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress in Ulva sp. substantiated by response integration into a general stress index.

    Pereira, Patrcia; de Pablo, Hilda; Rosa-Santos, Frederico; Pacheco, Mrio; Vale, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    In an attempt to correlate external levels of exposure, bioaccumulation markers and oxidative stress responses in the green macroalgae Ulva sp., an investigative biomonitoring study was performed in a Portuguese coastal lagoon with a complex contamination scenario (eutrophication and moderate metal levels). Ulva sp. was collected seasonally in three stations: BB (Barrosa branch) and BS (Bom-Sucesso branch) located in confined areas of the upper lagoon; LL (lower lagoon) closer to the lagoon inlet and selected as reference station. Water and sediment were both monitored for metals (Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd). Additionally, nutrients and organic matter were measured in water and sediment, respectively. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (GSH(t)) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd were measured in the algae. Metal levels in Ulva sp. consistently reflected their occurrence in water. Ulva sp. from BB exhibited higher CAT activity (autumn and spring) in agreement with Cu and Ni increases in water and algae and supported by significant Pearson correlations. The involvement of GPx on algal defences was considered since a positive correlation was observed with accumulated Mn. At BB, a direct implication of accumulated metals on increases of GR (autumn) and GSH(t) (summer) was also assumed. The contribution of GST to algal defences seemed to be less prominent. Despite the enzymatic antioxidant activation at BB, Ulva sp. collected in autumn and spring did not show efficient coping with ROS overproduction as LPO occurred. Globally, the adopted multi-biomarker approach coupled with environmental chemical characterization, pointed out BB as a major impacted area. The integration of oxidative stress responses into a general stress index (IBR) substantiated the data interpretation, providing a more definitive identification of the level of pollution, and therefore contributing to the understanding of cause-effect relationships. PMID:19147236

  11. Effects of Sewage Pollution the Structure of the community of Ulva lactuca, Enteremorpha linza and Rocky macrofauna in D??liman of Sinop

    Bat, Levent; Akbulut, Mehmet; SEZG?N, Murat; ulha, Mehmet

    2001-01-01

    Untreated sewage and domestic wastes from the Sinop outfall enter the D??liman region. The effect of this on the distribution of Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza and benthic macrofauna and on enviromental parameters was determined. Increases in the growth of opportunistic green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha linzain response to increased nutrient supply in the D??liman coastal ecosystems in Sinop are reported in the present study. The results of this study show that organic...

  12. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a...... production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in...... weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  13. Study on the Mediterranean coastal seaweed Ulva linza exposed to natural and stressed environmental conditions

    Ayman Abd Elmoneim El-Gamal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study Ulva linza (U. linza as macro-alga exposed to different levels of ionizing radiation from the natural background of radioactivity. Methods: Samples of U. linza were collected from two different habitats at the two terminals of the rocky shore of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The western terminal at Abu Qir represented an area of normal background radiation while the eastern terminal at Rosetta represented an area of relatively high background radiation. Distinguishing between the algae grown in areas of relatively high and normal background radiation was investigated by using different indicators. Moreover, the ambient water quality was measured and the concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K bio-accumulated in the tested macro-alga were detected. Results: The algae naturally exposed to radionuclides (238U series, 232Th series and 40K were investigated. Radiation dose rates in U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir were calculated as 70.12 and 42.67 nGy/h, respectively. Chemical analysis of algal samples demonstrated that total pigment contents were 2.21 and 2.19 mg/g on a fresh weight basis for U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir, respectively. Fatty acid compositions showed comparable profiles for both algal samples with saturated fatty acids as major component. The results of protein profiles confirmed slight differential expression in protein bands. Sequence-related randomly amplified polymorphic DNA provided evidence that both samples were strongly similar. By using transmission electron microscopy, no obvious ultra structural changes in the examined cells were observed. Conclusions: These experimental results demonstrate that radiation doses are not high enough to cause damage or manifest any significant variation in Ulva tissues.

  14. Evaluating aquatic toxicity by visual inspection of thallus color in the green macroalga Ulva: testing a novel bioassay.

    Han, Young-Seok; Brown, Murray T; Park, Gyoung Soo; Han, Taejun

    2007-05-15

    A novel bioassaythat uses visual inspection of reproduction of the aquatic green macroalga Ulva has been developed for testing toxic chemicals. The method employs a technique to quantify percentage reproduction based on thallus color change during the progression of reproduction. The validity of visual inspection as a reliable method was supported by a high test score (80.4) from a test of the ability of 97 first year university students with no biology background to evaluate reproduction by visual observation after 30 min training. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS; EC50 = 7.1 mg x L(-1)), heavy metals Cu (0.063 mg x L(-1)), Cd (0.217 mg x L(-1, Pb (0.840 mg x L(-1)), Zn (0.966 mg x L(-1)), formalin (1.458 mg x L(-1)), diesel fuel (3.7 mL x L(-1)), and is shown to be similar or better than more established aquatic toxicity bioassays. Toxicity data obtained by the Ulva bioassay for elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations were directly compared with the commercially available Microtox test. Ulva reproduction was significantly inhibited in all elutriates with the greatest and least toxic effects, estimated by toxicity units (TU) observed in elutriates from industrial waste (13.1 TU) and a filtration bed (4.8 TU), whereas values ranging from 1 to 4.5 TU were obtained from the Microtox test, confirming that the Ulva bioassay is more sensitive. Correlation analyses for EC50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge indicated a significant relationship between toxicity and four heavy meals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for the Ulva bioassay but no such correlation was detected by the Microtox test. The new bioassay method is simple to use, easy to interpret, economical, and eco-relevant so would be a valuable addition to aquatic toxicity testing protocols for a wide range of toxicants. Moreover, since Ulva has a wide geographical distribution and species have similar reproductive processes, the test method has worldwide application. PMID:17547194

  15. Ulva Lactuca

    Cristina Peri Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available She looked loathingly at the spoon. It was a metal spoon, dark, with a small engraving on its handle – a sharp taste. “Open your mouth, slowly, eaaaasy, like a little birdie in its nest,” he said, bringing the spoon to her mouth. He hated spoons; they had seemed despicable little things since he was small. Why did he now find himself having to wield it, full of soup, having to usher it now into this young child’s mouth, as his parents had done to him, as surely as his parents’ parents had also done? If they even had spoons then, if some fool had already invented them. He had to find himself an encyclopedia and figure out when the first spoon had been forged; he had to get his hands on an encyclopedia, a source of infinite knowledge by which he might survive. Spoon: A piece of silverware with a concave scoop at its end; typically used for carrying liquids to the mouth.

  16. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

  17. Hydrobia ulvae imposex levels at Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal) between 1998 and 2007: a counter-current bioindicator?

    Galante-Oliveira, S.; Oliveira, I.; Pacheco, M.; Barroso, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Imposex expression in prosobranch gastropods has been widely used as a biomarker of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. Estuaries have been described as the most affected areas by this problem since they usually enclose the main TBT sourcesports, dockyards and marinasresulting from the compounds application as a biocide in antifouling paints on ships. Using Hydrobia ulvae as a bioindicator, the current work addresses the most reliable methods to reduce the influence of critical ...

  18. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholest...

  19. Saturating light and not increased carbon dioxide under ocean acidification drives photosynthesis and growth in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta).

    Rautenberger, Ralf; Fernández, Pamela A; Strittmatter, Martina; Heesch, Svenja; Cornwall, Christopher E; Hurd, Catriona L; Roleda, Michael Y

    2015-02-01

    Carbon physiology of a genetically identified Ulva rigida was investigated under different CO2(aq) and light levels. The study was designed to answer whether (1) light or exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) pool is driving growth; and (2) elevated CO2(aq) concentration under ocean acidification (OA) will downregulate CAext-mediated [Formula: see text] dehydration and alter the stable carbon isotope (δ (13)C) signatures toward more CO2 use to support higher growth rate. At pHT 9.0 where CO2(aq) is <1 μmol L(-1), inhibition of the known [Formula: see text] use mechanisms, that is, direct [Formula: see text] uptake through the AE port and CAext-mediated [Formula: see text] dehydration decreased net photosynthesis (NPS) by only 56-83%, leaving the carbon uptake mechanism for the remaining 17-44% of the NPS unaccounted. An in silico search for carbon-concentrating mechanism elements in expressed sequence tag libraries of Ulva found putative light-dependent [Formula: see text] transporters to which the remaining NPS can be attributed. The shift in δ (13)C signatures from -22‰ toward -10‰ under saturating light but not under elevated CO2(aq) suggest preference and substantial [Formula: see text] use to support photosynthesis and growth. U. rigida is Ci saturated, and growth was primarily controlled by light. Therefore, increased levels of CO2(aq) predicted for the future will not, in isolation, stimulate Ulva blooms. PMID:25750714

  20. Are ontogenetic shifts in diet linked to shifts in feeding mechanics? Scaling of the feeding apparatus in the banded watersnake Nerodia fasciata.

    Vincent, Shawn E; Moon, Brad R; Herrel, Anthony; Kley, Nathan J

    2007-06-01

    The effects of size on animal behaviour, ecology, and physiology are widespread. Theoretical models have been developed to predict how animal form, function, and performance should change with increasing size. Yet, numerous animals undergo dramatic shifts in ecology (e.g. habitat use, diet) that may directly influence the functioning and presumably the scaling of the musculoskeletal system. For example, previous studies have shown that banded watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) switch from fish prey as juveniles to frog prey as adults, and that fish and frogs represent functionally distinct prey types to watersnakes. We therefore tested whether this ontogenetic shift in diet was coupled to changes in the scaling patterns of the cranial musculoskeletal system in an ontogenetic size series (70-600 mm snout-vent length) of banded watersnakes. We found that all cranial bones and gape size exhibited significant negative allometry, whereas the muscle physiological cross-sectional area (pCSAs) scaled either isometrically or with positive allometry against snout-vent length. By contrast, we found that gape size, most cranial bones, and muscle pCSAs exhibited highly significant positive allometry against head length. Furthermore, the mechanical advantage of the jaw-closing lever system remained constant over ontogeny. Overall, these cranial allometries should enable watersnakes to meet the functional requirements of switching from fusiform fish to bulky frog prey. However, recent studies have reported highly similar allometries in a wide diversity of vertebrate taxa, suggesting that positive allometry within the cranial musculoskeletal system may actually be a general characteristic of vertebrates. PMID:17562879

  1. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  2. Effect of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca on Soil Water Holding Capacity

    Ömer Hulusi Dede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca on soil water-holding capacity and the variation by over time were investigated. Sea lettuce (algae was collected from the Black Sea coast, rinsed with rain water and dried to constant weight. Dried algae were added to soil at rate of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Mixtures were filling the pots and incubated for 0, 20, 40, 60 days at 25 ºC. At the end of the incubation, soil organic matter and water holding capacity were determined. Adding of algae to soil was increased the porosity and water holding capacity. The amount of the organic matter was decreased by the incubation progress. At the 20 and 40 days, micro-porosity was increased, air capacity decreased and water-holding capacity has not changed. At the 60th incubation days, reduction of organic matter content was slowed, air capacity was reached to normal values and water holding capacity was decreased. Total porosity was not changed. At the beginning (0th and the 60th incubation days, the distinctive dose was obtained at 5% for porosity and water holding capacity increases. Increased doses of the above have been limited. The optimum dose of 5% as determined by the addition of algae was increased soil water holding capacity by 48% on average.

  3. Green alga Ulva pertusa--a new source of bioactive compounds with antialgal activity.

    Ying-ying, Sun; Hui, Wang; Gan-lin, Guo; Yin-fang, Pu; Bin-lun, Yan; Chang-hai, Wang

    2015-07-01

    We tested the effects of solvent fractions (FA, FB, FC, and FD), which partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction from the methanol extract of Ulva pertusa, on the growth of red tide microalgae (Karenia mikimitoi, Skeletonema costatum, Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo, Prorocentrum donghaiense), and FA, FB, and FC exhibited significantly antialgal activity. The chemical constituent analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as phenols and alkaloids. Further, four solvent fractions were applied to silica gel column and repeated preparative TLC to produce 13 samples and their purity qualified as thin-layer chromatographic grade. Among these purified samples, FA111, FB411, FC411, FD111, and FD211 exhibited stronger antialgal activity. Furthermore, their functional groups were analyzed by colorimetric methods and UV spectra data. FD111 and FD211 were temptatively identified as alkaloids; the others were initially identified as phenolic acids. This is a preliminary study and the structure identification of these purified samples requires further investigation. While concentration of these purified samples in this algae was very small, they showed excellent effects against red tide microalgae. PMID:25724801

  4. Growth Promotion of a Sea Water Algae with Sterile, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, Due to Supplemental Lighting

    Kosaka, Shinichi; Masuda, Atsunori; Ozawa, Tomoko; Ishiwata, Masaki; Yokoji, Shigemi; Saito, Naoki; Murakami, Katsusuke

    Ulva pertusa is widely used as human food and also to feed cultured fish. U. pertusa is expected to be used as a bio-filter for purification of breeding - circulation water in the terrestrial aquaculture of fish. Insufficient sunshine and lower temperature causes bad commercial production. In order to realize stable cultivation of U. pertusa throughout the year, experiments on the growth of a sea water algae with sterile, U. pertusa Kjellman, due to supplemental lighting were performed. An illuminance of 1×104 lx in the treatment areas and 2×104 lx in the control, when the illuminance was 8×104 lx in the greenhouse. Artificial lighting was added during the daytime in treatments 1˜3. The mounting height of each luminaire was adjusted to have a PPFD of 140 μmol m-2s-1. Each lamp had the R/FR PF ratio of 3.8, 1.2, 0.8. Considering of relationship between the growth and cumulative PPFD including daylight and supplemental lighting, the growth of the experimental area were superior to the control area. U. pertusa can be grown with warm sea water using supplemental lighting. But under the growth environment with daylight and supplemental lighting together, it is difficult to recognize whether the R/FR PF ratio influences photomorphogenesis.

  5. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    S. TAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C, control+U. rigida extract (C+UR, hypothyroid (H and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR. U. rigida (2% was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as reflected by icreased plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels. U. rigida reduced serum total cholesterol and,- triglyceride levels and plasma and heart skeletal muscle, liver and,- kidney tissue MDA levels in the H+UR group. Serum total cholesterol and tissues MDA levels were reduced in the C+UR group. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the H+UR and C+UR groups compared with those of te respective control groups. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower in the H group and U. rigida increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in C+UR and H+UR groups. We conclude that hypothyroidism is associated with oxidative stress and, U. rigida extract might have a potential use as a protective antioxidant agent in hypothroidism.

  6. Consumption and feeding preference of Echinogammarus marinus on two different algae: Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis

    Martins, Irene; Leite, Nuno; Constantino, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Echinogammarus marinus constitutes the most abundant amphipod species in Fucus spp. assemblages from many North Atlantic estuaries. However, there are some doubts about the real use of fucoids by the amphipod. Whilst some studies report the ingestion of Fucus vesiculosus by E. marinus, others suggest that the amphipod preference for fucoids is mostly related to sheltering rather than feeding, due to the high phlorotannin content of brown algae. The purpose of the present work was to disentangle this issue by checking the consumption rate and feeding preference of E. marinus on F. vesiculosus, its preferential habitat, and on Ulva intestinalis, a green algae abundant in the Mondego estuary (Western Coast of Portugal) and usually considered as highly palatable for herbivores. In a 2-stage laboratorial setup, fresh disks of the two types of algae were offered to E. marinus for three days. Consumption rates were estimated from differences between algal and animal initial and final fresh weights using a control correction factor, while preference was tested by differences in algal consumption rates when no choice was offered (stage 1) and when the two algae were offered simultaneously (stage 2). Results showed that E. marinus effectively consumed fresh F. vesiculosus in much higher amounts than U. intestinalis and significantly preferred to consume F. vesiculosus over U. intestinalis. Therefore, feeding habits must be one of the factors related to the close association of the amphipod with F. vesiculosus, although other factors may also be involved (e.g. sheltering).

  7. Diurnal variation in situ of photosynthetic capacity in ulva is caused by a dark reaction.

    Mishkind, M; Mauzerall, D; Beale, S I

    1979-11-01

    Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) undergoes large diurnal oscillations of light-saturated photosynthetic O(2) evolution in situ. Freshly collected samples from Great Harbor, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, had a maximum white light-saturated rate at noon that was 2.5-fold higher than the rate of matched samples collected at midnight. When kept under constant low level illumination, the cycle persisted for at least 36 hours, and after 2 weeks damped out to a constant level that was halfway between the minimum and maximum rates. The cyclic oscillations were apparent whether expressed on a weight or chlorophyll content basis, occurred in both lightly and heavily pigmented samples, and were not attributable to changes in chloroplast shading due to variations in chloroplast orientation within the frond cells. There were no cyclic variations in the initial slopes of the light saturation curves, in photosynthetic unit size, or in relative quantum efficiency. Measurement of the "fast" turnover time of photosynthesis by the delayed dual flash technique revealed no diurnal variations of this parameter. These results indicate that the cyclic variations in photosynthetic activity are modulated by a dark reaction at a step occurring after reduction of plastoquinone by electrons from photosystem II. PMID:16661078

  8. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1) under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1), respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy. PMID:20844751

  9. Multi-sensor monitoring of Ulva prolifera blooms in the Yellow Sea using different methods

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yongcun

    2015-09-01

    The massive Ulva (U.) prolifera bloom in the Yellow Sea was first observed and reported in summer of 2008. After that, the green tide event occurred every year and influenced coastal areas of Jiangsu and Shandong provinces of China. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the floating macroalgae. In this paper, U. prolifera patches are detected from quasisynchronous satellite images with different spatial resolution, i.e., Aqua MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), HJ-1A/B (China Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting), CCD (Charge-Coupled Device), Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Two comparative experiments are performed to explore the U. prolifera monitoring abilities by different data using detection methods such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) with different thresholds. Results demonstrate that spatial resolution is an important factor affecting the extracted area of the floating macroalgae. Due to the complexity of Case II sea water characteristics in the Yellow Sea, a fixed threshold NDVI method is not suitable for U. prolifera monitoring. A method with adaptive ability in time and space, e.g., the threshold selection method proposed by Otsu (1979), is needed here to obtain accurate information on the floating macroalgae.

  10. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  11. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

  12. Influences of marine sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by green alga (Ulva pertusa)

    Distribution of radionuclides (60Co, 137Cs, 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60Co, followed by 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60Co and 137Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60Co, 7 days for 137Cs, 26 days for 95Zr-95Nb and 24 days for 106Ru-106Rh. (auth.)

  13. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  14. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  15. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl2(NH3)2), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH2)(NH3)2+) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: ? This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. ? Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. ? Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. ? Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. ? Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  16. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  17. In situ growth potential of the subtidal part of green tide forming Ulva spp. stocks.

    Merceron, Michel; Antoine, Virginie; Auby, Isabelle; Morand, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Ulva spp., the algae most responsible for green tides in Brittany (France), are found on the foreshore and in the most beachward wave area (MBWA) of many bays during green tide phenomena. These algae have recently been seen drifting at greater depths (reaching - 20 m). In view of the significant quantities of algae found at these depths, and the less favorable conditions for algal growth than in the intertidal zone, we attempted to determine if they could grow there. For that, during their maximum growth period (from May to July), algae were picked up at three stations located on the foreshore, in the MBWA and in the subtidal (deep) zones of the Bay of Douarnenez, and their nitrogen, carbon and chlorophyll a + b contents were determined, and their photosynthetic activity was compared in the laboratory. The intracellular concentrations did not differ much from one station to another, although in the subtidal zone, the irradiance and the nitrogen concentration in the ambient water were much lower than those measured on the foreshore and in the MBWA. Photosynthetic activity characterized by maximum amounts of oxygen produced at different irradiances and by saturating and compensating irradiance levels, was also quite similar at the three stations. The irradiance, temperature and salinity of the subtidal environment, together with the chemical and photosynthetic characteristics of the algae found in that area, are consistent with the hypothesis that they grow there, and that their nitrogen supply comes from nitrogen releases from sediments. Nevertheless, their growth rate is probably less than that of algae in the MBWA. PMID:17568657

  18. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. PMID:27192480

  19. De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

  20. Copper-induced synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and phytochelatins in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).

    Mellado, Macarena; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Gonzlez, Alberto; Dennett, Geraldine; Moenne, Alejandra

    2012-02-01

    In order to analyze the synthesis of antioxidant and heavy metal-chelating compounds in response to copper stress, the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) was exposed to 10 ?M copper for 7 days and treated with inhibitors of ASC synthesis, lycorine, and GSH synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). The levels of ascorbate, in its reduced (ASC) and oxidized (DHA) forms, glutathione, in its reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, and phytochelatins (PCs) were determined as well as activities of enzymes involved in ASC synthesis, L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-galactono 1,4 lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), and in GSH synthesis, ?-glutamylcysteine synthase (?-GCS) and glutathione synthase (GS). The level of ASC rapidly decreased to reach a minimum at day 1 that remained low until day 7, DHA decreased until day 1 but slowly increased up to day 7 and its accumulation was inhibited by lycorine. In addition, GSH level increased to reach a maximal level at day 5 and GSSG increased up to day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Activities of GDH and GLDH increased until day 7 and GLDH was inhibited by lycorine. Moreover, activities of ?-GCS and GS increased until day 7 and ?-GCS was inhibited by BSO. Furthermore, PC2, PC3 and PC4, increased until day 7 and their accumulation was inhibited by BSO. Thus, copper induced the synthesis of ascorbate, glutathione and PCs in U. compressa suggesting that these compounds are involved in copper tolerance. Interestingly, U. compressa is, until now, the only ulvophyte showing ASC, GSH and PCs synthesis in response to copper excess. PMID:22153245

  1. Identification of copper-induced genes in the marine alga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta).

    Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Dennett, Geraldine; Gonzlez, Alberto; Vergara, Eva; Medina, Cristbal; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    In order to identify genes/proteins involved in copper tolerance, the marine alga Ulva compressa was cultivated with 10?M copper for 3days. The activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (AP), peroxiredoxin (PRX), thioredoxin (TRX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the level of lipoperoxides were determined in the alga cultivated with and without copper addition. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipoperoxides level increased in response to copper excess, indicating that the alga was under oxidative stress. A cDNA library was prepared using U. compressa cultivated with 10?M copper for 3days. A total of 3??10(4) clones were isolated and 480 clones were sequenced, resulting in 235 non-redundant ESTs, of which 104 encode proteins with known functions. Among them, we identified proteins involved in (1) antioxidant metabolism such as AP, PRX, TRX, GST, and metalothionein (MET), (2) signal transduction, such as calmodulin (CAM), (3) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), (4) gene expression, (5) protein synthesis and degradation, and (6) chloroplast and mitochondria electron transport chains. Half of the identified proteins are potentially localized in organelles. The relative level of 18 genes, including those coding for AP, PRX, TRX, GST, MET, CAM, CDPK, and NDK were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in the alga cultivated with 10?M copper for 0 to 7days. Transcript levels increased in response to copper stress and most of them reached a maximum at days3 and 5. Thus, the selected genes are induced by copper stress and they are probably involved in copper acclimation and tolerance. PMID:20936320

  2. Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon

    Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH ∼1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g-1 for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater

  3. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 μg g-1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 μg g-1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb

  4. The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America

    Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

  5. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Sediment and Macroalgae (Ulva Sp. and Enteromorpha Sp. on the Mersin Coast

    Mehmet Tahir ALP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mersin ili s?n?rlar? ierisinde halk taraf?ndan yo?un olarak kullan?lan drt plajda makroskobik ye?il algler(Ulva sp. ve Enteromorpha sp. ve sedimentte a??r metallerin birikiminin belirlenmesi amac?yla, Alminyum(Al, Krom (Cr, Mangan (Mn, Demir (Fe, Nikel (Ni, Bak?r (Cu, inko (Zn, Kur?un (Pb, veKadmiyum (Cd dzeyleri ayl?k olarak tespit edilmi?tir. Yap?lan analizler sonucunda Cu ve Zn istasyon 1,Cd istasyon 2 ve Al, Mn, Fe ve Ni ise istasyon 4de alglerde en yksek birikimi gsteren a??r metallerolmu?lard?r. A??r metallerin birikim dzeylerinin alglerde ve sedimentte s?ralanmas?, Ulva sp.de Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd; Enteromorpha sp.de Fe>Al>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd;sediment rneklerinde ise Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>Cr>Zn>Pb>Cd>Cu ?eklinde tespit edilmi?tir.

  6. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

    2007-04-15

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

  7. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  8. Broad-scale patterns of tissue-?15N and tissue-N indices in frondose Ulva spp.; Developing a national baseline indicator of nitrogen-loading for coastal New Zealand

    Highlights: ? Ulva growing in clean coastal New Zealand shows a baseline range of tissue-?15N. ? This baseline range is consistent in summer and winter, and is seasonally robust. ? Deviation in Ulva tissue-?15N outside 6.68.8 indicates non-marine nitrogen. ? Ulva in sheltered estuaries with >3.1% tissue-N can indicate high N-availability. ? Shifts in tissue-?15N and -N indicate change in source and amount of available-N. - Abstract: A survey of tissue-?15N and tissue-N values in the green macroalga, Ulva, was conducted around the coast of New Zealand to determine if these indices could be used as indicators of anthropogenic nutrient loading in coastal waters. In addition, data from four case studies showed temporal and spatial responses of tissue-?15N and tissue-N in Ulva to significant terrestrial nutrient inputs. Tissue-?15N in Ulva from natural exposed coastal sites showed a relatively narrow baseline range of values (6.6 0.18.8 0.1) in both summer and winter that was consistent throughout New Zealand. Departures in Ulva tissue-?15N ratios outside this range, particularly when coupled with high (>3.1%) tissue-N values, indicate significant contributions of terrestrially-derived nitrogen to coastal seawater. We note that tissue-N content is also affected by exposure, light and season; however provided such factors are taken into account Ulva can be a cost-effective indicator of relative changes in both source and amount of nitrogen-loading

  9. Effects of El Nio on beds of Ulva lactuca along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    R. Blanco-Betancourt

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of El Nio 1997-1998 on the biomass and size of beds of the green alga Ulva lactuca L., along the northwest coast of the Gulf of California across the Canal de Ballenas, was evaluated in May 1998 and compared with May 1995, 1996 and 2000. The El Nio event (97-98 had a significant negative effect on size and biomass. The percent cover area was reduced by 70%, and biomass by 80%, with respect to previous years. A complete recovery was observed in 2000. Growth of the algae was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. No significant effect of irradiance was detected, but temperature did have a significant effect on growth. Optimum growth was found at 18C. Temperatures of 14, 22 and 26C caused reduced growth. A temperature of 30C was lethal to U. lactuca.

  10. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ?Ho and the negative value of ?Go show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ?So shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  11. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

  12. Ocorrência de Ulva spp., Polysiphonia sp., e Microcystis aeruginosa nas praias do Saco do Laranjal, Pelotas, RS

    Vanessa Correa da Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho relata a ocorrência de algas indicadoras de processos de eutrofização no Saco do Laranjal (Lagoa dos Patos no período compreendido entre 2005 e 2012. A ocorrência de grandes quantidades da alga macroscópica verde Ulva L. (Chlorophyta, formando marés verde, foram registradas nos verão de 2008, 2009 e 2012. A cianofícea potencialmente tóxica, Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz. Kütz. foi observada em quase todos os anos, nos meses de verão e, em floração massiva, no verão de 2010. São fornecidas ilustrações dos eventos de crescimento massivos observados. Os resultados sugerem que o Saco do Laranjal provavelmente apresenta-se em processo de eutrofização.

  13. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives

    Melha Kendel; Gaëtane Wielgosz-Collin; Samuel Bertrand; Christos Roussakis; Nathalie Bourgougnon; Gilles Bedoux

    2015-01-01

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana ...

  14. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals

    Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Boudry, Christelle; Bousseboua, Hacène; Beckers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h ...

  15. Uptake Rate of Ammonia-nitrogen With Sterile Ulva sp. for Water Quality Control of Intensive ShrimpCulture Ponds in Developing Countries

    Habaki, H.; Tajiri, S.; Egashira, R; Sato, K

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-nitrogen uptake by seaweed was modeled based on the concept of ammonia-nitrogen permeation through cell membrane, and the derived model of uptake rate was experimentally verified. In this study, sterile Ulva sp. was employed as seaweed to treat model culture solution, and the distribution equilibrium of the ammonia-nitrogen between the culture solution and cell inside was measured to obtain the equilibrium. For this measurement, the seaweed was pretreated before the uptake runs to inh...

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn in the freshwater alga Ulva type, sediments and water of the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    Andrzej Rybak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of five trace elements: cobalt (Co, chrome (Cr, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn was determined in the Ulva thalli, in the water and sediment collection from several inland sites (lakes, stream and river from the Wielkopolska region during summer 2010. The multielemental analysis of the heavy metal concentration was carried out with the use of ICP-OES method. The aim of this study was to determine the role of tubular forms as biomonitoring species. The relative abundance of metals in sediment decreased in the order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Co and in the water: Cr > Mn > Zn > Cu > Co. In Ulva thalli the distribution order from higher to lower was Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Co. The results indicate that the concentration changes of heavy metals in thallus, water and sediment have some differences, but concentration distribution tends to be similar, because among the analysed heavy metals Mn has the highest concentrations while Co the lowest abundance in the thalli and sediment of all the sites. Possibility to use freshwater species from Ulva genus as bioindicators of water pollution by manganese requires further study.

  17. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Effects of five antifouling biocides on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca L.

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-10-01

    Antifouling biocides are found in the marine ecosystem were they can affect non-target organisms. In this study the effects of five antifouling biocides on the settlement and growth of Ulva lactuca zoospores were investigated. The biocides investigated were copper (Cu(2+)), 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP), tolylfluanid and medetomidine. Full concentration-response curves where determined for each compound. EC50 values were determined for copper, DCOIT, TPBP and tolylfluanid, all of which inhibited settlement and growth in a concentration dependent manner with the following toxicity ranking; tolylfluanid (EC50 80 nmol L(-1)) ~ DCOIT (EC50 83 nmol L(-1)) > TPBP (EC50 400 nmol L(-1)) > Cu(2+) (EC50 2,000 nmol L(-1)). Medetomidine inhibited settlement and growth only at the extreme concentration of 100,000 nmol L(-1) (93% effect). The low toxicity is possibly a consequence of a lack of receptors that medetomidine can bind to in the U. lactuca zoospores. PMID:23846394

  19. Holographic microscopy provides new insights into the settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza on cationic oligopeptide surfaces.

    Vater, Svenja M; Finlay, John; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Ederth, Thomas; Liedberg, Bo; Grunze, Michael; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of zoospores of Ulva linza with cationic, arginine-rich oligopeptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is characterized by rapid settlement. Some spores settle (ie permanently attach) in a 'normal' manner involving the secretion of a permanent adhesive, retraction of the flagella and cell wall formation, whilst others undergo 'pseudosettlement' whereby motile spores are trapped (attached) on the SAM surface without undergoing the normal metamorphosis into a settled spore. Holographic microscopy was used to record videos of swimming zoospores in the vicinity of surfaces with different cationic oligopeptide concentrations to provide time-resolved insights into processes associated with attachment of spores. The data reveal that spore attachment rate increases with increasing cationic peptide content. Accordingly, the decrease in swimming activity in the volume of seawater above the surface accelerated with increasing surface charge. Three-dimensional trajectories of individual swimming spores showed a 'hit and stick' motion pattern, exclusively observed for the arginine-rich peptide SAMs, whereby spores were immediately trapped upon contact with the surface. PMID:25875964

  20. Variation in amino acid content and its relationship to nitrogen content and growth rate in Ulva ohnoi (Chlorophyta).

    Angell, Alex R; Mata, Leonardo; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in amino acids related to internal nitrogen content and growth rate of Ulva ohnoi, the supply of nitrogen to outdoor cultures of the seaweed was manipulated by simultaneously varying water nitrogen concentrations and renewal rate. Both internal nitrogen content and growth rate varied substantially, and the quantitative and qualitative changes in amino acids were described in the context of three internal nitrogen states: nitrogen-limited, metabolic, and luxury. The nitrogen limited state was defined by increases in all amino acids with increasing nitrogen content and growth up until 1.2% internal nitrogen. The metabolic nitrogen state was defined by increases in all amino acids with increasing internal nitrogen content up to 2.6%, with no increases in growth rate. Luxury state was defined by internal nitrogen content above 2.6%, which occurred only when nitrogen availability was high but growth rates were reduced. In this luxury circumstance, excess nitrogen was accumulated as free amino acids, in two phases. The first phase was distinguished by a small increase in the majority of amino acids up to ≈3.3% internal nitrogen, and the second by a large increase in glutamic acid, glutamine, and arginine up to 4.2% internal nitrogen. These results demonstrate that the relationship between internal nitrogen content and amino acid quality is dynamic but predictable, and could be used for the selective culture of seaweeds. PMID:26988020

  1. The sporulation of the green alga Ulva prolifera is controlled by changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Apeng; Gu, Wenhui; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation and spore release are essential phases of the life cycle in algae and land plants. Ulva prolifera, which is an ideal organism for studying sporulation and spore release, was used as the experimental material in the present study. The determination of photosynthetic parameters, combined with microscopic observation, treatment with photosynthetic inhibitors, limitation of carbon acquisition, and protein mass spectrometry, was employed in this experiment. Cycle electron transport (CEF) was found enhanced at the onset of sporangia formation. The inhibition effect of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB) towards sporulation was always strong during the sporulation process whereas the inhibition effect of 3-(3′,4′-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) was continuously declined accompanied with the progress of sporulation. The changes of photosynthesis resulted from the limitation of CO2 acquisition could stimulate sporulation onset. Quantitative protein analysis showed that enzymes involved in carbon fixation, including RUBISCO and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, declined during sporogenesis, while proteins involved in sporulation, including tubulin and centrin, increased. These results suggest that enhanced cyclic electron flow (CEF) and oxidation of the plastoquinone pool are essential for sporangia formation onset, and changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain have significant impacts on sporulation of the green algae. PMID:27102955

  2. The sporulation of the green alga Ulva prolifera is controlled by changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Apeng; Gu, Wenhui; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation and spore release are essential phases of the life cycle in algae and land plants. Ulva prolifera, which is an ideal organism for studying sporulation and spore release, was used as the experimental material in the present study. The determination of photosynthetic parameters, combined with microscopic observation, treatment with photosynthetic inhibitors, limitation of carbon acquisition, and protein mass spectrometry, was employed in this experiment. Cycle electron transport (CEF) was found enhanced at the onset of sporangia formation. The inhibition effect of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB) towards sporulation was always strong during the sporulation process whereas the inhibition effect of 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) was continuously declined accompanied with the progress of sporulation. The changes of photosynthesis resulted from the limitation of CO2 acquisition could stimulate sporulation onset. Quantitative protein analysis showed that enzymes involved in carbon fixation, including RUBISCO and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, declined during sporogenesis, while proteins involved in sporulation, including tubulin and centrin, increased. These results suggest that enhanced cyclic electron flow (CEF) and oxidation of the plastoquinone pool are essential for sporangia formation onset, and changes in photosynthetic electron transport chain have significant impacts on sporulation of the green algae. PMID:27102955

  3. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass

    The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics

  4. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.502.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 ?mol photonm-2s-1 and 25C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  5. Effects of Inhibitory Factor on Uptake Rate of Ammonia-Nitrogen with Sterile Ulva sp. for Water Quality Control of Intensive Shrimp Culture Ponds

    Habaki, H.; Tajiri, S.; Egashira, R; Sato, K.; Eksangsri, T.

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-nitrogen uptake by sterile Ulva sp. was studied for the control of culture pond water of intensive shrimp farming. The uptake rates were measured by batch and semi-continuous operations, and analyzed with the Michaelis-Menten model of uncompetitive inhibition. For the batch uptake operations, the Michaelis-Menten parameters were estimated, and the maximum rate and Michaelis constants were estimated as 3.4 × 10–2 kg kg–1 h–1 and 5.5 × 10–3 kg m–3, respectively. The inhibitory factor...

  6. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in Ulva spp. in the presence of nocturnal pulses of metals from sediment: A field transplantation experiment under eutrophic conditions

    Pereira, Patrícia M R

    2014-03-01

    In aquatic systems under eutrophic conditions, remobilization of metals from sediment to the overlying water may occur. Consequently, adaptive responses of local organisms could result from the accumulation of metals intermittently released from the sediment. In summer 2007, a field transplantation experiment was performed in the Óbidos lagoon (Portugal) with Ulva spp. comprising three short-term exposures (between 15:30-23:30; 23:30-07:30; 07:30-15:30) during a 24-h period. In each period, Ulva spp. was collected at a reference site located in the lower lagoon (LL) and transplanted to a eutrophic site located at the Barrosa branch (BB), characterized by moderate metal contamination. For comparison purposes, macroalgae samples were simultaneously exposed at LL under the same conditions. Both sites were surveyed in short-time scales (2-4 h) for the analysis of the variability of physical-chemical parameters in the water and metal levels in suspended particulate matter. The ratios to Al of particulate Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb increased during the period of lower water oxygenation at the eutrophic site, reaching 751 × 10-4, 0.67, 12 × 10-4, 9.9 × 10-4, respectively, confirming the release of metals from the sediment to water during the night. At the reference site, dissolved oxygen oscillated around 100%, Mn/Al ratios were considerably lower (81 × 10-4-301 × 10-4) compared to BB (234 × 10-4-790 × 10-4), and no increases of metal/Al ratios were found during the night. In general, algae uptake of Mn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cd was significantly higher at the eutrophic site compared to the reference site. The results confirmed the potential of Ulva spp. as bioindicator of metal contamination and its capability to respond within short periods. An induction of SOD, an inhibition of CAT and the increase of LPO were recorded in Ulva spp. exposed at BB (between 23:30 and 7:30) probably as a response to the higher incorporation of Mn, Fe and Pb in combination with the lack of dissolved oxygen in the water. Current findings emphasize the importance of assessing, in eutrophic systems, the relationship between the variability of chemical conditions and its repercussions on autochthonous organisms over day-night cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in Ulva spp. in the presence of nocturnal pulses of metals from sediment: a field transplantation experiment under eutrophic conditions.

    Pereira, Patrcia; de Pablo, Hilda; Guilherme, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Santos, Maria Ana; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Mrio

    2014-03-01

    In aquatic systems under eutrophic conditions, remobilization of metals from sediment to the overlying water may occur. Consequently, adaptive responses of local organisms could result from the accumulation of metals intermittently released from the sediment. In summer 2007, a field transplantation experiment was performed in the bidos lagoon (Portugal) with Ulva spp. comprising three short-term exposures (between 15:30-23:30; 23:30-07:30; 07:30-15:30) during a 24-h period. In each period, Ulva spp. was collected at a reference site located in the lower lagoon (LL) and transplanted to a eutrophic site located at the Barrosa branch (BB), characterized by moderate metal contamination. For comparison purposes, macroalgae samples were simultaneously exposed at LL under the same conditions. Both sites were surveyed in short-time scales (2-4 h) for the analysis of the variability of physical-chemical parameters in the water and metal levels in suspended particulate matter. The ratios to Al of particulate Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb increased during the period of lower water oxygenation at the eutrophic site, reaching 751 10??, 0.67, 12 10??, 9.9 10??, respectively, confirming the release of metals from the sediment to water during the night. At the reference site, dissolved oxygen oscillated around 100%, Mn/Al ratios were considerably lower (81 10??-301 10??) compared to BB (234 10??-790 10??), and no increases of metal/Al ratios were found during the night. In general, algae uptake of Mn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cd was significantly higher at the eutrophic site compared to the reference site. The results confirmed the potential of Ulva spp. as bioindicator of metal contamination and its capability to respond within short periods. An induction of SOD, an inhibition of CAT and the increase of LPO were recorded in Ulva spp. exposed at BB (between 23:30 and 7:30) probably as a response to the higher incorporation of Mn, Fe and Pb in combination with the lack of dissolved oxygen in the water. Current findings emphasize the importance of assessing, in eutrophic systems, the relationship between the variability of chemical conditions and its repercussions on autochthonous organisms over day-night cycles. PMID:24373387

  8. Combined effects of light intensity and NH{4/+}-enrichment on growth, pigmentation, and photosynthetic performance of Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta)

    Xu, Zhiguang; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Sun, Fuxin; Sun, Jianzhang; Wang, Guangce

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity and enhanced nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis of the green-tide macroalga, Ulva prolifera. Thalli of U. prolifera were grown in natural or NH{4/+}-enriched seawater under two different light intensities for 7 days, and then the growth rate, pigmentation, and photosynthetic performance of the thalli were evaluated. The results show that the relative growth rate (RGR) was markedly higher under the high light level than under the low light level. Enrichment with NH{4/+} enhanced the RGR under high light intensity, but did not affect RGR under low light intensity. In low light conditions, NH{4/+} -enrichment resulted in a marked decrease in the maximal photosynthetic rate ( P m) and the maximum carbon fixation rate ( V max), but it did not affect the half saturation constant for carbon ( K 0.5) or the ratio of V max to K 0.5, which reflects the carbon acquisition efficiency. In high light conditions, P m, K 0.5, and the dark respiration rate ( R d) increased under NH{4/+} enrichment, but V max and the V max / K 0.5 ratio decreased. Regardless of the light intensity, NH{4/+}-enrichment did not affect the apparent photosynthetic efficiency ( ?), which reflects the ability of the alga to use light energy at low light levels. Under both low and high light intensities, the chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and carotenoids (Car) contents in thalli were higher in NH{4/+}-enriched than in natural seawater, except that there was a decrease in the Chl b content of thalli in NH{4/+}-enriched seawater under low light intensity. Therefore, NH{4/+} enrichment improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of U. prolifera under high light intensity, but not under low light intensity. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying these physiological responses.

  9. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  10. NMR spectroscopic characterisation of oligosaccharides from two Ulva rigida ulvan samples (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) degraded by a lyase

    The chemical structure and the sequence of repeating units in ulvans of similar compositions from two different Ulva rigida samples collected in the Canary Islands and in Brittany were studied after ulvan-lyase degradation and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products. Both ulvans were composed of ulvanobiuronic acid 3-sulfate type A[-4)-β-d-GlcA-(1-4)-α-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] (symbolised as A3s) and contained disaccharides composed of [-4)-β-d-Xyl-(1-4)-α-l-Rha 3-sulfate-(1-] and [-4)-β-d-Xyl 2-sulfate-(1-4)-α-l-Rha 3-sulfate], respectively referred to as ulvanobiose 3-sulfate (U3s) and ulvanobiose 2minutes or feet,3-disulfate (U2minutesorfeets,3s). In the Canary Islands sample, these U3s and U2minutesorfeets,3s occurred dispersed among A3s sequences and as short blocks of two or three units. In contrast, in the Brittany samples, these units were dispersed among A3s structures and next to A3s units branched at O-2 of α-l-Rha 3-sulfate by a terminal β-d-GlcA and symbolised as A2g,3s. However, more complex structures are likely to occur in the enzyme resistant fraction remaining from this ulvan. An average structure sequence of these two ulvans was proposed. The transposition of the 13C NMR data of the new identified structures to the parent polysaccharides was not possible, probably due to the different sequence distributions affecting the carbons chemical shifts. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiob, Matinhos, Paran, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiob, Matinhos, Paran, Brazil

    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiob, Paran State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Ktsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16C (winter and autumn to 23C (summer, the surface water temperature from 17C (winter to 25C (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3 (autumn to 32.8 (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of Hyale media takes place wholly in the phytals and the species reproduces continually all year round: males, ovigerous females and juveniles are present every season. The highest femalc reproductive activity occurs in winter and the juveniles are more numerous in summer. The number of eggs inside the marsupium and the pereonites 1-4 length has a linear correlation (Y=-9,9682+12,0729X; r=0.8024.

  12. δ15N variation in Ulva lactuca as a proxy for anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in coastal areas of Gulf of Gaeta (Mediterranean Sea)

    Highlights: • Ulva lactuca and Cystoseira amentacea δ15N values were assessed in the Gulf of Gaeta. • U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental pollution. • Comparison of fragments from the same frond overcomes natural isotopic variability. • Spatial analysis indicated areas in the Gulf differently affected by N inputs. - Abstract: We tested the capacity of Ulva lactuca to mark N sources across large marine areas by measuring variation in its δ15N at several sites in the Gulf of Gaeta. Comparisons were made with the macroalga Cystoseira amentacea. Variation of δ15N values was assessed also in the coastal waters off the Circeo Natural Park, where U. lactuca and C. amentacea were harvested, as these waters are barely influenced by human activities and were used as reference site. A small fragment from each frond was preserved before deployment in order to characterize the initial isotopic values. After 48 h of submersion, U. lactuca was more responsive than C. amentacea to environmental variation and δ15N enrichment in the Gulf of Gaeta was observed. The spatial distribution of δ15N enrichment indicated that different macro-areas in the Gulf were affected by N inputs from different origins. Comparison of the δ15N values of fragments taken from the same transplanted frond avoided bias arising from natural isotopic variability

  13. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C16 to C20. - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  14. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

    2010-07-01

    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  15. Zonao de comunidade bntica do entremars em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Bruno P. Masi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuio vertical da comunidade bntica na zona entremars em dois locais compostos por mataces granticos caracterizados por hidrodinmica distinta, reflexo da diferena na orientao dos molhes nas praias do Farol de So Tom (Per e na Barra do Furado (Barra, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm foram sobrepostos ao longo de trs perfis verticais de ambos os stios e amostrados atravs do mtodo de fotoquadrats, desde o nvel 0,2 m da mar at o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m em relao ao Per (2,2 m. Quanto composio taxonmica, nove espcies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Ktzing Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Per. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espcies foram superiores nos quadrados intermedirios. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenas nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitornea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitornea inferior e franja sublitornea. Apenas a orla litornea no revelou diferena significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extenso desta franja e da faixa eulitornea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espcies tpicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitornea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 na eulitornea inferior, alm de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitornea. No Per, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuio eqitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos estressante. As diferenas observadas na distribuio vertical dos organismos bnticos, principalmente na extenso das faixas superiores, evidenciam condies de exposio a ondas variveis.The present study aims to compare the vertical distribution of intertidal benthic communities in two sites composed by granitic boulders with distint hydrodynamics due to different wave swells at Farol de So Tom (Pier and Barra do Furado beaches (Barra, both in northern state of Rio de Janeiro. Quadrats of 400 cm were overlapped along three vertical profiles on each site and were sampled by the photoquadrat method from 0.2 m of the tide level to the upper limit of Littorina spp. The upper limit of the marine organisms was higher at Barra site (3.8 m than at Per site (2.2 m. Nine species were common to both sites. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq, and Grateloupia sp. were unique to Barra, whereas Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Ktzing Sonder ex Dickie, and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux occurred only at Per boulders. On both sites species richness and diversity were superior at the intermediate quadrats of the intertidal zone. The highest values were recorded at Barra. The most pronounced assemblage differences between equivalent areas of either site occurred on the lower upper eulittoral band followed by the lower eulittoral and the sub-littoral fringe, respectively. The littoral fringe assemblage was the only one that did not show significant differences among the studied sites, yet a larger range of this fringe and the upper eulittoral band at Barra was quite evident. This site was mostly characterized by species of more exposed areas, such as Chaetomorpha sp. and Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 on upper and lower eulittoral bands, and by C. teedii and Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 on the sub-littoral fringe. At Per, the intertidal zone showed an even distribution, reflecting a less stressful environment. The differences on vertical distribution of the local benthic,

  16. De novo sequencing and analysis of the Ulva linza transcriptome to discover putative mechanisms associated with its successful colonization of coastal ecosystems

    Zhang Xiaowen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green algal genus Ulva Linnaeus (Ulvaceae, Ulvales, Chlorophyta is well known for its wide distribution in marine, freshwater, and brackish environments throughout the world. The Ulva species are also highly tolerant of variations in salinity, temperature, and irradiance and are the main cause of green tides, which can have deleterious ecological effects. However, limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model and ecologically important species. Ulva linza is a species that inhabits bedrock in the mid to low intertidal zone, and it is a major contributor to biofouling. Here, we presented the global characterization of the U. linza transcriptome using the Roche GS FLX Titanium platform, with the aim of uncovering the genomic mechanisms underlying rapid and successful colonization of the coastal ecosystems. Results De novo assembly of 382,884 reads generated 13,426 contigs with an average length of 1,000 bases. Contiguous sequences were further assembled into 10,784 isotigs with an average length of 1,515 bases. A total of 304,101 reads were nominally identified by BLAST; 4,368 isotigs were functionally annotated with 13,550 GO terms, and 2,404 isotigs having enzyme commission (EC numbers were assigned to 262 KEGG pathways. When compared with four other full sequenced green algae, 3,457 unique isotigs were found in U. linza and 18 conserved in land plants. In addition, a specific photoprotective mechanism based on both LhcSR and PsbS proteins and a C4-like carbon-concentrating mechanism were found, which may help U. linza survive stress conditions. At least 19 transporters for essential inorganic nutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur were responsible for its ability to take up inorganic nutrients, and at least 25 eukaryotic cytochrome P450s, which is a higher number than that found in other algae, may be related to their strong allelopathy. Multi-origination of the stress related proteins, such as glutamate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and heat-shock proteins, may also contribute to colonization of U. linza under stress conditions. Conclusions The transcriptome of U. linza uncovers some potential genomic mechanisms that might explain its ability to rapidly and successfully colonize coastal ecosystems, including the land-specific genes; special photoprotective mechanism based on both LhcSR and PsbS; development of C4-like carbon-concentrating mechanisms; muti-origin transporters for essential inorganic nutrients; multiple and complex P450s; and glutamate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and heat-shock proteins that are related to stress resistance.

  17. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Seasonal changes in nutrient limitation and nitrate sources in the green macroalga Ulva lactuca at sites with and without green tides in a northeastern Pacific embayment.

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L

    2016-02-15

    In Penn Cove, ulvoid green algal mats occur annually. To examine seasonal variation in their causes, nitrogen and carbon were measured in Ulva lactuca in May, July, and September and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were quantified in U. lactuca, Penn Cove seawater, upwelled water from Saratoga Passage, water near the Skagit River outflow, and effluents from wastewater treatment facilities. Ulvoid growth was nitrogen limited and the sources of nitrogen used by the algae changed during the growing season. Algal nitrogen concentrations were 0.85-4.55% and were highest in September and at sites where algae were abundant. Upwelled waters were the primary nitrogen source for the algae, but anthropogenic sources also contributed to algal growth towards the end of the growing season. This study suggests that small nitrogen inputs can result in crossing a "tipping point", causing the release of nutrient limitation and localized increases in algal growth. PMID:26725866

  19. Spectral definition of the macro-algae Ulva curvata in the back-barrier bays of the Eastern Shore of Virginia, USA

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, Amina; Solgaard, Mads; Schwarzchild, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We have developed methods to determine the visible (VIS) to near-infrared (NIR) spectral properties of thalli and epiphytes of bloom-forming and green macrophyte Ulva curvata in back-barrier lagoons in Virginia, USA. A 2% increase in NIR thalli reflectance from winter to summer matched the drop in summer NIR transmittance. In contrast, summer and winter VIS reflectance were nearly identical while winter transmittance was 10-20% higher. NIR absorption remained at 5% but VIS absorption increased by 10-20% from winter to summer. Replicate consistency substantiated the high transmittance difference indicating thallus composition changed from summer to winter. Epiphytes increased thallus reflectance and decreased transmittance and exhibited broadband VIS and NIR absorptions in summer and selective peaks in winter. A simulation coupling water extinction with thallus reflectance and transmittance found seven submerged thalli maximized the surface reflectance enhancement.

  20. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Tariq, A.; Athar, M; Ara, J.; V. Sultana; S. Ehteshamul-Haque; Ahmad, M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), supero...

  1. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Megha Barot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for identification of bioactive compounds present in crude extract. Results: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of all the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, fatty acids and esters compounds. Among the three species, the maximum crude extract yield (53.46% and the largest inhibition zone (36 mm were recorded in methanol extract of Ulva lactuca, whereas the minimum crude extract yield and inhibition zone were recorded in chloroform extract of the same species as 0.5% and 10 mm, respectively. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum antifungal activity and the major important compounds like steroids, fatty acids and esters were detected with higher amount in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the different seaweed extracts showed moderate to significant antifungal activity against the strains tested as compared with the standard fungicides, and polar solvents methanol and ethyl acetate were comparatively efficient for extraction of different metabolites that are responsible for antifungal activity.

  2. Isolation, purification, and identification of antialgal substances in green alga Ulva prolifera for antialgal activity against the common harmful red tide microalgae.

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gan-Lin; Pu, Yin-Fang; Yan, Bin-Lun; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Ten compounds (1~10) were successfully isolated from green algae Ulva prolifera through the combination of silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. These ten compounds showed antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Among them, compounds 3, 6, and 7 showed stronger antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Furthermore, their structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. There are three glycoglycerolipids: 1-O-octadecanoic acid-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (2), 1-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (4), and 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (5); two monoglycerides: glycerol monopalmitate (1), 9-hexadecenoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (3); two terpenoids: loliolide (6) and lsololiolide (7); one lipid-soluble pigments: zeaxanthin (8); one sterol: cholest-5-en-3-ol (9); and one alkaloid: pyrrolopiperazine-2,5-dione (10). These compounds were isolated from U. prolifera for the first time, and compounds 2, 3, 5, and 8 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time. PMID:26370816

  3. Characterization and anti-biofilm activity of extracellular polymeric substances produced by the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ulvae strain TC14.

    Brian-Jaisson, Florence; Molmeret, Maëlle; Fahs, Ahmad; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Culioli, Gérald; Blache, Yves; Cérantola, Stéphane; Ortalo-Magné, Annick

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated soluble (Sol-EPS), loosely bound (LB-EPS), and tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) harvested from biofilm and planktonic cultures of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14. The aim of the characterization (colorimetric methods, FTIR, GC-MS, NMR, HPGPC, and AFM analyses) was to identify new anti-biofilm compounds; activity was assessed using the BioFilm Ring Test®. A step-wise separation of EPS was designed, based on differences in water-solubility and acidity. An acidic fraction was isolated from TB-EPS, which strongly inhibited biofilm formation by marine bacterial strains in a concentration-dependent manner. The main constituents of this fraction were characterized as two glucan-like polysaccharides. An active poly(glutamyl-glutamate) fraction was also recovered from TB-EPS. The distribution of these key EPS components in Sol-EPS, LB-EPS, and TB-EPS was distinct and differed quantitatively in biofilm vs planktonic cultures. The anti-biofilm potential of the fractions emphasizes the putative antifouling role of EPS in the environment. PMID:27020951

  4. Co-occurring increases of calcium and organellar reactive oxygen species determine differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) exposed to copper excess.

    Gonzalez, Alberto; Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Dennett, Geraldine; Mellado, Macarena; Morales, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2010-10-01

    In order to analyse copper-induced calcium release and (reactive oxygen species) ROS accumulation and their role in antioxidant and defense enzymes activation, the marine alga Ulva compressa was exposed to 10 µM copper for 7 d. The level of calcium, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (eHP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (iHP) and superoxide anions (SA) as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Calcium release showed a triphasic pattern with peaks at 2, 3 and 12 h. The second peak was coincident with increases in eHP and iHP and the third peak with the second increase of iHP. A delayed wave of SA occurred after day 3 and was not accompanied by calcium release. The accumulation of iHP and SA was mainly inhibited by organellar electron transport chains inhibitors (OETCI), whereas calcium release was inhibited by ryanodine. AP activation ceased almost completely after the use of OETCI. On the other hand, GR and GST activities were partially inhibited, whereas defense enzymes were not inhibited. In contrast, PAL and LOX were inhibited by ryanodine, whereas AP was not inhibited. Thus, copper stress induces calcium release and organellar ROS accumulation that determine the differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes. PMID:20444222

  5. Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection

    José Alberto Aguilar-Briseño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphated polysaccharides (SP extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata, and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus, against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). PMID:19897016

  7. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2014-03-19

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  8. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities

    FitzGerald, Jamie A.; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M.; Jackson, Stephen A.; Murphy, Jerry D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136

  9. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France: An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives

    Melha Kendel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37% and glycolipids (38%, whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6 with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy.

  10. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives.

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy. PMID:26404323

  11. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China

    Highlights: • We conducted an annual survey of bloom-forming macroalgae in a lagoon. • C. linum biomass reached 1712 ± 780 g DW m−2 at the northern part of the lagoon. • Macroalgae δ15N values indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the blooms. • High nutrient concentrations near the river mouth supported the blooms. • C. linum blooms induced the loss of seagrasses and benthic filter feeders. - Abstract: Seagrasses that are distributed over a large area of the Swan Lake, Weihai, China, support a productive ecosystem. In recent years, however, frequent macroalgal blooms have changed the ecosystem structure and threatened the seagrasses. To understand the bloom-forming macroalgae we conducted a yearly field survey of Swan Lake. Results indicated that the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa both exhibited a much higher productivity and attained a greater maximum biomass (of 1712 ± 780 g DW m−2 and 1511 ± 555 g DW m−2, respectively) than was the case for the seagrasses. The mean annual atomic ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P in C. linum were 14.31 ± 4.45, 402.82 ± 130.25, and 28.12 ± 2.08, respectively. The δ15N values (11.09 ± 0.91‰ for C. linum; 9.27 ± 2.83‰ for U. pertusa) indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the macroalgal blooms. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lagoon, particularly near the river mouth, supported the blooms

  12. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ∼ 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results indicate that SCMs can be successfully applied to sorbents as daunting as marine organic matter. Despite remnant challenges, for instance resolving the contributions of individual groups to the aggregate sorption signal, our approach helps formalize seaweed’s avowed promise as an ideal biomonitor or biofilter of metal pollution in environments ranging from freshwaters to brines by uncovering what chemical mechanisms underlie its pronounced affinity for YREEs and other surface-reactive elements.

  13. The antifouling and fouling-release performance of hyperbranched fluoropolymer (HBFP)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) composite coatings evaluated by adsorption of biomacromolecules and the green fouling alga Ulva.

    Gudipati, Chakravarthy S; Finlay, John A; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Wooley, Karen L

    2005-03-29

    Cross-linked hyperbranched fluoropolymer (HBFP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) amphiphilic networks with PEG weight percentages of 14% (HBFP-PEG14), 29% (HBFP-PEG29), 45% (HBFP-PEG45), and 55% (HBFP-PEG55) were prepared on 3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (3-APS) functionalized microscope glass slides for marine antifouling and fouling-release applications. The surface-free energies (gamma(s)), polar (gamma(s)(p) and gamma(s)(AB)), and dispersion (gamma(s)(d) and gamma(s)(LW)) components were evaluated using advancing contact angles by two-liquid geometric-mean and three-liquid Lifshitz-van der Waals acid-base approaches. The HBFP coating exhibited a low surface energy of 22 mJ/m(2), while the gamma(s) and gamma(s)(p) of the cross-linked HBFP-PEG coatings increased proportionally with the PEG weight percentages in the networks. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lectin from Codium fragile (CFL), lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli (LPSE) and Salmonella minnesota (LPSS) upon glass, APS-glass, HBFP, PEG, and the cross-linked HBFP-PEG network coatings were investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The marine antifouling and fouling-release properties of the cross-linked HBFP-PEG coatings were evaluated by settlement and release assays involving zoospores of green fouling alga Ulva (syn. Enteromorpha; Hayden, H. S.; Blomster, J.; Maggs, C. A.; Silva, P. C.; Stanhope, M. J.; Waaland, J. R. Eur. J. Phycol. 2003, 38, 277). The growth and release of Ulva sporelings were also investigated upon the HBFP-PEG45 coating in comparison to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard material. Of the heterogeneous cross-linked network coatings, the maximum resistances to protein, lipopolysaccharide, and Ulva zoospore adhesion, as well as the best zoospore and sporeling release properties, were recorded for the HBFP-PEG45 coating. This material also exhibited better performance than did a standard PDMSE coating, suggesting its unique applicability in fouling-resistance applications. PMID:15779983

  14. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulacin enzimtica de la fotosntesis y la fijacin de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporacin de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintticos y no-fotosintticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulacin bioqumica de estas rutas metablicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribucin de la carboxilacin in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la regin meristemtica de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciacin de los cloroplastos de esta regin. De una manera similar, la fotosntesis neta no vari en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se increment desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lmina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosntesis, la fijacin de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemtica de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensacin de la incorporacin de carbono en tejido fotosintticamente limitado. La actividad enzimtica de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comport de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosntesis y la fijacin de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

  15. Differences in spatial structures between juveniles and adults of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae on an intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oleron Bay, France) potentially affect estimates of local demographic processes [rapid communication

    Haubois, A.-G.; Guarini, J.-M.; Richard, P.; Hemon, A.; Arotcharen, E.; Blanchard, G. F.

    2004-02-01

    Spatial structures of juvenile and adult cohorts of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae were investigated over a surface area of several km 2 in an intertidal mudflat at the end of the recruitment period. Three cohorts (average shell lengths of 3.90.89 mm, 1.80.43 mm and 1.10.18 mm for cohorts I, II and III, respectively) were identified by a statistical analysis and their spatial distributions were characterised. Cohorts of juveniles (cohorts II and III) showed a patchy distribution pattern, whereas the cohort of adults (cohort I) was homogeneously distributed over the study area. These marked differences in spatial distribution of cohorts are likely to have a strong effect on estimates of local demographic processes, and hence of population dynamics.

  16. Synseed production for storage and conservation of ochradenus baccatus delile

    Ochradenus baccatus is a medicinal plant of high value, spread over sandy and stony places of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and most of the desert regions of Egypt. This species contains several flavanoids and specific constituents which are important as these have already been effectively used in lowering cholesterol in the blood of rats and high inhibition potential of the malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). Synseeds were produced from stem segments and apical bud of O. baccatus growing In vitro. Two sets of synseeds were produced, one non-dried and the other dried under running laminar air-flow for 30 min. Regeneration and regrowth were evaluated for 16 weeks storage under various temperatures (4, 8 and 12degree C). The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets was achieved on the MS medium containing 1.0 micro M BA in encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 degree C. Rooting in these shoots was induced by the pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA for 10 days, and the rooted shoots were transferred on the MS medium devoid of any PGR. Fair percent rooting occurred after one week of transfer on the MS medium. Plantlets were successfully established. No phenotypic variations were observed between the synseed originated plants with mother plant. Genetic stability of synseed grown plants and mother plant was evaluated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The mother plant as well as regenerated plants from synseed resulted in a monomorphic banding pattern developed from ISSR markers confirming genetic stability among the clones. This protocol will help multiply and conserve the plant as well as for short-term storage of germplasm for commercial use and exchange. (author)

  17. Feeding habits of Hyale media (Dana, 1853) (Crustacea-Amphipoda)

    Airton Santo Tararam; Yoko Wakabara; Hilda de Sousa Lima Mesquita

    1985-01-01

    Feeding of males and females of the Gammaridea Hyate media at mature and immature stages were tested in laboratory experiments. Macro and microscopic algae as well as dead or alive animals were utilized as food. This gammarid is omnivorous, feeding by predation, scavenging, browsing and scraping. Feeding behaviour was discontinuous. Padina vickersiae was more utilized in winter and Ulva fasciata in summer. The feeding activity of all the animals showed great variability in relation to the typ...

  18. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin; Dahl, Jonas; Busk, Jørgen; Brødsgaard, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Bruhn, Annette; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Albert, Kristian Rost; Ambus, Per; Kádár, Zsófia; Heiske, Stefan; Sander, Bo; Schmidt, Erik Ravn

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...

  19. Feeding habits of Hyale media (Dana, 1853 (Crustacea-Amphipoda

    Airton Santo Tararam

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of males and females of the Gammaridea Hyate media at mature and immature stages were tested in laboratory experiments. Macro and microscopic algae as well as dead or alive animals were utilized as food. This gammarid is omnivorous, feeding by predation, scavenging, browsing and scraping. Feeding behaviour was discontinuous. Padina vickersiae was more utilized in winter and Ulva fasciata in summer. The feeding activity of all the animals showed great variability in relation to the type of food. Higher temperatures probably account for the higher consumption observed in summer.

  20. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires; Daniel Barroso de Alencar; Alexandre Holanda Sampaio; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre ...

  1. [Preliminary study of 3 algae of the Ulvaceae family from the Me Luisa beach (RN)].

    de Jesus Torres Caldas, M; Campos, M A

    1975-01-01

    Samples of marine algae from Brazilian coast were analysed for the proximate composition, calcium, phosphorus, iron and aminoacids. Ulva fasciata, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Enteromorpha flexuosa have been studied, specimens being collected at "Me Luisa" beach in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, between the months of September and November 1973. Quantitative determinations of the aminoacid composition of each were made and a comparison of the results pointed to the similarity of composition of all species examined. Limiting aminoacids were methionine, lysine, isoleucine, tryptophan and cystine, except for Enteromorpha intestinalis and Enteromorpha flexuosa, in which triptophan and cystine, respectively, were not limiting. PMID:1233597

  2. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    João Américo Wordell Filho; Martins, Daniel A.; Marciel J. Stadnik

    2007-01-01

    Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor) e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia) de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K), calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata) e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulveriz...

  3. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site

    Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile.

    Speroni, E; Cervellati, R; Innocenti, G; Costa, S; Guerra, M C; Dall' Acqua, S; Govoni, P

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol (ME), butanol (BE) extracts and of two new saponins isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca bark were evaluated. The study was carried out in vivo and in vitro. The samples, extracts and pure substances, were intra-gastrically administered to animals. Two different animal models, the carrageenin-induced edema, in the rat, and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, were adopted. Moreover, the antioxidant power of extracts, fractions and individual constituents from Balanites aegyptiaca has been evaluated in vitro, using a method based on the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating reaction. Results obtained demonstrate that both ME or BE have a significant effect at the highest dose on the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid, with a 38 and 54% inhibition respectively, but no significant difference was observed for extracts at the lowest dose and for the pure compounds compared with control animals. The same extracts exhibit a significant reduction on the rat paw edema. The inhibition produced by ME is about the same (28+/-3% lowest dose, 32+/-3% highest dose) after administration. A more evident effect is obtained by BE (41+/-3% and 68+/-6% respectively) and single saponins B1 and B2 (62+/-5% and 59+/-6% respectively) after oral administration. The antioxidant activity obtained seems to be in good accordance with the pharmacological results. The histological sections of rat paw confirm the antiflogistic activity of the plant extracts. PMID:15763372

  5. Phenology of Posidonia Oceanica (Linneaus Delile in the West Coast of Algeria

    F. Chahrour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Posidonia oceanica seagrass in the western coast of Algeria on the subject of annual monitoring from November 2008 to November 2009.Two sites are selected and each are represented by a station located 10meters deep. The first is Cap Carbon which is polluted site subject to various major releases, and the second one is Ain Franin considered as a reference site relatively far from sources of pollution other than pollution considered sporadic during the summer where there is a rare attendance of holidaymakers. A study of the phenology of Posidonia oceanica meadows, on the leaf biometry, the coefficient "A" and the surface shows that these parameters are strongly influenced by seasonal factors and not by the depth as our samples were made at same depth.

  6. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em discos de massa epóxi foram fíxos na rocha. Após um mês as algas epífitas foram identificadas e sua massa seca quantificada. Lithophyllum não inibiu o crescimento das epífitas, em contraste Spongites e outra coralinácea indeterminada inibiram o crescimento de Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata e Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa esteve sempre ausente sobre as crostas vivas, porém presente nos controles. Resultados demonstram que a relação epífita-hospedeiro depende das espécies que estejam interagindo. O desprendimento de células superficiais das crostas coralináceas aponta para um possível efeito físico anti-incrustante, não se excluindo o químico.

  7. Large-scale population genetic structure in Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciata

    Mira, Sara; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Palma, Luis; Cancela, Maria Leonor; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In bird species that have a high movement capacity, dispersal may connect subpopulations over vast geographical regions, with important consequences for the design of conservation management strategies. Here we used a molecular approach to infer the patterns and rates of dispersal among eight Mediterranean subpopulations of the endangered Bonelli's Eagle, based on 245 individuals screened at 17 microsatellite loci. There was moderate genetic differentiation between subpopulations sampled in t...

  8. Environmental assessment of bioethanol from onshore grown Ulva

    Pradinaud, Charlotte; Champenois, J.; Benoit, M.; Brockmann, Doris; Helias, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Besides biofuels from microalgae, an emerging interest in using macroalgae as feedstock for biofuel production is observable. Macroalgae have the advantage that they are much easier to harvest than microalgae so that the problem of low feedstock concentration does not arise. The environmental performance of bioethanol from onshore grown green algae is assessed using literature data and initial laboratory scale data. The optimized system model allows for producing an environmentally efficient ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk. Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Br. Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag. Kutz (S. marginatum, Sargassum wightii Grev, Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds. Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin P.C. Silva against Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439 (E. faecalis and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E. faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results: The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1 000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis.

  10. Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile)

    Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana

    2013-09-01

    The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

  11. Relationship of non-protein thiol pools and accumulated Cd or Hg in the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    Maserti, B.E. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: bianca.elena.maserti@pi.ibf.cnr.it; Ferrillo, V. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Avdis, O. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Nesti, U. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Central Institute for Marine Research (I.C.R.A.M.), Via di Casalotti, 300-00166 Rome (Italy); Di Garbo, A. [National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biophysics, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Catsiki, A. [National Centre for Marine Research (N.C.M.R.), 16604 Hellenion (Greece); Maestrini, P.L. [University of Pisa, Department of Agricultural Plant, Section of Genetics, Via Matteotti 1, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2005-11-10

    The accumulation of cadmium or mercury and the effect of these elements on the levels of non-protein thiols in the blades of the marine macrophyte Posidonia oceanica were investigated. A significant accumulation of cadmium or mercury, dependent on metal concentration supplied, was observed in metal-treated blades. In the blades treated either with cadmium or mercury, a significant increase in the levels of non-protein thiols (other than glutathione) and a marked depletion of the reduced glutathione content as a function of the metal, exposure time and metal concentration supplied were found. This investigation provides first experimental report on the relationship between non-protein thiol pools and accumulated cadmium or mercury in P. oceanica.

  12. An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats

    Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

  13. Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

    Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-15

    Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health. PMID:26781454

  14. Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores

    Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

  15. Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio

    Giselle Cristina Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG, Hypnea musciformes (HM, Ulva fasciata (UF and Caulerpa prolifera (CP was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  16. Minimum effective release rate of antifoulants.1. Effects of zosteric acid at Ford Island, Hawaii (USA).

    Shin, H W; Smith, C M; Haslbeck, E G

    2001-10-01

    Minimum effective release rate (MERR) of zosteric acid (ZA) was studied at Ford Island. At laboratory condition, spore attachment in Enteromorpha intestinalis was inhibited significantly at 28.2 microg cm2 of ZA. More than 95% reduction in spore attachment was achieved in Ulva fasciata at 2,000 microM of ZA through membrane diffusion system. At 40 cm depth level larval settlement was high with maximum number of Hydroides elegans settlement. The overall larval settlement was increased with increasing days of exposure. The MERR of 10 microg cm(-2) d(-1) ZA inhibited 50% of the larval settlement. However, the inhibition rate was not proportionate to the antifouling ZA concentration. Using MERR membrane diffusion system an effective antifouling strategy was suggested for Ford Island. PMID:12018592

  17. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds could be considered as a potential source of valuable natural antioxidants, antibiotics and nutraceutical compounds.

  18. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast

    Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espcies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado atravs da inibio da peroxidao do cido linolico em emulso. Os extratos etreos e metanlicos, na concentrao de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extrao seqencial das biomassas secas. As espcies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidao lipdica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibio acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanlicos para seqestrar o perxido de hidrognio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores mdios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Alm disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenides totais e compostos fenlicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas so uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

  19. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory finishing of cotton by microencapsulation using three marine organisms.

    El-Rafie, H M; El-Rafie, M H; AbdElsalam, H M; El-Sayed, W A

    2016-05-01

    This work is a small effort in the production of an eco-friendly natural based antibacterial and anti-inflammatory finished cotton fabrics using the ethanolic extracts (Ex) of the sea grass Halophila stipulacea (H. stipulacea) and marine macroalgae [Colbomenia sinuosa (C. sinuosa) and Ulva fasciata (U. fasciata)]. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their constituents. These extracts were used to finish cotton fabrics by a variety of methods. Concerning this, fabrics (F) were singly treated with ethanolic extracts (ExF) of these marine organisms by the dip technique and the extract encapsulated with sodium alginate or meypro gum. The encapsulated fabric (EnF) was further finished individually with citric acid (CA), (EnF/CA) and mono-tert-butyl ether of glycerol (MTBG) binder (EnF/Bin) by the pad-dry-cure technique. The fabrics so-finished were evaluated for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities without washing (control) and after different washing cycles. The results obtained showed that, both EnF/CA and EnF/Bin inhibit the bacterial growth by about 90% after 10 washing cycles for both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The anti-inflammatory activity, the potency% reached to 88.3% for the fabric encapsulated with microcapsules of sodium alginate/H. stipulacea sea grass and the EnF/CA. PMID:26776873

  20. Natal Dispersal and Recruitment of Two Bonelli's Eagles Aquila fasciata: a Four-Year Satellite Tracking Study

    Cadahía, Luis; López-López, Pascual; Urios, Vicente; Soutullo, Álvaro; Negro, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    To study natal dispersal and recruitment to the breeding population in Bonelli’s Eagle, two nestlings were tagged with satellite transmitters in the Iberian Peninsula in 2002. Their monthly ranges and distances were computed and fitted to regression models to describe their general trend. One bird, a female, dispersed and settled rapidly in an area which she explored intensively during four years and which finally became her first breeding site. The natal dispersal distance was 441 km, and th...

  1. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  2. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers. and Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and macroalgae of the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece)

    Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany

    1993-12-31

    Mean concentrations of Aluminium ({+-}SE) in two seagrasses, four Chlorophytes, three Chromophytes and seven Rhodophyte species from the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece) decreased in the order: Chlorophyta > Chromophyta > Rhodophyta > P. oceanica > C. nodosa. This area is of particular interest because of the bauxite composition of the substrate and of the wate discharge from an aluminium factory in the Gulf. Aluminium concentrations in the two seagrasses were evenly distributed at the Gulf stations. Only the concentrations of Al in C. nodosa displayed significant seasonal variation. The mean concentrations increased from spring to summer, at which point they reached their maxima. This pattern is discussed in relation to the leaf-age of the seagrass. Regarding the amount of Al accumulated by the macroalgae of each division, there were interspecific differences which were attributed to differences in the structure, the ecology and the binding sites offered by the plants. The dependence of Al concentrations in the macrophytes on the concentrations in the sediment and the correlation of Al concentrations with the concentrations of some other metals in the plants were also investigated. (orig.)

  3. Grazing on the epiphytic community of Posidonia oceanica (L.)Delile: An assessment of its relevance as a buffering process of eutrophication effects

    Castejón Silvo, Inés

    2011-01-01

    El incremento de disponibilidad de nutrientes produce cambios en la estructura y funcionamiento de los ecosistemas litorales. La eutrofización en los ecosistemas litorales mediterráneos favorece el predominio de algas epifitas de crecimiento rápido que compiten por la luz y los nutrientes con Posidonia oceanica. La herbivoría sobre los epifitos suministra la mayor parte del carbono que asimilan los consumidores primarios y secundarios asociados a la pradera. Esta tesis evalúa la importancia d...

  4. Evaluation of a temporal trend heavy metals contamination in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, (1813) along the western coastline of Sicily (Italy).

    Copat, Chiara; Maggiore, Riccardo; Arena, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Stanislao; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    The use of biological species in the monitoring of marine environmental quality allows the evaluation of biologically available levels of contaminants in the ecosystem and the effects of contaminants on living organisms. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is a useful bioindicator because through the lepidochronology technique it is possible to obtain a historical contamination trend of a given area. This study aims to assess the temporal trend contamination by heavy metal investigations on dead sheaths of 100 samples of P. oceanica collected in the Protected Marine Area of "Plemmirio" (Sicily) and in the Siracusa bay. Important results were obtained because data show a significant negative temporal trend for the metals analysed especially for As, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se, U and V that in the past had higher concentrations, with a stronger contamination in the Plemmirio area, the site much more exposed to the pollution of the nearby petrochemical complex. This study confirms the relevance of the use of P. oceanica as a biological indicator of metal contamination in coastal ecosystems. Thus the usefulness of P. oceanica as a tracer of spatial metal contamination and as a good tool for water quality evaluation is reinforced. PMID:22101939

  5. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  6. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Imchen, T.

    higher biomass growth and there was significant interaction between light (80 mu mol.m sup(-2).s sup(-1)) and phosphate (4 mu mol.l sup(-1)) in high salinity (35 psu) condition. The result of this study showed that dark preserved zoospores of U. flexuosa...

  7. Consumption and feeding preference of Echinogammarus marinus on two different algae: fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis

    Martins, Irene; Leite, Nuno; Constantino, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Echinogammarus marinus constitutes the most abundant amphipod species in Fucus spp. assemblages from many North Atlantic estuaries. However, there are some doubts about the real use of fucoids by the amphipod. Whilst some studies report the ingestion of Fucus vesiculosus by E. marinus, others suggest that the amphipod preference for fucoids is mostly related to sheltering rather than feeding, due to the high phlorotannin content of brown algae. The purpose of the present work was to disentang...

  8. Application of destructive neutron activation analysis for determination of microelements in Zostera marina and Ulva lactuca

    The content of microelements has been determined in two algal species from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast by neutron activation analysis. The disturbing effects of the main components 24Na, 42K and 32P were eliminated by radiochemical separation. The results obtained for Fe, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn, Ce, Sc, Rb, Au, Sm, As, Cu, Mn, Sb, and Hg are presented in ppm

  9. Testing sample stability using four storage methods and the macroalgae Ulva and Gracilaria

    Concern over the relative importance of different sample preparation and storage techniques frequently used in stable isotope analysis of particulate nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) prompted an experiment to determine how important such factors were to measured values in marine...

  10. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

  11. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  12. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Anglica Ribeiro, Soares; Marcela C. S., Robaina; Gabriella S., Mendes; Thalia S. L., Silva; Lsia M. S., Gestinari; Odinia S., Pamplona; Yocie, Yoneshigue-Valentin; Carlos R, Kaiser; Maria Teresa Villela, Romanos.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta) from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV). Activity tests in crude [...] extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1%) than for HSV-2 (55.5%). The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9%) against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5%) and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (-)-elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta) and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta) were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%). Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  13. Benthic Community zonation in a breakwater on the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Bruno Pereira Masi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the vertical zonation pattern of the intertidal benthic organisms on granitic boulders in the Farol de São Tomé beach (22º02'S, 41º03'W, Rio de Janeiro State. Four sampling profiles using 20 x 20 cm quadrats through a photo quadrat technique revealed four horizontal bands: (1 Littoral Fringe characterized by empty space and Littorina; (2 Upper eulittoral mainly occupied by Chthamalus and bare rock; (3 Lower eulittoral characterized by Chthamalus, Phragmatopoma, Ulva and Centroceras; and (4 Sublittoral Fringe characterized by Ulva, Phragmatopoma and Hypnea. The high variability in the relative abundance of the dominant species among the profiles may be attributed to the high topographic irregularity, reflecting in different wave action intensity at the same height, and consequently favoring the establishment of different species. The frequent substrate alternation from granitic rock to Phragmatopoma sandy reefs might contribute to the small-scale spatial variability. The implantation of a breakwater on an area without natural rocky shores allowed the study of intertidal benthic communty zonation, and provide a baseline for the experimental studies.O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um esquema de zonação vertical de organismos bênticos da região entremarés em blocos graníticos na praia do Farol de São Tomé (22º02'S, 41º03'W na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 20 x 20 cm foram sobrepostos em quatro perfis e utilizado o método por foto quadrat com 100 pontos de interseção. A análise de agrupamento e a porcentagem de cobertura de organismos bênticos indicadores sugeriram um padrão na distribuição vertical da região entremarés com quatro faixas: Franja do Supralittoral caracterizado por espaço vazio e Littorina ziczac; Médiolitoral Superior ocupado por Chthamalus spp e espaço vazio; médiolitoral inferior caracterizado por Chthamalus spp, Phragmatopoma lapidosa, Ulva fasciata e Centroceras clavulatum; e Franja do Infralitoral caracterizado por U. fasciata, P. lapidosa e Hypnea musciformis. A alta variabilidade na abundância relativa das espécies dominantes entre os perfis na zona Médiolitoral é atribuída a alta irregularidade topográfica do substrato, refletindo em diferentes intensidades de exposição às ondas em uma mesma altura, o que favorece o estabelecimento de diferentes espécies. A alternância freqüente do tipo de substrato de rocha granítica para recifes arenosos de P. lapidosa pode ter contribuído para a variabilidade espacial em pequena escala. Este estudo preenche uma lacuna referente à comunidade bêntica e sua distribuição vertical no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A adição do molhe em uma área caracterizada pela ausência de substrato consolidado natural possibilitou o estudo da zonação da comunidade bêntica entremarés, oferecendo uma base de dados para futuros trabalhos experimentais.

  14. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

  15. Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    Biomass yields from some species of macroalgae exceed the yields in traditional terrestrial production systems. This renewable carbon source possesses a potential for energy purposes and thus reduction in fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Previous experiments have indicated that nitrous...... photosynthesis, and not bacterial activity. As algal NO3− reductase (NR) converts NO3− to NO2− in light, and N2O emission was observed from both NO3− and NO2−, it is proposed that NO2− reductase (NiR) activity may have generated the observed N2O, however the mechanism needs further investigation. This apparent N......2O production by algae emphasizes the need for experiments under natural conditions in order to evaluate potential greenhouse gas balances associated with large-scale productions for energy purposes....

  16. Investigation of selected wood properties and the suitability for industrial utilization of Acacia seyal var. seyal Del and Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile grown in different climatic zones of Sudan

    Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Hanadi

    2014-01-01

    Sudan is endowed with a great diversity of tree species; nevertheless the utilization of wood resources has traditionally concentrated on a few species only. Despite of the richness of Sudan in most of basic factors required to establish forest based industries it still almost entirely dependent on imports to satisfy its needs of the products of such industries. There is an urgent need to assess the suitability of the local fibrous raw materials for industrial utilization, this would not only...

  17. Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?

    Wladimir C. Paradas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP. The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG (Rio de janeiro, Brasil. Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle. Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Concentrações mais elevadas de Cu, Pb e Zn foram detectadas na BG em ambas espécies de algas em relação a área controle. Dentre as espécies de algas e do isópoda da BG, as populações coletadas sobre as superfícies cobertas com AFP apresentaram concentrações significativamente mais elevadas do que as populações do substrato natural. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a liberação de metais presentes nas AFP dos decks e embarcações, estão sendo acumulados pelas algas e isópodas. Esses resultados indicam que o revestimento com AFP é a principal fonte de metais para a biota de marinas em áreas da BG.

  18. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 ?g mL1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 ?g mL1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolpidos (SL a partir de los lpidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografa en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografa de gases MS/MS y cromatografa lquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relacin al total de lpidos vari de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato observado entre todas estas especies de algas (desde 0,13 hasta 0,21%. Todos los SL se caracterizaron por un alto contenido de cido palmtico (C16:0, que oscil entre 30,91% en G. cylindriea a 63,11% en T. atomatia. Sulfoquinovosyl-di-acilglicerol y acilglicerol sulfoquinovosyl fueron identificados como los principales constituyentes de los sulfolpidos de estas algas. Los sulfolpidos de las diferentes especies de algas estudiadas mostraron una notable actividad antiviral contra el virus del herpes simple tipo 1 (VHS-1 con una IC50 que oscil entre 18,75 y 70. 2 g mL1. Por otra parte, los sulfolpidos de estas algas inhibieron el crecimiento de clulas tumorales de mama y clulas de cncer de hgado humano con valores de IC50 que van desde 0,40 hasta 0,67 g mL1 para las clulas de adenocarcinoma de mama humano (MCF7.

  19. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de liberação de minério, sendo a maior percentagem do particulado liberada na primeira troca de água (40 a 60%.

  20. Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa and their impact on the seedling quality

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A: a testemunha; b fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L; c fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L; d fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e calda bordalesa (0,3%; f calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume; h extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%; i extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%. Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B. A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes.This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A were tested: a control; b fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L; c potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L; d foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e Bordeaux mixture (0.3%; f Bordeaux mixture/potassium fosfite; g extract of the alga Ulva fasciata (0.2%, dry weight: volume; h field horsetail (Equisetum arwense extract (0.26% and i Urtiga dioica extract (0.47%. Seedling beds were established under mineral or organic fertilization (factor B. Leaf necrosis area (% was weekly evaluated and used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Fertilizer type did not affect the development of leaf blight, but the mineral fertilizer increased both plant height and pseudostem diameter. While plant extracts were not effective, the application of fungicide, potassium fosfite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, Bordeaux mixture alone or combined with fosfite, significantly reduced leaf blight.

  1. Efeito do extrato de alga e da argila silicatada na severidade da alternariose e na produtividade da cebolinha comum (Allium fistulosum L.) / Effect of seaweed extract and silicate clay on Alternaria leaf spot and on the yield of green onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    Isaac B., Arajo; Luiz A.M., Peruch; Marciel J., Stadnik.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A alternariose uma das doenas mais importantes da cebolinha em cultivo orgnico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pulverizaes semanais de argila silicatada (Rocksil) e extrato de Ulva fasciata no controle da doena e produtividade da cebolinha neste sistema de cultivo. [...] Avaliou-se a severidade final e a rea abaixo da curva de progresso da doena nas folhas centrais (Yf e AACPDf), bem como da planta inteira (Yp e AACPDp). Na colheita, determinou-se o comprimento e peso fresco das folhas. O experimento foi repetido em quatro ciclos da cultura. Os dados de severidade da doena e produtividade foram submetidos anlise de varincia e teste de Duncan (P?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenas significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relao testemunha (plantas tratadas com gua). Ambos preparados propiciaram redues mdias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na rea abaixo da curva de progresso da doena (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em mdia de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo tm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos so necessrios para elucidar os nveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condies edafoclimticas. ?0.05). Na maioria dos ciclos experimentais, diferenas significativas foram verificadas na sanidade e produtividade dos tratamentos em relao testemunha (plantas tratadas com gua). Ambos preparados propiciaram redues mdias de 41 a 62% na severidade final (Yf e Yp) e de 28 a 58% na rea abaixo da curva de progresso da doena (AACPDf e AACPDp). Os tratamentos das plantas com argila silicatada e extrato de alga aumentaram o peso fresco das folhas em mdia de 46% e 32%, respectivamente. Apesar deste trabalho indicar que a argila silicatada e o extrato de algo tm potencial para o controle da alternariose da cebolinha, mais estudos so necessrios para elucidar os nveis de controle desses tratamentos em diferentes condies edafoclimticas. Abstract in english Alternaria leaf spot is one of the most important diseases of green onion in organic farming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly sprays of silicate clay (Rocksil) and extract of Ulva fasciata in disease control and yield of the green onion in organic farming. Final dis [...] ease severity and area under the disease progress curve were evaluated on central leaves (Yl and AUDPCl) as well as the whole plant (Yp and AACPDp). Length and fresh weight of leaves was determined at harvest. The experiment was repeated in four crop cycles. Data on disease severity and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan test (P

  2. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

  3. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 on algal bio-crude production via HTL process

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B.; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K. C.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.

    2015-10-01

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions.We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04404a

  4. Characterization of benthic types in the lower Medway estuary, Kent. [Nereis diversicolor; Polydora ciliata; Spiophanes bombyx; Hydrobia ulvae; Peloacolex benedeni; Capitella capitatus; Heteromastus filiformis; Caulleriella zetlandica

    Wharfe, J.R.

    1976-09-01

    A number of sediment parameters, including particle size and redox potential profiles, were measured during an ecological study of the benthic invertebrate macrofauna of the lower Medway estuary, Kent. The results proved more meaningful in characterizing the sediment habitats of the benthic invertebrate fauna than did measurements on the overlying water.

  5. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Megha Barot; Nirmal Kumar JI; Rita N. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for ...

  6. Nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of two green seaweeds (Ulva pertusa and U. intestinalis from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand

    Ommee Benjama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, amino acid, and element contents, as well as some physicochemical properties of Ulvapertusa and U. intestinalis, collected from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand in the rainy and summer seasons of 20072008, were investigated in order to gain more nutritional information. It was found that the two green seaweed speciescontained high level of protein (14.619.5% DW, lipid (2.18.7% DW, ash (25.928.6% DW, soluble fiber (25.339.6% DW,insoluble fiber (21.833.5% DW and total dietary fiber (51.362.2% DW. Comparing the element contents of the two species,U. pertusa was rich in Mg, K and Ca, while U. intestinalis was rich in Mg, K, Cl, Na, and Ca. The essential amino acids of thetwo species were rich in leucine, valine, and arginine contents. The most limiting essential amino acid of both species waslysine. However, the nutritional composition of the two seaweeds varied depending on seasonal change. As for the physicochemicalproperties of both seaweeds, their swelling capacity (SWC, water holding capacity (WHC, and oil holding capacity(OHC ranged from 4.0 to 6.4 ml/g DW, 7.8 to 15.0 g/g DW and 1.4 to 4.8 g oil/g DW, respectively. WHC and OHC of U.intestinalis was higher than those of U. pertusa (P<0.05. This study suggested that both species could be potentially usedas raw materials or ingredients to improve the nutritive value and texture of functional food and healthy products for humanbeings.

  7. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Rodrigues, Sidónio; Afonso, Clélia; Mouga, Teresa; Nunes, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, algae have been increasingly used in Human food due their rich chemical and nutritional composition, particularly the high supply of essential nutrients to the human body such as protein and dietary fiber. Dietary fiber can be divided into two different types: soluble and insoluble. The characteristics of soluble dietary fiber are related to some physical and chemical properties such as rehydration ratio and water holding capacity and are important in assigning t...

  8. Assessment of trace element contamination and bioaccumulation in algae (Ulva lactuca), mussels (Perna perna), shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus), and fish (Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron) along the Senegalese coast.

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of 11 elements were quantified in five marine species from different trophic levels of a food web (algae, mussel, shrimp and fish), representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters, and including species of commercial importance. Significant differences in element concentrations and bioaccumulation were demonstrated, revealing the utility of employing a suite of organisms as bioindicators to monitor metal contamination in coastal areas. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. Calculations of transfer factors for all the studied elements showed that transfer factors from water were greater than those from sediments. For shrimp and mussel, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the EU's maximum level for human consumption, however high concentrations of arsenic in shrimp were recorded at all sites. PMID:26763317

  9. THE EFFECT OF AN HERBIVOROUS ESTUARINE AMPHIPOD, ALLORCHESTES ANGUSTA, IN THE BIOMASS ACCUMULATION OF THE GREEN MACROALGAE, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS AND ULVA EXPANSA. (R827637)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta) Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta), Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI; Alberte, Randall S

    2001-01-01

    Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl...

  11. Survey of the radioactive background of some specimens of the biota of Rio de Janeiro coastal waters

    The natural radioactivity of components known to be bioconcentrators of artificial radionuclides in the coast of Rio de Janeiro was determined by means of sistematical gross alpha and beta radiometry. These data constitute the pre-operational survey, determining the radioactivity levels of these organisms and permiting to establish basic values and their temporal variations, which will serve as a referencial for the detection of eventual increases in the radioactivity introduced in the marine environment during the operational phase of nuclear power plants. Uranium and Potassium were also measured in some samples. The maximum and minimum values obtained after six years of experiment, analysing 14 species of algae and 4 species of animals were: for gross alpha radiometry (0,454 + - 0,162)Bq/g in the ashes of the phaeophita Padina vickersiae and (0,473 + - 0,106)Bq/g in the cnidaria Bunodosoma caissarum, (0,067 + - 0,031)Bq/g in the clorophita Ulva Fasciata and (0,091 + - 0,060)Bq/g in the soft tissues of the bivalve Perna perna. The byssus of this animal presented the highest gross alpha concentration : (1,770 + - 0,708)Bq/g, probably due to its high Uranium concentration, which contributes with 71%, complexed with its main constituent, a scleroprotein. The gross beta concentrations were highest in the algae Chetomorpha antennina (6,63 + - 1,80)Bq/g and in the species Bunodosoma caissarum, with a mean value of (2,60 + - 0,74)Bq/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations were obtained in the rodophita Plocamium brasiliense, (1,64 + - 0,36)Bq/g, and (1,04 + - 0,30)Bq/g in the byssus of Perna perna. By the theoretical concentration of 40K, calculated from potassium, the strong contribution of that radionuclide in the gross beta activity of the organisms is stressed. Seven samples of ashes were submitted to analyses by three different laboratories and the intercomparison results showed a reasonable agreement. (Author)

  12. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption

    Roberto Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

  13. Ribbon Seal Distribution Map

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata). It...

  14. 50 CFR 216.180 - Specified activity.

    2010-10-01

    ....), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica), Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus californianus wollebaeki), Japanese sea... macrorhynchus and G. melas). (3) Pinnipeds—hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), spotted seal (P. largha), ribbon seal (P. fasciata), gray seal (Halichoerus grypus), elephant...

  15. Death in the octopus’ garden: fatal blue-lined octopus envenomations of adult green sea turtles

    Townsend, Kathy A.; Altvater, Jens; Thomas, Michael C.; Schuyler, Qamar A; Nette, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    The blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata contains the powerful neuromuscular blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), which causes muscle weakness and respiratory failure. H. fasciata is regarded as one of the most venomous marine animals in the world, and multiple human fatalities have been attributed to the octopus. To date, there have been no recorded incidents of an envenomation of a wild animal. Here, we present a newly developed, multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry technique that provides uneq...

  16. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae)

    Jesse L. Albertson; Christopher H. Dietrich

    2006-01-01

    The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini) and 69 valid species (59 new) are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1) the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2) the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker), T. gra...

  17. Raptors and "campo-cerrado" bird mixed flock led by Cypsnagra Hirundinacea (Emberizidae:Thraupinae) Predadores aéreos e bandos mistos de aves, em campo-cerrado, liderados por Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Emberizidae: Thraupinae)

    RAGUSA-NETTO J.

    2000-01-01

    Bird mixed flocks including Cypsnagra hirundinacea and Neothraupis fasciata as species with sentinels were studied in "campo-cerrado" in order to investigate the possible relationship between alertness and the mixed flock leadership. This study was conducted from March to September 1996 and mixed flocks were observed on average for 2:30h. The time with sentinels were recorded for C. hirundinacea and N. fasciata. The sentinels of Cypsnagra hirundinacea performed most of the vigilance (time wit...

  18. Development of a biosorption column utilising seaweed based biosorbents for the removal of metals from industrial waste streams

    Walsh, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Development of a biosorption column utilising seaweed based biosorbents for the removal of metals from industrial waste streams. Richard K. Walsh. A range of seaweed species were screened (in live and dried form) for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cr3+ removal properties including; (Rhodophytes) Polysiphonia lanosa, Porphyra umbilicalis, Gigartina stellata, Palmaria palmata, Corallina officinalis, Gracilaria verrucosa, (Chlorophytes) Ulva intestinalis, Ulva compressa, Ulva lactuca, (Phaeophy...

  19. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110...... bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive...... bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains...

  20. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, algae have been increasingly used in Human food due their rich chemical and nutritional composition, particularly the high supply of essential nutrients to the human body such as protein and dietary fiber. Dietary fiber can be divided into two different types: soluble and insoluble. The characteristics of soluble dietary fiber are related to some physical and chemical properties such as rehydration ratio and water holding capacity and are important in assigning the fun...

  1. A taxonomic study of some red algae commonly growing on the coast of Karachi

    Hayee-Memon, A.; Shameel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen commonly occurring species of marine benthic red algae, i.e., Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) C. Agardh, Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne, Calliblepharis fimbriata (Greville) Kiitzing, Coelarthrum muelleri (Sonder) B¢rgesen, Cottoniella filamentosa (Howe) B¢rgesen, Gracilariafoliifera (Forsskai) B¢rgesen, Halymenia porphyraeformis (B¢rgesen) Parkinson, Hypnea muscifor:mis (Wulfen) Lamouroux, Hypnea valentiae (Turner) Montagne, Laurenci...

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn) poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, ...

  3. A summary of reports of Ulvaceae (Chlorophyta) from Turkey.

    Taskin, Ergun

    2007-06-01

    A revised list of the taxa of the Ulvaceae occurring in Turkey is reported in this research. A total of 25 taxa of this family is herein reported from Turkey. Also, the transfers of four taxa of Enteromorpha to Ulva are proposed: Ulva intestinalis L. var. asexualis (Bliding) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding, 1963), Ulva intestinalis forma ramosa (Vinogradova) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma ramosa Vinogradova, 1974), Ulva intestinalis forma saprobia (Vinogradova) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma saprobia Vinogradova, 1974) and Ulva prolifera subsp. gullmariensis (Bliding) E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorphaprolifera subsp. gullmariensis Bliding, 1963). A total of 25 taxa (species and intraspecific) reported from Turkey. PMID:19086565

  4. A Summary of Reports of Ulvaceae (Chlorophyta From Turkey*

    Ergun Taskin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A revised list of the taxa of the Ulvaceae occurring in Turkey is reported in this research. A total of 25 taxa of this family is herein reported from Turkey. Also, the transfers of four taxa of Enteromorpha to Ulva are proposed: Ulva intestinalis L. var. asexualis (Bliding E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis var. asexualis Bliding, 1963, Ulva intestinalis forma ramosa (Vinogradova E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma ramosa Vinogradova, 1974, Ulva intestinalis forma saprobia (Vinogradova E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha intestinalis forma saprobia Vinogradova, 1974 and Ulva prolifera subsp. gullmariensis (Bliding E. Taskin comb. nov. (Enteromorpha prolifera subsp. gullmariensis Bliding, 1963. A total of 25 taxa (species and intraspecific reported from Turkey.

  5. Fauna vs flora contribution to the leaf epiphytes biomass in a Posidonia oceanica seagrass bed (Revellata Bay, Corsica).

    Lepoint, Gilles; Havelange, Stéphane; Gobert, Sylvie; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The epiphyte biomass of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves is mainly related to the substrate leaf availability. It decreases with increasing depth and increases from winter to summer, following the leaf biomass changes. In Revellata Bay (Gulf of Calvi, Corsica), at shallow depth (10m in this study) where photophilous algae grow, the fixed epifauna biomass accounts for about one third of leaf epiphytes biomass. At deeper depths in the Revellata Bay (20 and 30m), where shade-tolerant algae ...

  6. The effects of epiphytes on light harvesting and antioxidant responses in the seagrass posidonia oceanica

    Costa, Monya; Silva, Joo; Oliv, Irene; Barrote, Isabel; Alexandre, A.; Albano, Slvia; Santos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a subtidal seagrass whose leaves are commonly colonized by epiphytes. Epiphytes pose physical barriers to light penetration within the leaves, with possible significant impacts on photosynthesis. Furthermore, epiphytes can indirectly be responsible for leaf chlorosis, necrosis and senescence which are known to be related with the increase of oxygen reactive species (ROS) levels, potentially leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this work was ...

  7. Seagrass meadow structure alters interactions between the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and its predators

    Farina, S; Tomàs, Fiona; Prado, Patricia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Predation on sea urchins, which are important structuring agents in seagrass communities, can be modulated by habitat structural complexity. Here we examine the importance of meadow structure (leaf length and presence of unburied root-rhizome layer) in determining predation pressure on the main invertebrate herbivore of the temperate seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). The attributes of seagrass habitat complexity are subject to co...

  8. Effect of Acacia nilotica Fruit Extract on Serum Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Abuelgassim O. Abuelgassim

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to study the effects of Acacia nilotica Delile (Fabaceae) fruit extract on serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in control and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: Normal Control Rats (NC), normal control rats administered A. nilotica (NC+AN), Diabetic Control rats (DC) and diabetic rats administered A. nilot...

  9. Assessment of the ecological status of P. oceanica meadow with a no destructive shoot method

    Gobert, Sylvie; Lejeune, Pierre; Chry, Aurlia; Boissery, Pierre; Sartoretto, Stphane; Andral, Bruno; Lepoint, Gilles; Richir, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a protected species, included in the Red list of marine threatened species of the Mediterranean. Because of its sensitivity to disturbance, P. oceanica is used as a bioindicator to define the health status of coastal waters. Monitoring methods generally require to sample plants, followed by measurements on picked shoots. This implies the total destruction of several tens of shoots. This study presents a method, The Non Destructive Shoot Methodology: NDSM, t...

  10. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    2011-11-25

    ... (75 FR 27300), authorizes the permit holder to take ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata), spotted seals (P... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Mammal Laboratory, (Responsible Party: Dr. John Bengtson, Director), Seattle, WA, has applied for...

  11. Nomenclatural notes in Membracidae (Homoptera: new combination and new synonymies in Amastris Stål, 1862

    Albino Morimasa Sakakibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The following nomenclatural changes are made: Amastris convoluta (Fabricius, 1781 comb. nov. (formerly Darnis; Hebetica; Amastris maculata Funkhouser, 1922 = Amastris fasciata Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris pseudomaculata Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris inermis Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris sakakibarai Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov.; Amastris elevata Funkhouser, 1922 = Amastris vismiae Haviland, 1925 syn. nov. = Amastris flavifolia Funkhouser, 1927 syn. nov.

  12. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    2013-08-13

    ... 15 and requested public comments (78 FR 31511). The proposed rule and the regulatory amendment... small business size standards for several industries effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398). The rule... amberjack, Seriola dumerili Lesser amberjack, Seriola fasciata Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana...

  13. Nomenclatural notes in Membracidae (Homoptera): new combination and new synonymies in Amastris Stål, 1862

    Albino Morimasa Sakakibara; Antonio José Creão-Duarte

    2002-01-01

    The following nomenclatural changes are made: Amastris convoluta (Fabricius, 1781) comb. nov. (formerly Darnis; Hebetica); Amastris maculata Funkhouser, 1922 = Amastris fasciata Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris pseudomaculata Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris inermis Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris sakakibarai Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov.; Amastris elevata Funkhouser, 1922 = Amastris vismiae Haviland, 1925 syn. nov. = Amastris flavifolia Funkhouser, 1927 syn. nov.

  14. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    C. M BRAVO-LINARES; S. M MUDGE; R. H LOYOLA-SEPULVEDA

    2010-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Fucus serratus (Linnaeus), Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus), Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus), formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmari...

  15. Endogenic loliolide, phenylethylamine and exogeniccompounds in marine algae

    Gven, Kas?m Cemal; Coban, Burak; zk?r?ml?, Sumru; Erdugan, Huseyin; Sezik, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    AbstractEndogenic compound loliolide in marine algae Laurencia obtusa var. pyramidata, Chondria capillaris, Ceramium rubrum, Cystaseira barbata, Ulva rigida, and Ulva intestinalis and phenylethylamine in Chondria capillaris were found. Exogenic compounds were mainly petroleum components and phthalate derivatives. These findings are reported forthe first time for the examined algae. These algae are eaten in some eastern Asian countries but its human consumption is not recommended because they ...

  16. Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed

    Sornalakshmi V; Venkataraman Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR), chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin) content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be m...

  17. Interaction between Ammonium Toxicity and Green Tide Development Over Seagrass Meadows: A Laboratory Study

    Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Vergara, Juan J.; Pérez-Llorens, J. Lucas; Pedersen, Morten F.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication affects seagrasses negatively by increasing light attenuation through stimulation of biomass of fast-growing, bloom-forming algae and because high concentrations of ammonium in the water can be toxic to higher plants. We hypothesized nevertheless, that moderate amounts of nitrophilic macroalgae that coexists with seagrasses under eutrophic conditions, can alleviate the harmful effects of eutrophication on seagrasses by reducing ammonium concentrations in the seawater to non-toxic levels because such algae have a very large capacity to take up inorganic nutrients. We studied therefore how combinations of different ammonium concentrations (0, 25 and 50 μM) and different standing stocks of macroalgae (i.e. 0, 1 and 6 layers of Ulva sp.) affected survival, growth and net production of the seagrass Zostera noltei. In the absence of Ulva sp., increasing ammonium concentrations had a negative influence on the performance of Z. noltei. The presence of Ulva sp. without ammonium supply had a similar, but slightly smaller, negative effect on seagrass fitness due to light attenuation. When ammonium enrichment was combined with presence of Ulva sp., Ulva sp. ameliorated some of negative effects caused by high ammonium availability although Ulva sp. lowered the availability of light. Benthic microalgae, which increased in biomass during the experiment, seemed to play a similar role as Ulva sp.–they contributed to remove ammonium from the water, and thus, aided to keep the ammonium concentrations experienced by Z. noltei at relatively non-toxic levels. Our findings show that moderate amounts of drift macroalgae, eventually combined with increasing stocks of benthic microalgae, may aid seagrasses to alleviate toxic effects of ammonium under eutrophic conditions, which highlights the importance of high functional diversity for ecosystem resistance to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27035662

  18. New insights for an old topic: seagrasses as bioindicators of coastal trace element pollution

    Richir, Jonathan; Lejeune, Pierre; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The marine magnoliophyte Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile has been widely used since the mid-70th to biomonitor the coastal pollution of the Mediterranean in Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and/or Fe. In contrast, other trace elements (TEs) like As, V, Ag, Be, Al, Mn, Co, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb and Bi, many of them categorized as TEs of environmental emerging concern, have been subject to nearly no ecotoxicological survey with that species. It has been shown that the French Mediterranean littoral was submitted ...

  19. Death in the octopus' garden: fatal blue-lined octopus envenomations of adult green sea turtles.

    Townsend, Kathy A; Altvater, Jens; Thomas, Michael C; Schuyler, Qamar A; Nette, Geoffrey W

    2012-01-01

    The blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata contains the powerful neuromuscular blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), which causes muscle weakness and respiratory failure. H. fasciata is regarded as one of the most venomous marine animals in the world, and multiple human fatalities have been attributed to the octopus. To date, there have been no recorded incidents of an envenomation of a wild animal. Here, we present a newly developed, multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry technique that provides unequivocal evidence for two cases of envenomation of two ~110 kg herbivorous green sea turtles by two tiny cryptic blue-lined octopuses (~4 cm body length). These cases of accidental ingestion provide evidence for the first time of the antipredator effect of TTX and highlight a previously unconsidered threat to turtles grazing within seagrass beds. PMID:24391271

  20. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the circumglobally distributed genus Seriola (Pisces: Carangidae).

    Swart, Belinda L; von der Heyden, Sophie; Bester-van der Merwe, Aletta; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-12-01

    The genus Seriola includes several important commercially exploited species and has a disjunct distribution globally; yet phylogenetic relationships within this genus have not been thoroughly investigated. This study reports the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny for this genus based on mitochondrial (Cytb) and nuclear gene (RAG1 and Rhod) DNA sequence data for all extant Seriola species (nine species, n=27). All species were found to be monophyletic based on Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The closure of the Tethys Sea (12-20 MYA) coincides with the divergence of a clade containing ((S. fasciata and S. peruana), S. carpenteri) from the rest of the Seriola species, while the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (±3 MYA) played an important role in the divergence of S. fasciata and S. peruana. Furthermore, factors such as climate and water temperature fluctuations during the Pliocene played important roles during the divergence of the remaining Seriola species. PMID:26279346

  1. Two new species and one new record of Parakiefferiella Thienemann, 1936 from China (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Bingjiao; Yan, Chuncai; Song, Chao; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Parakiefferiella Thienemann, 1936 (Parakiefferiella fasciata Liu & Wang, sp. n. and Parakiefferiella liupanensis Liu & Wang, sp. n.) are described as adult males from China. Parakiefferiella tamatriangulata Sasa is recorded from China for the first time. A key to the known adult males of Parakiefferiella from China is presented. The generic diagnosis of male Parakiefferiella given by Cranston et al. (1989) is emended. PMID:26798300

  2. Spider leg autotomy induced by prey venom injection: An adaptive response to “pain”?*

    Eisner, Thomas; Camazine, Scott

    1983-01-01

    Field observations showed orb-weaving spiders (Argiope spp.) to undergo leg autotomy if they are stung in a leg by venomous insect prey (Phymata fasciata). The response occurs within seconds, before the venom can take lethal action by spread to the body of the spiders. Autotomy is induced also by honeybee venom and wasp venom, as well as by several venom components (serotonin, histamine, phospholipase A2, melittin) known to be responsible for the pain characteristically elicited by venom inje...

  3. Intra-annual patterns in adult band-tailed pigeon survival estimates

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Overton, Cory T.; Howe, Kristy H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) is a migratory species occurring in western North America with low recruitment potential and populations that have declined an average of 2.4% per year since the 1960s. Investigations into band-tailed pigeon demographic rates date back to the early 1900s, and existing annual survival rate estimates were derived in the 1970s using band return data.

  4. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

    Marcelo E Oliva; Jos L Luque

    1998-01-01

    Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Per) yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea). Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectop...

  5. Efficient Extraction of Starch from Microalgae Using Ultrasonic Homogenizer and Its Conversion into Ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

    Chikako Asada; Keita Doi; Chizuru Sasaki; Yoshitoshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    To utilize starch and protein contained in microalgae as carbon and nitrogen sources for ethanol production, an extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic treatment using a homogenizer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of extracted microalgae solution were studied using Chlamydomonas fasciata Ettl 437. 30 min of ultrasonic treatment gave the maximum extraction ratio of starch contained in microalgae, i.e. 93.8%, that corresponded to 0.408 g-starch/g-dry micr...

  6. Aquaculture Asia, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp.1-34, October - December 2006

    2006-01-01

    Rural aquaculture: recent developments in Chinese inland aquaculture, by Peter Edwards. Reducing feed costs in aquaculture: is the use of mixed feeding schedules the answer for semi-intensive practices? by Sena S. De Silva Seed production technology of ornamental gouramis Colisa fasciata and C. lalia under captive conditions - an experience in Assam, India, by S.K. Das and N. Kalita Second Workshop on Economics and Marketing of Live Reef Fish in the Asia-Pacific held at the W...

  7. Cu(II) binding by dried biomass of red, green and brown macroalgae.

    Murphy, Vanessa; Hughes, Helen; McLoughlin, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Dried biomass of the marine macroalgae Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus (brown), Ulva spp. (comprising Ulva linza, Ulva compressa and Ulva intestinalis) and Ulva lactuca (green), Palmaria palmata and Polysiphonia lanosa (red) were studied in terms of their Cu(II) biosorption performance. This is the first study of its kind to compare Cu(II) uptake by these seaweeds in the South-East of Ireland. Potentiometric and conductimetric titrations revealed a variety of functionalities on the seaweed surface including carboxyl and amino groups, which are capable of metal binding. It was also found that, of the seaweeds investigated, F. vesiculosus contained the greatest number of acidic surface binding sites while Palmaria palmata contained the least. The metal uptake capacities of the seaweeds increased with increasing pH and kinetic behaviour followed a similar pattern for all seaweeds: a rapid initial sorption period followed by a longer equilibrium period. P. palmata reached equilibrium within 10min of exposure while F. vesiculosus required 60min. Correlation was found between the total number of acidic binding sites and the time taken to reach equilibrium. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis of the seaweeds revealed the interaction of carboxyl, amino, sulphonate and hydroxyl groups on the seaweed surface with Cu(2+) ions while time course studies established the relative contribution of each of these groups in metal binding. PMID:17234234

  8. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively.

  9. Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses

    Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

    2013-12-01

    The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) and increased erosion rate (E), since their feeding activities diminished the surface stabilizing effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microphytobenthos. S. plana had the highest and H. ulvae the lowest impact when related to density (factor of 29 for uc and factor of 19 for E), while H. ulvae was more important than S. plana when related to biomass (factor of 4 for uc and factor of 6 for E). N. diversicolor had intermediate density-specific (4-6 times higher than H. ulvae) and lowest biomass-specific (2-3 times lower than S. plana) effects on erosion. It appears that faunal erosion impacts preferably should be reported in biomass units for comparative purposes because individual behavioural effects of a small-bodied species like H. ulvae functionally can be relatively more important than those of a 100 times heavier S. plana individual. This is clearly evidenced from the strongly diminished response in suspended Chlorophyll-a content in the presence of the former than the latter species, which is caused by an efficient microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae. It is also important to emphasize that the total faunal impact on erosion threshold in a certain area is dictated by combination of contributions from individual species. The total outcome is unpredictable and controlled by synergistic and antagonistic species-specific effects, species interactions as well as environmental and sediment conditions.

  10. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  11. Trace metals in Mediterranean area; Metalli in tracce nell'ambiente marino. Individuazione di bioindicatori per l'area mediterranea

    Cubadda, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy); Conti, M. E. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Controllo e Gestione delle Merci e del loro impatto sull' Ambiente; Campanella, L. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2000-12-01

    The possible use of six marine organisms as cosmopolitan bio monitors of trace metals in the Mediterranean area was evaluated. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the gastropod molluscs Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi. The selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. The potential of each species as trace metal bio monitor is discussed in view of its diffusion, reliable taxonomic identification and accumulation capability. [Italian] Al fine di acquisire conoscenze utili a valutare il possibile utilizzo di una serie di organismi diffusi nelle zone costiere dei nostri mari come biondicatori cosmopoliti per l'area mediterranea, esemplari appartenenti a queste specie sono stati campionati in siti caratterizzati da diversi gradi di contaminazione ambientale sulle coste dell'isola di Favignana, la maggiore del comprensorio delle Egadi (Sicilia). Le specie studiate sono l'alga bruna Padina pavonica, Thivy, la fanerogama marina Posidonia oceania Delile e i gasteropodi Patella caerulea L., Patella lusitanica Gmelin, Monodonta turbinata Born, Monodonta mutabilis Philippi.

  12. Effect of temperature, salinity and biofilm on the zoospores settlement of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh

    Imchen, T.

    that predicts the attachment behavior of Ulva linza zoospores on surface topography. Biofouling , 26 (2010) 411-419. 7 Finlay J A, Krishnan S, Callow M E, Callow J A, Dong R, Asgill, N, Wong K, Kramer E J & Ober C K, Settlement of Ulva zoospores on patterned... (0.18%) was highest in 12 hours of incubation (Figure 3b). The surface of an object, moreover, is known to rapidly adsorb the organic/inorganic matter present in the water column when an object is immersed in seawater, thereby conditioning its...

  13. Antagonistic Effect of Epiphytic Bacteria from Marine Algae, Southeastern India

    A. Alex John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epibiotic bacteria from seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Dictyota dichotoma and Padina tetrastromatica against some potent human pathogens. The epibiotic bacteria of Ulva lactuca shows higher level of inhibition properties than the other species. The strain UL1 shows broad spectrum inhibitory activity against 7 pathogens. The inhibitory level of epibiotic bacteria ranged from low to moderate activity. The present investigation suggests that the epibiotic bacteria are good source for the isolation of antibacterial compounds of biomedical importance. The compounds can further be purified and can used to save mankind from dreadful diseases.

  14. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Elca Amara Ceclia Guedes; Cenira M. de Carvalho; Karlos Antonio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior; Thyago Fernando Lisboa Ribeiro; Lurdiana Dayse de Barros; Maria Raquel Ferreira de Lima; Flvia de Barros Prado Moura; Antnio Euzebio Goulart SantAna

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, ...

  15. Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)(PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate)(PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: morphology and thermal-mechanical properties.

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  16. Poly-(Epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: Morphology and thermal-mechanical properties

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  17. Sequences and phylogeny analysis of rbcL gene in marine chlorophyta

    Shen, Songdong; Li, Yanyan; Wu, Xunjian; Ding, Lanping

    2010-06-01

    The rbcL gene of Ulva pertusa, Enteromorpha prolifera and Monostroma grevillei was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. By comparing the rbcL sequences with seven other Ulvales species retrieved from GenBank, the sequence divergences and the phyletic evolution were analyzed and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. From the phylogenetic tree, it can be found that U. pertusa, E. prolifera and U. californica group in one branch, while E. compressa, U. rigida and U. fenestrata cluster in another clade. Obviously, unlike the Enteomorpha species, the Ulva species do not gather in one branch. Therefore Ulva and Enteomorpha might be affiliates of one genus. E. compressa and E. intestinalis gathered together, which coincided with the morphological characters. However, the thallus of U. pertusa is thick and with many holes, which is different from E. prolifera in morphology. They cluster together in the phylogenetic tree with a genetic distance of 0.005. The results indicate that Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinguished strictly.

  18. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (?15N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (?13C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months

  19. Vision in semi-aquatic snakes: Intraocular morphology, accommodation, and eye: Body allometry

    Plylar, Helen Bond

    Vision in vertebrates generally relies on the refractive power of the cornea and crystalline lens to facilitate vision. Light from the environment enters the eye and is refracted by the cornea and lens onto the retina for production of an image. When an animal with a system designed for air submerges underwater, the refractive power of the cornea is lost. Semi-aquatic animals (e.g., water snakes, turtles, aquatic mammals) must overcome this loss of corneal refractive power through visual accommodation. Accommodation relies on change of the position or shape of the lens to change the focal length of the optical system. Intraocular muscles and fibers facilitate lenticular displacement and deformation. Snakes, in general, are largely unstudied in terms of visual acuity and intraocular morphology. I used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine differences in eye anatomy between five sympatric colubrid snake species (Nerodia cyclopion, N. fasciata, N. rhombifer, Pantherophis obsoletus, and Thamnophis proximus) from Southeast Louisiana. I discovered previously undescribed structures associated with the lens in semi-aquatic species. Photorefractive methods were used to assess refractive error. While all species overcame the expected hyperopia imposed by submergence, there was interspecific variation in refractive error. To assess scaling of eye size with body size, I measure of eye size, head size, and body size in Nerodia cyclopion and N. fasciata from the SLU Vertebrate Museum. In both species, body size increases at a significantly faster rate than head size and eye size (negative allometry). Small snakes have large eyes relative to body size, and large snakes have relatively small eyes. There were interspecific differences in scaling of eye size with body size, where N. fasciata had larger eye diameter, but N. cyclopion had longer eyes (axial length).

  20. Novas espécies e notas sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Pará e do nordeste do Brasil New species and notes on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Pará and Brazilian norteastern

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected by P. Jauffert in Pará and by L. Ianuzzi in Alagoas and Sergipe, four new species are described: Temnopis fasciata sp. nov. (Oemini and Dihammaphoroides jaufferti sp. nov. (Cleomenini from Pará. This species breads in branches of Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens (Miq. J. W. Grimes, Fabaceae. Adetus tuberosus sp. nov. (Apomecynini and Mimasyngenes lucianae sp. nov. (Desmiphorini from Alagoas. New records and notes are provided for Neocompsa serrana (Martins, 1962 and Rhopalophora occipitalis Chevrolat, 1859.

  1. Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation

    Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

  2. Eufriesea nigrescens y E. Pretiosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini: un caso de oportunismo o simbiosis?

    Gonzlez B. Victor Hugo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Una colonia mixta se forma cuando un nido es ocupado por ms de una especie (Michener 1974. En Bombus, este tipo de colonias son muy comunes de manera natural; la reina de una especie invade el nido de otra, mata a la reina hospedera y pone sus propias cras (Michener 1974. Este tipo de relaciones interespecficas son raras en otros apidos y han sido registradas una sola vez entre dos especies de Meliponini: Melipona fuliginosa y M. panamica (= M. fasciata (Roubik 1981, Roubik, como pers., y dos especies de Euglossini: Eulaema cingulata y E. polychroma (Roubik 1990.

  3. Bromeliads production in greenhouses associated to different shading screens / Produo de bromlias sob malhas de sombreamento em casa de vegetao

    Ester, Holcman; Paulo Cesar, Sentelhas.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A produo de bromlias em ambiente protegido altamente influenciada pelo microclima, o qual afeta tanto o desenvolvimento como o crescimento das plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influncia de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nas variveis microclimticas e no cresc [...] imento da bromlia Aechmea fasciata em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente. Os tratamentos foram compostos por diferentes malhas de sombreamento: termo-refletora (T1), testemunha sem malha (T2), vermelha (T3), azul (T4) e preta (T5), todas com 70% de sombreamento. Das 60 plantas dispostas em cada um dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas 24 delas obtidas aleatoriamente. O delineamento estatstico foi inteiramente casualizado para as variveis biomtricas. Um sistema automtico de aquisio de dados micrometeorolgicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo registros de temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar e radiao solar. As variveis das plantas avaliadas foram altura e dimetro da planta, largura e comprimento das folhas e nmero de folhas por planta. O dimetro da roseta e o comprimento das folhas foram as variveis que apresentaram as maiores diferenas entre os tratamentos, em funo das alteraes na radiao solar causadas pelas malhas de sombreamento. A malha vermelha promoveu as melhores condies para a produo da bromlia A. fasciata. Abstract in english Bromeliads production in greenhouses is highly influenced by microclimate, which affects plants growth and development. Based on that, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of shading screens of different colors on microclimatic variables and Aechmea fasciata bromeliad growth in a greenhouse co [...] vered by transparent low-density polyethylene. The experiment had five treatments, with screens of different colors, inside a plastic greenhouse: thermo-reflective (T1); control without screen (T2); red (T3); blue (T4); and black (T5) screens, all of them with 70% of shading. From the 60 plants arranged in each one of the treatments 24 were evaluated, which were obtained randomly. The statistical design was completely randomized for the biometric variables. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, recording temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The plant parameters evaluated weekly were plant diameter and height, leaf width and length, and number of leaves per plant. The rosette diameter and leaf length were the parameters that presented the highest differences among treatments, which was basically a function of changes in solar radiation caused by the shading screens. The red screen provided the best conditions for A. fasciata bromeliad production.

  4. On some Polyglyptini (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae): new genus, new species and taxonomic notes

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    The following genera are treated: Ennya Stål, Gelastogonia Kirkaldy, gen.rev. and Notogonia, gen. n.; six new species are described and some nomenclatural changes introduced, as follow: 1) Ennya Stål, 1866 = Mille Stål, 1867, syn.n.; E. conica (Fairmaire, 1846) = Oxygonia accuminata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., (Lectotype of E. conica here designated); E. dorsalis (Fairmaire, 1846) (Lectotype here designated); E. ecuadorensis (Fowler, 1894) sp.rev.; E. fasciata (Fallou, 1890) sp.rev.; E. maculicorn...

  5. Rznin, Kurandaki Yeryz (Arz yetleriyle ?lgili Tefsir-i Kebirdeki Yorumlar?: Modern Jeoloji Biliminin Verileriyle K?sa Bir Mukayese

    Enver BAYRAM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bat? dnyas?nda bilimsel bulu? ve ke?iflerin yeni ba?lad??? bir dnemde, ?slam dnyas?nda birok bilimsel bulu? ve ke?if Mslman bilim adamlar? taraf?ndan ortaya konulmu?tur. Bu bulu? ve ke?iflerin yap?ld??? alanlardan biri de Jeoloji (yer ilmidir. Bu konuyu tefsirinde etrafl?ca ele alan Rz (. 606/1210, yer ile ilgili yetleri kendi dneminin ilmi verileri do?rultusunda ayr?nt?l? bir ?ekilde tefsir etmi?tir. Bu yzden onun baz? a?klamalar?, zaman zaman modern Jeoloji ilminin verilerine ters d?ebilmektedir. Onun, bu yetleri tefsir ederken en temel amac?, bunlar? Allah?n varl???na ve birli?ine delil getirmesi olmu?tur.

  6. AR StuI gen polimorfizminin androgenetik alopesi üzerine etkisi

    KIRMIZI, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Olay yerinde bulunan numunenin kaynağının fiziksel özelliklerinin belirlenmesi delil niteliğinde bilgi sağlamaktadır. Bireylerin görünüşlerinin en bariz tanımlayıcıları yüz özellikleri, boyu, ten rengidir. Ayrıca göz, saç ya da deri rengi ve saç yoğunluğu gibi fiziksel karakterlerle ilişkili SNP genotiplemesinin adli bilimler alanında yakın gelecekte kişisel kimliklendirme için yararlı bir araç olması beklenmektedir. Fiziksel bir özellik olan saç yoğunluğu ve bu konu hakk...

  7. The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.

    La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

    2015-01-15

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. PMID:25467874

  8. Spatial and seasonal distribution of the meiofauna in the seagrass posidonia oceanica

    Novak, R.

    Distribution and abundance of meiofauna in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile in Ischia, Gulf of Naples, Italy, was studied during the annual growth cycle of the plant. Changes in habitat complexity are described by examination of macroepiphytic coverage of the leaves, and changes in trophic conditions for meiofauna by Scanning Electron Microscope investigation of bacterial and diatom distributions on the leaves of the plant. Meiofauna density in the leaf region is related to the annual growth rhythm of Posidonia, with maximum densities in September and minima in November, after the leaf fall of the plant. In the stem region numerical density of meiofauna remains high all the year, and fluctuates less drastically than in the leaf region. In the leaf region, harpacticoids and nauplii dominate all the year; an increase in relative abundance of foraminifers, nematodes and polychaetes occures during summer. In the stem region nematodes, harpacticoids and foraminifera constitute most of the meiofauna.

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  10. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  11. HERPETOFAUNA DE SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS ( SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA HERPETOFAUNA FROM SIERRA DE LAS QUIJADAS (SAN LUIS, ARGENTINA

    Analía Guerreiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas se encuentra ubicado al noroeste de la provincia de San Luis. Fue creado en 1990 a fin de preservar parte del ecosistema semiárido, presentando una biodiversidad característica de un ambiente ecotonal de las provincias fitogeográficas del Chaco y del El Monte. En este trabajo se presenta una lista actualizada de anfibios y reptiles, integrada por 25 especies correspondientes a las familias Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. Las especies Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus corresponden a nuevas citas para el Parque Nacional Sierra de las QuijadasThe National Park Sierra de las Quijadas is located on the NW of the San Luis province. It was created in 1990 with aim of preserve part of the semiarid ecosystem. Its has a characteristic biodiversity of an ecotonal enviromen formed by the phytogeographic regions of El Chaco and El Monte. In this paper we present an actualized list of amphibians and reptiles. This list is formed by the families: Bufonidae (1, Leptodactyllidae (5, Testudinidae (1, Gekkonidae (3, Teiidae (3, Tropiduridae (3, Polychrotidae (1, Amphisbaenidae (1, Boidae (1, Colubridae (4 y Viperidae (2. The species Proctrotretus doellojuradoi, Homonota fasciata, Anops kingi y Bothrops alternatus represent new citations for the National Park Sierra de las Quijadas

  12. Antimicrobial Behavior of Semifluorinated-Quaternized Triblock Copolymers against Airborne and Marine Microorganisms

    Park, D.; Finlay, J; Ward, R; Weinman, C; Krishnan, S; Park, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; Callow, J; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Semifluorinated-quaternized triblock copolymers (SQTCs) were synthesized by chemical modification of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymers. Surface characterization of the polymers was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The surface of the SQTC showed very high antibacterial activity against the airborne bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with >99 % inhibition of growth. In contrast in marine fouling assays, zoospores of the green alga Ulva settled on the SQTC, which can be attributed to the positively charged surface. The adhesion strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula diatoms (a unicellular alga) was high. The SQTC did not show marked algicidal activity.

  13. Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food source

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fælled, Casper Cæsar; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Coastal seagrasses are declining at increasing rates worldwide, forcing herbivores previously reliant on these habitats to abandon them in search of alternative ways to fulfil their daily energy budgets. After two decades of declining seagrass abundance in Mariager Fjord, Denmark, the Svalbard...... breeding population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota has experienced substantial changes in habitat use at this traditional autumn staging area. Declines in seagrasses have caused birds to depend increasingly on Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca in recent years, and forced birds into terrestrial...... habitats such as saltmarsh and winter wheat. In contrast to those birds exploiting aquatic habitats, birds relying on these new habitats showed higher energy expenditure and failed to balance their energy budget. Eelgrass (Zostera) was energetically superior to other food resources, with marine Ulva being...

  14. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

  15. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment

    Ale, Marcel Tutor

    Marine seaweed that is washed up on the coastline is a nuisance as its degradation produces a foul a smell and generates waste problems. Exploitation of coastline-polluting seaweeds such as Sargassum sp., Ulva sp., and other beach-cast seaweed species for various commercial applications will......, as this treatment apparently disrupted the structural integrity of the polymer and evidently degraded carbohydrate chains of fucose residues during extraction. The results also revealed a maximal FCSPs yield of approximately 7% dry weight with Sargassum sp. using 0.03 M HCl at 90°C and 4-h extraction...... for the successful exploitation of cultivated seaweed like Ulva lactuca for commercial purposes is that the growth rate and yields should be optimized. In this study, the growth response of U.lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation was investigated using a photoscanning technique to monitor the...

  16. Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.

    Santos, Robson G.; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Antunes Paulo; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Baptistotte, Cecilia; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL = 44.0 cm (SD 6.7 cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

  17. Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen (15N / 14N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon (13C / 12C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Macroalgae fouling community as quality element for the evaluation of the ecological status in Vela Luka Bay, Croatia

    Gorana Jelic Mrcelic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One year qualitative and quantitative study of communities of three major taxonomic groups has been carried out at test panles placed in the upper infarlittoral zone of coastal area of Vela Luka Bay, Croatia. A list of 44 taxa was recorded. Chaetomorpha sp., Ulva sp., Fosliella farinosa, Sphacelaria cirrosa, Polysiphonia scopulorum were the most frequent dominant taxa. Among 27 algal taxa with noticeable presence only three were classified as ESG (Ecological State Groups I. Low diversity and species richness together with massive presence of the green algae (as Ulva sp. and negligible presence of ESG I taxa, may lead to erroneous conclusion that Vela Luka Bay is eutrophicated area. Low values of biomass and R/P (Rhodophyceae by Phaeophyceae ratio Index together with dominance of Phaeophyta also support conclusion that there is no negative impact of nutrient enrichment on macrophyta fouling community in Vela Luka Bay.

  19. Preparation and Analysis of Type II Xerogel Films with Antifouling/Foul Release Characteristics

    Sokolova, Anastasiya

    In order to combat biofouling, xerogel coatings comprised of aminopropyl, fluorocarbon, and hydrocarbon silanes were prepared and tested for their antifouling/foul release properties against Ulva, Navicula, barnacles, and tubeworms. Many of the coatings showed settlement and removal of Ulva to be as good as or better than the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMSE) standard. Barnacle removal assays showed excellent results for some coatings while others did not fair so well. The best foul release coatings for barnacles were comprised of aminopropyl/hydrocarbon- and fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified silanes. For the majority of coatings tested, water wettability and surface energy did not play a role in the antifouling/ foul release properties of the coatings.

  20. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Bruhn, Anette; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...... thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, it was found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that...

  1. Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses

    Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

    2013-01-01

    The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) a...

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    van Keulen Herman; de Visser Willem; Helsper Johannes PFG; van Ginneken Vincent JT; Brandenburg Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (...

  3. PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS BY TEMPERATE MACROALGAE: THE USE OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME COUPLED TO GC-MS AS METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    C. M BRAVO-LINARES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are produced by macroalgae in response to environmental stresses. A novel approach using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME was used to quantify the production of several VOCs from eight common intertidal algal species from the UK (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus, Fucus serratus (Linnaeus, Laminaria digitata (Hudson Lamouroux, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus, Ulva intestinalis (Linnaeus, formerly known as Enteromorpha, Palmariapalmata (Linnaeus Kuntze and Griffithsiaflosculosa (J. Ellis Batters. The volatile compounds included halogenated, sulphur containing, aldehydes, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and oxygenated species. Overall, the production of VOCs by these algae was not considerably different under illumination or in darkness; this suggests that the VOC production occurs during both algae photosynthesis and in other metabolic processes such as respiration or osmoregulation. Desiccation played an important role in the production of VOCs with greater production by macroalgae after desiccation. This production was related to the alga's normal position within the intertidal zone; there was a lower production of VOCs for species growing near the high water mark and a greater production for algae taken from the low tide position. There were also species differences in the VOC profiles and quantities released. For example, chlorinated and oxygenated compounds were principally released by the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, while green algae such as Ulva lactuca and Ulva intestinalis released greater amounts of brominated, sulphur containing compounds, aldehydes and non-methane hydrocarbons than the other algae tested. Thekelps (e.g. Laminaria digitata had the greatest release of iodinated compounds such as diiodomethane. These processes make significant contributions to the VOCs in seawater and, by transfer to the atmosphere, in the coastal atmosphere.

  4. Macroalgal mats in a eutrophic lagoon : dynamics and control mechanisms

    Malta, Erik-jan

    2000-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena of eutrophication in shallow coastal waters is the mass accumulation of macroalgae. These macroalgal blooms have a negative effect on the functioning of the ecosystem, fisheries activities and tourism. This thesis focuses on the regulation of seasonal and spatial dynamics of blooms of Ulva cf. scandinavica Bliding in the Veerse Meer, a eutrophic, brackish lake in the SW Netherlands. Studies have been performed on biomass dynamics, winter survival, taxonomy, ...

  5. Macroalgae fouling community as quality element for the evaluation of the ecological status in Vela Luka Bay, Croatia

    Gorana Jelic Mrcelic; Merica Sliskovic; Boris Antolic

    2012-01-01

    One year qualitative and quantitative study of communities of three major taxonomic groups has been carried out at test panles placed in the upper infarlittoral zone of coastal area of Vela Luka Bay, Croatia. A list of 44 taxa was recorded. Chaetomorpha sp., Ulva sp., Fosliella farinosa, Sphacelaria cirrosa, Polysiphonia scopulorum were the most frequent dominant taxa. Among 27 algal taxa with noticeable presence only three were classified as ESG (Ecological State Groups) I. Low diversity and...

  6. First report of the North Atlantic myrionematoid brown alga Ulonema rhizophorum Foslie (Phaeophyceae, Chordariaceae in the Mediterranean Sea

    E. TASKIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The myrionematoid brown alga Ulonema rhizophorum Foslie (Phaeophyceae, Chordariaceae is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. This species was collected growing as an epiphyte on Ulva sp. from the Dardanelles (Sea of Marmara, Turkey in the midlittoral zone. Ulonema rhizophorum is characterized by downwardly produced rhizoids from the basal system. A key to the Mediterranean related genera of Ulonema is provided.

  7. Effects of the sewage pollution in the structure and dynamics of the community of Cystoseira mediterranea (Fucales, Phaeophyceae)

    Rodríguez Prieto, Concepció; Polo Albertí, Lluís

    1996-01-01

    We performed a study on the specific composition, structure, and dynamics of two Cystoseira mediterranea communities from the north-western Mediterranean submitted to different degrees of pollution. The structural complexity (species richness, specific distribution, and species and pattern diversity) and biomass production were lower in the polluted site. In this station, opportunistic algae (mainly Ulva rigida) loomed, and Mesophyllum lichenoides and some encrusting brown algae increased the...

  8. Bacterial community assembly based on functional genes rather than species

    Burke, Catherine; Steinberg, Peter; Rusch, Doug; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The principles underlying the assembly and structure of complex microbial communities are an issue of long-standing concern to the field of microbial ecology. We previously analyzed the community membership of bacterial communities associated with the green macroalga Ulva australis, and proposed a competitive lottery model for colonization of the algal surface in an attempt to explain the surprising lack of similarity in species composition across different algal samples. Here we extend the p...

  9. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A.; Aref, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jed...

  10. Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile) Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile)

    RALF RAUTENBERGER; ANDRÉS MANSILLA; IVÁN GÓMEZ; CHRISTIAN WIENCKE; KAI BISCHOF

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittoral: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I) curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory un...

  11. Macroalgal Morphogenesis Induced by Waterborne Compounds and Bacteria in Coastal Seawater.

    Grueneberg, Jan; Engelen, Aschwin H; Costa, Rodrigo; Wichard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Axenic gametes of the marine green macroalga Ulva mutabilis Føyn (Ria Formosa, locus typicus) exhibit abnormal development into slow-growing callus-like colonies with aberrant cell walls. Under laboratory conditions, it was previously demonstrated that all defects in growth and thallus development can be completely abolished when axenic gametes are inoculated with a combination of two specific bacterial strains originally identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6. These bacteria release diffusible morphogenetic compounds (= morphogens), which act similar to cytokinin and auxin. To investigate the ecological relevance of the waterborne bacterial morphogens, seawater samples were collected in the Ria Formosa lagoon (Algarve, Southern Portugal) at 20 sampling sites and tidal pools to assess their morphogenetic effects on the axenic gametes of U. mutabilis. Specifically the survey revealed that sterile-filtered seawater samples can completely recover growth and morphogenesis of U. mutabilis under axenic conditions. Morphogenetic activities of free-living and epiphytic bacteria isolated from the locally very abundant Ulva species (i.e., U. rigida) were screened using a multiwell-based testing system. The most represented genera isolated from U. rigida were Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Sulfitobacter followed by Psychrobacter and Polaribacter. Several naturally occurring bacterial species could emulate MS2 activity (= induction of cell divisions) regardless of taxonomic affiliation, whereas the MS6 activity (= induction of cell differentiation and cell wall formation) was species-specific and is probably a feature of difficult-to-culture bacteria. Interestingly, isolated bacteroidetes such as Algoriphagus sp. and Polaribacter sp. could individually trigger complete Ulva morphogenesis and thus provide a novel mode of action for bacterial-induced algal development. This study also highlights that the accumulation of algal growth factors in a shallow water body separated from the open ocean by barrier islands might have strong implications to, for example, the wide usage of natural coastal seawater in algal (land based) aquacultures of Ulva. PMID:26745366

  12. Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine coastal ecosystems

    Preliminary results are reported from field and laboratory studies on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms of Northwest Pacific coastal ecosystems. Chemical methods for the characterization of test solutions for specific hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, and heptodecane) were developed concurrently with population and community studies of the effects of short-term and chronic exposures. Results are reported from studies on algae (Ulva), clams (protothaca staminea), crustaceans (Anomyx and Neomysis) and burrowing worms

  13. Chemical diversity in opisthobranch molluscs from scarcely investigated Indo-Pacific areas

    Wahidullah, S.; Guo, Y.-W.; Fakhr, I.M.I.; Mollo, E.

    suctorial herbivorous habits. Chemical studies have shown that these molluscs have the ability to either accumulate sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and depsipeptides from their prey or modify such molecules or to biosynthesize polypropionates (Cimino... algae: Udotea flabellum, Halimeda macroloba, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Enhalus acroides and Ulva lactuca (Padmakumar and Lali 1996). Extracts of the alga and the animal deterred both herbivorous and carnivorous fishes as well as the sea star...

  14. Macroalgal Morphogenesis Induced by Waterborne Compounds and Bacteria in Coastal Seawater

    Grueneberg, Jan; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Costa, Rodrigo; Wichard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Axenic gametes of the marine green macroalga Ulva mutabilis Fyn (Ria Formosa, locus typicus) exhibit abnormal development into slow-growing callus-like colonies with aberrant cell walls. Under laboratory conditions, it was previously demonstrated that all defects in growth and thallus development can be completely abolished when axenic gametes are inoculated with a combination of two specific bacterial strains originally identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6. These bacteria release diffusible morphogenetic compounds (= morphogens), which act similar to cytokinin and auxin. To investigate the ecological relevance of the waterborne bacterial morphogens, seawater samples were collected in the Ria Formosa lagoon (Algarve, Southern Portugal) at 20 sampling sites and tidal pools to assess their morphogenetic effects on the axenic gametes of U. mutabilis. Specifically the survey revealed that sterile-filtered seawater samples can completely recover growth and morphogenesis of U. mutabilis under axenic conditions. Morphogenetic activities of free-living and epiphytic bacteria isolated from the locally very abundant Ulva species (i.e., U. rigida) were screened using a multiwell-based testing system. The most represented genera isolated from U. rigida were Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Sulfitobacter followed by Psychrobacter and Polaribacter. Several naturally occurring bacterial species could emulate MS2 activity (= induction of cell divisions) regardless of taxonomic affiliation, whereas the MS6 activity (= induction of cell differentiation and cell wall formation) was species-specific and is probably a feature of difficult-to-culture bacteria. Interestingly, isolated bacteroidetes such as Algoriphagus sp. and Polaribacter sp. could individually trigger complete Ulva morphogenesis and thus provide a novel mode of action for bacterial-induced algal development. This study also highlights that the accumulation of algal growth factors in a shallow water body separated from the open ocean by barrier islands might have strong implications to, for example, the wide usage of natural coastal seawater in algal (land based) aquacultures of Ulva. PMID:26745366

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophyll - A, B and Total Carotenoid Contents of Some Algae Species Using Different Solvents

    DERE, Şükran

    1998-01-01

    In our study, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and the total amounts of carotenoids in Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kuetzing, Ulva rigita L., Codium tomentosum (Huds.) Stackh and Cladostephus verticillatus Ag. species were determined. Methanol, acetone and diethyl ether were used as solvents. The chlorophyll amount in Cladophora glomerata L. Kuetzing, species and carotenoids in Cladostephus verticillatus Ag. were found the highest. It was observed that sonication had no much contribution to the e...

  16. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadège; Ménesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-04-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide' events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves') for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay, Guissény Bay and Douarnenez Bay). Calibration of the biological model was mainly based on the seasonal variation of the maximum nitrogen uptake rate (VmaxN) and the half-saturation constant for nitrogen (KN) to reproduce the internal nutrient quotas measured in situ for each site. In each bay, model predictions were in agreement with observed algal coverage converted into biomass. A numerical tracking method was implemented to identify the contribution of the rivers that empty into the study bays, and scenarios of decreases in nitrate concentration in rivers were simulated. Results from numerical nitrogen tracking highlighted the main nitrogen sources of green tides and also showed that each river contributes locally to green tides. In addition, dynamic modelling showed that the nitrate concentrations in rivers must be limited to between 5 and 15 mg l- 1, depending on the bay, to reduce Ulva biomass by half on the coasts. The three-step methodology developed in this study (analysing total dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux from rivers, tracking nitrogen sources in Ulva and developing scenarios for reducing nitrogen) provides qualitative and quantitative guidelines for stakeholders to define specific nitrogen reduction targets for better environmental management of water quality.

  17. Changes in epiphytic bacterial communities of intertidal seaweeds modulated by host, temporality, and copper enrichment.

    Hengst, Martha B; Andrade, Santiago; González, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the factors involved in regulating the composition and structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on intertidal macroalgae, exploring their temporal variability and the role of copper pollution. Culture-independent, molecular approaches were chosen for this purpose and three host species were used as models: the ephemeral Ulva spp. (Chlorophyceae) and Scytosiphon lomentaria (Phaeophyceae) and the long-living Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The algae were collected from two coastal areas in Northern Chile, where the main contrast was the concentration of copper in the seawater column resulting from copper-mine waste disposals. We found a clear and strong effect in the structure of the bacterial communities associated with the algal species serving as host. The structure of the bacterial communities also varied through time. The effect of copper on the structure of the epiphytic bacterial communities was significant in Ulva spp., but not on L. nigrescens. The use of 16S rRNA gene library analysis to compare bacterial communities in Ulva revealed that they were composed of five phyla and six classes, with approximately 35 bacterial species, dominated by members of Bacteroidetes (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) and α-Proteobacteria, in both non-polluted and polluted sites. Less common groups, such as the Verrucomicrobiae, were exclusively found in polluted sites. This work shows that the structure of bacterial communities epiphytic on macroalgae is hierarchically determined by algal species > temporal changes > copper levels. PMID:20333374

  18. Development and evaluation of a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of nine harmful algal species in ship ballast and seaport waters

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qianjin; Duan, Weijun; Zhou, Chengxu; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Huili; Sun, Aili; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, high-throughput and reliable methods are urgently required to accurately detect and monitor harmful algae, which are responsible for algal blooms, such as red and green tides. In this study, we successfully developed a multiplex PCR-based DNA microarray method capable of detecting nine harmful algal species simultaneously, namely Alexandrium tamarense, Gyrodinium instriatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Prorocentrum minimum, Ulva compressa, Ulva ohnoi and Ulva prolifera. This method achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng of genomic DNA (orders of magnitude of the deci-nanogram range) in the tested algae cultures. Altogether, 230 field samples from ship ballast waters and seaport waters were used to evaluate the DNA microarray. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DNA microarray assay in detecting field samples were 96.4% and 90.9%, respectively, relative to conventional morphological methods. This indicated that this high-throughput, automatic, and specific method is well suited for the detection of algae in water samples.

  19. Biosorption of lanthanides using three kinds of seaweed biomasses

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of seaweed biomass as sorbent for rare earth elements (REEs), sorption experiment from aqueous solutions containing known amount of lanthanide (La, Eu or Yb) using three kinds of Ca-loaded dried seaweeds (brown algae: Sargassum hemiphyllum, green algae: Ulva pertusa and red algae: Schizymenia dubyi) in single component system was explored. Furthermore, the sorption mechanism of these elements was investigated by applying Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to the data obtained. In addition, to confirm the characteristics of the seaweed biomasses, the surface morphology of the biomass before and after metal adsorption was determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The morphology of Sargassum hemiphyllum and Ulva pertusa surface has hardly changed even after exposing to metals. On the other hand, the change of the surface condition on Schizymenia dubyi after adsorption was observed. (2) Adsorption isotherms using the seaweed biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for lanthanide. These adsorption may have occurred mainly by monolayer reaction because of better-fitting for Langmuir model. (3) The seaweed biomasses could be an efficient sorbent for REEs. Particularly, Ulva pertusa is found to be a promising biosorbent for removing La. (4) Ion-exchange process is considered to be the main mechanism responsible for the sorption of lanthanide ion onto the seaweed biomass. (author)

  20. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and δ15N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in δ15N among sites, but with two exceptions had δ15N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (δ15N = ∼14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries

  1. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.

    Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

    2011-10-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively. PMID:22180886

  2. Comparison of the Fouling Release Properties of Hydrophobic Fluorinated and Hydrophilic PEGylated Block Copolymer Surfaces

    Krishnan,S.; Wang, N.; Ober, C.; Finlay, J.; Callow, M.; Callow, J.; Hexemer, A.; Sohn, K.; Kramer, E.; Fischer, D.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the role of surface wettability in adhesion of cells, the attachment of two different marine algae was studied on hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer surfaces. Adhesion of cells of the diatom Navicula and sporelings (young plants) of the green macroalga Ulva to an underwater surface is mainly by interactions between the surface and the adhesive exopolymers, which the cells secrete upon settlement and during subsequent colonization and growth. Two types of block copolymers, one with poly(ethylene glycol) side-chains and the other with liquid crystalline, fluorinated side-chains, were used to prepare the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The formation of a liquid crystalline smectic phase in the latter inhibited molecular reorganization at the surface, which is generally an issue when a highly hydrophobic surface is in contact with water. The adhesion strength was assessed by the fraction of settled cells (Navicula) or biomass (Ulva) that detached from the surface in a water flow channel with a wall shear stress of 53 Pa. The two species exhibited opposite adhesion behavior on the same sets of surfaces. While Navicula cells released more easily from hydrophilic surfaces, Ulva sporelings showed higher removal from hydrophobic surfaces. This highlights the importance of differences in cell-surface interactions in determining the strength of adhesion of cells to substrates.

  3. Analytic methods for predicting biosettlement on patterned surfaces

    Long, Christopher James

    Marine organism fouling of surfaces has significant impact on our environment and the economy. Increased fuel use due to drag costs approximately $600 million annually in the United States alone. The efficiency of marine vessels substantially decreases due to fouling. Toxins in some antifouling paints accumulate in the marine environment and produce negative effects on the marine ecology. There is a critical need for effective non-toxic, anti-fouling, marine coatings that reduce operational costs and the overall environmental impact of ocean vessels on the environment. Our approach is to investigate the interaction between the wettability of surfaces with the response of fouling organisms. One of the ways the wettability can be influenced is through the use of topography. Since the topographies have directionality, the direction dependence of the wettability was determined on several microscale topographies that have previously shown antifouling potential. Breaking microscale ridges into the discontinuous features in the antifouling topographies reduced the anisotropies in the contact angles, but did not eliminate anisotropy. The number of distinct features in the design and the area fraction of the topographic features were found to influence settlement of the fouling alga Ulva linza. A biosettlement model, refined from previous work, predicts the settlement of Ulva linza to three previously untested surfaces. These surfaces significantly reduced the settlement of these spores in vitro by up to 78%. The attachment of another species of fouler, the diatom Navicula perminuta, was reduced by approximately 35% on several surfaces that reduced Ulva linza settlement. The Navicula cells responded differently to the topographies than the Ulva linza spores. A mapping technique was developed to determine the two-dimensional settlement pattern of cells on the topographical surfaces. This technique revealed and quantified several preferential locations for Ulva linza settlement on engineered topographies. The characteristics of these locations can be further investigated to elucidate the driving factors for the interaction of these cells. Other applications, such as the medical devices and tissue scaffolds, could benefit from investigating the localized interactions between various cells and surface patterns.

  4. Taxonomic changes in the treehopper genera Helonica Ball, Telamona Fitch, and Palonica Ball (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae: Telamonini).

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Nomenclatural changes within the treehopper tribe Telamonini are made as follows based on an examination of the type material of several species: the genus Helonica Ball is a junior synonym of Telamona Fitch, n. syn.; Telamona excelsa (Fairmaire), n. comb., with n. syn. T. unicolor Fitch; T. projecta Butler is reinstated from synonymy as a valid taxon for the North American taxa historically placed in Helonica; and Palonica albidorsata (Fowler) from Mexico, n. comb., is reinstated from synonymy based on morphological differences with T. excelsa and T. projecta. Lectotype designations are clarified for T. fasciata and T. unicolor based on specimens in the New York State Museum (NYSM). As a result of this work, the tribe Telamonini contains 68 species in 10 genera, the genus Palonica contains 7 species, and the genus Telamona contains 29 species. PMID:26623805

  5. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  6. The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844: an ecological approach

    Marcelo E. Oliva

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

  7. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

    Oliva Marcelo E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Per yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Nio Southern Oscillation phenomena.

  8. The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach.

    Oliva, M E; Luque, J L; Iannacone, J A

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Per, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken off Chorrillos, Per, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms. PMID:2134702

  9. Metazoan parasite infracommunities in five sciaenids from the central Peruvian Coast.

    Oliva, M E; Luque, J

    1998-01-01

    Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Per) yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea). Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H) and evenness (J') were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Nio Southern Oscillation phenomena. PMID:9698888

  10. Metazoos parsitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae capturados por pesquera artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Per Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae, caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru

    Jos Iannacone

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Per, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estndar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 1,65. Los parsitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las tcnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122. El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parsitos fue 1,9 (1-4. Un hospedero no present ningn parsito. 20 hospederos (19,04% mostraron infeccin con un solo parsito, 77 (73,33% y 7 (6,66% tuvieron una infeccin mltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parsitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parsitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56 y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07. Se encontr efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infeccin de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y tambin efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infeccin con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades segn el ndice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H' = 0,11 y el ndice de Simpson (C = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la dcada anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad.A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 females. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 1.65. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122 were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4. One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04% showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33% and seven (6.66% had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07 were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H' = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

  11. Studies on inducing mutations in bougainvllea

    The present work was carried on Bougainvillea spp at the Experimental Farm of Agriculture, Zagazig University, during the two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006.The aim of this investigation was to study the response of two cultivars of Bougainvillea; i.e, B. glabra (white flowering variety) and B. buttiana Mrs Butte (red, flowering variety) to physical mutagen gamma, ray (0.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Krad.) and chemical mutagen (N-nitroso-N methyle Urea) NMU 0.000, .010, 0.015, 0.020 and 0.025% . Mutations in growth traits, i.e., (compact plants and dwarfness), bracts colour, delay flowering, flower bearing, leaf shape and chlorophyll mutation, flower cluster, length and fasciata were appeared. In M2, NMU was efficient than gamma radiation and the variation and the mutations in B. buttiana Mrs Butte (red flowering variety) were higher than that of B. glabra (white flowering variety)

  12. Bogomoljke (MANTODEA) na poluotoku Pelješcu (južna Hrvatska)

    Romanowski, Jerzy; Romanowski, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Istraživanja bogomoljki provedena su na 9 lokaliteta smještenih duž sjeverne i južne obale te unutrašnjosti poluotoka Pelješca (južna Hrvatska). Tehnikom košnje pomoću entomološke mrežice i vizualnim opažanjima bogomoljke su proučavane od 27. srpnja do 8. kolovoza 2013. godine. Zabilježeno je 5 vrsta koje pripadaju u 4 roda, uključujući vrste Ameles cf. decolor (Charpentier, 1825), A. spallanzania (Rossi, 1792), Iris oratoria (Linnaeus, 1758), Mantis religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 I Empusa fasciata...

  13. Probability of detecting band-tailed pigeons during call-broadcast versus auditory surveys

    Kirkpatrick, C.; Conway, C.J.; Hughes, K.M.; Devos, J.C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of population trend for the interior subspecies of band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata fasciata) are not available because no standardized survey method exists for monitoring the interior subspecies. We evaluated 2 potential band-tailed pigeon survey methods (auditory and call-broadcast surveys) from 2002 to 2004 in 5 mountain ranges in southern Arizona, USA, and in mixed-conifer forest throughout the state. Both auditory and call-broadcast surveys produced low numbers of cooing pigeons detected per survey route (x?? ??? 0.67) and had relatively high temporal variance in average number of cooing pigeons detected during replicate surveys (CV ??? 161%). However, compared to auditory surveys, use of call-broadcast increased 1) the percentage of replicate surveys on which ???1 cooing pigeon was detected by an average of 16%, and 2) the number of cooing pigeons detected per survey route by an average of 29%, with this difference being greatest during the first 45 minutes of the morning survey period. Moreover, probability of detecting a cooing pigeon was 27% greater during call-broadcast (0.80) versus auditory (0.63) surveys. We found that cooing pigeons were most common in mixed-conifer forest in southern Arizona and density of male pigeons in mixed-conifer forest throughout the state averaged 0.004 (SE = 0.001) pigeons/ha. Our results are the first to show that call-broadcast increases the probability of detecting band-tailed pigeons (or any species of Columbidae) during surveys. Call-broadcast surveys may provide a useful method for monitoring populations of the interior subspecies of band-tailed pigeon in areas where other survey methods are inappropriate.

  14. Evaluacin de germoplasma de achiote Bixa orellana L.: estudios bsicos sobre asociaciones fenotpicas y biologa floral

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available 150 Bixa genetic resources was collected by National University of Colombia for purposes of conservation, evaluation and utilization in genetic breeding program. 21 accessions was evaluated for color production, seed production per plant and color porcentaje. B-Col 12, B-Col 16 and B-Co156 accessions showed highest values for seed production per plant and color percentaje. The achiote flower is hermafrodite, regular, calix formed by 5 sepales, coro le formed by 5 petales, numerous estames, superior and unilocular ovary. Antesis is 5:30 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. range. Protandria is present in achiote: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata and Trigona sp. are the pollinizator insects. A methodoly for controlled polinization was carried out.En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, seccional de Palmira se form una coleccin de achiote Bixa orellana L. con 70 introducciones nacionales y 80 extranjeras. En 21 introducciones se encontr amplia variacin fenotpica para los caracteres rendimiento de colorante por rbol y rendimiento de semilla por rbol. La variabilidad del carcter porcentaje de colorante fue menor. Las introducciones B-Col 12, B-Col 16 y B-Col 56 presentaron valores altos para los caracteres rendimiento de semilla por rbol y porcentaje de colorante. La flor del achiote es hermafrodita, regular, cliz compuesto de cinco spalos, corola por cinco ptalos libres, numerosos estambres, gineceo constituido por un ovario spero unilocular. La antesis floral ocurre entre las 5:30 a.m. y las 8:00 a.m. Se presenta el fenmeno de protandria. Los principales insectos polinizadores son: Bombus atratus, Euglossa fasciata y Trigona sp. Se determin una metodologa para efectuar hibridacin artificial en achiote.

  15. First toxin profile of ciguateric fish in Madeira Arquipelago (Europe).

    Otero, Paz; Prez, Sheila; Alfonso, Amparo; Vale, Carmen; Rodrguez, Paula; Gouveia, Neide N; Gouveia, Nuno; Delgado, Joo; Vale, Paulo; Hirama, Masahiro; Ishihara, Yuuki; Molg, Jordi; Botana, Luis M

    2010-07-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a human foodborne intoxication caused by ingestion of tropical fishes contaminated with the potent polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins (CTXs). These toxins are issued from Gambierdiscus species of dinoflagellates. Herbivorous fish accumulate these toxins in their musculature and viscera after ingesting dinoflagellates. Epidemiological studies showed that CFP has been present in areas between 35 degrees North and 35 degrees South latitude, mainly, Indo-pacific and Caribbean areas, but not in waters closed to European and African continent. In the present paper, a specimen of Seriola dumerili weighing 70 kg and a smaller Seriola fasciata specimen, captured in waters belonging to Selvagens Islands (Madeira Arquipelago), were analyzed. Fishes from this genus were implicated in previous suspected ciguatera poisoning outbreaks in the Portuguese Madeira Arquipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis was performed by two approaches, a functional method using cerebellar granule cells and by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method. The study was carried out in one portion of the tail muscle of Seriola fasciata and five parts of the body of Seriola dumerili (tail muscle, head, ventral muscle, mid muscle, and liver). The functional method consisted in the modification of the inward sodium current in cerebellar granule cells and the chemical method was a high resolution chromatography, which allowed elucidating the toxin profile in the samples. In addition, UPLC-MS technique was optimized and used for detecting and quantifying CTXs for the first time. After fish extraction and clean up, the chromatograms revealed the presence of CTX-1B at 1111.6 m/z, CTX-3C at 1023.5 m/z, a CTX analogue at 1040.6 m/z, and a CTX from the Caribbean or Indic waters at 1141.6 m/z. Therefore, the results obtained in the present paper for both methods confirm, for the first time, the presence of CTX in fish from Madeira Arquipelago. PMID:20557036

  16. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos de análise de dados: comparação entre a perda de biomassa e as mudanças por autogenia, e a incorporação dos valores de autogenia à perda de biomassa por herbivoria. Em ambos os experimentos observou-se uma clara preferência de L. variegatus por certas espécies de macroalgas em relação a outras, em ordem decrescente de preferência: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. Além disso, constatou-se que os dois métodos de análise produziram resultados muito similares. De acordo com os resultados, a preferência alimentar de L. variegatus é provavelmente condicionada pela química defensiva produzida por P. brasiliense e D. menstrualis e aspectos morfológicos presentes em C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba e Sargassum sp.

  17. New Ulvaceae (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from mesophotic ecosystems across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Spalding, Heather L; Conklin, Kimberly Y; Smith, Celia M; O'Kelly, Charles J; Sherwood, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Ulvalean algae (Chlorophyta) are most commonly described from intertidal and shallow subtidal marine environments worldwide, but are less well known from mesophotic environments. Their morphological simplicity and phenotypic plasticity make accurate species determinations difficult, even at the generic level. Here, we describe the mesophotic Ulvales species composition from 13 locations across 2,300 km of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Twenty-eight representative Ulvales specimens from 64 to 125 m depths were collected using technical diving, submersibles, and remotely operated vehicles. Morphological and molecular characters suggest that mesophotic Ulvales in Hawaiian waters form unique communities comprising four species within the genera Ulva and Umbraulva, each with discrete geographic and/or depth-related distributional patterns. Three genetically distinct taxa are supported by both plastid (rbcL and tufA) and nuclear (ITS1) markers, and are presented here as new species: Umbraulva kaloakulau, Ulva ohiohilulu, and Ulva iliohaha. We also propose a new Umbraulva species (Umbraulva kuaweuweu), which is closely related to subtidal records from New Zealand and Australia, but not formally described. To our knowledge, these are the first marine species descriptions from Hawai'i resulting from the collaboration of traditional Hawaiian nomenclature specialists, cultural practitioners and scientists. The difficulty of finding reliable diagnostic morphological characters for these species reflects a common problem worldwide of achieving accurate identification of ulvalean taxa using solely morphological criteria. Mesophotic Ulvales appear to be distinct from shallow-water populations in Hawai'i, but their degree of similarity to mesophotic floras in other locations in the Pacific remains unknown. PMID:26987087

  18. Cross-shelf transport of sub-thermocline nitrate by the internal tide and rapid (3-6 h) incorporation by an inshore macroalga

    Ladah, Lydia B.; Filonov, Anatoliy; Lavn, Miguel F.; Leichter, James J.; Zertuche-Gonzlez, Jos A.; Prez-Mayorga, Diana M.

    2012-07-01

    During summer in shallow waters off Baja California, Mexico, the internal tide is a dominant thermal feature of the water column. However, its importance for sub-thermocline nutrient provision to benthic macroalgae is unknown. In order to determine if internal motions provide nutrients to macroalgae in summer, Ulva lactuca was outplanted at inshore stations for short (3 and 6 h) intervals, at the surface, 5 and 10 m depth, and tissue nitrogen content was measured before and after each deployment. Concurrently temperature, currents, and nutrients were measured using moored thermistors, current profilers, CTDs, Niskin bottles, and an in-situ UV absorbance nitrate sensor (ISUS). Discrete pulses of cool, nutrient-rich water were horizontally displaced at least 4 km on the shelf and shoaled more than 20 m depth at the semidiurnal frequency, resulting in more than a 10-fold change in the concentration of nitrate. Inshore, tissue nitrogen of Ulva outplants increased significantly during longer exposures to this cool water. At this site, the semidiurnal signal dominates water column temperature fluctuations from April to November, with summer showing the greatest cooling (up to 5 C) in a one-hour period. We estimated that 11% of the days of a year show internal waves that would cause a significant change in nutrient availability to macroalgae at 5 m depth. This study supports the hypothesis that nitrate can reach and be rapidly incorporated by inshore macroalgae such as Ulva through transport forced by the internal tide, and that even very short (<1 h) nutrient pulses in nature are reflected in macroalgal tissue. We propose that at this site, the internal tide provides a significant, yet understudied, high frequency nutrient source to inshore primary producers, particularly in summer.

  19. Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel.

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Yehoshua, Yariv; Wiesman, Zeev

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile) as an oil crop in arid lands for large-scale sustainable industrial biodiesel production. Characterization of the Desert date plant material showed that using proper cultivation practices with emphasis on low quality irrigation water trees can be extremely well developed in hyper-arid conditions of the Israeli Arava desert and yield oil-rich fruits. Best selected trees can yield date fruits up to 52 kg/trees. Desert date kernels oil content may reach up to 46.7% (based on dry weight). The oil is consisted on four major fatty acids: palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2), constituting 98-100% of the total fatty acids in the oil of all tested genotypes. Linoleic acid was the most prevalent fatty acid, ranging from 31% to 51% of the fatty acids profile, very similar to soybean oil profile. In situ biodiesel production directly from oil-enriched powder was successfully developed. Yield efficiency for both conventional and in situ biodiesel production was about 90%. The qualities of the produced biodiesel well meet the international biodiesel standards. The present study clearly demonstrated Desert date as a model for the utilization of bioresources in the Israeli Arava desert and potentially other similar areas for cost-effective biodiesel production. PMID:18848776

  20. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion.

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. PMID:26176658

  1. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    Reusch Thorsten BH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  2. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  3. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  4. Chernobyl radionuclides in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, 1986-1987

    Calmet, D.; Charmasson, S.; Gontier, G. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Station Marine de Toulon, La Seyne Sur Mer (France)); Meinesz, A. (Lab. d' Environnement Marin, Nice (France)); Boudouresque, C.F. (Luminy Univ., Marseille (France). Lab. d' Ecologie du Benthos)

    1991-01-01

    Between 26 April and 1 June 1986, the nuclear reactor accident of unit 4 at Cherobyl led to the release of a large quantity of radioactive material, part of which reached the Mediterranean environment. Radionuclides such as {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 141}Ce and {sup 144}Ce were immediately detected in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. A survey of this species showed a selective distribution amongst its tissues and a preferential contamination of the adult leaves. The rhizomes, which are perennial parts, recorded early contamination by {sup 110m}Ag, located by sectioning the annual segments (lepidochronology). Variations in the concentrations of several radionuclides found in adult leaves reveal the rapid decay and distribution of contamination in Mediterranean waters in 1986 and 1987, although the eastern part of the French coast had higher concentrations in 1986. Since adult leaves are continuously renewed and because of their rapid accumulation of radionuclides, they may be particularly interesting immediate sentinel accumulators in the event of a nuclear accident as well as in monitoring chronic contamination. It is suggested that a 'Posidonia Watch' could be set up around the Mediterranean Sea. (author).

  5. Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state

    Randazzo Davide

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C.

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  7. Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations

    Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, Franois; De Troch, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 4235?N, 843?E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

  8. Benthic grazers and suspension feeders: Which one assumes the energetic dominance in Königshafen?

    Asmus, H.

    1994-06-01

    Size-frequency histograms of biomass, secondary production, respiration and energy flow of 4 dominant macrobenthic communities of the intertidal bay of Königshafen were analysed and compared. In the shallow sandy flats ( Nereis-Corophium-belt [ N.C.-belt], seagrass-bed and Arenicola-flat) a bimodal size-frequency histogram of biomass, secondary production, respiration and energy flow was found with a first peak formed by individuals within a size range of 0.10 to 0.32 mg ash free dry weight (AFDW). In this size range, the small prosobranch Hydrobia ulvae was the dominant species, showing maximal biomass as well as secondary production, respiration and energy flow in the seagrass-bed. The second peak on the size-frequency histogram was formed by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor with individual weights of 10 to 18 mg AFDW in the N.C.-belt, and by Arenicola marina with individual weights of 100 to 562 mg AFDW in both of the other sand flats. Biomass, productivity, respiration and energy flow of these polychaetes increased from the Nereis-Corophium-belt, to the seagrass-bed, and to the Arenicola-flat. Mussel beds surpassed all other communities in biomass and the functional parameters mentioned above. Size-frequency histograms of these parameters were distinctly unimodal with a maximum at an individual size of 562 to 1000 mg AFDW. This size group was dominated by adult specimens of Mytilus edulis. Averaged over the total area, the size-frequency histogram of energy flow of all intertidal flats of Königshafen showed one peak built by Hydrobia ulvae and a second one, mainly formed by M. edulis. Assuming that up to 10% of the intertidal area is covered by mussel beds, the maximum of the size-specific energy flow will be formed by Mytilus. When only 1% is covered by mussel beds, then the energy flow is dominated by H. ulvae. Both animals represent different trophic types and their dominance in energy flow has consequences for the food web and the carbon flow of the total area. If the energy flow of the macrozoobenthos of Königshafen is dominated by M. edulis, then the primary energy has to be gained from the pelagic primary production and the total ecosystem will be dependent on energy input from the North Sea and deeper parts of the adjacent Wadden Sea. In the case of a dominance of H. ulvae, the energy flow of Königshafen is mainly based on autochthonous primary production.

  9. Influence of zwitterionic SAMs on protein adsorption and the attachment of algal cells.

    Bauer, Stella; Alles, Maria; Finlay, John A; Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Zwitterionic polymers are non-fouling materials with immense potential for a range of biological applications. Here, we describe the resistance of zwitterionic self-assembled monolayers prepared from different solution ratios of positively and negatively charged thiols towards the adhesion of proteins, zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza, and cells of the unicellular alga Navicula perminuta. While mixed zwitterionic surfaces with a high hydrophilic nature significantly reduced the adhesion strength of the two algae, the positively and negatively charged components were far less effective. PMID:24955504

  10. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases

    Akihiko Tsuji; Nami Nishiyama; Miki Ohshima; Saori Maniwa; Shuji Kuwamura; Masataka Shiraishi; Keizo Yuasa

    2014-01-01

    Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa) is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified α-amylases and α-glucosidases from the digestive fluid ...

  11. THE SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION THROUGH SEAWEED PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ZERO EMISSIONS POWER GENERATION

    E.I. Yantovski

    2008-01-01

    Present paper is aimed at describing a “closed cycle” power plant schematics(SOFT, Solar Oxygen Fuel Turbine) with macroalgae (seaweed) cultivation in a pond, combustion of its organic matter in a fluidized bed boiler of Rankine cycle and return the combustion products to the pond to feed algae. Used for combustion oxygen is released to atmosphere in photosynthesis. It is further elaboration of the paper in ECOS2005 in Trondheim. As a renewable fuel the seaweed Ulva lactuca is selected. Its g...

  12. In situ observations of the radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French coast from Banyuls to Menton

    The object of this preliminary work is to measure the gamma radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French Mediterranean coast line between Banyuls and Menton. The marine species measured are: mussels, sea urchins and ten species of seaweed, namely: Ulva sp., Codium sp., Zoostera marina, Corallina elongata, Stypocaulon scoparium, Cymodocee nodosa, Pterocladia pinnata, Asparagopsis armata, Cystoseira sp., Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. The sampling places are spread over twenty four stations, eight of which are maritime and six representative of coastal lakes west of the Rhone. This aggregate study allowed us to highlight certain particular points and to make a choice between the indicators for a subsequent study in the most interesting areas

  13. Biotechnology of algae in South Corea. Challenge in the present and in the future.

    Han, Tae jun

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests using spore germination and gametophyte growth of the green alga, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, were developed and evaluated by assessing the toxicity of different organic and inorganic chemicals and elutriates of sewage or waste sludge. The toxic ranking of three metals was: Cu (EC50 of 0.017mg l_1)>Zn (0.378 mgl_1)>Cd (0.789 mgl_1) for spore germination and Cu (0.0230.027 mg l_1)>Cd (0.1890.200 mg l_1)>Zn (0.3070.317 mgl_1) for gametophyte growth. Spore germination (EC50 ...

  14. European bioconversion projects and realizations for macroalgal biomass: Saint-Cast-Le-Guildo (France) experiment

    Morand, Ph.; Charlier, R.H.; Mazé, J.

    1990-01-01

    Proliferation of macroalgae is a world-wide problem with 50,000 m3 of drift Ulva harvested per year in Brittany and about 1.0 to 1.2 million tons growing in the Venice lagoon. This biomass may be treated by bioconversion (aerobic or anaerobic fermentation) to give useful products (gas, fertilizers or others) and to remove a source of environmental pollution. Such a treatment also may be applied to cultivated or harvested seaweds and to seaweed industry residues.Studies of seaweed methanizatio...

  15. The effect of antibiotics on diatom communities

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.

    levels 5 . This is especially interesting in the context of diatoms, the base of aquatic food webs, which are closely associated with bacteria at the genome, cellular and system levels 6–8 . The present study attempts to address how antibiotics... Ulva. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B., 2007, 362, 1223–1233. 6. Bowler, C. et al., The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the dynamic nature and multi-lineage evolutionary history of diatom genomes. Nature, 2008, 456, 239–224. 7. Grossart, H...

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of attached Ulvaceae species and free-floating Enteromorpha from Qingdao coasts in 2007

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jinfeng; Cui, Yulin; Li, Youxun; Lin, Hanzhi; Qin, Song

    2008-08-01

    Based on the sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8 S, and ITS 2, the molecular phylogeny was analyzed on Ulvaceae species collected from Qingdao coasts in summer of 2007, including 15 attached Ulva and Enteromorpha samples from 10 locations and 10 free-floating Enteromorpha samples from seven locations. The result supported the monophyly of all free-floating Enteromorpha samples, implying the unialgal composition of the free-floating Enteromorpha, and the attached Ulvaceae species from Qingdao coasts were grouped into other five clades, suggesting that they were not the biogeographic origin of the free-floating Enteromorpha in that season.

  17. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo; Pejrup, Morten; Riethmueller, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and deposit-feeding species (e.g., the bivalve Macoma balthica, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae or the amphipod Corophium volutator...... erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass...

  18. Sorption of Yttrium and the Rare Earth Elements on Non-Living Macroalgal Tissue

    Schijf, J.; Straka, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on tissue of the green macroalga Ulva lactuca, commonly known as sea lettuce. Due to its nearly worldwide distribution in coastal waters, very simple morphology, and prodigious capacity for trace metal uptake from seawater, members of the Ulva genus serve as a basic but representative model of marine organic substrates in this type of study. In order to exclude active biological uptake effects, allowing us to focus on passive chemical mechanisms, we performed our initial experiments with sea lettuce Certified Reference Material consisting of a dehydrated, powdered tissue homogenate. A small quantity of this powder was suspended in NaCl solutions containing all YREEs, except Pm, at pH 3 and T = 25°C. The extent of YREE sorption was determined as a function of pH at constant temperature by titrating the solution with dilute NaOH and measuring the YREE concentrations of 0.2-μm filtered aliquots with an ICP-MS at regular time intervals after each pH adjustment. In NaCl solutions with an ionic strength approaching that of seawater, distribution coefficients, which quantify the proportion of sorbed and dissolved metal concentrations, are a highly linear function of pH in the range 3-8. The slope of the line suggests a sorption mechanism that involves ion exchange with both H+ and Na+ on surface functional groups. The shape of solution YREE patterns indicates that these functional groups are probably carboxylates at low and intermediate pH, but that other groups may contribute at high pH. The identification of carboxylate functional groups appears to be confirmed by preliminary results from EXAFS spectroscopic analyses of individual REE sorbed on the surface of Ulva lactuca tissue under similar conditions, conducted at the ANL Advanced Photon Source. In dilute NaCl solutions the distribution coefficient is largely independent of pH. We believe that prolonged exposure of the tissue to a low ionic strength solution may modify the chemical structure of the cell wall and make it permeable to organic ligands that otherwise sequester the YREEs in the cell interior. Chemical extraction of filtered solutions from the low ionic strength experiment with silica-bonded C18, showing that a substantial fraction of dissolved YREEs is distinctly hydrophobic, seems to support this hypothesis. Additional experiments to clarify these observations, including acid-base titrations of the Ulva lactuca tissue to assess the number of different functional groups and their surface densities, are currently ongoing.

  19. The Effects of Environmental Conditions and Mercury on Common Estuarine Species. An Integrated Ecological and Toxicological Approach

    Costa, Sónia Isabel Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O principal objectivo da presente tese foi avaliar o impacto das condições ambientais e do mercúrio em espécies estuarinas. Para atingir este fim, diferentes abordagens foram realizadas utilizando diferentes categorias de organismos: um produtor primário (a macroalga Ulva lactuca) e dois consumidores (o caranguejo Carcinus maenas e o seu parasita Sacculina carcini). A tese escontra-se dividida em quatro capítulos principais, focando-se: 1) nas consequências de dois períodos hidrológicos di...

  20. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences

    Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-Lak; Osawa, Syozo

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land pl...

  1. Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Increased Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and Bacterial Invasion Are Caused by Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms

    Burmølle, Mette; Webb, J.S.; Rao, D.; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Kjelleberg, S.

    2006-01-01

    from the surface of the marine alga Ulva australis, were screened for synergistic interactions within biofilms when present together in different combinations. Four isolates, Microbacterium phyllosphaerae, Shewanella japonica, Dokdonia donghaensis, and Acinetobacter lwoffii, were found to interact...... versus nonexposed biofilms) of the four-species biofilm was markedly higher than that in any of the single-species biofilms. Moreover, in biofilms established on glass surfaces in flow cells and subjected to invasion by the antibacterial protein-producing Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, the four...... specific interactions. In summary, our data strongly indicate that synergistic effects promote biofilm biomass and resistance of the biofilm to antimicrobial agents and bacterial invasion in multispecies biofilms....

  2. Kinetic and isotherm studies of copper (II) removal from wastewater using various adsorbents

    Abdel Wahab, O.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the utilization of marine green algae (GA), Ulva lactuca, and an activated carbon prepared from green algae (CGA) as adsorbents for the removal of copper from wastewater. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to evaluate the effect of system variables. The effect of pH, initial copper concentration, dose of adsorbents were considered. The optimal pH value of copper (II) adsorption onto GA and CGA was found to be pH 5.0. The maximum uptak...

  3. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  4. Stable isotope variations in benthic primary producers along the Bosphorus (Turkey): A preliminary study

    Highlights: • Nitrogen pollution along the Bosphorus Strait was investigated. • C and N isotopic and elemental analyses on benthic primary producers were performed. • δ15N decreased, while δ13C and N% increased from north to south along the Strait. • Ulva lactuca was more useful than epiphytes as indicator of nitrogen pollution. • Preliminary isotopic analyses on resident organisms are useful monitoring tools. - Abstract: The Bosphorus Strait is a dynamic and complex system. Recent evidences showed nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations to follow opposite patterns across the Strait, suggesting a complex spatial organisation of the anthropogenic disturbance in this system. Here, we provide isotopic information on the origin and transportation of dissolved nitrogen along the Bosphorus. C and N isotopic and elemental analyses were performed on specimens of Ulva lactuca and associated epiphytes sampled in five locations across the Strait. Variations in C and N isotopic signatures were observed in U. lactuca, pointing to a decrease in the availability of anthropogenic organic dissolved nitrogen along a north-south direction. Conversely, epiphytes did not show isotopic or elemental patterns across the Strait. These results suggest that preliminary stable isotope surveys in extended costal systems basing on U. lactuca can represent a valuable tool to focus meaningful targets and hypotheses for pollution studies in the Mediterranean region

  5. Community composition of the rocky intertidal at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich; Giménez, Luis

    2008-12-01

    At the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea), the distribution and abundances of intertidal communities were assessed and the effects of wave exposure and tidal height on the spatial distribution patterns of the communities were evaluated. Macroalgae and invertebrates were sampled quantitatively along line transects in three intertidal locations, a semi-exposed, an exposed and a sheltered one. The semi-exposed location was characterised by (1) Ulva spp. at the high intertidal ( Ulva-community), (2) mussels and periwinkles at the mid intertidal ( Mytilus-community) and (3) Corallina officinalis and mainly the large brown alga Fucus serratus at the low intertidal ( Fucus-community). The exposed location encompassed the mid and low intertidal; at both zones the Fucus-community occurred. The sheltered location was characterised by (1) barnacles ( Balanus-community) and (2) bryozoans, hydrozoans and mainly the large brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ( Ascophyllum-community). At the semi-exposed, but not at the exposed location the communities changed with the intertidal position. A relationship between wave exposure and the occurrence of specific communities was shown for the sheltered location; in contrast, communities of the semi-exposed and the exposed location appear to be little influenced by wave exposure directly. The community concept and the potential causes of distribution patterns of the defined communities are discussed and suggestions for a future monitoring are given. Variations in the communities at different spatial scales speak in favour of a multiple scale sampling design to monitor changes in the intertidal communities at Helgoland.

  6. Screening of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Freshwater and Marine Algae as a Prominent Natural Antibiotic Available in Bangladesh

    Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, algae have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. So, present work provides the eligibility of algae commonly found in Bangladesh as a prominent natural antibiotic against various pathogens. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol and chloroform of ten fresh water and marine algae showed antimicrobial activity carried out by disc diffusion method against two gram positive, four gram negative bacteria and one fungus. Marine algal species performed better than fresh water algal species. Green algae are more potent than red and brown algae. Ethanolic extracts are more effective than methanolic and chloroform extracts. Ulva lactuca and Chlorella sp. revealed the best activity among other algal species in all solvent forms. Spirogyra crassa showed very poor antibacterial activity where its antifungal activity was moderate. Escherichia coli was more resistant bacteria in a comparison to others because it showed totally resistant against some algae. Highest zone of inhibition (26 mm was recorded for chloroform extract of Ulva lactuca against E. coli where chloroform extract of Dictyopteris membranacea didn’t show any microbial activity. At the end, it was clear that almost all extracts of all algal species revealed antimicrobial activity against all pathogens. These results give an indication of the presence of promising antimicrobial compounds in the algal species under studied. Further phytochemical studies are needed to elucidate these compounds structures and activity for use algae as an alternative natural antibiotic against synthetic conventional antibiotics.

  7. Long-term Simulation In Coastal Lagoons: Sacca Di Goro (1989-1998)

    Zaldivar, J. M.; Cattaneo, E.; Murray, C. N.; Giordani, G.; Viaroli, P.

    A biogeochemical model for the Sacca di Goro Lagoon has been developed and par- tially validated with field data from 1989 to 1998. The model considers the nutrient cycles in the water column as well as in the sediments. Furthermore, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and Ulva sp. dynamics, as well as shellfish farming, are taken into ac- count. Due to the recent anoxic crises in the lagoon, the dynamic of oxygen has been also simulated. The actual version of the model is a 0D with input fluxes from the watershed and exchange with the Northern Adriatic Sea. Nutrients from the water- shed, wet and dry deposition, temperature, light intensity, wind speed and shellfish production are considered as forcing functions. The results show that the model is able to capture the essential dynamics of the lagoon, with values in the same order of magnitude with the measurements from experimental campaigns. The model has been used to assess the effects of two possible measures aiming at reducing the lagoon's eutrophisation level: reduction of nutrients from the watershed and Ulva's mechanical removal. The coupling with a 3D hydrodynamical model of the Sacca di Goro, as well as with the watershed model is presently under development.

  8. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6ω3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  9. Ocean Acidification Accelerates the Growth of Two Bloom-Forming Macroalgae

    Young, Craig S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    While there is growing interest in understanding how marine life will respond to future ocean acidification, many coastal ecosystems currently experience intense acidification in response to upwelling, eutrophication, or riverine discharge. Such acidification can be inhibitory to calcifying animals, but less is known regarding how non-calcifying macroalgae may respond to elevated CO2. Here, we report on experiments performed during summer through fall with North Atlantic populations of Gracilaria and Ulva that were grown in situ within a mesotrophic estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA) or exposed to normal and elevated, but environmentally realistic, levels of pCO2 and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In nearly all experiments, the growth rates of Gracilaria were significantly increased by an average of 70% beyond in situ and control conditions when exposed to elevated levels of pCO2 (p0.05). The δ13C content of both Gracilaria and Ulva decreased two-to-three fold when grown under elevated pCO2 (pacidification, a process that will intensify in the coming decades. PMID:27176637

  10. Effect of fly ash on the growth and biochemicals of some Seaweed

    Sornalakshmi V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of industrial waste fly ash was studied on daily growth rate (DGR, chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phycocolloids (agar and algin content of four economically important seaweeds, Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Padina tetrastromatica and Gracilaria corticata. The seaweeds were cultured in different concentration of fly ash mixed sterilized seawater. In Ulva lactuca, at lower concentrations of fly ash, the carbohydrate content was found to be more than the control. Protein content was slightly more than the control at 0.25% fly ash while that of lipid at 0.5 and 2.5% concentrations. In Caulerpa scalpelliformis, fly ash at all the concentrations induced reduced DGR and lipid content but increased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b amount. The amount of protein was more than the control at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% fly ash. In Padina tetrastomatica, at almost all the concentrations of fly ash, the amount of Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and protein exceeded over the control. In the present study, of the four experimental seaweeds, the red seaweed Gracilaria corticata was found to be most tolerant as this exhibited enhanced growth and biochemical content at most of the concentrations of fly ash.

  11. Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds

    Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

  12. Spontaneous multiscale phase separation within fluorinated xerogel coatings for fouling-release surfaces.

    Sokolova, Anastasiya; Bailey, Joseph J; Waltz, Grant T; Brewer, Lenora H; Finlay, John A; Fornalik, Jill; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Bright, Frank V; Detty, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Four-component xerogel films consisting of 1 mole-% n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18) and 50 mole-% tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in combination with 1-24 mole-% tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltriethoxysilane (TDF) and 25-48 mole-% n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8) and a 1:49:50 mole-% C18/TDF/TEOS were prepared. Settlement of barnacle cyprids and removal of juvenile barnacles, settlement of zoospores of the alga Ulva linza, and strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings (young plants) of Ulva were compared amongst the xerogel formulations. Several of the xerogel formulations were comparable to poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer with respect to removal of juvenile barnacles and removal of sporeling biomass. The 1:4:45:50 and 1:14:35:50 C18/TDF/C8/TEOS xerogels displayed some phase segregation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) pre- and post-immersion in water. Imaging reflectance infrared microscopy showed the formation of islands of alkane-rich and perfluoroalkane-rich regions in these same xerogels both pre- and post-immersion in water. Surface energies were unchanged upon immersion in water for 48 h amongst the TDF-containing xerogel coatings. AFM measurements demonstrated that surface roughness on the 1:4:45:50 and 1:14:35:50 C18/TDF/C8/TEOS xerogel coatings decreased upon immersion in water. PMID:22303880

  13. Experimental and mathematical modelling of the consumer influence on the productivity of algae in a model aquatic ecosystem

    Pisman, T. I.; Galayda, Y. V.; Shirobokova, I. M.

    Based upon the experimental and theoretical results the possibility of increasing the microalgal productivity in the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle (Chlorella vulgaris - Paramecium caudatum) has been considered. The experiment was held on the device with spatially divided links, which consists of a fermenter for Chlorella cultivation (the "producer" link) and a fermenter for Paramecia growing (the "consumer" link). The direct relation between the reproduction of Paramecia at consuming Chlorella and emission of nitrogen in ammonium form, which is the most preferable for growing Chlorella, has been revealed. In the result of theoretical study of the model of the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle with spatially divided links the contribution of Paramecia to the nitrogen cycle has been proved. It was shown that simultaneously with the increase of concentration of nitrogen evolved in the process of Paramecia metabolism, the biomass of Chlorella increases as well. The possibility of increasing the productivity of agal growth in the presence of a predator in a different way (due to decrease of limitation on light) has been considered. A laboratory growth experiment revealed a positive effect of Gammarus presence on Ulva spp. growth, probably caused by removal of epiphytic diatoms from the Ulva spp. thalli.

  14. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of bacteria capable of inducing differentiation in the green alga Monostroma oxyspermum.

    Matsuo, Yoshihide; Suzuki, Makoto; Kasai, Hiroaki; Shizuri, Yoshikazu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    Many green algae cannot develop normally when they are grown under axenic conditions. Monostroma oxyspermum, for example, proliferates unicellularly in an aseptic culture, but develops into a normal foliaceous gametophyte in the presence of some marine bacteria. More than 1000 bacterial strains were isolated from marine algae and sponges and assayed for their ability to induce the morphogenesis of unicellular M. oxyspermum. Fifty bacterial strains exhibiting morphogenesis-inducing activity against unicellular M. oxyspermum were isolated. The partial gyrB (approximately 1.2 kbp) and 16S rDNA (approximately 1.4 kbp) sequences of about 40 active strains were determined, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. All these strains were located within the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) complex, and most of these strains were clustered in a clade comprising Zobellia uliginosa. On the other hand, these bacteria also exhibited morphogenetic activity against germ-free spores of Ulva pertusa, Ulva conglobata and Enteromorpha intestinalis. Moreover, these bacteria induced the release of spores from the leafy young gametophyte of M. oxyspermum. These results indicate that strains belonging to several groups in the CFB complex play an important role in the normal development of green algae in the marine coastal environment. PMID:12542710

  15. Microscopic observation of pyrenoids in Order Ulvales (Chlorophyta) collected from Qingdao coast

    Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Lu, Qinqin

    2011-09-01

    Pyrenoids found in green algae Order Ulvales have taxonomical significance. Their morphology, microstructure, and the location and number in the cells have been widely used as identification criteria. As these traits can be affected by environmental conditions, it is necessary to look for other different characteristics. Here pyrenoids in several algae species collected along the Qingdao coast were studied for such purpose. The morphology and distribution of pyrenoids in the cells, as well as their change in different parts of the frond and at different times were studied with light microscope. The results are as follows. Pyrenoids appeared to be spherical or oval in observed Ulvales' algae cells. They were embedded in chloroplasts with the number of 1-3 per cell on average. The number of pyrenoids for Ulva pertusa could change drastically with continuing culture and could reach up to 10-20 per cell in late-growth stages. Generally, the pyrenoids in the marginal part were more observable than those in the central part for Ulva pertusa. In addition, the basal part of frond had more distinct pyrenoids with an average diameter of 2.42 ?m for Enteromorpha linza. For some species the pyrenoids were difficult to be observed while dark treatment made them more distinguishable. The apoptosis rate of pyrenoids in different species varied under continuing dark treatment, which could be used to identify different species. Pyrenoids disappeared faster in E. linza than those in E. intestinalis.

  16. Collection and protection of digital evidences in audit processesDenetim süreçlerinde dijital delillerin elde edilmesi ve korunması

    İlker Koç

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of information technologies in banking, finance, health and other commercial sectors requires performing of audit of these sectors through information systems. Collecting and protecting electronic evidence is critically important for both judicial process and results of audit activities. Gathering electronic evidences from an information system is a subject for computer forensics and requires special expertise and equipment. Conversely, in Turkey, most of the  institutions responsible for  supervision of financial and other relevant sectors have not enough knowledge and experience about forensic audit. Due to the absence of technical knowledge and tools, there would be deficiencies in collecting electronic evidence in accurate manner. In order to prevent these deficiencies, some alternative solutions are offered in this study. These solutions are adapting the computer forensic techniques to audit processes, providing appropriate training to auditors, establishing a legal environment, sharing of information system audit resource and outsourcing of forensic audit activities.   Özet Bankacılık, finans, sağlık ve diğer ticari sektörlerde bilgi teknolojilerinin kullanımının artması, denetim faaliyetlerinin de bilgi sistemleri üzerinden gerçekleştirilmesi gereksinimini doğurmaktadır. Elektronik ortamlardan dijital delil elde edilmesi ve korunması hem denetim faaliyetinin sonuçları hem de adli süreç açısından önem taşımaktadır. Dijital delillerin elde edilmesi ve korunması adli bilişim faaliyeti kapsamına girmektedir. Adli bilişim faaliyeti uzmanlık ve özel donanımların kullanımını gerektirmektedir. Ancak, Türkiye’de dış denetimle görevli kurumların faaliyetlerinde, adli bilişim yöntemlerine ilişkin yeterli teknik bilgi ve donanım bulunmamaktadır. Bu durum nedeniyle kamu denetim faaliyetlerinde dijital ortamlardan delil elde edilmesi ve korunmasında çeşitli eksiklikler söz konusudur. Bahse konu eksiklikler, denetim sonuçlarının adli sürece taşınması durumunda, çeşitli problemlere yol açabilecek niteliktedir. Bu çalışmada, adli bilişim teknik ve donanımlarına ilişkin eksikliklerin neden olabileceği olası problemlerin önlenebilmesi için çeşitli çözüm önerileri sunulmaktadır. Çözüm önerileri, adli bilişim sürecinin denetim faaliyetlerine uyarlanması, denetçilere eğitim verilmesi, uygun bir yasal altyapı oluşturulması, bilgi sistemi denetim uzman ve araçlarının ortak kullanımı ve dış kaynak sağlanmasıdır.

  17. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation of ethnoveterinary medicines against strongyle nematodes of equids.

    Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E

    2015-05-30

    Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg/ml, respectively. All four UK extracts, A. sativum, C. album, Z. officinale and A. absinthium, showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.3), 2.3 (CI 1.9-2.7) and 0.3 (CI 0.2-0.4)mg/ml, respectively. Extract of A. absinthium had a relatively low efficacy and the data did not accurately fit a PROBIT model for the dose response relationship, thus an EC-50 value was not calculated. Differences in efficacy for each extract were noted, dependent on the assay and solvent used, highlighting the need for a systematic approach to the evaluation of bioactive plant compounds. This study has identified bioactive plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia which have potential as anthelmintic forages or feed supplements in equids. PMID:25868847

  18. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

    Guilherme Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial Dilutions on DRBC medium. Eight isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified onchamomile, two (25% beingproducers of aflatoxins B1 and B2 as well as five isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus, two (40% being producers of ocratoxin. On artichoke, one isolate of Aspergillus ostianus was identified as ocratoxin A producer. A reduction on the total counting of fungi was observed in boldo with irradiation higher than 3 kGy, and in both burhead and senna with irradiation higher than 5 kGy. The initial counting on artichoke of 5.0 x 10(6 CFU/g experienced a reduction to 3.5 x 10² with doses of 10 kGy. With this same dose the fungi counting on chamomile was reduced from 3.0 x 10(5 CFU/g to 2.2 x 10³ CFU/g.

  19. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different species of Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta co-occur in the Mediterranean Sea: two of them are found at the central-eastern basin and are typically considered non aggressive components of the Lessepsian flora [(C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse]; a third taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder has aggressively expanded its range since its first observation in 1990, and it is nowadays reported from nearly all the Mediterranean countries. We report a population of C. cylindracea from Almería (Andalusia, Southern Iberian Peninsula at −30 m depth as to be the westernmost record of the invasive variety on the Mediterranean European coast. Therefore, we made use of morphological description and molecular phylogenetics to provide a complete identification of this invasive seaweed in Southern Spain. Our findings are discussed in light of the composition of the receptor communities, such as maërl bed, edges of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, and their ecology. Our results confirmed the suggested directionality of the invasive pathway to be westward to the Strait of Gibraltar, mainly supported by sea currents and vectors of anthropogenic origin.En el Mar Mediterráneo se encuentran tres especies diferentes de Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta: dos de ellas se localizan en la cuenca centro oriental y se consideran componentes no agresivos de la flora Lessepsiana (C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse; un tercer taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder ha expandido de manera agresiva su rango de distribución desde su primera observación en 1990, y actualmente se registra en casi todos los países de la cuenca mediterránea. En este trabajo se informa sobre una población de C. cylindracea en Almería (Andalucía, Sur de España, a −30 m de profundidad, que representaría la cita más occidental de la variedad invasora en las costas mediterráneas europeas. Se realiza una completa identificación de esta alga invasora en el Sur de España mediante una descripción morfológica y filogenia molecular. Los datos obtenidos se discuten en relación a la composición de las comunidades receptoras, tales como fondos de maërl y bordes de Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, y su ecología. Los resultados confirman la direccionalidad de la ruta invasora de la especie hacia el oeste en las proximidades del Estrecho de Gibraltar, principalmente debido a corrientes marinas y vectores de origen antropogénico.

  20. Ehl-i Sünnet Açısından Bilgi ve DeğeriKnowledge and its Value in Terms of the Ahl As-Sunnah

    ismail yücedağ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelâm ilmînin amacı, dinî inançları kesin deliller kullanarak ispat etmektir. Bu nedenle kelâmcılar Kur’an’ı ve iki kısma ayırdıkları Sünnet’in ilk kısmında yer alan mütevâtir haberleri esas almışlardır. Kelâm ilminde üç bilgi edinme yolu olduğu kabul edilmiştir. Bunlar, beş duyu, akıl ve haber-i sâdık’tır. Bilgi edinme yollarından ilk ikisini oluşturan beş duyu ve akıl ile elde edilen bilgiler ile Sünnet’in ilk kısmında yer alan mütevâtir haberin değeri konusunda İslâm âlimleri arasında bir ihtilâf söz konusu değildir. Hicretin II. asrından itibaren, sünnetin ikinci kısmını oluşturan haber-i vahid’in değeri ve itikâdî konularda delil teşkil edip etmeyeceği konusunda âlimler tarihsel süreç içinde birbirinden farklı görüşler ortaya koymuşlardır. Böylelikle problem günümüze kadar devam etmiştir. Konu hakkında fikir yürüten âlimler, Kelâmcılar ve Selefiyye olmak üzere iki ana gruba ayrılmışlardır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, haber-i vâhid hakkındaki fikir ayrılıklarının nedenlerini, kelâmcılar tarafından bilgi edinme yollarından biri olarak kabul edilen haber-i sâdıkı dikkate alarak araştırmaktır. Abstract The purpose of the Kalam science is to prove the religious beliefs by using definitive evidences. For this reason, the Kalam scholars are inclined to Koran and the mutawatir reports which are included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah divided into two parts. In the Kalam science, it has been accepted that there are three ways of attaining knowledge. These are the five senses, intelligence, and precise reports. It is not the case that Islamic scholars have a disagreement on not only knowledges obtained through the five senses and intelligence but the value of mutawatir reports included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah. As of the second century of Hegira, the scholars have put forward different opinions about whether the value of imprecise reports will constitute an evidence in matters of faith in the historical process or not. Thus, the problem has continued to the present day. The scholars who speculate about the issue have been divided into two main groups as Kalam scholars and Salafism. The purpose of this study is to research the reasons for the disagreements on imprecise reports by taking precise reports into account, which has been accepted by Kalam scholars as one of the ways of attaining knowledge.

  1. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Urease Inhibition Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Tahir Mehmood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Different parts of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Adhatoda vasica Nees, Fagoniaar abica L. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. are traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of common ailments like nausea, cold, cough, asthma, fevers, diarrhea, sore throat, swelling, etc. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and urease inhibition activities of extracts produced from the above selected medicinal plants native to Soon Valley (home to an old civilization in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Methanol, acetone and water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against thirty four clinical isolates and two reference strains of H. pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the extracts were determined using the agar dilution method and compared with some standard antibiotics like amoxicillin (AMX, clarithromycin (CLA, tetracycline (TET and metronidazole (MNZ, used in the triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. H. pylori urease inhibition activity of the extracts was assessed by the phenol red method, wherein, Lineweaver-Burk plots were used to determine Michaelis-Menten constants for elucidating the mechanism of inhibition. Methanol and acetone extracts from Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera exhibited stronger anti-H. pylori activity than MNZ, almost comparable activity with TET, but were found to be less potent than AMX and CLT. The rest of the extracts exhibited lower activity than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, methanol and acetone extracts of Acacia nilotica and Calotropis procera showed significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated a competitive mechanism for extract of Acacia nilotica, whereas extract of Calotropis procera exhibited a mixed type of inhibition.

  2. Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69g/100g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41g/100g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45g/100g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14g/100g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

  3. Potent antitrypanosomal triterpenoid saponins from Mussaenda luteola.

    Mohamed, Shaymaa M; Bachkeet, Enaam Y; Bayoumi, Soad A; Jain, Surendra; Cutler, Stephen J; Tekwani, Babu L; Ross, Samir A

    2015-12-01

    Five new triterpenoid saponins, heinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), heinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2α-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 2α-hydroxyheinsiagenin A 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) and N-(2S, 3R, 4R-3-methyl-4-pentanolid-2-yl)-18-hydroxylanosta-8 (9), 22E, 24E-trien-27-amide-3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Mussaenda luteola Delile (Rubiaceae). Structural elucidation was based on the analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 1 showed potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 8.80μM. Compounds 2-4 showed highly potent antitrypanosomal activity with IC50 values ranging between (2.57-2.84μM) and IC90 values ranging between (3.36-4.35μM), which are 5 fold greater than the positive control DFMO (IC50 and IC90 values of 13.06 and 28.99μM, respectively). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate affinity to μ-opioid receptors with Ki values of 9.936μM and 0.872μM, respectively compared to a Ki value of 1.958nM for the positive control, naloxone HCl. PMID:26524249

  4. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de cápsulas e chás de plantas utilizadas na assistência ao tratamento da obesidade

    Susana Verdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas diuréticas e laxativas é uma alternativa medicamentosa para muitas pessoas que objetivam o emagrecimento com menores efeitos adversos. A avaliação microbiológica é um requisito essencial para a garantia de qualidade dos produtos. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de cápsulas e chás de alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., centella asiática (Hydrocotile asiatica L., fucus (Fucus vesiculosus L., e sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile, através da contagem de micro-organismos viáveis totais e pesquisa de patógenos. Na contagem de micro-organismos viáveis, os chás analisados foram aprovados, pois apesar de apresentarem uma carga microbiana elevada, esta se encontrava dentro das especificações, entretanto, 16,66% e 66,66% das cápsulas analisadas foram reprovadas por apresentaram quantidades superiores de bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. Na pesquisa de patógenos, 76% das amostras (88% dos chás e 58% das cápsulas apresentaram um ou mais de um tipo de micro-organismo. Salmonella sp. esteve presente em 33% das amostras evidenciando a qualidade microbiológica insatisfatória dos produtos encontrados no mercado. Estes resultados demonstram a necessidade da realização do controle de qualidade tanto das matérias-primas vegetais, quanto dos produtos acabados, através do controle e fiscalização rigorosa, com adoção de medidas regulamentadoras e educativas.

  5. The immatures of lauxaniid flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae) and their taxonomical implications.

    Semelbauer, Marek; Koznek, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The immature stages of insects can provide valuable data both for taxonomy and phylogeny, but they are well known only for negligible proportion of the described species. Here we describe lauxaniid immatures for 17 species that were reared under laboratory conditions and subjected to morphological investigation. Following species were included in our study: Cnemacantha muscaria, Homoneura biumbrata, Homoneura limnea, Minettia austriaca, Minettia fasciata, Minettia flaviventris, Minettia loewi, Minettia plumicornis, Peplomyza litura, Poecilolycia vittata, Pseudolyciella pallidiventris, Sapromyza apicalis, Sapromyza hyalinata, Sapromyza intonsa, Sapromyza sexpunctata, Sapromyzosoma quadripunctata, Sapromyzosoma quadricincta. SEM images of the eggs are provided along with the illustrations of the cephaloskeleton and brief description of all three larval instars. The cephaloskeleton, as well as external morphology suggest that subgenus Minettia s. str. may not be monophyletic. Species Sapromyza sexpunctata and Sapromyzosoma spp., Pseudolyciella pallidiventris and Poecilolycia. vittata are probably closely related. Sapromyza apicalis, S. hyalinata and possibly also S. intonsa form a separate clade from the previous group. These results clearly support the long-standing suspicion, that genus Sapromyza is not monophyletic. Sapromyza sexpunctata should be considered a separate genus related to Sapromyzosoma. The spines on dorsal surface of labial lobe suggest relationships between Peplomyza and Meiosimyza species. Affinities of Cnemacantha muscaria remain uncertain. However, the extended Malpighian tubules suggest relationship to Homoneura or Minettia. PMID:24871845

  6. Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae) from Ghana.

    Pei?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

    2014-01-01

    New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Ghana are presented. One new subgenus, Vietsclio n. subgen., is erected to accommodate Monatractides uniscutatus (K. Viets, 1925), characterized by the presence of swimming setae on leg II-IV. Seven new species are described: Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) erato n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) euterpe n. sp., M. (M.) melpomene n. sp., M. (M.) polyhymnia n. sp., M. (M.) thalia n. sp., M. (M.) terpsichore n. sp., M. (M.) urania n. sp. Torrenticola calliope is established as the new name for previously reported populations of T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956 from Ethiopia. The first description of the female is given for Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914) and M. (Vietsclio) uniscutatus K. Viets 1925. The subgenus Allotorrenticola Cook, 1967, previously known only from Asia, is reported for the first time from the Afrotropical region. Additionally, first records for Ghana are given for Torrenticola anomallela Cook, 1966, T. bomiensis Cook, 1966, T. fasciata (K. Viets, 1916), T. motasi Cook, 1966, T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956, Pseudotorrenticola mitchelli Cook, 1966, Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914), M. (M.) convexiscutata (K. Viets, 1958), M. (M.) koenikei (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) stigeophora (Cook, 1966), M. (M.) ventriosus (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) microstoma Koenike, 1898-species complex, and M. uniscutatus (K. Viets 1925). PMID:24943805

  7. How to produce a chemical defense: structural elucidation and anatomical distribution of aplysioviolin and phycoerythrobilin in the sea hare Aplysia californica.

    Kamio, Michiya; Nguyen, Linh; Yaldiz, Seymanur; Derby, Charles D

    2010-05-01

    We previously used bioassay-guided fractionation to identify phycoerythrobilin (1) and its monomethyl ester, aplysioviolin (2), as components in the ink secretion of a marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia californica, that act as chemical deterrents against predatory blue crabs. This was the first report of 1 as a natural product. Compound 2 was previously reported as a natural product from three species of Aplysia (A. fasciata, A. dactylomela, and A. parvula), but the reported structure and composition of stereoisomers of 2 are different among these species. Sea hares are thought to produce 2 from phycoerythrin, a photosynthetic pigment in their red-algal diet composed of a phycobiliprotein covalently linked to the chromophore 1, by cleavage of the covalent bond and methylation of 1, but neither the sequence nor the anatomical location of the cleavage and methylation is known. In this study, we clarify the structure of 1 and 2 in ink secretion of A. californica, and describe the distribution of 1 and 2 in the tissues of sea hares. We conclude that cleavage of the covalent bond in phycoerythrin occurs first, forming 1 in the digestive gland, followed by methylation of 1 to yield 2 in the ink gland. PMID:20491075

  8. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov., and T. taura sp. nov. A key to the species groups and unplaced species is provided for Tolania males. The following species, previously placed in Tolania, are considered species incertae sedis: Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. One new synonymy is proposed: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858 = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry sp. rev., is reinstated from synonymy with T. femoralis. Lectotypes are designated for T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraterna, and T. scutata.O gênero de soldadinhos Tolania Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Nicomiinae, Nicomiini e 69 espécies válidas (59 novas espécies são descritos e ilustrados baseado na morfologia de adultos. Dez grupos informais de espécies são reconhecidos baseados em uma análise filogenética previamente publicada: (1 o grupo de espécies dira inclui T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov. e T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 grupo fasciata inclui T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov. e T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 grupo femoralis inclui T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål e T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 grupo furcata inclui T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov. e T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 grupo hispida inclui T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov. e T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 grupo malefica inclui T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker e T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 grupo obtusa inclui T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov. e T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 grupo opponens inclui T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov. e T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 grupo peltacauda inclui T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov. e T. thyrea sp. nov.; e o (10 grupo semipellucida inclui T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov. e T. semipellucida Stål. As seguintes espécies novas não são incluídas em nenhum dos grupos acima mencionados: T. anomala sp. nov., T. corcula sp. nov., T. hamulata sp. nov., T. histria sp. nov., T. inornata sp. nov., T. laticornis sp. nov., T. melantha sp. nov., T. pogonia sp. nov., T. rideri sp. nov. e T. taura sp. nov. Uma chave taxonômica para grupos de espécies e espécies não posicionadas é apresentada para machos de Tolania. As seguintes espécies previamente incluídas em Tolania são consideradas de posicionamento incerto (species incertae sedis: Cicada armata Stoll; Centrotus felinus Germar; Centrotus obscurus Germar; Centrotus fasciatus Walker. Uma nova sinonímia é proposta: Tolania humilis (Walker, 1858 = Tolania scutata Stål, 1862 syn. nov. Tolania cristata Lethierry, 1890 sp. rev., previamente considerada sinônimo de T. femoralis, é revalidada. Lectótipos são designados para T. cristata, T. femoralis, T. fraternal e T. scutata.

  9. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April, 2014

    K. KAPIRIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to reports, the following 16 species have extended their distribution to other Mediterranean areas or have made a new appearance in other regions. The first category includes the following organisms: The rare and common Indo-Pacific seaweed Codium arabicum (Lebanese coasts, the acari Thalassarachna affinis (Marmara Sea, and the non-indigenous nudibranch Flabellina rubrolineata, which has also been found in many other areas of the Aegean Sea. In addition, the rare sea slug Thecacera pennigera (Piccolo of Taranto, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (National Marine Park of Zakynthos, Ionian Sea, the carangid Seriola fasciata (Gulf of Antalya, Lagocephalus sceleratus (SE. Ionian Sea, the reticulated leatherjacket Stephanolepis diaspros (Slovenia, N. Adriatic Sea, the marbled stingray, Dasyatis marmorata (NE Levantine, the starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias (Iskenderun Bay, NE Mediterranean, the cephalopod Ommastrephes bartramii (Ionian Sea have also been reported. The Atlantic crab Dyspanopeus sayi has expanded to many Italian areas and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus to a lake in N. Greece and in the S. Adriatic Sea. Finally, Farfantepenaeus aztecus has been found in the Ionian Sea, thus showing its wide expansion in the Mediterranean. The larval stages of Faccionella oxyrhyncha have been found, after many years, in the Aegean Sea and the first report of an existence on intersexual acari Litarachna duboscqi in Split(Adriatic Sea was reported.

  11. [Transversal partitioning and interspecific associations in communities of ectoparasitic metazoans in marine sciaenid fishes from Peru].

    Luque, J L

    1996-08-01

    During 1987 and 1988 marine sciaenid fishes from the central Peruvian coast were examined: 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 311 Stellifer minor. Thirty metazoan ectoparasites were identified, 18 helminths and 12 crustaceans. Paralonchurus peruanus was the species with higher number of ectoparasite species (11). The communities of ectoparasites were dominated by diplectanid monogeneans. The following showed preference by some site of infestation in their transversal partitioning: Rhamnocercoides menticirrhi, Rhamnocercus spp., Diplectanum sp., Pseudohaliotrema paralonchuri, Pedocotyle annakohni, P. bravoi, Caligus callaoensis and Lernanthropus huamani. With the exception of P. peruanus, these fishes showed an overall positive association in their ectoparasite communities. Menticirrhus ophicephalus and S. deliciosa had the most pairs of associated and covariated species. Paralonchurus peruanus and S. minor showed no interspecific associations. Negative interspecific association and covariation were not determined. The pair R. menticirrhi-L. huamani (in M. ophicephalus) had the highest association degree. These results suggest an absence of competitive interspecific processes. PMID:9246363

  12. Gamma-ray induced mutations in Pisum arvense (L.s.s.)

    The subject of the studies was the progeny of seven lines of field pea, treated with gamma rays (at the doses of 1, 6, 12, 15, 50 kR) in the generations M2- M4. Of the total number of analysed 15630 plants 249 mutants have been isolated which constituted 1.59% of the total population. The mutation frequency was significantly different depending on the line under study and on the radiation dose. In the mutation spectrum lethal and semilethal mutations were prevalent. The cause of these phenomena were either chlorophyll aberrations or disturbances in the development, growth and morphology of plants. These mutations died in different periods of vegetation or did not come to flowering and died. A number of morphologic-developmental mutations have been isolated; their genotypes have been established, cytologically examined and characterized. Some of the isolated fertile mutations are similar to those obtained at other research centres (e.g., cirrhifolialis, viciaefolialis, fasciata), others seem to be original (eg. pumilio, celeriter crescens, gynaecei, multiplicis). It is necessary, however, to perform identification tests to introduce these mutations into the Pisum Genebank, the more so, as most of papers on mutations concerned edible and garden peas (P. sativum L.), and in our work we considered field forms (P. arvense L.s.s.). (author)

  13. Antimicrobial effects of marine algal extracts and cyanobacterial pure compounds against five foodborne pathogens.

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Vansach, Tifanie; Horgen, F David; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-05-15

    The marine environment is a proven source of structurally complex and biologically active compounds. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of a small collection of marine-derived extracts and isolates, were evaluated against 5 foodborne pathogens using a broth dilution assay. Results demonstrated that algal extracts from Padina and Ulva species and cyanobacterial compounds antillatoxin B, laxaphycins A, B and B3, isomalyngamide A, and malyngamides C, I and J showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) at low concentrations (⩽ 500 μg/ml). None of the algal extracts or cyanobacterial isolates had antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium). PMID:26775951

  14. The effect of sewage pollution on the feeding behaviour and diet of Hediste (Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776)) in three estuaries in south-east England, with implications for saltmarsh erosion.

    Aberson, M J R; Bolam, S G; Hughes, R G

    2016-04-15

    Stable isotope analyses of the abundant infaunal polychaete Hediste diversicolor, recognised as an indicator of sewage pollution, support the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment promotes surface deposit feeding, over suspension feeding and predation. At sewage-polluted sites in three estuaries in SE England Hediste mainly consumed microphytobenthos, sediment organic matter and filamentous macroalgae Ulva spp. At cleaner sites Hediste relied more on suspension feeding and consumption of Spartina anglica. There were no consistent differences in Hediste densities between the polluted and cleaner sites, probably because of increased densities at the cleaner sites too, facilitated by the planting of Spartina and nitrogen enrichment there too, including from agricultural run-off. Increased nutrient enrichment and the artificial availability of Spartina have probably increased densities of, and deposit-feeding by, Hediste in the past half-century and contributed indirectly to saltmarsh losses, since deposit-feeding by Hediste has been implicated in recent saltmarsh erosion in SE England. PMID:26902686

  15. Volatile Halogenated Organic Compounds Released to Seawater from Temperate Marine Macroalgae

    Gschwend, Philip M.; Macfarlane, John K.; Newman, Kathleen A.

    1985-03-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds synthesized by various industrial processes are troublesome pollutants because they are persistent in terrestrial ecosystems and because they may be present in sufficient quantities to alter the natural atmospheric cycles of the halogens. Certain of these compounds, including polybromomethanes and several previously unobserved alkyl monohalides and dihalides, appear to be natural products of the marine environment. A variety of temperate marine macroalgae (the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosis, the green algae Enteromorpha linza and Ulva lacta, and the red alga Gigartina stellata) not only contain volatile halogenated organic compounds but also release them to seawater at rates of nanograms to micrograms of each compound per gram of dry algae per day. The macroalgae may be an important source of bromine-containing material released to the atmosphere.

  16. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95m-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography

  17. Analysis of holographic microscopy data to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional settlement dynamics of algal zoospores in the vicinity of surfaces

    Heydt, M.; Divós, P.; Grunze, M.; Rosenhahn, A.

    2009-10-01

    In this article we describe the technical aspects of digital in-line holographic microscopy to track multiple macrofouling Ulva linza zoospores simultaneously during their exploration of surfaces. Using an effective method of artefact suppression at the edges of holograms in combination with projection of volume reconstructions, a fast algorithm was developed which allows a reliable determination of a large number of subsequent spore positions. Thus, statistical analysis of swimming behaviour in the vicinity of surfaces becomes possible. Using glass surfaces as example, velocity and diving direction distributions are calculated and the swimming behaviour is statistically analysed. Diving direction analysis provides a straightforward way to determine segments within traces with surface contact. The presented method of data analysis allows high throughput analysis of holographic microscopy data and sets the basis for different applications including biofouling.

  18. Antifouling properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers.

    Nugraha, Roni; Finlay, John A; Hill, Sophie; Fyrner, Timmy; Yandi, Wetra; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Ederth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The antifouling (AF) properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), using four different proteins, zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza and cells of the diatom Navicula incerta, were investigated. The SAM-forming alkylthiols, which contained 1, 2 or 3 lactose units, showed significant variation in AF properties, with no differences in wettability. Non-specific adsorption of albumin and pepsin was low on all surfaces. Adsorption of lysozyme and fibrinogen decreased with increasing number of lactose units in the SAM, in agreement with the generally observed phenomenon that thicker hydrated layers provide higher barriers to protein adsorption. Settlement of spores of U. linza followed an opposite trend, being greater on the bulkier, more hydrated SAMs. These SAMs are more ordered for the larger saccharide units, and it is therefore hypothesized that the degree of order, and differences in crystallinity or stiffness between the surfaces, is an important parameter regulating spore settlement on these surfaces. PMID:25629533

  19. Engineered microtopographies and surface chemistries direct cell attachment and function

    Magin, Chelsea Marie

    Harrison, in 1914, first recognized that cells respond to physicochemical cues such as substratum topography when he observed that fibroblasts elongated while cultured on spider silk. Recently, techniques developed in the micro-electronics industry have been used to create molds for producing microscaled topographies with various shapes and spatial arrangements. Although these patterning techniques are well-established, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying cell sensing and response to microtopographies. In this work cellular micro-environments with varying surface topographies and chemistries were evaluated with marine organisms and mammalian cells to investigate cellular sensing and response. Biofouling---the accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on submerged surfaces---is an environmental and economic concern. Engineered topographies, replicated in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMSe) and functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogels, were evaluated for inhibition of marine fouling organism attachment. Microtopographies replicated in PDMSe inhibited attachment of the marine bacterium, Cobetia marina up to 99% versus smooth. The average normalized attachment densities of cells of C. marina and zoospores of the green algae Ulva on PDMSe topographies scaled inversely with the Engineered Roughness Index (ERIII), a representation of surface energy. Attachment densities of Ulva from four assays and C. marina from two growth phases to PDMSe surfaces scaled inversely with one equation: ERI II multiplied by the Reynolds number of the organism (Re) (R 2 = 0.77). The same microtopographies created in PDMSe reduced the initial attachment density and attachment strength of cells of the diatoms Navicula incerta and Seminavis robusta compared to smooth PDMSe. The average normalized attachment density of Navicula after exposure to shear stress (48 Pa) was correlated with the contact area between the diatom and a topographically modified surface (R2=0.82). Functionalized PEGDMA hydrogels significantly reduced attachment and attachment strength of Navicula and C. marina. These hydrogels also reduced attachment of zoospores of Ulva compared to PDMSe. Attachment of Ulva to microtopographies in PDMSe and PEGDMA-co-HEMA negatively correlated with ERIII*Re (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.99, respectively). Incorporating a surface energy term into this equation created a correlation between the attachment densities of cells from two evolutionarily diverse groups on substrates of two surface chemistries with an equation that describes the various microtopographies and surface chemistries in terms of surface energy (R2 = 0.80). The current Attachment Model can now be used to design engineered antifouling surface microtopographies and chemistries that inhibit the attachment of organisms from three evoluntionarily diverse groups. Hydrogels based on PEGDMA were also chosen as a substratum material for mammalian cell culture. Capturing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and inducing differentiation into the endothelial cell (EC) phenotype is the ideal way to re-endothelialize a small-diameter vascular graft. Substratum elasticity has been reported to direct stem cell differentiation into specific lineages. Functionalized PEGDMA hydrogels provided good compliance, high fidelity of topographic features and sites for surface modification with biomolecules. Fibronectin grafting and topography both increased EC attachment. This combination of adjustable elasticity, surface chemistry and topography has the potential to promote the capture and differentiation of EPCs into a confluent EC monolayer. Engineered microtopographies replicated in PDMSe directed elongation and alignment of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) compared to smooth surfaces. Engineered cellular micro-environments were created with specific surface energies defined by chemistry and topography to successfully direct cell attachment and function.

  20. Mineral Content of Some Seaweeds from Sabah`s South China Sea

    Duduku Krishnaiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral content of some species Caulerpa, Ulva, Sargassum, Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Gelidiella and Kappaphycus was investigated. These are the major variety of seaweeds available in Sabah South China Sea (Malaysia and contained high proportions of ash content (20.56- 40.5%. The green and brown seaweeds ash content (37.27-40.5% was higher than the red seaweeds (20.56-22.41%. The iron content was rich in the sequence of Gelidiella>Caulerpa> Sargassum> Eucheuma and its range was found to be 6.6-10.94 mg/100 g dry weight. The major seasonal deviation was found to be 9.25% Mg, 6.44% Ca and 5.3% Fe. This study was conducted to create a nutritional data for consumption and utilization in the industry.

  1. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME GREEN AND RED MACROPHYTE ALGAE FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA LITTORAL

    Bogdan Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are a group of organisms, Thallophytes, containing specific bioactive compounds (i.e. brominated phenols, heterocyclic oxygen compounds, sterols, terpenes, polysaccharides. Their excessive growth has negative consequences on marine organisms; on the other hand, they have a crucial role in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture. In this paper were studied the main physical-chemical characteristics correlated with the biological specificity of three species of multicellular algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva rigida (green, Ceramium rubrum (red, frequently encountered along the Romanian Black Sea coast. Generally mixtures of thallophytes algae from the Black Sea were collected, processed and characterized. Density, pH, conductivity, anions, loss on drying, ash, total nitrogen, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, carotenoids were determined. The results emphasized the possibility of using these marine resources as biofertilizer in agriculture.

  2. Resuspension created by bedload transport of macroalgae

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Kristensen, Erik; Flindt, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    surface sediment while drifting as bed load. To improve the understanding of this ballistic effect of moving plants on the sediment surface, controlled annular flume experiments were performed. Plant transport was measured together with turbidity and suspended particulate matter during increasing water......Earlier studies have quantified that plant bound transport in shallow lagoons and estuaries may periodically be the dominating nutrient transport form. In some of these field studies turbidity increased when plant transport increased. The hypothesis in this study is therefore that macroalgae erode...... currents. In all experiments the plant induced sediment erosion started earlier than at bare bottoms. The turbidity increased when the plants started to move (2-4 cm s-1). Depending on the plant type the turbidity increased from a background concentration of 7-10 mg SPM l-1 to 30-50 mg SPM l-1 for Ulva...

  3. Aspectos da alimentao de Tanystylum isabellae marcus e Anoplodactylus stictus marcus (Pantopoda Feeding aspects of Tanystylum isabellae and Anoplodactylus stictus (Pantopoda

    Franci Mary Fantinato Varoli

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with feeding tests performed in laboratory with Pantopoda species, Tanystylum isabellae Marcus, 1940 and Anoplodactylus stictus Marcus, 1940. Animals (alive and dead and vegetable foods were offered to males without eggs, males with eggs, females and juveniles Pantopoda. Of the 13 types of food offered to the animals only Sertularia Linnaeus, 1758 (Hydrozoa. Amathia distans Busk, 1886 (Bryozoa, Hyale media (Dana, 1853 (Crustacea, Gammaridea, Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1868 (Crustacea-Caprellidae, Artemia salina Leach, 1812 (Crustacea, Anostraca e Perna perna (Linn, 1758 (Bivalvia, Mytilidae were actually eaten. The macroalgae Sargassum C. Agardh, 1820; Padina Adanson, 1763; Chaetomorpha Ktzing, 1845 and Ulva Linnaeus. 1753, the Hydrozoa Dynamena (Linnaeus, 1758, Polychaeta aixl anemon fragments weren't accepted.

  4. Signatures of chaos in animal search patterns.

    Reynolds, Andy M; Bartumeus, Frederic; Kölzsch, Andrea; van de Koppel, Johan

    2016-01-01

    One key objective of the emerging discipline of movement ecology is to link animal movement patterns to underlying biological processes, including those operating at the neurobiological level. Nonetheless, little is known about the physiological basis of animal movement patterns, and the underlying search behaviour. Here we demonstrate the hallmarks of chaotic dynamics in the movement patterns of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) moving in controlled experimental conditions, observed in the temporal dynamics of turning behaviour. Chaotic temporal dynamics are known to occur in pacemaker neurons in molluscs, but there have been no studies reporting on whether chaotic properties are manifest in the movement patterns of molluscs. Our results suggest that complex search patterns, like the Lévy walks made by mud snails, can have their mechanistic origins in chaotic neuronal processes. This possibility calls for new research on the coupling between neurobiology and motor properties. PMID:27019951

  5. Combined nutrient and macroalgae loads lead to response in seagrass indicator properties.

    Han, Qiuying; Soissons, Laura M; Bouma, Tjeerd J; van Katwijk, Marieke M; Liu, Dongyan

    2016-05-15

    Excess nutrients are potential factors that drive phase shifts from seagrasses to macroalgae. We carried out a manipulative field experiment to study the effects of macroalgae Ulva pertusa loading and nutrient addition to the water column on the nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) contents (i.e., fast indicators) as well as on the morphology and structure (i.e., slow indicators) of Zostera marina. Our results showed rapid impact of increased macroalgae and nutrient load on Z. marina C/N ratios. Also, macroalgae addition resulted in a trend of decreasing belowground biomass of seagrasses, and nutrient load significantly decreased above to belowground biomass ratio. Although some morphological/structural variables showed relatively fast responses, the effects of short-term disturbance by macroalgae and nutrients were less often significant than on physiological variables. Monitoring of seagrass physiological indicators may allow for early detection of eutrophication, which may initiate timely management interventions to avert seagrass loss. PMID:26975613

  6. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60CoCl2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60CoCl2. This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  7. Comparison of the antioxidative components of some marine macroalgae from turkey

    There is an increasing demand for natural antioxidant molecules to replace the synthetic additives currently used in the food industry. Therefore, in this study, the total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacities (lipid-soluble and water-soluble), total protein contents, vitamin E contents and vitamin C contents of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) M. Steentoft, L.M. Irvine et W.F. Farnham and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse were determined. According to our data, among the algae studied, the highest levels of bioactive components were found in U. rigida, followed by C. tomentosum, G. gracilis and S. coronopifolius. In particular, U. rigida and C. tomentosum showed the highest values for all of the parameters studied. Therefore, U. rigida and C. tomentosum could be considered as species possessing significant natural antioxidant molecules which might be useful for the food industry. (author)

  8. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Møller, Stefan; Gram, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters...... attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108...... cells/cm2. However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected...

  9. Cardioprotective potential of Irish macroalgae: generation of glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate containing extracts by accelerated solvent extraction.

    Valverde, Juan; Hayes, Maria; McLoughlin, Pádraig; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) was used to generate 18 macroalgal extracts from Irish seaweeds. The glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopriopionate content of the generated ASE® extracts were estimated using (1)H-NMR and confirmed for selected extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dimethylsulfoniopriopionate was only identified in the ASE® extract generated from Codium fragile ISCG0029. Glycine betaine was identified in the ASE® extract generated from Ulva intestinalis ISCG0356 using (1)H-NMR. Mass spectrometry analysis found that the seaweed species Cytoseira nodicaulis ISCG0070, Cytoseira tamariscofolia ISCG0283, and Polysiphonia lanosa ISCG0462 also had a glycine betaine content that ranged from 1.39 ng/ml to 105.11 ng/ml. Generated ASE® macroalgal extracts have potential for use as functional food ingredients in food products. PMID:26018918

  10. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

    SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine the assimilation efficieney of the most important dietary components, and to experimentally examine the species' trophic selectivity. Adult and juvenile specimens were sampled in spring 1993 and summer, fall and winter 1994 from the shallow subtidal zone of Iquique, northern Chile. Neither juveniles ñor adults showed significant seasonal differences in dietary composition. The main Ítems in the diet were the green alga Ulva sp. for juveniles and the kelp Lessonia sp. for adults. In adults, assimilation efficieney (as percentage of the total organic matter ingested was not significantly different among individuals that consumed Lessonia sp. (48.7 %, Ulva sp. (44.6 % and Macrocystis (38.1 %, whereas in juveniles assimilation efficieney was significantly higher for individuals fed on the chlorophyte Ulva sp. (55.4 %, followed by Lessonia sp. (35.0 % and Macrocystis (25.5 %. These results suggest that L. albus undergoes an ontogenetic shift in the diet, consisting of a differential foraging strategy between juveniles and adults.El erizo Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 es un recurso de gran importancia económica en los sistemas bentónicos costeros, y que se encuentra bajo una fuerte presión de explotación. Sin embargo, los antecedentes sobre diversos aspectos básicos de su biología trófica son aún escasos. Estudios de esta naturaleza son importantes en razón a que constituyen la base para el desarrollo de técnicas de cultivo exitosas, alternativa a la explotación de poblaciones naturales. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: determinar cuantitativamente la composición dietaria de L. albus, el grado de selectividad trófica, y las tasas de asimilación de los componentes de su dieta. Especímenes adultos y juveniles fueron muestreados en la primavera de 1993 y el verano, otoño e invierno de 1994 en la zona submareal de Iquique, norte de Chile. No se detectaron diferencias en la composición de la dieta de adultos y juveniles entre las estaciones muestreadas. El principal ítem alimentario de los juveniles y adultos fueron el alga verde Ulva sp. y el alga parda Lessonia sp., respectivamente. En experimentos de selección trófica se observó que los juveniles y adultos prefieren el ítem que es más abundante en su dieta natural. Estos resultados muestran un cambio ontogenético en la dieta de esta especie, sugiriéndose una estrategia de forrajeo diferencial entre juveniles y adultos.

  11. 90Sr, 210Pb, 210Po and Ra isotopes in marine macroalgae and mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian Black Sea zone

    90Sr, 210 Pb, 210Po and Ra isotopes were determined in macroalgae Ceramium rubrum, Cystoseira crinita, Ulva rigida, Cladophora vagabunda, Enteromorpha intestinalis and in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Radiochemical separation was made by a fast and reproducible procedure based on a calcium phosphate precipitation technique. The obtained results for macroalgae vary in the interval 0.23-0.85 Bq kg-1 for 90Sr, 2.2-10.6 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 1.2-9.7 Bq kg-1 for 210Po and 1.9-13.2 Bq kg-1 for Ra isotopes. Data obtained for mussels demonstrate similar abilities in the accumulation of 90Sr, 210Pb and Ra isotopes. (author)

  12. Patrones de distribución de macroalgas y macroinvertebrados intermareales de la isla Robinson Crusoe, archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Distributional patterns of the intertidal macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from Robinson Crusoe island, Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile

    María Eliana Ramírez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe cualitativa y cuantitativamente los patrones de distribución de los organismos sésiles del intermareal rocoso de la isla Robinson Crusoe. Los datos cualitativos corresponden a observaciones realizadas en el terreno durante tres exploraciones a la isla. Los datos cuantitativos fueron obtenidos en base a la medición de la cobertura de organismos a lo largo de un transecto vertical de 11,6 m, extendido sobre toda la zona intermareal en la localidad de playa El Palillo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten señalar el siguiente patrón de distribución para estas comunidades de sustratos duros. En el intermareal alto (2 a 3 m, la única especie presente es Nodilittorina fernandezensis, con coberturas de 14 a 17%. En el intermareal medio (1 a 2 m las especies dominantes son Chaetomorpha firma (62%, Ulva rigida (36% y Gelidium pseudointricatum (16%. Entre los invertebrados presentes en este nivel destacan Jehlius cirratus (10% y Heliaster canopus, presente sólo a 1 m de altura intermareal con un 21% de la cobertura. En el intermareal bajo dominan nuevamente las algas. Entre 0,51 y 1m son dominantes en cobertura Corallina officinalis (27%, Chondracanthus intermedius (20% y G. pseudointricatum (12 a 13%. En los niveles mareales inferiores a 0,51 m las especies dominantes son Ulva rigida (23% y Sphacelaria cirrosa (20%. Los patrones de distribución ecológica de estas comunidades son diferentes de aquéllos descritos para comunidades cercanas del continente. Factores físicos como la pronunciada pendiente de los roqueríos y biogeográficos, propios de este archipiélago serían determinantes en la composición de especies y en la estructura de estas comunidadesThe present work describe in qualitative and quantitative terms the distributional patterns of the marine organisms from a rocky shores in the "El Palillo" beach at Robinson Crusoe Islands Archipelago Juan Fernandez, in base to a new exploration in the field and also in base to a coberture percentage of the organisms over a transect of 11.6 m. The following distributional patterns was observed. In the upper intertidal zone the small mollusk Nodilittorina fernandezensis is present with a coberture of 14 and 17%. In the middle intertidal zone (1 to 2 m the dominants species are Chaaetomorpha firma (62%, Ulva rigida (36% and Gelidium pseudointricatum (16%. Between the invertebrates at this tidal level we found Jehlius cirratus (10% and Heliaster canopus ( 21% only at 1 m. In the low intertidal the algae Corallina officinalis (27%, Chondracanthus intermedius (20% and G. pseudointricatum (12 to 13% are the dominants species. Below this level the species Ulva rigida (23% and Sphacelaria cirrosa (20% are the dominants. These patterns are different to those described for others near communities of the continent. Physical and biogeographicals factors can be determinants in the species composition and the structure of these communities

  13. The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.

    Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

    2012-04-01

    The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. PMID:22341882

  14. Ecosystem quality and natural heritage preservation: the case of the littoral eutrophication and the wintering of Brent Geese Branta b. bernicla in the bay of Saint-Brieuc (France)

    Ponsero, Alain; Le Mao, Patrick; Yesou, Pierre; Allain, Jeremy; Vidal, Justine

    2009-01-01

    La réserve naturelle nationale de la baie de Saint-Brieuc, située dans le nord de la Bretagne, est un site d'hivernage d'importance internationale de la Bernache cravant à ventre sombre Branta bernicla bernicla bien que sa nourriture préférée, les zostères, en soit totalement absente. Les suivis réalisés ont permis de mettre en évidence que les Ulves Ulva armocicana, représentent 90 % de la nourriture ingérée localement par les bernaches. Ces ulves sont responsables des spectaculaires marées ...

  15. Sequences of Mixed Ions in Polypeptoid Surfaces

    Buss, Hilda; van Zoelen, Wendy; Ellebracht, Nathan; Zuckermann, Ronald; Segalman, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    Polypeptoids, a unique, sequence specific class of polymers, are used to investigate the influence of charge spacing, grouping, and chemistry on the surface properties of polymer coatings. Short peptoid oligomers composed of cationic and anionic groups, and superhydrophobic (fluorinated) functionalities were attached to a synthetic backbone to form comb-shaped molecules. These molecules display different surface chemistry as a function of side chain composition, as indicated by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). A 50:50 ratio of peptoid:fluorinated functionality resulted in optimal surface segregation of the comb block while preventing surface reconstruction upon immersing the polymer films in water. Antifouling experiments with the green algae Ulva showed that polymers with non-ionic peptoid functional groups resulted in superior antifouling coatings compared to polymers with charged peptoids. The effects of decreasing the peptoid charge spacing even further (zwitterionic side chains) and exploring stronger ionic moieties, such as phosphate groups, will also be discussed.

  16. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments was...... markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  17. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p?intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran. PMID:24293698

  18. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    Carrillo Domnguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Prez-Gil, Fernando; Snchez Rodrguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in Mxico. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  19. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees. PMID:10697743

  20. Global opvarmning neutraliserer effekten af parasitisme på strandsnegles konsumption af makroalger

    Larsen, Martin H.; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard

    trematode-inficerede strandsnegle vil øge deres konsumptionsrate under varmere forhold for at imødekomme de ekstra energiomkostninger, der er forbundet med den øgede produktion af cercarier. Vores hypotese var derfor, at kombinationen af global opvarmning og parasitisme kan neutralisere den nuværende...... negative effekt, trematode-infektioner har på strandsneglens konsumption af grønne makroalger. For at teste denne hypotese undersøgte vi den kombinerede effekt af temperatur og infektion på strandsneglenes konsumption af makroalgen Ulva lactuca i et mikrokosmos eksperiment. Eksperimentet viste en markant...... synergieffekt af parasitisme og temperatur på konsumptionsraten hos store strandsnegle (³ 1,1 g våd vægt). Mens inficerede snegle havde lavere konsumptionsrate end uinficerede individer ved 18 ºC, var der ingen forskel ved 21 ºC. Det tyder derfor på, at synergien mellem parasitisme og en realistisk...

  1. Fouling release nanostructured coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers

    Fang, Jason

    2010-05-01

    The bulk and surface characteristics of a series of coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers were correlated to their fouling release performance. Incorporation of polyurea segments to PDMS backbone gives rise to phase separation with the extensively hydrogen bonded hard domains creating an interconnected network that imparts mechanical rigidity. Increasing the compositional complexity of the system by including fluorinated or POSS-functionalized chain extenders or through nanoclay intercalation, confers further thermomechanical improvements. In analogy to the bulk morphology, the surface topography also reflects the compositional complexity of the materials, displaying a wide range of motifs. Investigations on settlement and subsequent removal of Ulva sporelings on those nanostructured surfaces indicate that the work required to remove the microorganisms is significantly lower compared to coatings based on standard PDMS homopolymer. All in all, the series of materials considered in this study demonstrate advanced fouling release properties, while exhibiting superior mechanical properties and, thus, long term durability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Amphiphilic Surface Active Triblock Copolymers with Mixed Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Side Chains for Tuned Marine Fouling-Release Properties

    Park, D.; Weinman, C; Finlay, J; Fletcher, B; Paik, M; Sundaram, H; Dimitriou, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M{sub n} {approx} 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 9}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  3. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area. Three bands characterised the LIF spectra of red macroalgae with emission maxima in the ranges 577-583 nm, 621-642 nm and 705-731 nm. Green and brown macroalgae showed one emission maximum in the red region (687-690 nm) and/or one in the far-red region (726-732 nm). Characteristics of LIF emission spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin-blade green macroalgae Ulva rigida caused a shift to longer wavelengths of the red emission maximum and the development of a fluorescence peak at the far-red region. Water loss from Ulva's algal tissue also led to a decrease in the red/far-red Chl fluorescence ratio (F685/F735), indicating an increase in the density of chloroplasts in the shrinking macroalgal tissue during low tide exposure.

  4. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M.; Finlay, John A.; Brewer, Lenora H.; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Callow, James A.; Wendt, Dean E.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; DeSimone, Joseph M. (Birmingham UK); (NCSU); (UNC); (Cal. Polytech.); (UMM)

    2013-03-07

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M{sub w} = 1500 g mol{sup -1}) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M{sub w} = 300, 475, 1100 g mol{sup -1}), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  5. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11′53.68′N, 6°49′34.64′W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. - Highlights: ► Three main classes of seaweed were collected from the South-East coast of Ireland. ► Metal levels (total, intracellular and surface-bound) in four seaweed species were determined. ► Metal levels of seawater and sediment samples collected from the same location were quantified. ► The Concentration Factors for P. lanosa, A. nodosum, F. vesiculosus and Ulva sp., were calculated. ► Interspecies variations in seaweed metal concentrations were demonstrated. - This study, reports the most comprehensive uptake efficiencies and distributions of metals in four main seaweed sps., with P. lanosa demonstrating excellent bioaccumulation ability.

  6. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.950.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.930.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.360.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.560.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.860.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should be used for immunostimulation activity in aquaculture.

  7. Relevance of macrozoobenthic grazers to understand the dynamic behaviour of sediment erodibility and microphytobenthos resuspension in sunny summer conditions

    Orvain, Francis; Guizien, Katell; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Bréret, Martine; Dupuy, Christine

    2014-09-01

    The quantification of overall microphytobenthos productivity should include the export of biomass from the intertidal zone during high tides, which implies refined estimates and concepts of erosion parameters. For the first time, the export of microphytobenthic cells was assessed over an intertidal mudflat in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, France, during a complete spring/neap tide modulation. In the summer of 2008, resuspension rates of chl-a exported only reached 2.5% of the standing stock of benthic diatoms on each day. Sedimentary factors failed to explain any variation regarding bed and microphytobenthos erodibility. During the early fluff layer erosion phase, there were negative effects of grazing activities exerted by motile infauna (Peringia ulvae) on erosion fluxes of chl-a, while there was a related positive correlation with pheopigment proportion. The erosion process plays an important role in this vegetal-herbivore interaction by reinforcing the decline of the microphytobenthic biomass and provoking a catastrophic shift to mass erosion after a sequence of several days of co-occurring intense grazing by snails and chl-a decline. During mass erosion, the biofilm decline explained the variations of sediment erodibility, with a marked negative correlation between bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) proteins and critical threshold for bed erosion, in contrast with the commonly observed positive influence of EPS secretion on bed resistance. The complex nature of the effects of EPS by microphytobenthos must be further investigated to unravel their complex role in bioengineering sediments. The increase of protein proportion in EPS could provide specific properties related to hydrophilic features. Nevertheless, the level of grazing pressure by P. ulvae should be so intense that the top-down control must explain this original finding, since there was a positive correlation of proteins in EPS and snail density that could be related to mucus secretion (as a constitutive part of the EPS pool).

  8. STUDI KOMUNITAS RUMPUT LAUT DI PANTAI SANUR DAN PANTAI SAWANGAN NUSA DUA BALI

    GALIH INDRAWATI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this research are to analyze structure community population, relative population, variety domination, heterogeneous, and equality of seaweed species in Sanur and Sawangan Beach Nusa Dua.The result of the study shows that in Sanur and Sawangan Beach observed 13 related seaweed species were observed, which are: Ulva reticulata, Chaetomorpha crassa, Bornetella nitida, Halimeda macroloba, Padina australis, Sargassum binderi, Hypnea asperi, Dictyopteris sp, Gracilaria coronapifolia, Gracilaria gracilis, Acanthopora spicifera, Euchema edule, Euchema denticulatum Meanwhile, , Caulerpa racemosa, Boergesiana forbessii, Sargassum crassifolium, Gelidium sp, Turbinaria ornata, Gracilaria foliifera only observed in Sanur Beach and species of Actinotrichia fragilis, Ulva lactuca, Euchema serra, Turbinaria conoides observed in Sawangan Beach, Nusa Dua.Heterogeneous value index (H in Sanur Beach is 0.75 – 1.87 categorized as medium category, except in station five characterized as low category. Domination index (C is 0.10 – 0.28, where there is no dominated species. Equality index value (E is 0.32 – 0.85 in unstable condition, except in station one is stable. In Sawangan Beach, heterogeneous indexes is 1.04 – 1.54, that spread in all stations by medium category. Domination index is 0.14 – 0.30, indicated that there is no dominant species. Equality index is 0.47 – 0.74, by stabile condition in station one, while others station is unstable. Highest relatif population in Sanur Beach is 37.63% in station three (Gracilaria foliifera. In Sawangan Nusa Dua Beach is Hypnea asperi (48.65%.Substrate analysis show that Sanur and Sawangan Beach has mud sand types. Water temperature in both research locations approximately is 28.90 C – 30.40 C, pH 7.00 – 7.80 and dissolved oxygen around 6.8mg/1-7.4mg/l.

  9. Hybrid xerogel films as novel coatings for antifouling and fouling release.

    Tang, Ying; Finlay, John A; Kowalke, Gregory L; Meyer, Anne E; Bright, Frank V; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Wendt, Dean E; Detty, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel-derived xerogel films prepared from 45/55 (mol ratio) n-propyltrimethoxysilane (C3-TMOS)/tetramethylorthosilane (TMOS), 2/98 (mol ratio) bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-ethylenediamine (enTMOS)/tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS), 50/50 (mol ratio) n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8-TEOS)/TMOS, and 50/50 (mol ratio) 3,3,3-trifluoropropyltrimethoxysilane (TFP-TMOS)/TMOS were found to inhibit settlement of zoospores of the marine fouling alga Ulva (syn. Enteromorpha) relative to settlement on acid-washed glass and give greater release of settled zoospores relative to glass upon exposure to pressure from a water jet. The more hydrophobic 50/50 C8-TEOS/TMOS xerogel films had the lowest critical surface tension by comprehensive contact angle analysis and gave significantly greater release of 8-day Ulva sporeling biomass after exposure to turbulent flow generated by a flow channel than the other xerogel surfaces or glass. The 50/50 C8-TEOS/TMOS xerogel was also a fouling release surface for juveniles of the tropical barnacle Balanus amphitrite. X-ray photon electron data indicated that the alkylsilyl residues of the C3-TMOS-, C8-TEOS-, and TFP-TMOS-containing xerogels were located on the surface of the xerogel films (in a vacuum), which contributes to the film hydrophobicity. Similarly, the amine-containing silyl residues of the enTMOS/TEOS films were located at the surface of the xerogel films, which contributes to the more hydrophilic character and increased critical surface tension of these films. PMID:16019392

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production by a novel bacterium Massilia sp. UMI-21 isolated from seaweed, and molecular cloning of its polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene.

    Han, Xuerong; Satoh, Yasuharu; Kuriki, Yumi; Seino, Teruyuki; Fujita, Shinji; Suda, Takanori; Kobayashi, Takanori; Tajima, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    We successfully isolated one microorganism (UMI-21) from Ulva, a green algae that contains starch. The strain UMI-21 can produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from starch, maltotriose, or maltose as a sole carbon source. Taxonomic studies and 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that strain UMI-21 was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Massilia. The PHA content under the cultivation condition using a 10-L jar fermentor was 45.5% (w/w). This value was higher than that obtained after cultivation in a flask, suggesting the possibility of large-scale PHA production by UMI-21 from starch. A major issue for the industrial production of microbial PHAs is the very high production cost. Starch is a relatively inexpensive substrate that is also found in abundant seaweeds such as Ulva. Therefore, the strain isolated in this study may be very useful for producing PHA from seaweeds containing polysaccharides such as starch. In addition, a 3.7-kbp DNA fragment containing the whole PHA synthase gene (phaC) was obtained from the strain UMI-21. The results of open reading frame (ORF) analysis suggested that the DNA fragment contained two ORFs, which were composed of 1740 (phaC) and 564bp (phaR). The deduced amino acid sequence of PhaC from strain UMI-21 shared high similarity with PhaC from Ralstonia eutropha, which is a representative PHA-producing bacterium with a class I PHA synthase. This is the first report for the cloning of the PHA synthase gene from Massilia species. PMID:24932969

  11. Antimicrobial and antifouling activities achieved by extracts of seaweeds from Gulf of California, Mexico Actividades antimicrobiana y anti-incrustante obtenidas de los extractos de algas marinas del Golfo de California, Mxico

    Ruth Noem guila-Ramrez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Six species of common seaweed extracts were tested in laboratory assays: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile for potential industrial applications through evaluation of the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (5 strains and the antifouling potency against the growth of key species of marine colonisers (7 bacteria, 5 fungi and 11 microalgae. The organic extract of L. johnstonii, U. lactuca and D. flabellata have bacterial antibiosis. The ethereal extracts were more active in comparison with buthanol extracts against the bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus. The best antifouling results were obtained with U. lactuca and L. johnstonii(0.1-1 ?g ml-1 against all strains tested. C.fragile exhibited significant antifouling activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC between 1-10 ?g ml-1 against marine microalgae Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea and Prymnesium calathiferum.Se analizaron seis especies de macroalgas comunes del Golfo de California: Dictyota flabellata, Padina concrescens, Laurencia johnstonii, Gymnogongrus martinensis, Ulva lactuca y Codium fragile para determinar su potencial aplicacin industrial, a travs de la evaluacin de la actividad antibacteriana frente a bacterias patgenas (5 cepas, y el potencial anti-incrustante como inhibidores de crecimiento de especies colonizadoras en ambientes marinos (7 bacterias, 5 hongos y 11 microalgas. Los extractos orgnicos de L. johnstonii, U. lactuca y D. flabellata presentaron antibiosis bacteriana. Los extractos etreos fueron ms activos en comparacin con los extractos de butanol frente a la cepa bacteriana Staphylococcus aureus. Los mejores resultados de actividad anti-incrustante se obtuvieron con U. lactuca y L. johnstonii (0.1-1 ?g ml-1 frente a todas las cepas probadas. C. fragile mostr una significativa actividad anti-incrustante, presentando una concentracin mnima inhibitoria (MIC entre 1-10 ?g ml-1, frente a las microalgas marinas Rhodosorus magnei, Neorhodella cyanea y Prymnesium calathiferum.

  12. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs. PMID:24350482

  13. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and associated taxa were distributed throughout the spectrum of sites surveyed. Implications for the identification and conservation of saline lagoons are discussed.

  14. Ficus platyphylla promotes fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain: a preliminary study

    Ugwah-Oguejiofor Chinenye J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ficus platyphylla Delile (family- Moracea commonly called gutta percha tree is a deciduous plant found in savannah areas. It grows widely in the Northern part of Nigeria, up to 60 ft. high and is known as 'gamji' by the Hausas. The seeds, bark and leaves have been used traditionally in combination to promote fertility. Scientifically, the plant has been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS effects. The present study was to validate the use of this plant to promote fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain using various fertility parameters. Methods Female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain weighing between 150-180 g were randomly selected and divided into two major groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 treatment groups of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg BW of aqueous extract of F. platyphylla and a control group of 5 ml/kg of distilled water. A positive control of clomiphene citrate was used. Treatment of the first group was discontinued after 15 days prior to mating (pre-mating treatment group, while the other was treated continuously till delivery (continuous treatment group. At the 10th day, females were sacrificed and implantation sites were checked and embryos counted. Upon delivery, litter sizes were determined and the pups weighed and checked for deformities. Other reproductive indices were calculated. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and students T-test. Proportions were analysed by Chi square. Statistical evaluations were performed using STATS programs and Graphpad prism, and a difference was considered statistically significant at P Results There was a significant reduction in the percentage post implantation losses of both the pre-treatment and the continuous treatment groups when compared to their distil water controls. The litter size of the pre-treatment group was similar to the distil water group while at 400 mg/kg, the continuous treatment group showed an increase in the litter size similar to that of the clomiphene group. There were no observed external deformities in the pups. Conclusions Administration of aqueous extract of F. platyphylla promotes fertility by reducing post implantation loss and by increasing litter size in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain.

  15. COMPARATIVE EXAMINATION OF TERMS OF TURKISH ARMY ORGANIZATION IN MUHÂKEMETÜ’L-LÜGATEYN MUHÂKEMETÜ’L-LÜGATEYN’DEKİ TÜRK ORDU TEŞKİLATINA AİT TERİMLERİN KARŞILAŞTIRMALI İNCELEMESİ

    Oktay BERBER

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In his work called Muhâkemetü’l-Lügateyn prepared with the goal of proving the superiority of Turkish to Farsi, Ali Şîr Nevâyî has conveyed the language particularities of Turkish via showing evidences. Viewed from this angle, it’s a kind of grammer book, and another important aspect, contained valuable informations about Turkish culture. Because Nevâyî uses a lot of terms blended within the social, cultural, economic and political life of Turks while listing the evidences serving his purpose to edit this work. In our study, starting with these terms employed annotatively by Ali Şîr Nevâyî, eighteen concepts included within Turkish army organization and equivalents of these concepts in the antecedent and subsequent periods shall be included Ali Şîr Nevâyî, Türkçenin Farsçaya üstünlüğünü ispatlamak gayesiyle hazırladığı Muhâkemetü’l-Lügateyn adlı eserinde, Türkçeye ait dil hususiyetlerini deliller göstererek aktarmıştır. Bu açıdan bir çeşit dil bilgisi kitabı olarak önem arz eden eserin, bir başka önemli yanı, Türk kültürü hakkında değerli bilgileri içermesidir. Çünkü Nevâyî, eseri hazırlama amacına hizmet eden delilleri sıralarken, Türklerin sosyal, kültürel, ekonomik ve siyasal yaşantısı içerisinde harmanlanmış pek çok terimi kullanmıştır. Çalışmamızda Ali Şîr Nevâyî’nin açıklamalı olarak kullandığı bu terimlerden yola çıkarak, Türk ordu teşkilatı içerisinde yer alan on sekiz kavrama ve bu kavramların daha önceki ve sonraki dönemlerdeki karşılıklarına yer verilecektir.

  16. Variación entre años de la fauna de parásitos metazoos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae en Lima, Perú Between-year variation of metazoan parasite fauna on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Lima, Peru

    José Iannacone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa la estructura comunitaria de los parásitos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, y se analiza si la composición, riqueza, diversidad, prevalencia e intensidad media de sus comunidades parasitarias cambia entre muestras tomadas con 20 años de diferencia en Lima, Perú, entre agosto 1987 y julio 1988 y de agosto a septiembre del 2008 en peces de similar longitud corporal. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. La abundancia total fue de 1,7 (0 a 13 y la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 0,7 (0 a 2 especies de parásitos por pez. Treinta hospederos mostraron infección con al menos un parásito (60%. Se encontraron siete taxa de parásitos: dos monogeneos Cynoscionicola sciaenae y Hargicotyle sciaenae; un digeneo Helicometra fasciata; un nemátodo Dycheline amaruincai, un acantocéfalo Tegorhynchus sp., y dos copépodos Caligus callaoensis y Lernanthropus huamani. Un análisis comparativo entre los parásitos de S. deliciosa entre 1987-1988 y 2008, muestran una disminución en la prevalencia de Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochusperuensis y Neobrachiella oralis. La intensidad media aumentó para C. americana y Tegorhynchus sp. y disminuyó para C. callaoensis. Las diferencias entre años pudieran estar influenciadas por las variaciones en la temperatura del agua que afectaron los estados larvales y/o reproducción de los copépodos, en la amplitud del periodo de estudio y en el tamaño de la muestra.The community structure of parasites on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, is evaluated and eventual changes are analyzed in the composition, richness, diversity, prevalence and mean intensity of parasite communities on fish specimens that were similar in body length but were sampled 20 years apart (August 1987 to July 1988 vs. August to September 2008 in Lima, Perú. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. Total abundance was 1.7 (0-13 and parasite species richness was 0.7 (0-2 parasite species per fish. Thirsty hosts (60% were infected by at least with one parasite. Seven parasite taxa were found: two monogeneans (Cynoscionicola sciaenae, Hargicotyle sciaenae, a digenean (Helicometra fasciata, a nematode (Dycheline amaruincai, an acanthocephalan (Tegorhynchus sp., and two copepods (Caligus callaoensis, Lernanthropus huamani. This comparative analysis (parasites of S. deliciosa in 1987-1988 vs in 2008, showed a decreased prevalence of Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochus peruensis, and Neobrachiella oralis. The mean intensity increased for C americana and Tegorhynchus sp. and diminished for C callaoensis. Differences between years could be influenced by variations of sea temperature that affect larval stages and/or copepod reproduction over the course of the study period and size of the sample.

  17. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and concomitantly from the entire Aegean Sea. Turkey: the alien rhodophyte Antithamnion hubbsii is first recorded from Turkey and the entire eastern Mediterranean. New distributional data are also offered for the native fishes Alectis alexandrina and Heptranchias perlo. In particular, the former record is constituted by a juvenile of 21.38 mm total length, whilst the latter by a mature male. Cyprus: the rare native cephalopod Macrotritopus defilippi, and the alien crab Atergatis roseus, sea slug Plocamopherus ocellatus and fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus are first recorded from the entire country. Lebanon: the alien crabs Actaea savignii and Matuta victor, as well as the alien fish Synanceia verrucosa, are first recorded from the entire country. In addition, the first Mediterranean record of A. savignii is backdated to 2006, whilst the high number of M. victor specimens observed in Lebanon first suggest its establishment in the basin. The Atlantic fishes Paranthias furcifer and Seriola fasciata, and the circumtropical Rachycentron canadum, are also first reported from the country. P. furcifer record backdate its presence in the Mediterranean to 2007, whilst S. fasciata records backdate its presence in the eastern Mediterranean to 2005. Finally, two of these latter species have been recently ascribed to alien species, but all the three species may better fit the cryptogenic category, if not a new one.

  18. Laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis of dissected tissue: a conservation-minded approach to assessing contaminant exposure.

    Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A; Baionno, Jennifer

    2003-06-01

    Minimally invasive sampling techniques are an essential ecotoxicological tool for continuous assessment of contaminant exposure and in instances where it is not desirable or practical to sacrifice the animal. In this paper, we report on the application of laser ablation-ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for sampling of minute (approximately 1 mg, 2-3 mm) tail clips of the banded water snake, Nerodia fasciata, as a means to assess contaminant exposure. The snakes were split into three treatments (n = 8) and were fed three increasing levels (control, medium, and high) of fish contaminated with As, Se, and Sr for 24 months. LA-ICP-MS concentrations of tail clips for all three elements were significantly correlated with the remaining whole tail concentration determined by homogenization, acid digestion, and ICP-MS analysis. Additionally, LA-ICP-MS concentrations for As and Se in the tail clip were similar to the acid digestion solution analysis values for the whole tail, which suggests that these elements are homogeneously distributed. Strontium concentrations were underestimated by LA-ICP-MS when compared to whole tail concentrations. Statistical analysis showed that LA-ICP-MS tail clip concentrations differed significantly according to dietary treatment. Posterior probability error rates from nonparametric discriminant function analysis indicated that LA-ICP-MS analysis of tail clips was useful for predicting exposure to Se with only a 4% probability of misclassification among treatments. Errors associated with misclassification of As were greater (17%) but this was, in part, related to the low concentrations of As in the tail (<1 ppm for the highest treatment). Taken together, the findings from this study suggest that LA-ICP-MS of microdissected tissue shows promise as a nondestructive technique for conservation-minded ecotoxicological studies. PMID:12831037

  19. On some Polyglyptini (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genus, new species and taxonomic notes

    Albino M Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The following genera are treated: Ennya Stål, Gelastogonia Kirkaldy, gen.rev. and Notogonia, gen. n.; six new species are described and some nomenclatural changes introduced, as follow: 1 Ennya Stål, 1866 = Mille Stål, 1867, syn.n.; E. conica (Fairmaire, 1846 = Oxygonia accuminata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., (Lectotype of E. conica here designated; E. dorsalis (Fairmaire, 1846 (Lectotype here designated; E. ecuadorensis (Fowler, 1894 sp.rev.; E. fasciata (Fallou, 1890 sp.rev.; E. maculicornis (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n., (Lectotype here designated; E. rufomaculala Fallou, 1890, comb.n. = E. chlorisans Breddin, 1902 = E. nebulosa Breddin, 1902 = Gelastogonia funkhouseri Goding, 1928, syn.n.; E sobria (Walker, 1851, sp.rev., = Thelia perfecta Walker, 1858, syn.n. = Hile sulphured Butler, 1877, syn.n. = Hile limbispina Breddin, 1901, syn.n.; E. bordoni, sp.n. (from Peru; E. colombiana, sp.n. (from Colombia; E. andina, sp.n. (from Peru. 2 Gelastogonia Kirkaldy, 1904, gen.rev. = Ecuatoriana Goding, 1920. syn.n.; G. bicristata (Stål, 1869, comb.n. = Ecuatoriana bactriana Goding, 1920, syn.n.; G. pulchella (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n.; G. rufipes (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; G. parva, sp.n. (from Argentina. 3 Notogonia, gen.n. (Type species: Hemiptycha erythropus Burmeister, 1835; N. costigera (Butler, 1878, sp.rev., comb.n. = Gelastogonia hirsuta Haviland, 1925, syn.n.; N. erythropus (Burmeister, 1835, comb.n. = Oxygonia altifrons Walker, 1851, syn.n.; N. rufiventris (Germar, 1821, comb.n. = Membracis signala Germar, 1821, syn.n., = Aconophora interna Walker, 1851, syn.n. = Thelia notala Walker, 1858, syn.n. = Oxygonia patruelis Stål, 1862, syn.n.; N. sinopae, sp.n. (from Brazil; N. conicornua, sp.n. (from Brazil.

  20. Marine alien species in Greek Seas: Additions and amendments by 2010

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An update of the inventory of alien marine species from the coastal and offshore waters of Greece is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including the HCMR database of Greek alien species (ELNAIS, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, websites, and unpublished/personal observations. 47 species were added to the inventory, including 34 invertebrates, one vertebrate (fish, three plants, eight protozoa, and one cyanobacterium. With the new records, the inventory of alien marine species of Greece now includes a total of 237 species (33 macrophytes, 131 invertebrates, 42 vertebrates, two bacteria and 29 protozoans. Among these, the presence of the gastropodHypselodoris infucata, the bivalvesDendrostrea frons and Septifer forskaliand the chondrichthyan Rhizoprionodon acutus is reported here for the first time. Based on molecular analysis, the occurrence of Bulla arabica in Greek waters is confirmed, and the suggestion that previous records of Bulla ampulla in the Mediterranean should be considered as misidentification of B. arabica is further supported. The acclimitization status of earlier records was revised in the light of new data, and thus the fishEnchelycore anatina, Seriola fasciata andTylerius spinosissimus, the red algaeHypnea cornuta and Sarconema scinaioides, the scyphomedusaCassiopea andromeda, the cephalopodSepioteuthis lessoniana, the nudibranchChromodoris annulata and the bivalvesGastrochaena cymbium andPseudochama corbieri were upgraded from casual records to established populations. The increased rate of introductions of warm water species confirms previous findings, which link the rate of introduction in the eastern Mediterranean to climate change.

  1. Scale-dependent associations of Band-tailed Pigeon counts at mineral sites

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of Band-tailed Pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) has declined substantially from historic numbers along the Pacific Coast. Identification of patterns and causative factors of this decline are hampered because habitat use data are limited, and temporal and spatial variability patterns associated with population indices are not known. Furthermore, counts are influenced not only by pigeon abundance but also by rate of visitation to mineral sites, which may not be consistent. To address these issues, we conducted mineral site counts during 2001 and 2002 at 20 locations from 4 regions in the Pacific Northwest, including central Oregon and western Washington, USA, and British Columbia, Canada. We developed inference models that consisted of environmental factors and spatial characteristics at multiple spatial scales. Based on information theory, we compared models within a final set that included variables measured at 3 spatial scales (0.03 ha, 3.14 ha, and 7850 ha). Pigeon counts increased from central Oregon through northern Oregon and decreased into British Columbia. After accounting for this spatial pattern, we found that pigeon counts increased 12% ± 2.7 with a 10% increase in the amount of deciduous forested area within 100 m from a mineral site. Also, distance from the mineral site of interest to the nearest known mineral site was positively related to pigeon counts. These findings provide direction for future research focusing on understanding the relationships between indices of relative abundance and complete counts (censuses) of pigeon populations by identifying habitat characteristics that might influence visitation rates. Furthermore, our results suggest that spatial arrangement of mineral sites influences Band-tailed Pigeon counts and the populations which those counts represent.

  2. The influence of diet on nestling body condition of an apex predator: a multi-biomarker approach.

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Parés, Francesc; Moleón, Marcos; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2016-04-01

    Animal body condition refers to the health and physiological state of individuals, and multiple parameters have been proposed to quantify this key concept. Food intake is one of the main determinants of individual body condition and much debate has been generated on how diet relates to body condition. We investigated this relationship in free-living Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) nestlings sampled at two geographically distant populations in Spain. Nestlings' main prey consumption was estimated by isotopic analyses. A multi-biomarker approach, including morphometric and blood biochemical measures (i.e. hematocrit, plasma biochemistry and oxidative stress biomarkers), enabled us to integrate all the body condition measures taken. A greater consumption of a preferred prey [i.e. the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)] improved nestling body condition, as indicated by lower levels of cholesterol in plasma, greater activity of enzymes mediating in protein catabolism, higher levels of tocopherol and glutathione, and less glutathione peroxidase activity, which also suggested lower degree of oxidative stress. On the other hand, increased diet diversity was positively correlated with higher levels of oxidized glutathione, which suggests that these nestlings had poorer body condition than those with a higher frequency of preferred prey consumption. Several factors other than diet [i.e. altitude of nesting areas, nestling sex and age, sampling time (before or after midday) and recent food ingestion] had an effect on certain body condition measures. Our study reveals a measurable effect of diet on a predator's body condition and demonstrates the importance of considering the potential influence of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors when assessing animal body condition. PMID:26857272

  3. Element levels in snakes in South Carolina: differences between a control site and exposed site on the Savannah River site.

    Burger, J; Murray, S; Gaines, K F; Novak, J M; Punshon, T; Dixon, C; Gochfeld, M

    2006-01-01

    Levels of 18 elements, including lead, mercury, selenium, and uranium, were examined in three species of snakes from an exposed and reference site on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We tested the hypotheses that there were no differences as a function of species, and there were no difference between the exposed and control site for blood and muscle (tail) samples for banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata), brown water snake (N. taxispilota) and cotton mouth (Akistrodon piscivorous). The banded water snakes collected were significantly smaller than the other two species. For blood, there were significant species differences only for barium, copper, selenium, uranium and zinc, while for muscle tissue there were significant interspecific differences in aluminum, arsenic, barium, cobalt, cesium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, strontium, vanadium and zinc, suggesting that muscle tissue in the tail is a better indicator of potential interspecific differences. It is also easier logistically to collect tail tissue than blood. Where one species had significantly higher levels than the other species in muscle tissue levels, cottonmouth had higher levels of five elements (aluminum, cobalt, lead, mercury, vanadium), brown water snake had two (lead, strontium), and banded water snake had only barium. There were few significant differences between the control and reference site for levels of blood, but several for muscle tissue. All three species had significantly higher levels of arsenic and manganese at Tim's Branch than the reference site, and nickel and uranium were significantly higher for banded water snake and cotton mouth, the larger species. Individuals with high exposure of one element were exposed to high levels of other elements. PMID:16404533

  4. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild birds in Spain, most likely related to their feeding behaviour. PMID:22216311

  5. Minimising mortality in endangered raptors due to power lines: the importance of spatial aggregation to optimize the application of mitigation measures.

    Guil, Francisco; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Mosqueda, Ignacio; Gómez, María Elena; Aranda, Antonio; Arredondo, Angel; Guzmán, José; Oria, Javier; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Electrocution by power lines is one of the main causes of non-natural mortality in birds of prey. In an area in central Spain, we surveyed 6304 pylons from 333 power lines to determine electrocution rates, environmental and design factors that may influence electrocution and the efficacy of mitigation measures used to minimise electrocution cases. A total of 952 electrocuted raptors, representing 14 different species, were observed. Electrocuted raptors were concentrated in certain areas and the environmental factors associated with increased electrocution events were: greater numbers of prey animals; greater vegetation cover; and shorter distance to roads. The structural elements associated with electrocutions were shorter strings of insulators, one or more phases over the crossarm, cross-shaped design and pylon function. Of the 952 carcasses found, 148 were eagles, including golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). Electrocuted eagles were clustered in smaller areas than other electrocuted raptors. The factors associated with increased eagle electrocution events were: pylons function, shorter strings of insulators, higher slopes surrounding the pylon, and more numerous potential prey animals. Pylons with increased string of insulators had lower raptor electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, although this technique was unsuccessful for eagles. Pylons with cable insulation showed higher electrocution rates than unimproved pylons, both for raptors and eagles, despite this is the most widely used and recommended mitigation measure in several countries. To optimize the application of mitigation measures, our results recommend the substitution of pin-type insulators to suspended ones and elongating the strings of insulators. PMID:22140549

  6. Distribution and habitat association of benthic fish on the Condor seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores) from in situ observations

    Porteiro, Filipe M.; Gomes-Pereira, Jos N.; Pham, Christopher K.; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of fish assemblages and habitat associations of demersal fishes on the Condor seamount were investigated by analyzing in situ video imagery acquired by the Remotely-Operated Vehicles ROV SP300 and Luso 6000. A total of 51 fish taxa from 32 families were inventoried. Zooplanktivores (10 species) were the most abundant group followed by carnivores (23 species) and benthivores (18 species). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses were performed on dive segments to visualize the spatial relationships between species and habitat type, substrate type or depth, with depth being the most significant parameter influencing fish distribution. Four major fish groups were identified from their vertical distribution alone: summit species (generally to <300 m depth); broad ranging species (ca. from 200 to 800 m); intermediate ranging slope species (ca. from 400 m to 800-850 m); and deeper species (800-850-1100 m). The fish fauna observed at the summit is more abundant (15.2 fish/100 m2) and habitat-specialized than the fish observed along the seamount slope. Down the seamount slope, the summit fish assemblage is gradually replaced as depth increases, with an overall reduction in abundance. On the summit, three species (Callanthias ruber, Anthias anthias and Lappanella fasciata) had higher affinity to coral habitats compared to non-coral habitats. A coherent specialized fish assemblage associated to coral habitats could not be identified, because most species were observed also in non-coral areas. On the seamount's slope (300-1100 m), no relationship between fish and coral habitats could be identified, although these might occur at larger scales. This study shows that in situ video imagery complements traditional fishing surveys, by providing information on unknown or rarely seen species, being fundamental for the development of more comprehensive ecosystem-based management towards a sustainable use of the marine environment.

  7. Herpetofaunal community change in multiple habitats after fifteen years in a southwest Florida preserve, USA.

    Cassani, John R; Croshaw, Dean A; Bozzo, Joseph; Brooks, Brenda; Everham, Edwin M; Ceilley, David W; Hanson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Herpetofaunal declines have been documented globally, and southern Florida, USA, is an especially vulnerable region because of high impacts from hydrological perturbations and nonindigenous species. To assess the extent of recent change in herpetofauna community composition, we established a baseline inventory during 1995-97 at a managed preserve in a habitat rich area of southwest Florida, and repeated our sampling methods fifteen years later (2010-11). Nine drift fence arrays were placed in four habitat types: mesic flatwood, mesic hammock, depression marsh, and wet prairie. Trapping occurred daily for one week during 7-8 sampling runs in each period (57 and 49 total sampling days, respectively). Species richness was maintained in mesic hammock habitats but varied in the others. Catch rates of several native species (Anaxyrus terrestris, Lithobates grylio, Anolis carolinensis, Nerodia fasciata) declined significantly. Other native species (Lithobates sphenocephalus, Siren lacertian, and Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola) that were abundant in 1995-97 declined by greater than 50%. Catch rate of only two species (the nonindigenous Anolis sagrei and the native Diadophis punctatus) increased significantly. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated similarity within habitat types but significant dissimilarity between sampling periods, confirming shifts in community composition. Analysis of individual species' contributions to overall similarity across habitats shows a shift from dominance of native species in the 1990s to increased importance of nonindigenous species in 2010-11. Although natural population fluctuations may have influenced differences between the two sampling periods, our results suggest considerable recent change in the structure and composition of this southwest Florida herpetofaunal community. The causes are unknown, but hydrological shifts and ecological impacts of nonindigenous species may have contributed. PMID:26016475

  8. Pollutant accumulation patterns in nestlings of an avian top predator: biochemical and metabolic effects.

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Moleón, Marcos; Real, Joan; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-12-15

    The exposure to persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) or metals has been associated with declines in top predator populations, which can accumulate high amounts of these pollutants from their prey. However, understanding how variation in OC and metal accumulation in wild species affects their biochemical and physiological responses is a big challenge, especially for endangered predators like the Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata). This bird of prey is an interesting study model because the differences in diet composition among populations and territories can account for important pollutant uptake variations. We compared OC and metal accumulation in blood of Bonelli's eagle nestlings from three populations across Spain as a function of origin, age class (nestlings vs. adults), sex and number of siblings per nest, and related accumulation patterns to responses indicative of body condition, biochemistry and antioxidant status. Nestlings from Catalonia, the most industrialized area, showed the highest concentrations of PCBs and arsenic, and the lowest concentrations of zinc. The two former substances, together with DDTs, exerted an overall influence on nestling's physiology. PCBs and arsenic were associated with reduced retinol levels, pointing to oxidative damage in exposed individuals, which was also consistent with the low zinc levels in individuals from the polluted region. Increased plasma DDT levels were related to reduced body condition and lower levels of triglycerides. Mercury accumulation in Castile and Leon was higher in nestlings that were alone in the nest than in nestlings that shared it with a sibling; this suggests an increased mercury uptake from secondary prey in territories where preferred prey (i.e. rabbits) are scarce, which are also the territories where productivity is reduced. Overall, the results reveal a spatial variation in pollutant accumulation patterns and associated physiological effects, and suggest the major role that territory quality may have in such patterns. PMID:26327637

  9. Control de malezas en arroz de temporalcon clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanily 2,4-d

    Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control de malezas en arroz de temporal con clomazone, solo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D. Se establecieron tres experimentos con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del herbicida clomazone slo y en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D en el control de malezas y la toxicidad al arroz cv. Milagro Filipino desarrollado en condiciones de temporal. Los tres experimentos se establecieron en la zona arrocera de Los Naranjos, localizada en el Mpio. de Tres Valles en el estado de Veracruz. Las especies dominantes de malezas fueron: Cyperus iria, Echinochloa colona, Cyperus rotundus, Scleria setuloso- ciliata y Malachra fasciata. El clomazone aplicado en preemergencia, control eficientemente E. colona en dosis de 0,72 y 0,96 kg i.a./ha, pero tuvo un efecto temporal y limitado sobre S. setuloso-ciliata y no tuvo efecto sobre C. iria y C. rotundus. La mezcla de clomazone + propanil + 2,4-D control E. colona y C. iria a partir de la dosis de 0,60 + 1,44 + 0,24 kg i.a./ha. Asimismo, tuvo un buen control inicial de C. rotundus, pero su efecto sobre esta especie se perdi entre los 45 y 60 das despus de la aplicacin y su efecto sobre S. setuloso-ciliata estuvo influenciado por las condiciones de humedad en el terreno, a mayor humedad se tuvo mejor control de esta maleza y viceversa. En todos los casos, los rendimientos de arroz palay obtenidos con los tratamientos en donde se aplic el clomazone slo o en mezcla con propanil y 2,4-D, fueron estadsticamente semejantes a los obtenidos en los testigos regionales

  10. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in marine macroalgae from southern Spain Efectos de la radiacin solar UV sobre la fotosntesis y actividades enzimticas (anhidrasa carbnica y nitrato reductasa en macralgas marinas del sur de Espaa

    FLIX L. FIGUEROA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV radiation during daily cycles on photosynthesis and two key enzymes involved in carbon incorporation, the carbonic anhydrase, and in inorganic nitrogen reduction, the nitrate reductase, of macroalgae from southern Spain are presented. During daily cycles, photoinhibition in several intertidal macroalgae, expressed as decrease in the effective quantum yield from the morning to noon time, was linearly dependent on the daily integrated irradiance. However, recovery, expressed as the increase in the effective quantum yield from noon to the afternoon, presented a different pattern; full recovery was found below daily integrated irradiance of 1.0 x10(4 kJ m-2. However, recovery reached only 50 % at higher irradiances. The existence of daily photoinhibition and full recovery in intertidal algae suggests that photoinhibition is a photoprotective mechanism against high solar radiation as in higher plants, and that patterns of photoinhibition and recovery are affected by accumulative doses. Activities of carbonic anhidrase and nitrate reductase were determined in three marine macroalgae (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida and Fucus spiralis under full (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and excluded UV solar radiation (PAR. Under PAR + UV-A + UV-B, peaks of enzyme activity were found in P. cartilagineum during the evening, and accordingly to data previously published for other red macroalgae. This situation was modified by the absence of UV radiation since the increase in the activities was delayed several hours. In the three macroalgae and under full solar radiation, a significant and negative correlation was found only when data from nitrate reductase activity was shifted in time during at least four hours. This correlation is lost in Ulva rigida when UV radiation is excluded. The existence of these daily variations with a negative correlation of both enzyme activities could reflect a complex regulatory link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism under solar radiation. Considering the absence of a significant correlation in U. rigida and the delay observed in maximal activities of P. cartilagineum in the absence of UV, it is suggested that UV radiation acts as an environmental signal involved in the control of cycles. The presence of feedback processes that control nitrogen assimilation as a function of carbon content is proposedEn este trabajo se presenta el efecto de la radiacin solar ultravioleta (UV durante el ciclo diario de luz sobre la actividad fotosinttica y la de dos enzimas claves en la incorporacin de carbono, la anhidrasa carbnica, y en la reduccin de nitrgeno inorgnico, la nitrato reductasa, en macroalgas del sur de Espaa. Durante el ciclo diario de luz, la fotoinhibicin, expresada como porcentaje de disminucin del rendimiento cuntico efectivo desde la maana al medioda, estuvo linear y negativamente correlacionada con la irradiancia integrada diaria. Sin embargo, la recuperacin, expresada como porcentaje de incremento del rendimiento cuntico efectivo desde el medioda hasta el atardecer sigui un patrn diferente. Se observ recuperacin completa a irradiancias integradas diarias menores a 1.0 x 10(4 kJ m-2. Sin embargo, a irradiancias diarias mayores, la recuperacin fue slo del 50 %. La existencia de fotoinhibicin y de una recuperacin diaria completa en macroalgas hace pensar que la fotoinhibicin est funcionado como un mecanismo de fotoproteccin contra radiaciones solares altas como ocurre en plantas terrestres. Adems, los patrones de fotoinhicin y recuperacin tienen relacin con la dosis acumulada diaria. Las actividades enzimticas (anhidrasa carbnica y nitrato reductasa fueron determinadas en tres macroalgas marinas (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida y Fucus spiralis bajo radiacin solar completa (PAR + UV-A + UV-B y excluyendo la radiacin UV (PAR. Bajo PAR + UV-A + UV-B se observ un mximo en la actividad de ambas enzimas en P. cartilagineum por la tarde, lo que concuerda con datos publicados en otras

  11. Biological interactions and their role in community structure in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    Janke, Klaus

    1990-06-01

    Over 3 successive seasonal cycles (April 1986 to October 1988), field experiments were established within 3 intertidal levels in the sheltered rocky intertidal of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight). Competitors for space ( Mytilus edulis, macroalgae), herbivores ( Littorina spp.) and predators ( Carcinus maenas) were either excluded from areas (0.25 m2) covered by undisturbed communities or enclosed at natural densities on areas that were cleared before of animals and plants. All the experimental fields (each 0.25 m2) were covered by cages with 4 mm gauze at the sides and a plexiglas top. The results of the experiments in the upper intertidal (occupied by Littorina spp. and Enteromorpha) showed that a natural density of herbivores could not prevent algal settlement and had only little influence on algal growth. Instead abiotic factors (storms, algae washed ashore) decreased the stock of the green algae. Experiments in the mid intertidal, dominated by Mytilus (50% cover), Fucus spp. (20%) and grazing L. littorea (100 ind. m-2) showed that community structure was directly changed both by grazing periwinkles and by competition for space between mussels and macroalgae. Whenever Littorina was excluded, the canopy of Fucus spp. increased continuously and reached total cover within two years. In addition to the increase of Fucus spp., the rock surface and the mussel shells were overgrown by Ulva pseudocurvata, which covered the experimental fields during parts of the summer in the absence of herbivores. As soon as perennial species (fucoids) covered most of the experimental areas, the seasonal growth of Ulva decreased drastically. Presence and growth of macroalgae were also controlled by serious competition for space with mussels. Established Mytilus prevented the growth of all perennial and ephemeral algae on the rocks. However, the shells of the mussels provided free space for a new settlement of Fucus and Ulva. In the lower intertidal (dominated by total algal cover of F. serratus, herbivores such as L. littorea and L. mariae, and increasing number of predators such as Carcinus), the feeding activity of herbivores can neither prevent the settlement of the fucoid sporelings nor reduce the growth of macroalgae. F. serratus achieved a total canopy on the rock within one year. Doubled density of herbivores prevented the settlement of Fucus and most of the undercover algae. Predation by Carcinus on Littorina spp. had little influence on the herbivore community patterns. However, the crabs supported the establishment of macroalgae by excluding the mussels from the lower intertidal. In summary, the community organization and maintenance in the mid and lower intertidal is influenced to a high degree by biological interactions. Whereas both the relatively important herbivory by L. littorea and competition for space between mussels and macroalgae dominate in the mid intertidal, predation reaches its highest relative degree of importance for community structure in the lower intertidal.

  12. Impact of the pollution by heavy metals and eutrophication on the southern lagoon of Tunis before its ecological rehabilitation

    The Southern lagoon of Tunis, (northern Tunisia, central Mediterranean), has been strongly affected by nutrients and heavy metals. Since the Middle Ages, at least, the lagoon collected natural and anthropic pollutants and both categories of pollution considerably increased concomitant to urban industrialization and, were the cause of important dystrophic crises. With regard to this ecosystem, a previous article was provided by who given thorough data allowing to suggest that local benthic communities were submitted to both natural and anthropic pollutants pressure. These unfavorable patterns reached a high level eutrophication and ended in a collapse stage according to. Before ecological rehabilitation of southern lagoon, investigations were conducted in order to assess and to delineate the environment state of pollution and its effects in the area. We conducted a comparative study on the pollution by heavy metals and nutrients in the water column, surface sediment and in various organisms such as the green algae Ulva rigida, the two mussels Ruditapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis, the three species of fish Anguilla anguilla, Chelon labrosus and Mugil cephalus .The following metals were studied (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, and HgTot). Samples are collected seasonally during five years 1995-1999 and treated according to international norms and analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (A.A.S.). The results showed a high level of contamination by heavy metals of surface sediment. The values for mercury, cadmium and lead oscillate respectively between (0.17 and 5μg/g dry weight; 0.13 and 30μg/g dry weight; 3.97 and 698 μg/g dry weight). The sediment of the lagoon constitute before the restoration program a great reserve of toxic metallic pollutants strongly correlated with the nature and the importance of the industrial activity. In the same way, ecotoxicological survey revealed that relatively high concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium occur in Ulva rigida, although concentrations in water were generally, except during the decomposition of algae in summer, less than the detection limit. The variation of metals concentrations in the cosmopolitan green algae Ulva rigida, characteristic of many eutrophic coastal environments, seems to reflect the fluctuations of the above metals in the sediment. In fact, contents of this 'bio-sensor species cover large intervals of values according to stations considered reaching in certain cases very high concentrations. Concerning the animal organisms, the seasonal study has allowed us to observe the bioaccumulation complex, dependent on a multitude of factors such as abiotic parameters, the species and its metabolism, the organ analysed as well as the time of exposure to the pollutants. Facing the stress caused by this pollution, these animals, although belonging to the similar environment, develop and present different behaviours. This state of pollution is to the origin of a deplorable ecological situation in the lagoon, characterised by the relatively low specific diversity and the colonisation of the ecosystem by the indicators of pollution and extreme conditions

  13. Comparative bioavailability of radionuclides in macroalgae from Black sea coastal environment

    Radionuclide and heavy metal content is measured by gamma spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in the commonest species of the Black Sea red, brown, and green macroalgae, sampled in the period 1996 - 2002. Radionuclide content was measured in ten different macrophytic algae species (five green: Cladophora vagabunda, Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha intestinal, Chaetomorpha gracilis, Bryopsis plumosa; two brown: Cystoseira crinita and Cystoseira barbata; three red: Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis) from eleven sampling locations for eight consecutive years. The measured concentrations of artificial and natural gamma emitters in algae depend on the alga species. The obtained range for 137Cs in algae is 1.2 - 26 Bq/kg. The average values for the natural nuclides are 238U - 13 Bq/kg; 232Th - 6 Bq/kg and for 226Ra - 8 Bq/kg. The measured natural nuclides in the species Bryopsis plumosa are with two orders of magnitude higher than other species at the same location. Significant differences in Cs-137 concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions at same locations, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. Cs-137 content in collected sea algae follows the descending order: Ceramium rubrum , Cladophora vagabunda, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira crinita, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis, Chaetomorpha gracilis. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the accumulation degree is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. Higher levels are obtained in the northern part of the Black Sea basin due to current circulation originating from the outflow of the rivers Danube, Dnyepr and Dnester, also at the south part of the Black sea coast. It is concluded that the general dispersion of Cs-137 results from the water circulation regime within the Black Sea and at some locations was found to be below the LLD. A comparison between the results of nuclides and heavy metals content in different alga phylums was made. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast but there is a tendency of decreasing the Chernobyl impact in the West Black Sea region with time. (authors)

  14. Actividad antibacteriana y antifngica de extractos de algas marinas venezolanas / Antibacterial and antifungal activity from extracts of Venezuelan marine algae

    Nurby, Ros; Gerardo, Medina; Jos, Jimnez; Carlos, Ynez; Maria Y., Garca; Maria L., Di Bernardo; Maria, Gualtieri.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron las propiedades bioactivas antibacterianas y antimicticas de 33 extractos (etanol, diclorometano, hexano) obtenidos de 11 especies de algas marinas recolectadas en las localidades de San Juan de Los Cayos y Chichiriviche, Estado Falcn, Venezuela. La actividad antibiti [...] ca y antimictica de los extractos se evalu mediante la aparicin de halos de inhibicin contra bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negativas (Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli) y el hongo Candida albicans. De los 33 extractos ensayados slo 17 presentaron actividad antibacteriana (5 con etanol, 6 con diclorometano y 6 con hexano), resultando activos 14 frente a las especies Gram(-) y 4 contra la especie Gram(+). Las especies algales que mostraron actividad antibacteriana fueron: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incrassata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp. Ninguno de los extractos de algas ensayados present actividad antimictica sobre Cndida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que las algas de la costa occidental de Venezuela, presentan compuestos bioactivos con actividad antibacteriana. Abstract in english This study assessed the antibacterial and antifungal properties of 33 extracts (ethanol, dichloromethane, hexane) from 11 species of marine algae collected in the villages of San Juan de Los Cayos and Chichiriviche, Estado Falcon, Venezuela. The antibiotics and antifungal activity of extracts was ev [...] aluated by the appearance of halos of inhibition against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli) and the fungus Candida albicans. Of the 33 tested extracts showed antibacterial activity only 17 (5 with ethanol, 6 and 6 with dichloromethane-hexane), resulting assets compared to 14 species Gram(-) and 4 against the kind Gram(+). The algae species that showed antibacterial activity were: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incrassata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp.. None of the tested extracts from algae introduced antifungal activity on Candida albicans. The findings suggest that the algae on the west coast in Venezuela have bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION WITH COPPER AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED BAYS OF SEVASTOPOL REGION

    Marcin Niemiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions with various levels of anthropopressure. The work was aimed at the assessment of copper and cadmium content in water and algae in selected bays of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight Sevastopol bays (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Strieletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and Sevastopolska and from the open sea in the vicinity of Fiolent. Algae (Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida were collected from the same places. Collected water was preserved on the sampling place and brought to the laboratory where its copper and cadmium concentrations were assessed. Collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, then homogenised and mineralised. Copper and cadmium content were determined in the mineralizates using ASA method with electrothermal atomisation. Cadmium concentration in water ranged from 0.13 to 1.74 µg Cd∙dm-3, and copper from 7.07 to 22.56 µg Cd∙dm-3. Considerable differences in the content of the analysed elements were registered in individual bays. The highest content was assessed in Galubaja and Sevastopolska bays, whereas the lowest one in the water collected in the open sea and in Pivdenna bay. Copper concentrations in the analysed algae fluctuated from 3.375 to 14.96 mg Cu∙kg-1 d.m. No differences were noted in this element content between the algae species. Cadmium content in the algae ranged from 0.133 to 1.133 mg Cd∙kg-1 d.m. Higher accumulation of cadmium was observed in Cystoseira barbata than in Ulva rigida. The value of copper bioaccumulation coefficient (BC ranged from 181 to 1201, whereas cadmium from 181 to 5256. The contents of the analysed metals, both in biotic and abiotic elements of the studied ecosystems point to anthropogenic enrichment and the results obtained for Sevastopolska, Galubaja and Kozacha bays indicate a hazardous, excessive bioaccumulation of copper and cadmium and to potential threat to the life of aquatic organisms and seafood consumers.

  16. BOOK REVIEW. Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment

    Arthur Grossman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment was written by three experienced marine biologists, Sven Beer, Mats Bjrk, and John Beardall, who have all worked for many years on photosynthesis and the utilization of inorganic carbon in the marine environment. They have published numerous papers dealing with photosynthesis and the fixation of inorganic carbon by various marine organisms, including seagrasses, macroalgae, and microalgae, and how the environment impacts their photosynthetic activity. This book emphasizes how marine photosynthetic processes differ from those of terrestrial plants, and while it has sections that might be valuable for specialists, its strength is that it serves as an excellent introduction to photosynthesis in the ocean for graduate students and undergraduates, and even for advanced high school students. When describing photosynthesis in the ocean, the authors place it into the context of the evolutionary history of the planet/?atmosphere and the massive changes in O2, CO2, and UV light that have occurred over the last three billion years. The book also provides a glimpse into the various types of photosynthetic organisms, from the macrophytic algae such as Porphyra and Ulva, to the coccolithophore-??producing algae responsible for creating the calcium carbonate deposits of the white cliffs of Dover, to diatoms and their silica frustules, model green algae such as Chlamydomonas, and prokaryotic cyanobacteria with their ability to fix nitrogen and synthesize photoprotective UV absorbing compounds.

  17. Design, preparation and characterization of ulvan based thermosensitive hydrogels.

    Morelli, Andrea; Betti, Margherita; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica

    2016-01-20

    The present study is focused on the exploitation and conversion of sulphated polysaccharides obtained from waste algal biomass into high value added material for biomedical applications. ulvan, a sulphated polysaccharide extracted from green seaweeds belonging to Ulva sp. was selected as a suitable material due to its chemical versatility and widely ascertained bioactivity. To date the present work represents the first successful attempt of preparation of ulvan-based hydrogels displaying thermogelling behaviour. ulvan was provided with thermogelling properties by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains onto its backbone as thermosensitive component. To this aim ulvan was properly modified with acryloyl groups to act as macroinitiator in the radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide, induced by UV irradiation through a "grafting from" method. The thermogelling properties of the copolymer were investigated by thermal and rheological analyses. Sol-gel transition of the copolymer was found to occur at 30-31C thus indicating the feasibility of ulvan for being used as in-situ hydrogel forming systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26572453

  18. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    Guedes, Elca Amara Ceclia; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flvia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antnio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40? ? gmL(-1) (11.1460? ? gmL(-1) and 25.8689? ? gmL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40? ? gmL(-1) (29.018? ? gmL(-1) and 17.230? ? gmL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277? ? gmL(-1) and 706.990? ? gmL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  19. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  20. Grazing effects by Nereis diversicolor on development and growth of green algal mats

    Engelsen, Anna; Pihl, Leif

    2008-08-01

    Nereis diversicolor is generally considered to be a predator and deposit feeder, but have also been found to graze on benthic algae in shallow coastal areas. In this study we investigated the grazing effects on the development and growth of green algae, Ulva spp. Algal growth was studied in an experiment including two levels of sediment thickness; 100 mm sediment including macrofauna and 5 mm sediment without macrofauna, and three treatments of varying algal biomass; sediment with propagules, sediment with low algal biomass (120 g dry weight (dwt) m - 2 ) and sediment with high algal biomass (240 g dwt m - 2 ). In the 100 mm sediment, with a natural population of macrofauna, N. diversicolor was the dominating (60% of total biomass) species. After three weeks of experimentation the result showed that N. diversicolor was able to prevent initial algal growth, affect growth capacity and also partly reduce full-grown algal mats. The weight of N. diversicolor was significantly higher for polychaetes in treatments with algae added compared to non-algal treatments. There were also indications that a rich nutrient supply per algae biomass counteracted the grazing capacity of N. diversicolor.

  1. Biological impact of eutrophication in the bay of somme and the induction and impact of anoxia

    Desprez, M.; Rybarczyk, H.; Wilson, J. G.; Ducrotoy, J. P.; Sueur, F.; Olivesi, R.; Elkaim, B.

    The first effects of eutrophication in the Bay of Somme became apparent in the years 1982-1985, when the cockle population collapsed. Areas of high mortality were mapped. Following exceptionally high summer temperatures, other effects were seen in 1982, 1983 and 1989, notably a mass mortality of the benthos. It appeared that the mortality of the benthos was a direct result of anoxia in the water promoted by phytoplankton blooms which were due to high nitrogen levels (nitrates from river and land runoff; ammonium from estuarine bivalve populations). Effects from the change in the benthic community (the disappearance of Cerastoderma edule and the proliferation of Pygospio elegans) were also apparent higher up in the food chain, viz. changes in the diet of the two main predators of the bivalve, the oystercatcher ( Haematopus ostralegus) and the common gull ( Larus canus). Following respirometry measurements of the water, sediment and the major macrobenthic species ( Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae), a model for anoxia was constructed.

  2. Macroalgal mats and species abundance: a field experiment

    Hull, S. C.

    1987-11-01

    A field experiment was carried out whereby the density of macroalgae ( Enteromorpha spp.) was manipulated and the resultant changes in sediment infaunal density were monitored. Four densities of Enteromorpha spp. were used: 0,0·3, 1, and 3 kg FW m -2, corresponding to control, low-, medium-, and high-density plots. The experiment ran from May to October 1985 and was sampled on three occasions. By July, the density of Corophium volutator was reduced at all weed levels when compared to control plots, whereas densities of Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, and Capitella capitata, all increased. Samples taken in October when the weed mats were buried in the sediment showed fewer differences than in July. Macoma, Nereis, and Capitella were still significantly more abundant at medium and high weed densities. Corophium showed no significant treatment effect. There was, however, a highly significant difference in population size structure for Corophium. Measurements of sediment redox potential and silt content under medium- and high-density plots revealed rapid anoxia with a significant increase in siltation.

  3. Interactions between macro-algal mats and invertebrates in the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland

    Raffaelli, D.

    2000-07-01

    Blooms of opportunistic green macro-algae are a common feature of coastal areas and their effects on mudflat invertebrates can be dramatic. On the Ythan estuary, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, we have carried out a number of manipulative field experiments designed to evaluate the effects on invertebrates of different species of macro-algae with contrasting ecologies, and the effects of invertebrates on the development of the blooms. Macro-algal mats were found to have dramatic nega- tive effects on the density of the amphipod Corophium volutator, with higher algal biomasses having greater impact. The mechanism for this interaction seems to be interference by the algal filaments with the feeding behaviour of the amphipod. In contrast, the polychaete Capitella spp. increases in abundance under macro-algal mats due to enrichment of the sediment with organic material. These two interactions are seen at all scales, in areas of less than 1 m2 to the scale of the entire estuary, irrespective of the species composition of the macro- algal mats. Bioturbation by Corophium and grazing by the snail Hydrobia ulvae had little effect on macro-algal biomass, but there were less algae when the polychaete Nereis diversicolor was present. The most significant interaction in this system is the pronounced negative impact of algal mats on the abundance of Corophium, probably the most important invertebrate species in the diets of the estuary's shorebirds, fish and epibenthic crustaceans.

  4. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    Lin Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP. The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV.

  5. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    Bokn, T.L. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Moy, F.E. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Murray, S.N. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    1993-12-31

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 30.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of the contamination of marine algae (seaweed) from the St. Lawrence River and likely to be consumed by humans

    Phaneuf, D.; Cote, I.; Dumas, P.; Ferron, L.A.; LeBlanc, A. [CHUQ, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the contamination of marine algae (seaweeds) growing in the St. Lawrence River estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and to evaluate the risks to human health from the consumption of these algae. Algae were collected by hand at low tide. A total of 10 sites on the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence as well as in Baie des Chaleurs were sampled. The most frequently collected species of algae were Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria Longicruris, Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, and Fucus distichus. Alga samples were analyzed for metals iodine, and organochlorines. A risk assessment was performed using risk factors. In general, concentrations in St. Lawrence algae were not very high. Consequently, health risks associated with these compounds in St. Lawrence algae were very low. Iodine concentration, on the other hand, could be of concern with regard to human health. Regular consumption of algae, especially of Laminaria sp., could result in levels of iodine sufficient to cause thyroid problems. For regular consumers, it would be preferable to choose species with low iodine concentrations, such as U. lactuca and P. palmata, in order to prevent potential problems. Furthermore, it would also be important to assess whether preparation for consumption or cooking affects the iodine content of algae. Algae consumption may also have beneficial health effects. Scientific literature has shown that it is a good source of fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin B{sub 12}.

  7. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  8. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed.

    Ryan, Siobhan; McLoughlin, Peter; O'Donovan, Orla

    2012-08-01

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11'53.68'N, 6°49'34.64'W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. PMID:22575098

  9. Charged hydrophilic polymer brushes and their relevance for understanding marine biofouling.

    Yandi, Wetra; Mieszkin, Sophie; di Fino, Alessio; Martin-Tanchereau, Pierre; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Tyson, Lyndsey; Clare, Anthony S; Ederth, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The resistance of charged polymers to biofouling was investigated by subjecting cationic (PDMAEMA), anionic (PSPMA), neutral (PHEMA-co-PEG10MA), and zwitterionic (PSBMA) brushes to assays testing protein adsorption; attachment of the marine bacterium Cobetia marina; settlement and adhesion strength of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza; settlement of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite and B. improvisus) cypris larvae; and field immersion tests. Several results go beyond the expected dependence on direct electrostatic attraction; PSPMA showed good resistance towards attachment of C. marina, low settlement and adhesion of U. linza zoospores, and significantly lower biofouling than on PHEMA-co-PEG10MA or PSBMA after a field test for one week. PDMAEMA showed potential as a contact-active anti-algal coating due to its capacity to damage attached spores. However, after field testing for eight weeks, there were no significant differences in biofouling coverage among the surfaces. While charged polymers are unsuitable as antifouling coatings in the natural environment, they provide valuable insights into fouling processes, and are relevant for studies due to charging of nominally neutral surfaces. PMID:27125564

  10. Engineered antifouling microtopographies: surface pattern effects on cell distribution.

    Decker, Joseph T; Sheats, Julian T; Brennan, Anthony B

    2014-12-23

    Microtopography has been observed to lead to altered attachment behavior for marine fouling organisms; however, quantification of this phenomenon is lacking in the scientific literature. Here, we present quantitative measurement of the disruption of normal attachment behavior of the fouling algae Ulva linza by antifouling microtopographies. The distribution of the diatom Navicula incerta was shown to be unaffected by the presence of topography. The radial distribution function was calculated for both individual zoospores and cells as well as aggregates of zoospores from attachment data for a variety topographic configurations and at a number of different attachment densities. Additionally, the screening distance and maximum values were mapped according to the location of zoospore aggregates within a single unit cell. We found that engineered topographies decreased the distance between spore aggregates compared to that for a smooth control surface; however, the distributions for individual spores were unchanged. We also found that the local attachment site geometry affected the screening distance for aggregates of zoospores, with certain geometries decreasing screening distance and others having no measurable effect. The distribution mapping techniques developed and explored in this article have yielded important insight into the design parameters for antifouling microtopographies that can be implemented in the next generation of antifouling surfaces. PMID:25420235

  11. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  12. Antimicrobial activity observed among cultured marine epiphytic bacteria reflects their potential as a source of new drugs.

    Penesyan, Anahit; Marshall-Jones, Zoe; Holmstrom, Carola; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2009-07-01

    The surfaces of marine eukaryotes provide a unique habitat for colonizing microorganisms where competition between members of these communities and chemically mediated interactions with their host are thought to influence both microbial diversity and function. For example, it is believed that marine eukaryotes may use their surface-associated bacteria to produce bioactive compounds in defence against competition and to protect the host against further colonization. With the increasing need for novel drug discovery, marine epibiotic bacteria may thus represent a largely underexplored source of new antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, 325 bacterial isolates were obtained from the surfaces of marine algae Delisea pulchra and Ulva australis. Thirty-nine showed to have antimicrobial activity and were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The majority of those isolates belonged to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Interestingly, the most commonly isolated bacterial strain, Microbulbifer sp., from the surface of D. pulchra has previously been described as an ecologically significant epibiont of different marine eukaryotes. Other antimicrobial isolates obtained in this study belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Phylogenetically, little overlap was observed among the bacteria obtained from surfaces of D. pulchra and U. australis. The high abundance of cultured isolates that produce antimicrobials suggest that culturing remains a powerful resource for exploring novel bioactives of bacterial origin. PMID:19453738

  13. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  14. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 5.7% and 63.3 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  15. Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system

    Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

    2013-03-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  16. Chemical and in vitro assessment of Alaskan coastal vegetation antioxidant capacity.

    Kellogg, Joshua; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-11-20

    Alaska Native (AN) communities have utilized tidal plants and marine seaweeds as food and medicine for generations, yet the bioactive potential of these resources has not been widely examined. This study screened six species of Alaskan seaweed ( Fucus distichus , Saccharina latissima , Saccharina groenlandica , Alaria marginata , Pyropia fallax , and Ulva lactuca ) and one tidal plant ( Plantago maritima ) for antioxidant activity. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) was determined, and chemical antioxidant capacity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assays. In vitro inhibition of radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and NO synthesis was evaluated in a RAW 264.7 macrophage culture. Greatest TPC (557.2 μg phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE)/mg extract) was discovered in the ethyl acetate fraction of F. distichus, and highest DDPH scavenging activity was exhibited by F. distichus and S. groenlandica fractions (IC50 = 4.29-5.12 μg/mL). These results support the potential of Alaskan coastal vegetation, especially the brown algae, as natural sources of antioxidants for preventing oxidative degeneration and maintaining human health. PMID:24147955

  17. Isolation and structural determination of the antifouling diketopiperazines from marine-derived Streptomyces praecox 291-11.

    Cho, Ji Young; Kang, Ji Young; Hong, Yong Ki; Baek, Hyo Hyun; Shin, Hyoun Woong; Kim, Myoung Sug

    2012-01-01

    Marine derived actinomycetes constituting 185 strains were screened for their antifouling activity against the marine seaweed, Ulva pertusa, and fouling diatom, Navicula annexa. Strain 291-11 isolated from the seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, rhizosphere showed the highest antifouling activity and was identified as Streptomyces praecox based on a 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strain 291-11 was therefore named S. praecox 291-11. The antifouling compounds from S. praecox 291-11 were isolated, and their structures were analyzed. The chemical constituents representing the antifouling activity were identified as (6S,3S)-6-benzyl-3-methyl-2,5-diketopiperazine (bmDKP) and (6S,3S)-6-isobutyl-3-methyl-2,5-diketopiperazine (imDKP) by interpreting the nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectroscopy data. Approximately 4.8 mg of bmDKP and 3.1 mg of imDKP were isolated from 1.2 g of the S. praecox 291-11 crude extract. Eight different compositions of culture media were investigated for culture, the TBFeC medium being best for bmDKP and TCGC being the optimum for imDKP production. Two compounds respectively showed a 17.7 and 21 therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50) to inhibit zoospores, and two compounds respectively showed a 263 and 120.2 therapeutic ratio to inhibit diatoms. PMID:22790932

  18. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Polonium-210 in seaweeds of the Krusadai island, Gulf of Mannar

    The concentration of 210Po, an alpha emitter of the natural uranium series was measured in some commercial seaweeds, collected from Krusadai island, the south east coast of Tamil Nadu. The concentration of 210Po in water and sediment samples was found to be 2.80 mBq/l and 36.2 Bq/kg respectively. The 210Po was observed to be non-uniformly distributed among the seaweeds, which maintained the following descending order: Ulva reticulata (30.0 Bq/kg > Cystophyllum murictum (24.9 Bq/kg) > Sargassum wightti (22.1 Bq/kg) > Sargassum ilicifolium (19.6 Bq/kg) > Hypnea valentiae (15.09 Bq/kg) > Gracilaria follifera (14.87 Bq/kg) > Gracilaria edulis (10.12 Bq/kg) > Turbinaria conoides (8.5 Bq/kg) > Gelidiella acerosa (5.80 Bq/kg). The general range of CFs for the macro algae varies between 103 and 104. The distribution of 210Po in the seaweeds and its relation to the protein content is discussed. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  1. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  2. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 μg L-1 and 30.1 μg L-1) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 μg L-1) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  3. Preference of the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus for different macroalgae

    You, Cuihong; Zeng, Fangui; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-06-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rabbitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Accordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macroalgae.

  4. Carboxymethylation of ulvan and chitosan and their use as polymeric components of bone cements.

    Barros, A A A; Alves, A; Nunes, C; Coimbra, M A; Pires, R A; Reis, R L

    2013-11-01

    Ulvan, extracted from the green algae Ulva lactuca, and chitosan, extracted from Loligo forbesis squid-pen, were carboxymethylated, yielding polysaccharides with an average degree of substitution of ∼98% (carboxymethyl ulvan, CMU) and ∼87% (carboxymethyl chitosan, N,O-CMC). The carboxymethylation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantified by conductimetric titration and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The average molecular weight increased with the carboxymethylation (chitosan, Mn 145→296 kDa and Mw 227→416 kDa; ulvan, Mn 139→261 kDa and Mw 368→640 kDa), indicating successful chemical modifications. Mixtures of the modified polysaccharides were tested in the formulation of polyacrylic acid-free glass-ionomer bone cements. Mechanical and in vitro bioactivity tests indicate that the inclusion of CMU in the cement formulation, i.e. 0.50:0.50 N,O-CMC:CMU, enhances its mechanical performance (compressive strength 52.4±8.0 MPa and modulus 2.3±0.3 GPa), generates non-cytotoxic cements and induces the diffusion of Ca and/or P-based moieties from the surface to the bulk of the cements. PMID:23816652

  5. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Lingchong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  6. SCREENING OF PHYCOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS QUALITATIVELY AND QUANTITATIVELY CERTAIN SEAWEEDS FROM GULF OF MANNAR BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    Thillaikkannu Thinakaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The six seaweeds namely Ulva lactuca (L, Caulerpa racemosa C. Agardh, Sargassum wightii Greville, Padina tetrastomatica Hauck, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica J. Ag., and Acanthophora spicifera (vahl. Boergesen, collected from the Gulf of Mannar were screened for the presence of Phycochemical constituents like primary and secondary metabolites both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present investigation revealed that saponin and polyphenol were absent in the acetone extract of seaweeds and other extracts posses all the phycoconstituents. Maximum percentage of protein (210.31±6.3 mg/g, carbohydrate (317.11±9.51mg/g and phenol (3.02±0.09mg/g were recorded in Sargassum wightii whereas lipid (81.95±2.45mg/g, anthocyanin (0.202±0.006mg/g in Padina tetrastomatica and tannin (35.87±1.07 mg/g in Acanthophora spicifera. Phycochemical analysis of these seaweeds revealed the presence of potential pharmaceutical activity.

  7. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  8. Investigation of the optimal percentage of green seaweed that may be co-digested with dairy slurry to produce gaseous biofuel.

    Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Herrmann, Christiane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-10-01

    Ulva lactuca, a green seaweed, accumulates on beaches and shallow estuaries subject to eutrophication. As a residue, and a macro-algae, it is a source of sustainable third generation biofuel. Production of biomethane from mono-digestion of U. lactuca, however is problematic due to high levels of sulphur and low ratios of carbon to nitrogen. Fresh and dried U. lactuca were continuously co-digested with dairy slurry at ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% (by volatile solid content) in 6 number 5L reactors for 9months. The reactors digesting a mix with 75% U. lactuca struggled to reach stable conditions. Volatile fatty acid levels of 14,000mgl(-1) were experienced. The levels of ammonia increased with percentage U. lactuca in the mix. Optimum conditions were observed with a mix of 25% fresh U. lactuca and 75% slurry. A yield of 170LCH4kg(-1)VS was achieved at an organic loading rate of 2.5kgVSm(-3)d(-1). PMID:25164335

  9. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram-1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  10. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bismuth in the coastal environment using three species of macroalga.

    Kearns, James; Turner, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly defined. In this study, we exposed three different species of macroalga (the chlorophyte, Ulva lactuca, the phaeophyte, Fucus vesiculosus, and the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus) to different concentrations of Bi (up to 50?gL(-1)) under controlled, laboratory conditions. After a period of 48-h, the phytotoxicity of Bi was measured in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and adsorption and internalisation of Bi determined by ICP after EDTA extraction and acid digestion, respectively. For all algae, both the internalisation and total accumulation of Bi were proportional to the concentration of aqueous metal. Total accumulation followed the order: F.vesiculosus>C.crispus>U.lactuca; with respective accumulation factors of about 4200, 1700 and 600Lkg(-1). Greatest internalisation (about 33% of total accumulated Bi) was exhibited by C.crispus, the only macroalga to display a phytotoxic response in the exposures. A comparison of the present results with those reported in the literature suggests that Bi accumulation by macroalgae is significantly lower than its accumulation by marine plankton (volume concentration factors of 10(5) to 10(7)), and that the phytotoxicity of Bi is low relative to other heavy metals like Ag and Tl. PMID:26552530

  11. The development of marine biofilms on two commercial non-biocidal coatings: a comparison between silicone and fluoropolymer technologies.

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Thomason, Jeremy C

    2011-09-01

    The antimicrobial performance of two fouling-release coating systems, Intersleek 700 (IS700; silicone technology), Intersleek 900 (IS900; fluoropolymer technology) and a tie coat (TC, control surface) was investigated in a short term (10 days) field experiment conducted at a depth of ca 0.5 m in the Marina Bandar Rawdha (Muscat, Oman). Microfouling on coated glass slides was analyzed using epifluorescence microscopy and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry. All the coatings developed biofilms composed of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, seven species of diatoms (2 species of Navicula, Cylindrotheca sp., Nitzschia sp., Amphora sp., Diploneis sp., and Bacillaria sp.) and algal spores (Ulva sp.). IS900 had significantly thinner biofilms with fewer diatom species, no algal spores and the least number of bacteria in comparison with IS700 and the TC. The ATP readings did not correspond to the numbers of bacteria and diatoms in the biofilms. The density of diatoms was negatively correlated with the density of the bacteria in biofilms on the IS900 coating, and, conversely, diatom density was positively correlated in biofilms on the TC. The higher antifouling efficacy of IS900 over IS700 may lead to lower roughness and thus lower fuel consumption for those vessels that utilise the IS900 fouling-release coating. PMID:21864210

  12. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  13. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  14. Patchy sediment contamination scenario and the habitat selection by an estuarine mudsnail.

    Arajo, Cristiano V M; Martinez-Haro, Mnica; Pais-Costa, Antnia J; Marques, Joo C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Since mudsnails are able to avoid contaminated sediment and that the contaminants in sediment are not uniformly distributed, the mudsnail Peringia ulvae was exposed to cadmium (Cd) spiked sediment and assessed for avoidance response in a heterogeneous contamination scenario. Four Cd concentrations were prepared and disposed in patches on dishes, which were divided in 25 fields (six fields for each sediment concentration); 24 organisms were deployed in the central field, with no sediment. Observations were made at 2, 4 and 6h (corresponding to immediate response), 8, 10 and 12h (very short term), and 24h (short term). A trend to avoid contaminated patches was observed in the immediate and very short term. After 24h exposure, the organisms exposed to the highest level of contamination seemed to have lost the ability to move and avoid contaminated patches. In a contamination scenario in which non- and contaminated sediment patches are heterogeneously distributed, local mudsnail populations can simply rearrange their locality without needing to move to a different habitat. Such less contaminated patches can become donor areas in a future recolonization scenario. PMID:26680766

  15. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  16. The control of marine biofouling on xerogel surfaces with nanometer-scale topography.

    Gunari, Nikhil; Brewer, Lenora H; Bennett, Stephanie M; Sokolova, Anastasiya; Kraut, Nadine D; Finlay, John A; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Bright, Frank V; Detty, Michael R

    2011-02-01

    Mixtures of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18, 1-5 mole-%), n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) gave xerogel surfaces of varying topography. The 1:49:50 C18/C8/TEOS xerogel formed 100-400-nm-wide, 2-7-nm deep pores by AFM while coatings with ≥3% C18 were free of such features. Segregation of the coating into alkane-rich and alkane-deficient regions in the 1:49:50 C18/C8/TEOS xerogel was observed by IR microscopy. Immersion in ASW for 48 h gave no statistical difference in surface energy for the 1:49:50 C18/C8/TEOS xerogel and a significant increase for the 50:50 C8/TEOS xerogel. Settlement of barnacle cyprids and removal of juvenile barnacles, settlement of zoospores of the alga Ulva linza, and strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings were compared amongst the xerogel formulations. Settlement of barnacle cyprids was significantly lower in comparison to glass and polystyrene standards. The 1:49:50 and 3:47:50 C18/C8/TEOS xerogels were comparable to PDMSE with respect to removal of juvenile barnacles and sporeling biomass, respectively. PMID:21213155

  17. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-07-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Mller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  18. Combining of some trace elements with constituent materials of marine algae

    Two radionuclides (137Cs and 106Ru-106Rh) were extracted from a brown alg a (Eisenta bicyclis) into 5 solvents (Ethyl ethel, 80% Ethyl alcohol, boiled water, 0.2% NaOH and 24% KOH) in different proportions, suggesting that both radionuclides do not combine with fats and pigments, and that 137Cs associates maybe with dextrans and monosaccharides, while, 106Ru-106Rh mainly combines with the cell wall polysaccharides such as alginic acid and fucoidan. In order to obtain information from extracts of algae, gel filtration was carried out on 2 species of algae (Ulva pertusa and Eisenia bicyclis) using Sephadex G-100 and G-25. Gel filtration profile gave only one peak for 137Cs, 2 for 106Ru-106Rh and 125I, and 3 for 60Co corresponding to positions where saccharides of the algae appeared. As the result, it was found that different radionuclides combined with different constituent materials of an alga, to some extent. Gel filtration profiles of 125I were compared with each other among several species of marine algae. They were different from one another among classes of green, brown and red algae, though they were similar in a class. Gel filtration profiles of 125I were also varied between 2 chemical forms of 125I (Na125I and Na125IO3). (J.P.N.)

  19. Biomonitoring study of heavy metals in biota and sediments in the South Eastern coast of Mediterranean sea, Egypt.

    Abdallah, Maha A M; Abdallah, Aly M A

    2008-11-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe were determined in biota and sediment samples collected from the Eastern Harbour and El-Mex Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The levels of Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha compressa (green algae) and Jania rubens (red algae), recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Fe was the most predominant metal in the seaweed. The two species of bivalves, Donax trunculus and Paphia textile, showed different amounts of metals in their tissue. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the mussel samples was found in the order Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Co> Cd and Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co, respectively for the two species. The metals concentrations were generally higher compared with the previous studies in mussels from the same area. The levels of metals accumulated in the investigated fish samples, Saurida undosquamis, Siganus rivulatus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Sphyraena sphyraena, were higher than those of Marmara Sea (Turkey), for Co and Cd and lower for Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. El-Mex Bay having the highest metals concentration in sediments as their order of abundance were Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co. Nevertheless, a high variability in the metal levels occurs among the studied algae and biota and also between the investigated Harbour. A significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found for each of Zn and Fe in P. textile and of Co in D. trunculus relative to their concentrations in surficial sediments. PMID:18074236

  20. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.